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Zeitschriftendaten
Format
Zeitschrift
eISSN
1875-855X
Erstveröffentlichung
01 Jun 2007
Erscheinungsweise
6 Hefte pro Jahr
Sprachen
Englisch

Suche

Volumen 10 (2016): Heft 4 (August 2016)

Zeitschriftendaten
Format
Zeitschrift
eISSN
1875-855X
Erstveröffentlichung
01 Jun 2007
Erscheinungsweise
6 Hefte pro Jahr
Sprachen
Englisch

Suche

12 Artikel

Editorial

Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Craniofacial malformation: a need for health system orientation

Online veröffentlicht: 31 Jan 2017
Seitenbereich: 307 - 308

Zusammenfassung

Review article

Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Prevalence and risk factors for cryptosporidiosis: a global, emerging, neglected zoonosis

Online veröffentlicht: 31 Jan 2017
Seitenbereich: 309 - 325

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Cryptosporidiosis is a zoonotic disease caused by the important parasitic diarrheal agent Cryptosporidium spp. Cryptosporidiosis occurs in all classes of animals and man with a rapidly expanding host range and increased importance since the occurrence of human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in man.

To review the global picture of cryptosporidiosis in man and animals with emphasis on prevalence and risk factors.

Current relevant literature on cryptosporidiosis was reviewed.

Cryptosporidiosis is widely distributed and the risk factors vary from one region to another with hygiene and immune status as important risk factors.

Cryptosporidium spp. associated mortality has not only been reported in immune-compromised patients, but also in immune-competent patients. Yet in many countries not much attention is paid to the control and prevention of this infection in animals and man. The neglect of this disease despite the serious threat it poses to animals, their husbandry, and humans, has led the World Health Organization to list it among globally neglected diseases. To control and prevent this infection more effort needs to be directed at controlling the risk factors of the infection in man and animals.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Human and animal husbandry
  • cryptosporidiosis
  • neglected zoonosis

Original article

Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Immunotherapeutic efficacy of a Lactobacillus casei lysate as an adjuvant combined with a heated-4T1 mammary carcinoma cell lysate in a murine model of breast cancer

Online veröffentlicht: 31 Jan 2017
Seitenbereich: 327 - 334

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Immunotherapy, during which the immune system of the patient is manipulated to act against tumors has been among the most successful methods in the treatment of breast cancer, a leading cause of mortality among women worldwide.

To investigate the immunotherapeutic efficacy of Lactobacillus casei lysate as an adjuvant in combination with a heated-4T1 mammary carcinoma cell lysate in a model of breast cancer.

After ethics committee approval of all animal procedures, a murine model of breast cancer was induced in BALB/c mice using 4T1 cells. These mice were immunized with a combination of lysates of heated 4T1 cells and L. casei. Subsequent changes in tumor size and weight, and the production of TNF-α, IL-2, IL-12, IL-17, and IL13 were measured. Lung weights were measured as an indicator of metastasis to other organs.

The tumor size and weight in mice immunized with the combined vaccine were significantly reduced compared with controls. The combined immunotherapy altered the pattern of cytokine production to the advantage of antitumor immunity, and was significantly more potent than immunization with heated-4T1-cell lysate or L. casei lysate alone.

Coadministration of L. casei lysate enhanced the immunotherapeutic efficacy of the heated-4T1-cell lysate as a source of tumor-associated antigens. L. casei can potentially be used as an adjuvant combined with sources of tumor antigens in the treatment of cancers, and as a safe alternative to the current adjuvants that cause greater irritation to hosts. Further studies are required to clarify the mechanisms underlying these effects.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Cancer immunotherapy
  • HSP
  • TNF-α
  • tumor
  • vaccine

Brief communication (Original)

Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Incidence and outcomes of acute lung injury in the surgical intensive care unit of a tertiary care hospital in Bangkok, Thailand

Online veröffentlicht: 31 Jan 2017
Seitenbereich: 379 - 385

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Although the pathophysiology and treatment of acute lung injury (ALI) and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) are well established, the incidence and outcomes of ALI have not been extensively reported. Variations in healthcare systems, demographics, socioeconomics, and levels of intensive care units (ICU) may explain remarkable differences in outcomes reported.

To evaluate the incidence and outcomes of ALI/ARDS at the surgical ICU (SICU) at Siriraj Hospital of Mahidol University, Bangkok.

We included patients aged ≥18 years admitted to the general SICU between June 1, 2010 and May 31, 2013 in this prospective, cohort observational study. All patients required ≥24 h of ventilatory support. The study outcomes were the incidence of ALI/ARDS, SICU length of stay, and mortality rate.

Of 2523 patients admitted to the SICU, 495 (20%) required ≥24 h ventilatory support, and 15 (3%) developed ALI/ARDS. ALI/ARDS occurred on day 2 of ventilatory support. ARDS was caused by sepsis and pneumonia. The patients who developed ALI/ARDS had a higher APACHE II score (P = 0.001) and end-stage renal disease (P = 0.01). Pneumonia and acute kidney injury were more severe in patients with ALI and ARDS (40% vs 9%, P = 0.002; 33% vs 10%, P = 0.02, respectively). Ventilatory support duration, SICU lengths of stay and hospital mortality were higher in the ALI/ARDS group.

The incidence of ALI/ARDS in the SICU was low, but the mortality rate was high. A larger sample size is necessary to identify independent risk factors for ALI/ARDS.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Acute lung injury
  • acute respiratory distress syndrome
  • critically illness
  • incidence
  • surgical ICU
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Feasibility of withholding dexamethasone premedication for hypersensitivity reactions associated with paclitaxel administration

Online veröffentlicht: 31 Jan 2017
Seitenbereich: 371 - 377

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Premedication with dexamethasone is crucial to prevent hypersensitivity reactions (HSR) associated with administration of taxanes. However, high dose and prolonged exposure to dexamethasone may cause adverse effects.

To determine the incidence of HSR in patients with early breast cancer who did or did not receive dexamethasone prophylaxis for weekly paclitaxel infusions.

We retrospectively reviewed the records of a cohort of patients with early breast cancer who received paclitaxel weekly from January 2012 through March 2015 at King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital. All patients received a standard premedication protocol including dexamethasone before their first paclitaxel infusion. Dexamethasone was omitted in later cycles in some patients at the discretion of the attending physician. Data concerning the baseline characteristics of the patient, details of the premedication protocol, including dose and schedule of dexamethasone, and HSR events were collected in this observational study.

Data were drawn from 86 breast cancer patients (median age 52.6 years) treated with a total of 984 cycles of paclitaxel chemotherapy. No patient had any history of allergy or HSR to taxanes. Dexamethasone was omitted in 617 later cycles. Six patients had grade II-III HSR (7.0%), which occurred mostly during the first 6 cycles (5/6, 83.3%). The incidence of HRS was 3/367 cycles (0.82%) with dexamethasone premedication (P = 0.99) and 5/617 (0.81%) without.

Withholding dexamethasone premedication for paclitaxel chemotherapy was feasible, and did not result in a higher incidence of HSR. However, an optimal schedule for dexamethasone warrants investigation in a prospective manner.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Dexamethasone premedication
  • infusion hypersensitivity reaction
  • paclitaxel
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Correlation of computed tomography characteristics of cystic renal cell carcinoma with histopathology

Online veröffentlicht: 31 Jan 2017
Seitenbereich: 361 - 369

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Renal cysts are common incidental findings in computed tomography (CT) of the abdomen and range from benign to cystic renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Cystic RCC has various pathology, clinical prognosis, and treatment options.

To compare preoperative CT of cystic RCC with histopathology.

Preoperative CT of histopathologically proven cystic RCCs were retrospectively reviewed in this single-center cross-sectional observational study. Two investigators recorded consensus CT features for each cystic RCC. The means of descriptive continuous data were calculated. A chi-square test, Fisher’s exact test, or an ANOVA were used for compare the frequency of findings for each histopathological subtype.

Of 38 cystic RCCs, 25 were clear cell RCC, 5 were papillary RCC, 4 were multilocular cystic RCC, 1 was chromophobe RCC, and 3 were mixed type/other type (papillary/chromophobe, clear cell/chromophobe, and sarcomatoid type). We classified 36 lesions as Bosniak category IV and 2 lesions as Bosniak category III. There was no significant difference in cyst attenuation in any phase. Solid attenuation of the tumors was significantly different for each type in corticomedullary and nephrogenic phases (P = 0.001 and 0.042, respectively). Clear cell RCC was enhanced the most on corticomedullary and nephrogenic phases (means 135.5 and 112.1 Hounsfield Units, respectively). Septal thickening, enhancement, and multilocularity were significantly different between subtypes, particularly in multilocular cystic RCCs (P = 0.018, 0.018, and 0.02, respectively).

Preoperative CT findings may help clinicians and radiologists to predict tumor subtypes and aid treatment planning.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Computed tomography
  • cystic renal cell carcinoma
  • histopathology
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Comparison of the knowledge, attitudes toward, and practices of contraception between Thai Muslim women living in Bangkok and those living in the southernmost provinces of Thailand

Online veröffentlicht: 31 Jan 2017
Seitenbereich: 351 - 359

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

There are limited data on the use of contraception by Thai Muslim women.

To compare and explore the knowledge, attitudes toward, and practices (KAP) of contraception between Thai Muslim women living in Bangkok and those living in the Southernmost provinces. Variables associated with KAP were also examined.

This was a community-based cross-sectional study, which was conducted in the Muslim communities in Bangkok and those in the southernmost provinces of Thailand including Yala, Pattani, and Narathiwat. A multistage, cluster sampling technique was used to identify participants. Only literate Thai Muslim women who lived in their hometown, and aged between 15–49 years were included in the analysis. A self-administered questionnaire was used to assess participants’ KAP of contraception.

Data from 423 participants were analyzed. Knowledge and attitude scores between the two groups were comparable. A higher proportion of women from the southernmost provinces used contraceptives. However, when a multivariate regression model was used to adjust for other variables, women’s geographical residence was not associated with higher knowledge and attitude scores, or contraceptive practices. College-level education and higher income level were independent factors associated with contraceptive knowledge. A higher knowledge score was independently related to a positive attitude towards contraception. Only number of children and income level were independently associated with contraceptive practices.

For Thai Muslim women, geographical residence was not significantly associated with KAP of contraception. The educational level, income level, and number of children of the women played major roles in KAP of contraception.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Attitude
  • contraceptive practices
  • KAP
  • knowledge
  • Muslim
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Detection of masses and microcalcifications in digital mammogram images using fuzzy logic

Online veröffentlicht: 31 Jan 2017
Seitenbereich: 345 - 350

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Detection of small breast lesions is a challenging task for radiologists. Computer aided detection (CAD) systems are implemented to aid radiologists in detecting masses and microcalcifications. This has the potential to raise the level of sensitivity in breast cancer detection.

To evaluate a new system to detect suggestions of suspicious small lesions.

Small samples were extracted from different tissue types. Texture features were calculated, and the best features were selected using Waikato Environment for Knowledge Analysis (WEKA) software. Subsequently, 7 selected features were used to form a decision tree. To reduce false negative cases, fuzzy logic was used. In the implementation phase, input images were divided into 8 pixel ´ 8 pixel tiles. For each tile, all selected features were computed as fuzzy inputs.

To evaluate the technique, the suggested system was applied to 326 images obtained from the National Cancer Society of Malaysia. Based on this application, results showed that the suggested system has an acceptable sensitivity of 85.6% and specificity of 90.7%.

The fuzzy system is a promising technique for early detection of breast cancer.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Breast cancer
  • detection
  • fuzzy logic
  • mammogram
  • microcalcification
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Seroprevalence of hepatitis B and C virus in patients who undergo hemodialysis in Antalya province, Turkey

Online veröffentlicht: 31 Jan 2017
Seitenbereich: 339 - 344

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Chronic hepatitis B (HBV) and C virus (HCV) infections are important causes of morbidity and mortality in patients who undergo hemodialysis (HD).

To define seroprevalence of HBV and HCV in patients who underwent HD in Antalya province, Turkey.

We included 1347 patients with end-stage renal failure who underwent HD at one of the 23 centers in Antalya province from January 01 to March 31, 2014 in this retrospective cross-sectional study. Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and anti-HCV seropositivity were assessed clinically using a third-generation enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. HBV DNA and HCV RNA were determined in HBsAg positive and anti- HCV positive HD patients respectively.

Of the patients included, 805 (59.8%) were male. Mean age (± standard deviation) of the patients was 53.9 ± 17.0 (range 17–89) years. The sera of 2.4% patients was positive for HBsAg, and the sera of 5.5% of the patients was positive for anti-HCV. The sera of 56% of patients positive for HBsAg was also positive for HBV DNA, and the sera of 43% of patients positive for anti-HCV was also positive for HCV RNA. Coexistence of HBsAg and anti-HCV was 1.02%.

The present study showed that the prevalence of chronic HBV and HCV infection in patients who underwent HD in Antalya province was moderate-to-low for Turkey. Compliance of HD centers with infection control rules, isolation of HBsAg positive patients, isolation of the equipment used for HBV susceptible patients, and active surveillance of the HD patients may have resulted in lower prevalence rates.

Schlüsselwörter

  • HBsAg
  • HBV
  • HCV
  • hemodialysis
  • seroprevalence
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Epidemiology of cleft lip with or without cleft palate in Thais

Online veröffentlicht: 31 Jan 2017
Seitenbereich: 335 - 338

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Oral clefts, including cleft lip (CL), CL with cleft palate (CL/CP), and cleft palate only (CPO), are among the most common birth defects, and if left untreated can cause significant morbidity. Causes are complex and involve both genetic and environmental factors. Several studies have demonstrated the highest prevalence of oral clefts being in Asian, white, and African populations. However, there have been very few epidemiological studies of oral clefts in Thais.

To describe the epidemiology and factors associated with oral clefts in Thais.

This retrospective case-control observational study included individuals from numerous regions in Thailand. We reviewed data regarding 784 patients with an oral cleft collected in questionnaires as part of the Thai nationwide Smart Smile and Speech Project from 2006 to 2014. Data regarding patients with oral clefts were analyzed, and compared with data regarding 187 unaffected controls.

Of 784 cases, CL/CP accounted for 59.8%, CPO 21.9%, and CL 18.3%. A family history of oral clefts was detected in all 3 types (P < 0.001). Maternal use of any drugs or herbal medicine not prescribed by physicians during pregnancy in cases of CPO (P = 0.049) and maternal consumption of alcohol during pregnancy in cases of CL/CP (P = 0.047) were significantly higher than that by mothers of controls.

CL/CP is the most common type of oral cleft. A family history of oral clefts, and maternal consumption of alcohol or nonprescribed drugs are positively associated with oral clefts in Thais.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Cleft lip
  • cleft palate
  • oral cleft
  • Thai

Clinical report

Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Prenatal diagnosis and in utero treatment of severe congenital toxoplasmosis: a case report

Online veröffentlicht: 31 Jan 2017
Seitenbereich: 387 - 391

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Acute infection of pregnant women with Toxoplasma gondii can result in fetal transmission. When clinical abnormalities are evident by ultrasonography in late gestation, medical treatment may be attempted, but the data on outcomes are limited.

To present a case of congenital fetal toxoplasmosis from Thailand and review the literature.

A woman presented at 31 weeks of gestation with severe bilateral ventriculomegaly, cardiomegaly, hepatosplenomegaly with intrahepatic hyperechogenicities, and polyhydramnios. Medical treatment with pyrimethamine, sulfadiazine and folinic acid was initiated. There was no improvement. Social, medical, ethical and legal issues were considered.

Delivery was indicated at 34+2 weeks of gestation because of premature amniorrhexis. The neonate suffered from respiratory distress, meningitis, ventilator-associated pneumonia, and expired at age 11 days.

When fetal congenital toxoplasmosis is diagnosed late in pregnancy with severe ultrasonographic abnormalities, the neonatal outcome is poor despite in utero treatment with antibiotics.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Congenital infection
  • congenital toxoplasmosis
  • prenatal diagnosis
  • social and ethical considerations
  • therapy of fetus
  • ultrasonography

Letter to the Editor

Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Observer heterogeneity can be thought of as a confounding variable

Online veröffentlicht: 31 Jan 2017
Seitenbereich: 393 - 393

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The study published in the April 2016 issue of Asian Biomedicine recruited 2 different sets of observers to perform triage assessments. We know that each observation is subjected to an error. The error has 2 varieties including interobserver variation and intraobserver variation. So effort must be devoted to reduce these errors. The methodology reported may suffer from both intraobserver and interobserver error substantially.

12 Artikel

Editorial

Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Craniofacial malformation: a need for health system orientation

Online veröffentlicht: 31 Jan 2017
Seitenbereich: 307 - 308

Zusammenfassung

Review article

Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Prevalence and risk factors for cryptosporidiosis: a global, emerging, neglected zoonosis

Online veröffentlicht: 31 Jan 2017
Seitenbereich: 309 - 325

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Cryptosporidiosis is a zoonotic disease caused by the important parasitic diarrheal agent Cryptosporidium spp. Cryptosporidiosis occurs in all classes of animals and man with a rapidly expanding host range and increased importance since the occurrence of human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in man.

To review the global picture of cryptosporidiosis in man and animals with emphasis on prevalence and risk factors.

Current relevant literature on cryptosporidiosis was reviewed.

Cryptosporidiosis is widely distributed and the risk factors vary from one region to another with hygiene and immune status as important risk factors.

Cryptosporidium spp. associated mortality has not only been reported in immune-compromised patients, but also in immune-competent patients. Yet in many countries not much attention is paid to the control and prevention of this infection in animals and man. The neglect of this disease despite the serious threat it poses to animals, their husbandry, and humans, has led the World Health Organization to list it among globally neglected diseases. To control and prevent this infection more effort needs to be directed at controlling the risk factors of the infection in man and animals.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Human and animal husbandry
  • cryptosporidiosis
  • neglected zoonosis

Original article

Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Immunotherapeutic efficacy of a Lactobacillus casei lysate as an adjuvant combined with a heated-4T1 mammary carcinoma cell lysate in a murine model of breast cancer

Online veröffentlicht: 31 Jan 2017
Seitenbereich: 327 - 334

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Immunotherapy, during which the immune system of the patient is manipulated to act against tumors has been among the most successful methods in the treatment of breast cancer, a leading cause of mortality among women worldwide.

To investigate the immunotherapeutic efficacy of Lactobacillus casei lysate as an adjuvant in combination with a heated-4T1 mammary carcinoma cell lysate in a model of breast cancer.

After ethics committee approval of all animal procedures, a murine model of breast cancer was induced in BALB/c mice using 4T1 cells. These mice were immunized with a combination of lysates of heated 4T1 cells and L. casei. Subsequent changes in tumor size and weight, and the production of TNF-α, IL-2, IL-12, IL-17, and IL13 were measured. Lung weights were measured as an indicator of metastasis to other organs.

The tumor size and weight in mice immunized with the combined vaccine were significantly reduced compared with controls. The combined immunotherapy altered the pattern of cytokine production to the advantage of antitumor immunity, and was significantly more potent than immunization with heated-4T1-cell lysate or L. casei lysate alone.

Coadministration of L. casei lysate enhanced the immunotherapeutic efficacy of the heated-4T1-cell lysate as a source of tumor-associated antigens. L. casei can potentially be used as an adjuvant combined with sources of tumor antigens in the treatment of cancers, and as a safe alternative to the current adjuvants that cause greater irritation to hosts. Further studies are required to clarify the mechanisms underlying these effects.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Cancer immunotherapy
  • HSP
  • TNF-α
  • tumor
  • vaccine

Brief communication (Original)

Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Incidence and outcomes of acute lung injury in the surgical intensive care unit of a tertiary care hospital in Bangkok, Thailand

Online veröffentlicht: 31 Jan 2017
Seitenbereich: 379 - 385

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Although the pathophysiology and treatment of acute lung injury (ALI) and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) are well established, the incidence and outcomes of ALI have not been extensively reported. Variations in healthcare systems, demographics, socioeconomics, and levels of intensive care units (ICU) may explain remarkable differences in outcomes reported.

To evaluate the incidence and outcomes of ALI/ARDS at the surgical ICU (SICU) at Siriraj Hospital of Mahidol University, Bangkok.

We included patients aged ≥18 years admitted to the general SICU between June 1, 2010 and May 31, 2013 in this prospective, cohort observational study. All patients required ≥24 h of ventilatory support. The study outcomes were the incidence of ALI/ARDS, SICU length of stay, and mortality rate.

Of 2523 patients admitted to the SICU, 495 (20%) required ≥24 h ventilatory support, and 15 (3%) developed ALI/ARDS. ALI/ARDS occurred on day 2 of ventilatory support. ARDS was caused by sepsis and pneumonia. The patients who developed ALI/ARDS had a higher APACHE II score (P = 0.001) and end-stage renal disease (P = 0.01). Pneumonia and acute kidney injury were more severe in patients with ALI and ARDS (40% vs 9%, P = 0.002; 33% vs 10%, P = 0.02, respectively). Ventilatory support duration, SICU lengths of stay and hospital mortality were higher in the ALI/ARDS group.

The incidence of ALI/ARDS in the SICU was low, but the mortality rate was high. A larger sample size is necessary to identify independent risk factors for ALI/ARDS.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Acute lung injury
  • acute respiratory distress syndrome
  • critically illness
  • incidence
  • surgical ICU
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Feasibility of withholding dexamethasone premedication for hypersensitivity reactions associated with paclitaxel administration

Online veröffentlicht: 31 Jan 2017
Seitenbereich: 371 - 377

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Premedication with dexamethasone is crucial to prevent hypersensitivity reactions (HSR) associated with administration of taxanes. However, high dose and prolonged exposure to dexamethasone may cause adverse effects.

To determine the incidence of HSR in patients with early breast cancer who did or did not receive dexamethasone prophylaxis for weekly paclitaxel infusions.

We retrospectively reviewed the records of a cohort of patients with early breast cancer who received paclitaxel weekly from January 2012 through March 2015 at King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital. All patients received a standard premedication protocol including dexamethasone before their first paclitaxel infusion. Dexamethasone was omitted in later cycles in some patients at the discretion of the attending physician. Data concerning the baseline characteristics of the patient, details of the premedication protocol, including dose and schedule of dexamethasone, and HSR events were collected in this observational study.

Data were drawn from 86 breast cancer patients (median age 52.6 years) treated with a total of 984 cycles of paclitaxel chemotherapy. No patient had any history of allergy or HSR to taxanes. Dexamethasone was omitted in 617 later cycles. Six patients had grade II-III HSR (7.0%), which occurred mostly during the first 6 cycles (5/6, 83.3%). The incidence of HRS was 3/367 cycles (0.82%) with dexamethasone premedication (P = 0.99) and 5/617 (0.81%) without.

Withholding dexamethasone premedication for paclitaxel chemotherapy was feasible, and did not result in a higher incidence of HSR. However, an optimal schedule for dexamethasone warrants investigation in a prospective manner.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Dexamethasone premedication
  • infusion hypersensitivity reaction
  • paclitaxel
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Correlation of computed tomography characteristics of cystic renal cell carcinoma with histopathology

Online veröffentlicht: 31 Jan 2017
Seitenbereich: 361 - 369

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Renal cysts are common incidental findings in computed tomography (CT) of the abdomen and range from benign to cystic renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Cystic RCC has various pathology, clinical prognosis, and treatment options.

To compare preoperative CT of cystic RCC with histopathology.

Preoperative CT of histopathologically proven cystic RCCs were retrospectively reviewed in this single-center cross-sectional observational study. Two investigators recorded consensus CT features for each cystic RCC. The means of descriptive continuous data were calculated. A chi-square test, Fisher’s exact test, or an ANOVA were used for compare the frequency of findings for each histopathological subtype.

Of 38 cystic RCCs, 25 were clear cell RCC, 5 were papillary RCC, 4 were multilocular cystic RCC, 1 was chromophobe RCC, and 3 were mixed type/other type (papillary/chromophobe, clear cell/chromophobe, and sarcomatoid type). We classified 36 lesions as Bosniak category IV and 2 lesions as Bosniak category III. There was no significant difference in cyst attenuation in any phase. Solid attenuation of the tumors was significantly different for each type in corticomedullary and nephrogenic phases (P = 0.001 and 0.042, respectively). Clear cell RCC was enhanced the most on corticomedullary and nephrogenic phases (means 135.5 and 112.1 Hounsfield Units, respectively). Septal thickening, enhancement, and multilocularity were significantly different between subtypes, particularly in multilocular cystic RCCs (P = 0.018, 0.018, and 0.02, respectively).

Preoperative CT findings may help clinicians and radiologists to predict tumor subtypes and aid treatment planning.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Computed tomography
  • cystic renal cell carcinoma
  • histopathology
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Comparison of the knowledge, attitudes toward, and practices of contraception between Thai Muslim women living in Bangkok and those living in the southernmost provinces of Thailand

Online veröffentlicht: 31 Jan 2017
Seitenbereich: 351 - 359

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

There are limited data on the use of contraception by Thai Muslim women.

To compare and explore the knowledge, attitudes toward, and practices (KAP) of contraception between Thai Muslim women living in Bangkok and those living in the Southernmost provinces. Variables associated with KAP were also examined.

This was a community-based cross-sectional study, which was conducted in the Muslim communities in Bangkok and those in the southernmost provinces of Thailand including Yala, Pattani, and Narathiwat. A multistage, cluster sampling technique was used to identify participants. Only literate Thai Muslim women who lived in their hometown, and aged between 15–49 years were included in the analysis. A self-administered questionnaire was used to assess participants’ KAP of contraception.

Data from 423 participants were analyzed. Knowledge and attitude scores between the two groups were comparable. A higher proportion of women from the southernmost provinces used contraceptives. However, when a multivariate regression model was used to adjust for other variables, women’s geographical residence was not associated with higher knowledge and attitude scores, or contraceptive practices. College-level education and higher income level were independent factors associated with contraceptive knowledge. A higher knowledge score was independently related to a positive attitude towards contraception. Only number of children and income level were independently associated with contraceptive practices.

For Thai Muslim women, geographical residence was not significantly associated with KAP of contraception. The educational level, income level, and number of children of the women played major roles in KAP of contraception.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Attitude
  • contraceptive practices
  • KAP
  • knowledge
  • Muslim
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Detection of masses and microcalcifications in digital mammogram images using fuzzy logic

Online veröffentlicht: 31 Jan 2017
Seitenbereich: 345 - 350

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Detection of small breast lesions is a challenging task for radiologists. Computer aided detection (CAD) systems are implemented to aid radiologists in detecting masses and microcalcifications. This has the potential to raise the level of sensitivity in breast cancer detection.

To evaluate a new system to detect suggestions of suspicious small lesions.

Small samples were extracted from different tissue types. Texture features were calculated, and the best features were selected using Waikato Environment for Knowledge Analysis (WEKA) software. Subsequently, 7 selected features were used to form a decision tree. To reduce false negative cases, fuzzy logic was used. In the implementation phase, input images were divided into 8 pixel ´ 8 pixel tiles. For each tile, all selected features were computed as fuzzy inputs.

To evaluate the technique, the suggested system was applied to 326 images obtained from the National Cancer Society of Malaysia. Based on this application, results showed that the suggested system has an acceptable sensitivity of 85.6% and specificity of 90.7%.

The fuzzy system is a promising technique for early detection of breast cancer.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Breast cancer
  • detection
  • fuzzy logic
  • mammogram
  • microcalcification
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Seroprevalence of hepatitis B and C virus in patients who undergo hemodialysis in Antalya province, Turkey

Online veröffentlicht: 31 Jan 2017
Seitenbereich: 339 - 344

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Chronic hepatitis B (HBV) and C virus (HCV) infections are important causes of morbidity and mortality in patients who undergo hemodialysis (HD).

To define seroprevalence of HBV and HCV in patients who underwent HD in Antalya province, Turkey.

We included 1347 patients with end-stage renal failure who underwent HD at one of the 23 centers in Antalya province from January 01 to March 31, 2014 in this retrospective cross-sectional study. Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and anti-HCV seropositivity were assessed clinically using a third-generation enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. HBV DNA and HCV RNA were determined in HBsAg positive and anti- HCV positive HD patients respectively.

Of the patients included, 805 (59.8%) were male. Mean age (± standard deviation) of the patients was 53.9 ± 17.0 (range 17–89) years. The sera of 2.4% patients was positive for HBsAg, and the sera of 5.5% of the patients was positive for anti-HCV. The sera of 56% of patients positive for HBsAg was also positive for HBV DNA, and the sera of 43% of patients positive for anti-HCV was also positive for HCV RNA. Coexistence of HBsAg and anti-HCV was 1.02%.

The present study showed that the prevalence of chronic HBV and HCV infection in patients who underwent HD in Antalya province was moderate-to-low for Turkey. Compliance of HD centers with infection control rules, isolation of HBsAg positive patients, isolation of the equipment used for HBV susceptible patients, and active surveillance of the HD patients may have resulted in lower prevalence rates.

Schlüsselwörter

  • HBsAg
  • HBV
  • HCV
  • hemodialysis
  • seroprevalence
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Epidemiology of cleft lip with or without cleft palate in Thais

Online veröffentlicht: 31 Jan 2017
Seitenbereich: 335 - 338

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Oral clefts, including cleft lip (CL), CL with cleft palate (CL/CP), and cleft palate only (CPO), are among the most common birth defects, and if left untreated can cause significant morbidity. Causes are complex and involve both genetic and environmental factors. Several studies have demonstrated the highest prevalence of oral clefts being in Asian, white, and African populations. However, there have been very few epidemiological studies of oral clefts in Thais.

To describe the epidemiology and factors associated with oral clefts in Thais.

This retrospective case-control observational study included individuals from numerous regions in Thailand. We reviewed data regarding 784 patients with an oral cleft collected in questionnaires as part of the Thai nationwide Smart Smile and Speech Project from 2006 to 2014. Data regarding patients with oral clefts were analyzed, and compared with data regarding 187 unaffected controls.

Of 784 cases, CL/CP accounted for 59.8%, CPO 21.9%, and CL 18.3%. A family history of oral clefts was detected in all 3 types (P < 0.001). Maternal use of any drugs or herbal medicine not prescribed by physicians during pregnancy in cases of CPO (P = 0.049) and maternal consumption of alcohol during pregnancy in cases of CL/CP (P = 0.047) were significantly higher than that by mothers of controls.

CL/CP is the most common type of oral cleft. A family history of oral clefts, and maternal consumption of alcohol or nonprescribed drugs are positively associated with oral clefts in Thais.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Cleft lip
  • cleft palate
  • oral cleft
  • Thai

Clinical report

Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Prenatal diagnosis and in utero treatment of severe congenital toxoplasmosis: a case report

Online veröffentlicht: 31 Jan 2017
Seitenbereich: 387 - 391

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Acute infection of pregnant women with Toxoplasma gondii can result in fetal transmission. When clinical abnormalities are evident by ultrasonography in late gestation, medical treatment may be attempted, but the data on outcomes are limited.

To present a case of congenital fetal toxoplasmosis from Thailand and review the literature.

A woman presented at 31 weeks of gestation with severe bilateral ventriculomegaly, cardiomegaly, hepatosplenomegaly with intrahepatic hyperechogenicities, and polyhydramnios. Medical treatment with pyrimethamine, sulfadiazine and folinic acid was initiated. There was no improvement. Social, medical, ethical and legal issues were considered.

Delivery was indicated at 34+2 weeks of gestation because of premature amniorrhexis. The neonate suffered from respiratory distress, meningitis, ventilator-associated pneumonia, and expired at age 11 days.

When fetal congenital toxoplasmosis is diagnosed late in pregnancy with severe ultrasonographic abnormalities, the neonatal outcome is poor despite in utero treatment with antibiotics.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Congenital infection
  • congenital toxoplasmosis
  • prenatal diagnosis
  • social and ethical considerations
  • therapy of fetus
  • ultrasonography

Letter to the Editor

Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Observer heterogeneity can be thought of as a confounding variable

Online veröffentlicht: 31 Jan 2017
Seitenbereich: 393 - 393

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The study published in the April 2016 issue of Asian Biomedicine recruited 2 different sets of observers to perform triage assessments. We know that each observation is subjected to an error. The error has 2 varieties including interobserver variation and intraobserver variation. So effort must be devoted to reduce these errors. The methodology reported may suffer from both intraobserver and interobserver error substantially.

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