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Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
1335-8871
First Published
07 Mar 2008
Publication timeframe
6 times per year
Languages
English

Search

Volume 9 (2009): Issue 6 (December 2009)

Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
1335-8871
First Published
07 Mar 2008
Publication timeframe
6 times per year
Languages
English

Search

6 Articles
access type Open Access

Measurement, Information Channels, and Discretization: Exploring the Links

Published Online: 23 Dec 2009
Page range: 134 - 161

Abstract

Measurement, Information Channels, and Discretization: Exploring the Links

The goal of this paper is to present a unified algebraic-analytic framework for (static and dynamic) deterministic measurement theory, which we find to be fully adequate in engineering and natural science applications. The starting point of this paradigm is the notion of a quantity algebra of a measured system and that of a measuring instrument, underlying the causal linkages in classical ‘system + instrument’ interactions. This approach is then further enriched by providing a superimposed data lattice of measurement outcomes, intended to handle the information flow from the measured system to its measurand's designated instrument.

We argue that the language of Banach and von Neumann algebras is ideally suited for the treatment of quantities, encountered in theoretical and experimental science. These algebras and convex spaces of expectation functionals thereon together with information (co)channels between them provide a comprehensive information-theoretic framework for measurement theory. Concrete examples and applications to length and position measurements are also discussed and rigorously framed within the proposed quantity algebra and associated information channel paradigms.

In modeling physical systems, investigators routinely rely on the assumption that state spaces and time domains form a continuum (locally homeomorphic to the real line or its Cartesian powers). But in sharp contrast, measurement and prediction outcomes pertaining to physical systems under consideration tend to be presented in terms of small discrete sets of rational numbers. We investigate this conceptual gap between theoretical and finitary data models from the perspectives of temporal, spatial and algebraic discretization schemes.

The principal innovation in our approach to classical measurement theory is the representation of interactive instrument-based measurement processes in terms of channel-cochannel pairs constructed between dynamical quantity algebras of a target system and its measurand's measuring instrument.

Keywords

  • quantity algebra
  • measurement theory
  • instrument model
  • information channel
  • cochannel
  • discretization
access type Open Access

Auto-Tuned Induction Coil Conductivity Sensor for In-Vivo Human Tissue Measurements

Published Online: 23 Dec 2009
Page range: 162 - 168

Abstract

Auto-Tuned Induction Coil Conductivity Sensor for In-Vivo Human Tissue Measurements

Auto-tuned induction coil technology, based upon phase-locked loop circuitry (PLL), was developed and shown to be an effective tool for in-vivo measurement of electrical conductivity of human tissues. Because electrical contact is not required, several disadvantages of the electrode method for conductivity determination are avoided, such as electrode polarization and variable conductivity associated with the stratum corneum of the epidermis. Fixed frequency excitation is supplied to a parallel tuned RLC circuit, or "sensor", while bias applied to a varactor diode is automatically adjusted via PLL circuitry to maintain the RLC sensor at resonance. Since resonant impedance of a coil positioned near a conductive object is known to be frequency dependent, such an arrangement permits precise calibration of the sensor against a set of standard Potassium Chloride solutions. In our experiments, a two-layer spiral coil is used with upper and lower spiral arms staggered so as to reduce inter-winding coil capacitance. Preliminary in-vivo testing was done on the forearms of a single male subject as a prelude to more extensive use in a clinical setting. In that instance, electrical conductivity at the proximal volar forearm location was shown to depend on forearm elevation. Clinical studies using our prototype, as well as further consideration of the "elevation effect", are discussed in a companion paper.

Keywords

  • Induction coil
  • electrical conductivity
  • phase-locked-loop
  • human tissues
  • impedance
  • resonance
access type Open Access

Effects of Extremity Elevation and Health Factors On Soft Tissue Electrical Conductivity

Published Online: 23 Dec 2009
Page range: 169 - 178

Abstract

Effects of Extremity Elevation and Health Factors On Soft Tissue Electrical Conductivity

Two clinical studies were completed using an auto-tuned induction coil conductivity sensor (ICCS) to determine the effects of a variety of factors on the electrical conductivity of soft tissue. In addition to fifteen "subject variables" such as blood pressure and others, we have specifically focused on considering the role of such factors as gender, age, BMI, smoking and elevation of extremities. Measurements were made at seven sites on either side of the body for a total of fourteen. Higher conductivities were obtained for women than men at all sites. At five sites, where age was a significant factor, conductivity was found to decline with increased age. Interestingly, smokers as a group tended to have reduced conductivity, suggesting that aging and smoking have similar effects on the microvasculature of soft tissue. Generally speaking, electrical conductivity is observed to increase in response to increased elevation at sites located on extremities. Considering just healthy adults, a definite pattern of elevation-induced electrical conductivity displacement emerges when subjects are flagged according to high, low or moderate blood pressure. We suggest that violations of this pattern may provide a method for identifying those individuals in an early stage of peripheral vascular disease.

Keywords

  • Induction coil
  • electrical conductivity
  • soft tissue
  • extremity elevation
  • vascular disease
access type Open Access

Accuracy of the measurement with the second order axial gradiometer

Published Online: 23 Dec 2009
Page range: 179 - 182

Abstract

Accuracy of the measurement with the second order axial gradiometer

Determining the accuracy of the measurement by using the second order axial gradiometer is presented. Output signals from the SQUID gradiometer system and calculated values of systematic errors depending on the shape and positioning of small cylindrical samples containing magnetized material are introduced. The measurement of the gradiometer detection characteristics and systematic error analysis were accomplished.

Keywords

  • second order axial gradiometer
  • magnetic measurement
  • cylindrical sample
  • systematic error
access type Open Access

Application of ZigBee sensor network to data acquisition and monitoring

Published Online: 23 Dec 2009
Page range: 183 - 186

Abstract

Application of ZigBee sensor network to data acquisition and monitoring

A ZigBee sensor network for data acquisition and monitoring is presented in this paper. It is configured using a commercially available ZigBee solution. A ZigBee module is connected via a USB interface to a Microsoft Windows PC, which works as a base station in the sensor network. Data collected by remote devices are sent to the base station PC, which is set as a data sink. Each remote device is built of a commercially available ZigBee module product and a sensor. The sensor is a thermocouple connected to a cold junction compensator amplifier. The signal from the amplifier is input to an AD converter port on the ZigBee module. Temperature data are transmitted according to the ZigBee protocol from the remote device to the data sink PC. The data sampling rate is one sampling per second; the highest possible rate is four samplings per second. The data are recorded in the hexadecimal number format by device control software, and the data file is stored in text format on the data sink PC. Time-dependent data changes can be monitored using the macro function of spreadsheet software. The system is considered a useful tool in the field of education, based on the results of trial use for measurement in an undergraduate laboratory class at a university.

Keywords

  • Sensor network
  • ZigBee protocol
  • temperature monitoring
  • automated data display
  • mechanical equivalent of heat
access type Open Access

Ultrasonic Interferometer for High-Accuracy Linear Measurements

Published Online: 23 Dec 2009
Page range: 187 - 188

Abstract

Ultrasonic Interferometer for High-Accuracy Linear Measurements

An application of ultrasonic interferometry is proposed and investigated as a new possible technique for high-accuracy linear and angular measurements. The basic principle of the proposed technique is the use of coherent running acoustic wave propagation along homogeneous solid waveguide in the capacity of linear measuring scale. The RMS sensitivity to the linear drift of 0.5 μm and RMS error of absolute measurement of ± 12 μm over the distance up to one meter have been achieved experimentally.

Keywords

  • ultrasound
  • interferometer
  • linear measurements
  • quartz fiber
6 Articles
access type Open Access

Measurement, Information Channels, and Discretization: Exploring the Links

Published Online: 23 Dec 2009
Page range: 134 - 161

Abstract

Measurement, Information Channels, and Discretization: Exploring the Links

The goal of this paper is to present a unified algebraic-analytic framework for (static and dynamic) deterministic measurement theory, which we find to be fully adequate in engineering and natural science applications. The starting point of this paradigm is the notion of a quantity algebra of a measured system and that of a measuring instrument, underlying the causal linkages in classical ‘system + instrument’ interactions. This approach is then further enriched by providing a superimposed data lattice of measurement outcomes, intended to handle the information flow from the measured system to its measurand's designated instrument.

We argue that the language of Banach and von Neumann algebras is ideally suited for the treatment of quantities, encountered in theoretical and experimental science. These algebras and convex spaces of expectation functionals thereon together with information (co)channels between them provide a comprehensive information-theoretic framework for measurement theory. Concrete examples and applications to length and position measurements are also discussed and rigorously framed within the proposed quantity algebra and associated information channel paradigms.

In modeling physical systems, investigators routinely rely on the assumption that state spaces and time domains form a continuum (locally homeomorphic to the real line or its Cartesian powers). But in sharp contrast, measurement and prediction outcomes pertaining to physical systems under consideration tend to be presented in terms of small discrete sets of rational numbers. We investigate this conceptual gap between theoretical and finitary data models from the perspectives of temporal, spatial and algebraic discretization schemes.

The principal innovation in our approach to classical measurement theory is the representation of interactive instrument-based measurement processes in terms of channel-cochannel pairs constructed between dynamical quantity algebras of a target system and its measurand's measuring instrument.

Keywords

  • quantity algebra
  • measurement theory
  • instrument model
  • information channel
  • cochannel
  • discretization
access type Open Access

Auto-Tuned Induction Coil Conductivity Sensor for In-Vivo Human Tissue Measurements

Published Online: 23 Dec 2009
Page range: 162 - 168

Abstract

Auto-Tuned Induction Coil Conductivity Sensor for In-Vivo Human Tissue Measurements

Auto-tuned induction coil technology, based upon phase-locked loop circuitry (PLL), was developed and shown to be an effective tool for in-vivo measurement of electrical conductivity of human tissues. Because electrical contact is not required, several disadvantages of the electrode method for conductivity determination are avoided, such as electrode polarization and variable conductivity associated with the stratum corneum of the epidermis. Fixed frequency excitation is supplied to a parallel tuned RLC circuit, or "sensor", while bias applied to a varactor diode is automatically adjusted via PLL circuitry to maintain the RLC sensor at resonance. Since resonant impedance of a coil positioned near a conductive object is known to be frequency dependent, such an arrangement permits precise calibration of the sensor against a set of standard Potassium Chloride solutions. In our experiments, a two-layer spiral coil is used with upper and lower spiral arms staggered so as to reduce inter-winding coil capacitance. Preliminary in-vivo testing was done on the forearms of a single male subject as a prelude to more extensive use in a clinical setting. In that instance, electrical conductivity at the proximal volar forearm location was shown to depend on forearm elevation. Clinical studies using our prototype, as well as further consideration of the "elevation effect", are discussed in a companion paper.

Keywords

  • Induction coil
  • electrical conductivity
  • phase-locked-loop
  • human tissues
  • impedance
  • resonance
access type Open Access

Effects of Extremity Elevation and Health Factors On Soft Tissue Electrical Conductivity

Published Online: 23 Dec 2009
Page range: 169 - 178

Abstract

Effects of Extremity Elevation and Health Factors On Soft Tissue Electrical Conductivity

Two clinical studies were completed using an auto-tuned induction coil conductivity sensor (ICCS) to determine the effects of a variety of factors on the electrical conductivity of soft tissue. In addition to fifteen "subject variables" such as blood pressure and others, we have specifically focused on considering the role of such factors as gender, age, BMI, smoking and elevation of extremities. Measurements were made at seven sites on either side of the body for a total of fourteen. Higher conductivities were obtained for women than men at all sites. At five sites, where age was a significant factor, conductivity was found to decline with increased age. Interestingly, smokers as a group tended to have reduced conductivity, suggesting that aging and smoking have similar effects on the microvasculature of soft tissue. Generally speaking, electrical conductivity is observed to increase in response to increased elevation at sites located on extremities. Considering just healthy adults, a definite pattern of elevation-induced electrical conductivity displacement emerges when subjects are flagged according to high, low or moderate blood pressure. We suggest that violations of this pattern may provide a method for identifying those individuals in an early stage of peripheral vascular disease.

Keywords

  • Induction coil
  • electrical conductivity
  • soft tissue
  • extremity elevation
  • vascular disease
access type Open Access

Accuracy of the measurement with the second order axial gradiometer

Published Online: 23 Dec 2009
Page range: 179 - 182

Abstract

Accuracy of the measurement with the second order axial gradiometer

Determining the accuracy of the measurement by using the second order axial gradiometer is presented. Output signals from the SQUID gradiometer system and calculated values of systematic errors depending on the shape and positioning of small cylindrical samples containing magnetized material are introduced. The measurement of the gradiometer detection characteristics and systematic error analysis were accomplished.

Keywords

  • second order axial gradiometer
  • magnetic measurement
  • cylindrical sample
  • systematic error
access type Open Access

Application of ZigBee sensor network to data acquisition and monitoring

Published Online: 23 Dec 2009
Page range: 183 - 186

Abstract

Application of ZigBee sensor network to data acquisition and monitoring

A ZigBee sensor network for data acquisition and monitoring is presented in this paper. It is configured using a commercially available ZigBee solution. A ZigBee module is connected via a USB interface to a Microsoft Windows PC, which works as a base station in the sensor network. Data collected by remote devices are sent to the base station PC, which is set as a data sink. Each remote device is built of a commercially available ZigBee module product and a sensor. The sensor is a thermocouple connected to a cold junction compensator amplifier. The signal from the amplifier is input to an AD converter port on the ZigBee module. Temperature data are transmitted according to the ZigBee protocol from the remote device to the data sink PC. The data sampling rate is one sampling per second; the highest possible rate is four samplings per second. The data are recorded in the hexadecimal number format by device control software, and the data file is stored in text format on the data sink PC. Time-dependent data changes can be monitored using the macro function of spreadsheet software. The system is considered a useful tool in the field of education, based on the results of trial use for measurement in an undergraduate laboratory class at a university.

Keywords

  • Sensor network
  • ZigBee protocol
  • temperature monitoring
  • automated data display
  • mechanical equivalent of heat
access type Open Access

Ultrasonic Interferometer for High-Accuracy Linear Measurements

Published Online: 23 Dec 2009
Page range: 187 - 188

Abstract

Ultrasonic Interferometer for High-Accuracy Linear Measurements

An application of ultrasonic interferometry is proposed and investigated as a new possible technique for high-accuracy linear and angular measurements. The basic principle of the proposed technique is the use of coherent running acoustic wave propagation along homogeneous solid waveguide in the capacity of linear measuring scale. The RMS sensitivity to the linear drift of 0.5 μm and RMS error of absolute measurement of ± 12 μm over the distance up to one meter have been achieved experimentally.

Keywords

  • ultrasound
  • interferometer
  • linear measurements
  • quartz fiber

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