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Zeitschriftendaten
Format
Zeitschrift
eISSN
1875-855X
Erstveröffentlichung
01 Jun 2007
Erscheinungsweise
6 Hefte pro Jahr
Sprachen
Englisch

Suche

Volumen 15 (2021): Heft 4 (August 2021)

Zeitschriftendaten
Format
Zeitschrift
eISSN
1875-855X
Erstveröffentlichung
01 Jun 2007
Erscheinungsweise
6 Hefte pro Jahr
Sprachen
Englisch

Suche

6 Artikel

Editorial

Uneingeschränkter Zugang

In search of cost effective control of leptospirosis—a common zoonotic disease in developing countries

Online veröffentlicht: 20 Aug 2021
Seitenbereich: 151 - 152

Zusammenfassung

Mini review

Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Potential of amentoflavone with antiviral properties in COVID-19 treatment

Online veröffentlicht: 20 Aug 2021
Seitenbereich: 153 - 159

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Amentoflavone is one of the flavonoids that are known for their antiviral effects and many of them are predicted to have inhibitory effects against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and Middle East respiratory syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) enzymes 3-chymotrypsin-like protease (3CLpro) and papain-like protease (PLpro). Amentoflavone is a biflavonoid found in the herbal extracts of St. John's wort (Hypericum perforatum), Gingko biloba, Selaginella tamariscina, Torreya nucifera, and many other plants. Its pharmacological actions have been listed as antiviral, antibacterial, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, antidepressant, and neuroprotective. Molecular docking studies have found that amentoflavone binds strongly to the active site of the main protease (Mpro) of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). As conventional antiviral medications are met with limited success against coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) and vaccines are one of the only weapons against COVID-19 in the pharmaceutical armamentarium, traditional medicines are being considered for the forefront battle against COVID-19. Clinical studies with Hypericum and Gingko extract as additional or alternative drugs/supplements are registered. Here we review the potential of amentoflavone, an active agent in both Hypericum and Gingko extract as an adjunct therapy for COVID-19. Its anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and sepsis preventive actions could provide protection against the “cytokine storm.” Compared with the herbal extracts, which induce cytochrome P450 (CYP) and uridine 5′-diphospho (UDP)-glucuronosyltransferases (UGT) activity producing a negative herb–drug interaction, amentoflavone is a potent inhibitor of CYP3A4, CYP2C9, and UGT. Further studies into the therapeutic potential of amentoflavone against the coronavirus infection are warranted.

Schlüsselwörter

  • amentoflavone
  • COVID-19
  • CYP450 inhibitor
  • flavonoid
  • SARS-CoV

Original article

Uneingeschränkter Zugang

PRKAA2 variation and the clinical characteristics of patients newly diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus in Yogyakarta, Indonesia

Online veröffentlicht: 20 Aug 2021
Seitenbereich: 161 - 170

Zusammenfassung

Abstract Background

Adenosine monophosphate (AMP)-activated protein kinase (AMPK; EC 2.7.11.31) enzymes play a pivotal role in cell metabolism. They are involved in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) pathogenesis. Genetic variation of PRKAA2 coding for the AMPK α2 catalytic subunit (AMPKα2) is reported to be associated with susceptibility for T2DM.

Objectives

To determine the association between PRKAA2 genetic variations (rs2796498, rs9803799, and rs2746342) with clinical characteristics in patients newly diagnosed with T2DM.

Methods

We performed a cross-sectional study including 166 T2DM patients from 10 primary health care centers in Yogyakarta, Indonesia. We measured fasting plasma glucose, hemoglobin A1c, serum creatinine, glomerular filtration rate, blood pressure, and body mass index as clinical characteristics. PRKAA2 genetic variations were determined by TaqMan SNP genotyping assay. Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium was calculated using χ2 tests.

Results

There was no difference in clinical characteristics for genotypes rs2796498, rs9803799, or rs2746342 (P > 0.05). No significant association was found between PRKAA2 genetic variations and any clinical feature observed. Further subgroup analysis adjusting for age, sex, and waist circumference did not detect any significant association of PRKAA2 genetic variations with clinical characteristics (P > 0.05).

Conclusion

PRKAA2 genetic variation is not associated with the clinical characteristics of Indonesian patients with newly diagnosed T2DM.

Schlüsselwörter

  • genetic variation
  • Indonesia
  • type 2 diabetes mellitus
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Clinical characteristics and outcomes of Langerhans cell histiocytosis at a single institution in Thailand: a 20-year retrospective study

Online veröffentlicht: 20 Aug 2021
Seitenbereich: 171 - 181

Zusammenfassung

Abstract Background

Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a rare disease characterized by the various systems involved and clinical manifestations with a wide range of symptoms.

Objectives

To describe clinical characteristics, imaging, treatment, and outcomes of pediatric LCH at Phramongkutklao Hospital, Bangkok, Thailand.

Methods

We conducted a 20-year retrospective review of the medical records of patients diagnosed with LCH from birth to 21 years old from January 1, 1997, to December 31, 2016.

Results

In all, 14 patients with median age of 2.5 years were studied. Six (43%) patients had single-system (SS) LCH. Five patients (63%) with multisystem (MS) LCH (n = 8. 57%) had risk-organ involvement (RO+). All patients had plain X-ray imaging of their skull with 11 (79%) showing abnormal findings. Tc-99m bone imaging and fluorodeoxyglucose F18 (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)-computed tomography (CT) demonstrated abnormal findings in 8 (89%) and 4 (29%) patients, respectively. The 5-year event-free survival (EFS) for patients with RO+ MS-LCH was less than that for those without risk-organ involvement (RO−) MS-LCH and SS-LCH (20% vs. 100%, P = 0.005). Hematological dysfunction, hypoalbuminemia, and conjugated hyperbilirubinemia may be worse prognostic factors for RO+ MS-LCH.

Conclusion

FDG-PET-CT might have a greater accuracy to detect LCH disease than conventional plain X-ray and Tc-99m bone imaging. RO+ MS-LCH has been encountered with relapse and poor outcomes. Hematopoietic involvement, hypoalbuminemia, and conjugated hyperbilirubinemia may be worse prognostic factors for RO+ MS-LCH.

Schlüsselwörter

  • fluorodeoxyglucose F18
  • hyperbilirubinemia
  • conjugated
  • hematopoietic
  • hypoalbuminemia
  • organs at risk
  • positron emission tomography computed tomography

Technical report

Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Room-temperature stable loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) reagents to detect leptospiral DNA

Online veröffentlicht: 20 Aug 2021
Seitenbereich: 183 - 189

Zusammenfassung

Abstract Background

Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) is one of the most promising tools for rapidly detecting Leptospira spp. However, LAMP is hampered by cold storage to maintain the enzymatic activity of Bst DNA polymerase.

Objective

To overcome the drawback of cold storage requirement for LAMP reagents we modified the reagents by adding sucrose as stabilizer. We then sought to determine the stability at room temperature of the premixed LAMP reagents containing sucrose.

Method

Premixed LAMP reagents with sucrose and without sucrose were prepared. The prepared mixtures were stored at room temperature for up to 60 days, and were subjected to LAMP reactions at various intervals using rat kidney samples to detect leptospiral DNA.

Results

The premixed LAMP reagents with sucrose remained stable for 45 days while sucrose-free premixed LAMP reagents showed no amplification from day 1 of storage at room temperature up to day 14.

Conclusion

The LAMP reagent system can be refined by using sucrose as stabilizer, thus allowing their storage at room temperature without the need for cold storage. The modified method enables greater feasibility of LAMP for field surveillance and epidemiology in resource-limited settings.

Schlüsselwörter

  • leptospirosis
  • LAMP assay
  • temperature
  • room
  • stabilizer
  • sucrose

Clinical vignette

Uneingeschränkter Zugang

A giant fourth-ventricular tuberculoma mimicking a primary posterior fossa tumor

Online veröffentlicht: 20 Aug 2021
Seitenbereich: 191 - 195

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Typically, an intracranial tuberculoma occurs within the brain parenchyma. Intraventricular tuberculomas are rare in the absence of systemic tuberculosis (TB), and the differential diagnosis between tuberculoma and other lesions, such as primary brain tumors, can be difficult. We report an extremely unusual case of solitary fourth-ventricular tuberculoma, which occurred in a 3-year-old female patient, with no indication of TB. This lesion appeared as a primary intraventricular tumor in the fourth ventricle in both clinical and radiological examinations. In this scenario, a surgical treatment option was pursued. Histopathological testing supported the diagnosis of tuberculoma. The patient was subsequently treated with 18 months’ therapy for tuberculous, without adverse events.

Schlüsselwörter

  • fourth ventricle
  • infratentorial neoplasms
  • tuberculoma
  • intracranial
  • tuberculosis
6 Artikel

Editorial

Uneingeschränkter Zugang

In search of cost effective control of leptospirosis—a common zoonotic disease in developing countries

Online veröffentlicht: 20 Aug 2021
Seitenbereich: 151 - 152

Zusammenfassung

Mini review

Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Potential of amentoflavone with antiviral properties in COVID-19 treatment

Online veröffentlicht: 20 Aug 2021
Seitenbereich: 153 - 159

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Amentoflavone is one of the flavonoids that are known for their antiviral effects and many of them are predicted to have inhibitory effects against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and Middle East respiratory syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) enzymes 3-chymotrypsin-like protease (3CLpro) and papain-like protease (PLpro). Amentoflavone is a biflavonoid found in the herbal extracts of St. John's wort (Hypericum perforatum), Gingko biloba, Selaginella tamariscina, Torreya nucifera, and many other plants. Its pharmacological actions have been listed as antiviral, antibacterial, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, antidepressant, and neuroprotective. Molecular docking studies have found that amentoflavone binds strongly to the active site of the main protease (Mpro) of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). As conventional antiviral medications are met with limited success against coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) and vaccines are one of the only weapons against COVID-19 in the pharmaceutical armamentarium, traditional medicines are being considered for the forefront battle against COVID-19. Clinical studies with Hypericum and Gingko extract as additional or alternative drugs/supplements are registered. Here we review the potential of amentoflavone, an active agent in both Hypericum and Gingko extract as an adjunct therapy for COVID-19. Its anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and sepsis preventive actions could provide protection against the “cytokine storm.” Compared with the herbal extracts, which induce cytochrome P450 (CYP) and uridine 5′-diphospho (UDP)-glucuronosyltransferases (UGT) activity producing a negative herb–drug interaction, amentoflavone is a potent inhibitor of CYP3A4, CYP2C9, and UGT. Further studies into the therapeutic potential of amentoflavone against the coronavirus infection are warranted.

Schlüsselwörter

  • amentoflavone
  • COVID-19
  • CYP450 inhibitor
  • flavonoid
  • SARS-CoV

Original article

Uneingeschränkter Zugang

PRKAA2 variation and the clinical characteristics of patients newly diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus in Yogyakarta, Indonesia

Online veröffentlicht: 20 Aug 2021
Seitenbereich: 161 - 170

Zusammenfassung

Abstract Background

Adenosine monophosphate (AMP)-activated protein kinase (AMPK; EC 2.7.11.31) enzymes play a pivotal role in cell metabolism. They are involved in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) pathogenesis. Genetic variation of PRKAA2 coding for the AMPK α2 catalytic subunit (AMPKα2) is reported to be associated with susceptibility for T2DM.

Objectives

To determine the association between PRKAA2 genetic variations (rs2796498, rs9803799, and rs2746342) with clinical characteristics in patients newly diagnosed with T2DM.

Methods

We performed a cross-sectional study including 166 T2DM patients from 10 primary health care centers in Yogyakarta, Indonesia. We measured fasting plasma glucose, hemoglobin A1c, serum creatinine, glomerular filtration rate, blood pressure, and body mass index as clinical characteristics. PRKAA2 genetic variations were determined by TaqMan SNP genotyping assay. Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium was calculated using χ2 tests.

Results

There was no difference in clinical characteristics for genotypes rs2796498, rs9803799, or rs2746342 (P > 0.05). No significant association was found between PRKAA2 genetic variations and any clinical feature observed. Further subgroup analysis adjusting for age, sex, and waist circumference did not detect any significant association of PRKAA2 genetic variations with clinical characteristics (P > 0.05).

Conclusion

PRKAA2 genetic variation is not associated with the clinical characteristics of Indonesian patients with newly diagnosed T2DM.

Schlüsselwörter

  • genetic variation
  • Indonesia
  • type 2 diabetes mellitus
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Clinical characteristics and outcomes of Langerhans cell histiocytosis at a single institution in Thailand: a 20-year retrospective study

Online veröffentlicht: 20 Aug 2021
Seitenbereich: 171 - 181

Zusammenfassung

Abstract Background

Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a rare disease characterized by the various systems involved and clinical manifestations with a wide range of symptoms.

Objectives

To describe clinical characteristics, imaging, treatment, and outcomes of pediatric LCH at Phramongkutklao Hospital, Bangkok, Thailand.

Methods

We conducted a 20-year retrospective review of the medical records of patients diagnosed with LCH from birth to 21 years old from January 1, 1997, to December 31, 2016.

Results

In all, 14 patients with median age of 2.5 years were studied. Six (43%) patients had single-system (SS) LCH. Five patients (63%) with multisystem (MS) LCH (n = 8. 57%) had risk-organ involvement (RO+). All patients had plain X-ray imaging of their skull with 11 (79%) showing abnormal findings. Tc-99m bone imaging and fluorodeoxyglucose F18 (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)-computed tomography (CT) demonstrated abnormal findings in 8 (89%) and 4 (29%) patients, respectively. The 5-year event-free survival (EFS) for patients with RO+ MS-LCH was less than that for those without risk-organ involvement (RO−) MS-LCH and SS-LCH (20% vs. 100%, P = 0.005). Hematological dysfunction, hypoalbuminemia, and conjugated hyperbilirubinemia may be worse prognostic factors for RO+ MS-LCH.

Conclusion

FDG-PET-CT might have a greater accuracy to detect LCH disease than conventional plain X-ray and Tc-99m bone imaging. RO+ MS-LCH has been encountered with relapse and poor outcomes. Hematopoietic involvement, hypoalbuminemia, and conjugated hyperbilirubinemia may be worse prognostic factors for RO+ MS-LCH.

Schlüsselwörter

  • fluorodeoxyglucose F18
  • hyperbilirubinemia
  • conjugated
  • hematopoietic
  • hypoalbuminemia
  • organs at risk
  • positron emission tomography computed tomography

Technical report

Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Room-temperature stable loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) reagents to detect leptospiral DNA

Online veröffentlicht: 20 Aug 2021
Seitenbereich: 183 - 189

Zusammenfassung

Abstract Background

Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) is one of the most promising tools for rapidly detecting Leptospira spp. However, LAMP is hampered by cold storage to maintain the enzymatic activity of Bst DNA polymerase.

Objective

To overcome the drawback of cold storage requirement for LAMP reagents we modified the reagents by adding sucrose as stabilizer. We then sought to determine the stability at room temperature of the premixed LAMP reagents containing sucrose.

Method

Premixed LAMP reagents with sucrose and without sucrose were prepared. The prepared mixtures were stored at room temperature for up to 60 days, and were subjected to LAMP reactions at various intervals using rat kidney samples to detect leptospiral DNA.

Results

The premixed LAMP reagents with sucrose remained stable for 45 days while sucrose-free premixed LAMP reagents showed no amplification from day 1 of storage at room temperature up to day 14.

Conclusion

The LAMP reagent system can be refined by using sucrose as stabilizer, thus allowing their storage at room temperature without the need for cold storage. The modified method enables greater feasibility of LAMP for field surveillance and epidemiology in resource-limited settings.

Schlüsselwörter

  • leptospirosis
  • LAMP assay
  • temperature
  • room
  • stabilizer
  • sucrose

Clinical vignette

Uneingeschränkter Zugang

A giant fourth-ventricular tuberculoma mimicking a primary posterior fossa tumor

Online veröffentlicht: 20 Aug 2021
Seitenbereich: 191 - 195

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Typically, an intracranial tuberculoma occurs within the brain parenchyma. Intraventricular tuberculomas are rare in the absence of systemic tuberculosis (TB), and the differential diagnosis between tuberculoma and other lesions, such as primary brain tumors, can be difficult. We report an extremely unusual case of solitary fourth-ventricular tuberculoma, which occurred in a 3-year-old female patient, with no indication of TB. This lesion appeared as a primary intraventricular tumor in the fourth ventricle in both clinical and radiological examinations. In this scenario, a surgical treatment option was pursued. Histopathological testing supported the diagnosis of tuberculoma. The patient was subsequently treated with 18 months’ therapy for tuberculous, without adverse events.

Schlüsselwörter

  • fourth ventricle
  • infratentorial neoplasms
  • tuberculoma
  • intracranial
  • tuberculosis

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