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Zeitschriftendaten
Format
Zeitschrift
eISSN
1875-855X
Erstveröffentlichung
01 Jun 2007
Erscheinungsweise
6 Hefte pro Jahr
Sprachen
Englisch

Suche

Volumen 5 (2011): Heft 5 (October 2011)

Zeitschriftendaten
Format
Zeitschrift
eISSN
1875-855X
Erstveröffentlichung
01 Jun 2007
Erscheinungsweise
6 Hefte pro Jahr
Sprachen
Englisch

Suche

22 Artikel

Editorial

Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Anticipating a new deadly epidemic

Online veröffentlicht: 04 Feb 2017
Seitenbereich: 575 - 576

Zusammenfassung

Review article

Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Ultrasound targeted microbubble destruction-mediated gene delivery system: application to therapy for ocular disease

Online veröffentlicht: 04 Feb 2017
Seitenbereich: 577 - 587

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Background: Ocular disorders have greatest potential for benefit from gene therapy. The major obstacle in the clinical application of gene therapy is not due to the lack of an ideal gene, but rather the lack of a clinically safe and efficient gene transfer method. Ultrasound (US) targeted microbubble destruction (UTMD)-mediated gene delivery system as a noninvasive gene transfer method is now widely used in gene therapy of cardiovascular disease, muscular tissue, and tumor, and proved to effectively enhance gene transfer in various studies in vitro and in vivo. However, it is just the beginning of application for ophthalmological disease.

Objective: Review the latest advancements in UTMD-mediated ocular gene transfection and discuss mechanisms of UTMD involved in gene transfection, obstacles, and limitations to the use of this technology, as well as the perspectives for future applications of UTMD-mediated gene delivery system.

Methods: Summarize published literature concerning UTMD-mediated ocular gene transfection.

Results: UTMD is an effective and safe gene delivery method of therapy for ocular diseases. Considerable progress has been made in US or UTMD-mediated viral and nonviral ocular gene delivery to retina, like recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) and nanoparticles as nonviral gene carriers. In addition, UTMD has potential for producing the blood-retinal barrier opening and serves as a promising method for intravenous ocular gene delivery.

Conclusion: UTMD-mediated gene delivery system could effectively enhance gene transfer into ocular tissue. Though several problems remain to be solved, UTMD is a promising technology for the targeted gene therapy of ocular disease.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Gene delivery
  • ultrasound
  • ocular disease
  • microbubbles
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Time interval for booster vaccination following reexposure to rabies in previously vaccinated subjects

Online veröffentlicht: 04 Feb 2017
Seitenbereich: 589 - 593

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Background: In rabies endemic areas, re-exposures to rabies are quite common and the incidence could be up to 15%. The recent guidelines of World Health Organization do not specify the duration of protection provided by previous pre- or post exposure prophylaxis. This often puts the treating physician in a dilemma in such cases of re-exposure.

Objective: Study the time interval between primary and booster vaccination in individuals who have taken previously a full course of either pre- or post exposure prophylaxis and are now re-exposed to rabies.

Methods: The data obtained through a literature search using Pubmed and advanced Google search along with data from in house clinical trials were used for analysis. Sixty-six vaccine cohorts spanning more than 27 years from 1983 to 2010 from six countries were studied. The duration of protection offered by previous vaccination was assessed by using a surrogate marker of adequate (> 0.5 IU per mL) rabies virus neutralizing antibody levels in the individuals vaccinated either by pre-exposure or post exposure regimens received by intramuscular or intradermal routes.

Results: The proportions of 2,795 subjects who had received prior post-exposure immunization and produced rabies virus neutralizing antibody levels of less than 0.5 IU per mL were 0.07% and 0.14% at the end of the first and third month post primary vaccination. All 577 subjects with previous pre-exposure vaccination had antibody responses above 0.5 IU per mL at the end of the first and third month post primary vaccination.

Conclusion: We concluded that it may be safe for up to three months after previous pre- or post exposure vaccination to not administer boosters to healthy subjects who have been re-exposed to rabies.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Booster vaccination
  • post exposure prophylaxis
  • pre-exposure vaccination
  • rabies
  • re-exposure

Original article

Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Sub-acute toxicological studies 2α, 3β, 21β, 23, 28-penta hydroxyl 12-oleanene isolated from roots of Laportea crenulata Gaud

Online veröffentlicht: 04 Feb 2017
Seitenbereich: 595 - 599

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Background: 2α,3β,21β,23,28-penta hydroxyl 12-oleanene was isolated from roots of Laportea crenulata Gaud (Urticaceae) as a new triterpenoid and its antifungal activities was evaluated against a number of fungi where moderate antifungal activities were reported. However, no toxicological study has yet been carried out.

Objective: The sub-acute toxicity of 2α,3β,21β,23,28-penta hydroxyl 12-oleanene was studied on albino mice.

Methods: The triterpenoid was administered on intraperitoneal route at 300 μg per mouse (20-27g) daily for 14 consecutive days. The studies included the determination of changes in body weight, hematological profiles (total count of red blood cell, white blood cell and platelet, differential count of white blood cell, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and hemoglobin percentage), and biochemical parameters of blood (serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase, serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase, serum alkaline phosphatase, serum bilirubin, creatinine, and urea) as well as histopathology of the liver, kidney, heart, and lung.

Result: The changes in body weight, hematological, and biochemical parameters were statistically not significant when compared to control group mice. Histopathologically no abnormality was found on liver, kidney, heart, and lung of experimental group mice after treatment when compared to that of control group mice.

Conclusion: In sub-acute toxicity studies, the triterpenoid was found to be nontoxic. We suggest further studies such as chronic toxicological studies as well as route selection experiments.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Biochemical parameters
  • body weight
  • hematological parameters
  • histopathological study
  • 2α,3β,21β,23,28-penta hydroxyl 12-oleanene
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

The anti proliferative effect of palm oil γ-tocotrienol involves alterations in MEK-2 and ERK-2 protein expressions in CaSki cells

Online veröffentlicht: 04 Feb 2017
Seitenbereich: 601 - 609

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Background: Vitamin E is a potent growth inhibitor of various cancer cell types in vitro and in vivo. The cell death mechanism is believed to be via cell cycle blockage, differentiation, and apoptosis.

Objectives: To determine the possible involvement of protein expression of MEK-2 and ERK-2 in the cell death mechanism induced by palm oil γ-tocotrienol and α-tocopherol in human cervical cancer cell line, CaSki cells.

Methods: In this study, we tested the effect of γ-tocotrienol and α-tocopherol on the proliferation and apoptosis in CaSki cells. Western blot analysis was used to determine the involvement of MEK-2 and ERK-2 in regulating the cell death mechanism.

Results: Gamma-tocotrienol and α-tocopherol efficiently inhibited the proliferation of CaSki cells by 85.2% to 90.8% (p<0.01, n=4) and 10.2% to 39.1% (p<0.01, n=4) beginning at 100 μM and 50 μM, respectively. The possible cell death mechanism induced by both compounds may be due to apoptosis as confirmed by the presence of cellular DNA fragments separated by electrophoresis and enhancement of apoptotic activity. Treatment with γ-tocotrienol at 150 μM markedly decreased the protein expression of MEK-2 and ERK-2 at 12 hours and 18 hours. In contrast, treatment with α-tocopherol at 300μM has no effect on both protein expressions.

Conclusion: The transient decreases in the protein expression of MEK-2 and ERK-2 suggested that the anti proliferative effect of γ-tocotrienol might involve alteration of the proliferative signaling cascade.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Alpha-tocopherol
  • anti-proliferation
  • cervical cancer cell line
  • MEK-2 and ERK-2 protein expressions
  • γ-tocotrienol
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Determination of antibiotic susceptibility pattern in Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli isolated from children with acute diarrhea

Online veröffentlicht: 04 Feb 2017
Seitenbereich: 611 - 618

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Background: The emergence of antimicrobial resistant Campylobacter populations, which become an important consideration on the use of antimicrobial agents, especially in veterinary and human medicine, has become a serious concern worldwide. For monitoring the drug resistance, there is a need to develop reliable and reproducible laboratory techniques. There are several methods including disk diffusion, broth micro-dilution, agar dilution, and E-test to determine in-vitro susceptibility profiles of Campylobacter to a range of antimicrobial agents.

Objectives: Study the Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli from children with diarrhea and determine the antimicrobial susceptibilities of the isolates to clinically relevant antimicrobials.

Materials and methods: Two hundred twenty stool samples of children with diarrhea were cultured on Preston agar and the isolated campylobacter species were identified by further standard identification test. Susceptibility testing was carried out using Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method and E-test.

Results: Fourteen Campylobacter strains were isolated (6.36%), of which nine (64.3%) were identified as C. jejuni and five (35.7%) as C. coli. Using disk diffusion, all the campylobacter isolates were fully resistant to cephalothin, oxacillin, and ampicillin followed by ceftazidime with resistance rate of 71.42%. Gentamicin and ciprofloxacin were the most effective antibiotics against both isolated campylobacter species. According to E-test results, Campylobacter isolates demonstrated the greatest resistance to cephalothin (92.85%), oxacillin (92.85%), and ampicillin (78.57%).

Conclusions: Our study reveals a high-level correlation between the E-test and agar disk diffusion method in evaluating the resistance of Campylobacter species to tested antimicrobial agents. This study also suggests disk diffusion is a reliable and cost effective technique for determining the prevalence of resistance among Campylobacter isolates.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Antibiotic resistance
  • campylobacter
  • disk diffusion
  • E-test
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Field efficacy of siege gel bait in an IPM program on life stages of German cockroach (Blataria, Blattellidae) in a residential building

Online veröffentlicht: 04 Feb 2017
Seitenbereich: 619 - 624

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Background: Current control strategies that rely on residual contact insecticides have resulted in insecticide resistance or tolerance to all the major groups of insecticides. New strategies are based on repeated monitoring, sanitation, educational programs and use of pesticides such as gel bait.

Objective: Investigate the effectiveness of an Integrated Pest Management (IPM) program on life stages of German cockroaches at infested units of a residential building in southwestern Iran.

Methods: Life stages (adult, nymph, and ootheca) of German cockroaches at 53 units (rooms) were monitored by sticky traps for eight months. The infested units were subjected randomly to IPM treatments and compared to controls following five weeks of monitoring. The IPM approach was based on an educational program using pamphlets, posters, lectures, sanitation with vacuuming, and application of hydramethylnon gel baits.

Results: There was a high proportion of nymph population (76% of cockroach trap counts) before treatment. German cockroaches showed the highest frequency distribution in trap counts at surveyed residential units. Percentage reduction in nymphs was lower than the reduction in adults in the first week post treatment, although from the fourth to the twenty-sixth week, the percentage reduction was higher than in adults or equal when they reached 100% reduction. Mean total results showed significant reduction in adult and nymph stages throughout the treatment period. Reduction in ootheca fluctuated over the IPM program.

Conclusion: Siege gel bait (Hydramethylnon 2%) in an IPM program successfully reduced adult and nymph stages of German cockroach infestation over the post treatment weeks especially after the fourth post treatment week.

Keyword

  • German cockroach
  • hydramethylnon
  • integrated pest management
  • siege
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Efficacy of differential non-invasive approaches in determining the clinical course in patients with Crohn’s disease

Online veröffentlicht: 04 Feb 2017
Seitenbereich: 625 - 633

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Background: We tested the hypothesis that, elevated levels of C-reactive protein might serve as prognostic marker for the classification of Crohn’s disease and its clinical course.

Objectives: The present study was undertaken to explore if serum C-reactive protein (sCRP) levels along with the conventional cytogenetic and molecular genetic approaches might serve as efficient prognostic markers with respect to disease classification and clinical course in Crohn’s disease (CD) patients.

Methods: We enrolled 43 patients with Crohn’s disease from Tamilnadu region, south of India. The patients were mainly classified into four groups based on disease location. A further sub-classification based on activity of disease was also undertaken in the study. Classification of type of disease activity was based on colonoscopic reports and radiological findings. An equal number of healthy normal age and sex-matched controls were also taken for the study.

Results: A positive correlation between sCRP levels, and disease location was observed. Employing a cut-off level of 10 mg/dL, the index CRP level was found to discriminate patients with different locations of the disease along with disease condition when compared to controls. Cytogenetic analysis showed sporadic changes in such patients. The widely reported NOD2 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were absent in the patients studied.

Conclusion: Different levels of sCRP seem to correlate well with disease location and disease activity. In some of the patients, the CRP levels appeared to reflect disease activity, while in others persistently high levels seem to suggest active disease. Altogether, a positive correlation of CDAI values with CRP levels along with an increase in frequency of chromosomal aberrations was observed in CD patients.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Chromosomal aberrations
  • crohn’s disease
  • c-reactive protein
  • inflammation
  • NOD2
  • SNP
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Optimal subculture methods for passaging and growing human epidermal keratinocytes

Online veröffentlicht: 04 Feb 2017
Seitenbereich: 635 - 641

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Background: Human epidermal keratinocytes (HEKs) cover the outer layer of the skin and play a key role in wound repair. Although the methods for isolation and cultivation of primary HEKs from epidermis have been used successfully in both laboratory and clinical settings, the ability to subculture (passage) these cells has yet to be established and is the primary factor hindering their usage.

Objectives: We conducted this study to identify optimal subculture conditions for HEKs.

Methods: We first harvested the primary HEKs from prepuce tissue specimens, and then compared three different reagent compositions (0.25% trypsin, 0.25% trypsin plus 0.01% EDTA, and 0.25% dispase digestion solution) for various periods of time at 4°C with the conventional 0.25% trypsin or 0.25% trypsin plus 0.01% EDTA digestion at room temperature.

Results: Our data indicated that the cold digestion conditions yielded higher cell numbers and more viable cells than the conventional methods. Furthermore, the subcultured HEKs also adhered and grew better after four hours of a 0.25% trypsin cold digestion or after six hours of a 0.25% dispase cold digestion. These procedures produced higher numbers of HEK passages than that commonly seen experienced with conventional methods.

Conclusion: The data from the current study demonstrated that the optimal subculture condition for passaging and growing HEKs in vitro is four hours digestion with 0.25% trypsin.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Cell subculture
  • cold digestion
  • culture conditions
  • HEKs
  • human epidermal keratinocytes
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Interferon Alpha mRNA level and subtypes in lesion and non-lesion from discoid lupus erythematosus patients without systemic lupus erythematosus

Online veröffentlicht: 04 Feb 2017
Seitenbereich: 643 - 647

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Background: Up-regulation of interferon alpha (IFN-α) in cutaneous lesions of lupus erythematosus (LE) has been proposed to play a role in the pathogenesis of cutaneous LE lesions of LE patients. IFN- α is composed of 13 subtypes of immunoregulatory cytokines that promote innate and adaptive immune responses. However, the precise biological properties may differ among subtypes.

Objective: To investigate the mRNA level of IFN-α and subtypes in cutaneous LE patients

Methods: We analyzed the mRNA level of IFN-α and subtypes in normal skin from 12 healthy female controls and compared it to normal skin and discoid lupus erythematosus (DLE) lesions from 16 DLE patients without systemic involvement (14 females and 2 males) by real-time PCR, cloning, and sequencing.

Results: Significant up-regulation of mRNA level of IFN-α was found in both lesional and non-lesional skin from DLE patients without SLE when compared to normal skin from healthy donors (P=0.05 and P=0.04, respectively). An analysis of the IFN-α subtypes from skin biopsies detected a reduction of IFN-α subtype 5 in DLE lesion compared to healthy control skin.

Conclusions: Our results indicate that IFN- α is upregulated in both lesional and non-lesional DLE in cutaneous LE patients. IFN-α subtype 5 is the main subtype of IFN- α expression in normal skin but declines in DLE.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Cutaneous LE patients
  • DLE
  • interferon-alpha
  • mRNA
  • subtype
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Treadmill training with music cueing: a new approach for Parkinson’s gait facilitation

Online veröffentlicht: 04 Feb 2017
Seitenbereich: 649 - 654

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Background: It has been pointed that cueing techniques may have influence upon gait training in Parkinson’s disease (PD).

Objective: Study the effects of music cue on treadmill training in PD patients.

Subject and methods: A randomized single-blind controlled trial was conducted. Thirty male PD patients, aged 60 to 80 years with Hoehn and Yahr stage 2-3 were allocated into three groups (each 10 patients). Group A: treadmill with music three days and home walking three days/week, Group B: treadmill three days and home walking three days/week, and Group C: home walking six days/week. Each group received four weeks training followed by self-practice for other four weeks. Gait performances at pre-program, fourth, and eighth week were compared.

Results: The results showed that A, B, and C, stride length gained 12%, 5.2%, and 6.7% (p=0.042), walking-speed gained 8.6%, 6.5%, and -2.4%, six-minute walk distance gained 10.2%, 5.4%, and 2.9%, and Timed Up and Go (TUG) gained 14.2%, 12.5%, and 7.6%.

Conclusion: Music cue enhanced gait training in mild to moderate PD patients.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Cueing technique
  • music cue
  • Parkinson’s disease
  • treadmill training

Brief communication (Original)

Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Effects of mechanical stimulus on mesenchymal stem cells differentiation toward cardiomyocytes

Online veröffentlicht: 04 Feb 2017
Seitenbereich: 655 - 661

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Background: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) known to be sensitive to mechanical stimulus. This type of stimulus plays a role in cellular differentiation, so that it might affect MSCs differentiation toward cardiomyocytes.

Objectives: Investigate the effect of mechanical stimulus on MSCs differentiation toward cardiomyocytes.

Methods: The adipose tissue-derived MSCs were induced to differentiate with 5-azacytidine, and stimulated by one Hz mechanical stretching up to 8%. After 10 days, the cell’s cardiac markers and cardiogenesis-related genes were detected by immumohistochemistrical staining and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, and the cell’s ATPase activity was detected.

Results: The cyclic mechanical stretching enhanced the expression of cardiogenesis-related genes and cardiac markers, and stimulated the activity of Na+-K+-ATPase and Ca2+-ATPase in the MSCs treated with 5-azacytidine. Without 5-azacytidine pre-treatment, cyclic mechanical stretch alone has little effect.

Conclusion: Mechanical stretch combined with 5-azacytidine treatment could accelerate MSCs differentiation toward cardiomyocytes.

Keywords

  • 5-azacytidine
  • cardiomyocyte
  • differentiation
  • mechanical stretch
  • mesenchymal stem cells
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Serum levels of 25-OH vitamin D, folic acid and testosterone in patients with breast cancer: a case control study

Online veröffentlicht: 04 Feb 2017
Seitenbereich: 663 - 667

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Background: Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women. To study factors causing breast cancer, various epidemiological and experimental studies are being conducted. A relation may exist between vitamin D, folic acid, testosterone, and various neoplasms.

Objectives: Detect the levels of vitamin D, folic acid, and testosterone in breast cancer of patients and healthy subjects, and determine the relation of the levels of vitamin D, folic acid, and testosterone with tumor histopathology, stage, and receptor status.

Methods: Eighty patients diagnosed with breast cancer and 20 controls (healthy volunteers) were enrolled in the study. Serum samples were collected from the patients and the controls, and examined using Roche E-170 with its own special kit.

Results: Folic acid levels were higher in the patient group and the difference was statistically significant (p=0.044). The levels of testosterone were lower in post-menopausal patients (p=0 .018). In stage I-II (early-stage) patients, vitamin D levels were higher, while in the stage III-IV (advanced-stage) patients, the levels were lower (p=0.048).

Conclusions: Low vitamin D levels may be related to poor prognosis. Low levels of folic acid were detected in the control group. Low levels of folic acid but high vitamin D and testosterone levels may be protective against breast cancer.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Breast neoplasms
  • folic acid
  • serum
  • testosterone
  • vitamin D
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Anticlastogenic potential of Thai vegetable, Siamese cassia, using mouse erythrocyte micronucleus assay

Online veröffentlicht: 04 Feb 2017
Seitenbereich: 669 - 673

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Background: Some Thai vegetables may enhance the activities of some phase II enzymes and decrease activities of phase I enzymes. Thus, they may possess cancer chemo-preventive potentials.

Objective: Determine the anti-clastogenic activity of Thai vegetable, Siamese cassia (SC), against an indirectacting clastogens, cyclophosphamide (CYP), and 7, 12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA).

Methods: Male mice were fed either with semi-purified diet, containing 2% or 4% of ground lyophilized SC leaves, for two weeks prior to administration of clastogens. The anti-clastogenicity of SC leaves using the in vivo erythrocyte micronucleus assay in mice was performed. Blood samples were collected and counted for reticulocytes with and without a micronucleus using the fluorescent microscope.

Results: Feeding SC leaves at 2% or 4% in the diets reduced the number of micronucleated peripheral reticulocytes (MNRETs) induced by both CYP and DMBA. However, the effect was statistically significant only at 4% in CYP-induced mice.

Conclusion: Siamese cassia leaves possess anti-clastogenic activity against clastogens in mice, particularly in a high dose.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Anticlastogenic
  • micronucleus
  • MNRETs
  • Siamese cassia
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Comparison of bacterial eradication between standard and double-painted antiseptic application method in minor hand surgery

Online veröffentlicht: 04 Feb 2017
Seitenbereich: 675 - 680

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Background: Bacteria need to be eliminated for skin preparation in minor hand surgery. The standard method of skin preparation uses an antiseptic scrub and antiseptic solution, which is expensive and time-consuming.

Objective: Design a “double-painted antiseptic application method”, and compare the effectiveness of eliminating bacteria at the area around the hand and wrist between the standard method and the double-painted antiseptic application method.

Methods: This cross-over designed experimental study was performed on seven volunteers. The standard and the double-painted antiseptic application method were alternately used for skin preparation around the hand, wrist, and half of the forearm. The bacterial colony counts were collected before, immediately after, and at 45 minutes after skin preparation by using the modified glove-juice technique. The primary outcomes were the eradication rate and the number of bacterial colonies.

Results: There was no statistical difference in bacterial colonies between either method before skin preparation. The median of bacterial colony counts immediately after and at 45 minutes after skin preparation were zero colony forming units per milliliter in both methods. The eradication rate was 61.5% and 76.9% in the standard and double-painted antiseptic application method, respectively, for a risk difference of -15.4. There was no statistically significant difference (p=0.67).

Conclusion: The number of bacterial colonies and eradication rate were not significantly different between either method. The double-painted antiseptic application method can be used instead of the standard method for the skin preparation in minor hand surgery, which has an expected duration of about 45 minutes or less.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Bacterial eradication
  • minor surgery
  • paint only
  • scrub hand
  • skin preparation
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Physical, chemical, and microbiological stability of extemporaneous furosemide suspensions

Online veröffentlicht: 04 Feb 2017
Seitenbereich: 681 - 686

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Background: Furosemide is a potent diuretic used in treatment of oedematous states associated with cardiac, renal, and hepatic failure and the treatment of hypertension. In Thailand, no liquid formulation of furosemide is commercially available for pediatric administration and for adult who cannot swallow furosemide tablets.

Objective: Prepare extemporaneous furosemide suspensions from commercial furosemide tablets using two compounded suspending vehicles, and determine the physical, chemical, and microbiological stability of these preparations.

Methods: Two formulations of extemporaneous furosemide suspensions were prepared from commercially available furosemide 40-mg tablets using two compounded suspending vehicles. The final concentration of furosemide in each formulation was 2 mg/mL. Three samples of each formulation were stored in glass bottles protected from light, and kept at three controlled temperature, 4±2°C, room temperature (30±2°C), and 45°C. A sample was removed from each bottle immediately after preparation and at 7, 14, 30, 45, and 60 days. The stability-indicating highperformance liquid chromatography was used to analyze for furosemide. The pH was measured. The physical and microbiological properties of these formulations were evaluated after storage for two months. The stability of furosemide suspensions was determined by calculating the percentage of the initial concentration remaining on each test day. Stability was defined as retention of at least 90% of the initial concentration.

Results: At least 93% of the initial furosemide concentration remained in both compounded furosemide suspensions for up to 60 days. There were no substantial changes in the appearance (color and consistency) or odor of both formulations. The pH values of both formulations kept at 4±2°C increased slightly, while the pH values of both formulations kept at 45±2°C decreased significantly compared with the initial pH value of both formulations. Both formulations maintained microbiologic stability for 60 days.

Conclusion: Extemporaneously compounded furosemide suspensions, 2 mg/mL, were stable for at least 60 days when stored in glass bottles protected from light at three controlled temperatures. These compounded furosemide suspensions are better suited for administration to children and adults who cannot swallow furosemide tablets. They may provide an alternative in situations where the marketed suspension is unavailable.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Chemical
  • extemporaneous
  • furosemide
  • microbiological
  • physical
  • stability
  • suspension
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Geographic information system of Opisthorchis viverrini in northeast Thailand

Online veröffentlicht: 04 Feb 2017
Seitenbereich: 687 - 691

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Background: Opisthorchiasis caused by Opisthorchis viverrini remains a major public health problem in many parts of Southeast Asia including Thailand, Lao PDR, Vietnam, and Cambodia. The epicenter of this disease is located in northeast Thailand, where high a prevalence of opisthorchiasis coexists with a high incidence of cholangiocarcinoma (CHCA), a major primary carcinoma of the liver with a very poor prognosis.

Objective: Determine the surveillance characteristics of O. viverrini infections in northeast Thailand.

Methods: Four thousand one hundred eighteen stool samples from 19 provinces were used in this study. All age groups were included, from below four years to more than 60 years. The geographic information system (GIS) was deployed to overlay the prevalence of disease on urban and agricultural areas as well as manmade land uses.

Results: Results showed a rate of Opisthorchiasis of 20.39% (840/4,118). Farmland and forests (loam soil) were highly associated with infection.

Conclusion: The rate of Opisthorchiasis is high in farmland and forests and lower in residential areas. Mass treatment targeted at high-risk areas may be a cost-effective control strategy and warrants further study.

Keywords

  • GIS
  • liver fluke
  • northeast Thailand
  • Opisthorchis viverrini

Technical report

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Development of in-house software to calculate dose for intensity-modulated radiation therapy based on lung CT-patient data

Online veröffentlicht: 04 Feb 2017
Seitenbereich: 693 - 698

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Background: In external radiotherapy, the delivered dose is calculated from the treatment planning system. Various types of software have been used to verify the patient dose distribution.

Objective: Develop the in-house software (ISOFT) to calculate dose in intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) based on lung CT-patient data by combining the modified Clarkson integration with 3D-beam subtraction method.

Materials and methods: An ISOFT was developed for 6MV X-rays Varian Clinac21EX linear accelerator and the CT-based patient data. The multileaf collimators (MLCs) file from the Varian Eclipse treatment planning was transferred to the ISOFT. The ISOFT was used to calculate the dose distribution with correction of tissue inhomogeneity. To test the accuracy of the ISOFT, the normal MLC-shaped fields and IMRT plans were measured in a water phantom and in a thorax phantom, respectively. Then, these measurements were compared with the doses calculated from the ISOFT and the Varian Eclipse treatment planning system.

Results: The deviation between the measurements and calculations by the ISOFT for MLC-shaped fields in the water phantom fell within 0.5%. There were mostly higher calculated doses in lung compared with the measured result in the thorax phantom. The overestimated doses due to loss of scattering in the low-density materials were considered less in all methods of calculation. The measured lung dose difference from the ISOFT was within 5% criterion of acceptability.

Conclusion: The ISOFT can be used conveniently to verify dose calculation in heterogeneous media.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Clarkson’s method
  • inhomogeneity correction
  • irregular field
  • multi-leaf collimators
  • 3D-beam subtraction method
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Assisted delivery of high floating fetal head: a comparison of vacuum-assisted delivery with manual extraction

Online veröffentlicht: 04 Feb 2017
Seitenbereich: 699 - 703

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Background: It is a well-established obstetric practice to use a vacuum device to assist in delivery of the fetal head at cesarean delivery. As a vacuum sauce, the hospital piped-vacuum supply is often used. However, no study has compared the safety and efficacy of vacuum-assisted delivery with the traditional manual extraction.

Objective: Compare the safety and efficacy of delivery of the high floating fetal head using a soft cup vacuum extractor with the traditional manual extraction.

Methods: This randomized study included 90 cases of caesarean sections with vacuum-assisted delivery using the soft cup vacuum extractor (V group) and 90 cases of caesarean sections with manual extraction of the head (M group). The hospital piped-vacuum supply was used to develop the required vacuum. Operative and postoperative maternal and neonatal data of importance were analyzed using Student t-test for continuous variables and Chi Square test for categorical variables.

Results: The U-D interval (the time of entry into the uterus until the full delivery of the fetal head) was significantly prolonged (p <0.001) in M group (86.3±53.9 and 65.3±31.2 seconds, respectively). Mean blood loss in the V group was higher (576.7±182.9 mL and 504.4±204.9 mL, respectively). However, this difference was not statistically significant (p=0.306). There was no difference in the Apgar scores and resuscitation in the newborns of the two groups. Infants did not show evidence of any scalp remarks.

Conclusion: The extraction of the fetal head at caesarean section with vacuum extractor was a non-traumatic and rapid method that did not need the prolonged fundal compression and thus avoid unwanted consequences.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Cesarean section
  • high floating fetal head
  • manual deliver of the head
  • soft cup vacuum extractor

Clinical report

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Chronic traumatic hip dislocation: the Cambodian experience

Online veröffentlicht: 04 Feb 2017
Seitenbereich: 705 - 712

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Background: Evidence is conflicting on the best way to manage patients presenting late following a traumatic hip dislocation.

Objective: Report our experience of managing patients presenting late following a traumatic dislocation of the hip.

Patients and method: A retrospective analysis of patients presenting late with a traumatic hip dislocation to the Children’s Surgical Centre between January 2002 and September 2010 was performed. Thirty-three eligible patients were identified. Twenty-eight patients underwent femoral head conserving treatments. In four patients, total or hemi-arthroplasty was performed, and one patient underwent hip arthrodesis.

Results: Eleven patients had documentation of the absence or presence of evidence of avascular necrosis (AVN). Of these, three patients had clinical or radiological signs of AVN. Nineteen patients returned for follow-up and five had an excellent outcome, seven had a good outcome, four had a fair outcome, and one had a poor outcome. Two patients did not have enough clinical information in their medical records to have their outcome classified. A better outcome at follow-up was associated with a shorter mean average time from trauma and the use of femoral head conserving operative interventions.

Conclusion: This study supports the theory that patients presenting late following a traumatic hip dislocation can achieve satisfactory outcomes if managed with femoral head conserving strategies, as the femoral head retains its vascular supply in the majority of cases. We also propose that consideration be given to drilling the femoral head during open reduction to ascertain the integrity of its blood supply.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Avascular necrosis
  • hip dislocation
  • hip trauma
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Giant malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors of the occipital scalp

Online veröffentlicht: 04 Feb 2017
Seitenbereich: 713 - 719

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Background: Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNST) are rare neoplasms, usually arising from peripheral nerves or showing a nerve sheath differentiation. Primary MPNSTs of the scalp is exceptionally rare, and only sporadic cases have been reported recently.

Objectives: Report a rare case of giant malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (MPNST) beneath occipital scalp, and discuss how to treat with this kind of tumor.

Methods: Descriptive study of a rare case of giant peripheral nerve sheath tumors of occipital scalp without adjuvant treatment with nine months follow up.

Results: In a 52-year-old man with MPNSTs beneath occipital scalp, the tumor was treated with complete surgical resection. Histological examination proved that the lesion was a scalp MPNST. The patient was followed up asymptomatic for the following nine months after surgical resection without adjuvant radiotherapy.

Conclusion: MPNSTs beneath the occipital scalp should be treated individually, for those well-circumscribed MPNSTs without bone destruction or brain invasion (low-grade tumors), complete surgical resection with clear margins (if possible) is recommended. Otherwise, adjuvant postoperative radiotherapy is necessary.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor
  • occipital scalp
  • S-100
  • surgical resection
  • radiotherapy

History of Asian Biomedicine

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Professor Tada Yipintsoi: beloved teacher, great researcher and practicing cardiologist (10 February 1934 - 9 January 2011)

Online veröffentlicht: 04 Feb 2017
Seitenbereich: 721 - 723

Zusammenfassung

22 Artikel

Editorial

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Anticipating a new deadly epidemic

Online veröffentlicht: 04 Feb 2017
Seitenbereich: 575 - 576

Zusammenfassung

Review article

Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Ultrasound targeted microbubble destruction-mediated gene delivery system: application to therapy for ocular disease

Online veröffentlicht: 04 Feb 2017
Seitenbereich: 577 - 587

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Background: Ocular disorders have greatest potential for benefit from gene therapy. The major obstacle in the clinical application of gene therapy is not due to the lack of an ideal gene, but rather the lack of a clinically safe and efficient gene transfer method. Ultrasound (US) targeted microbubble destruction (UTMD)-mediated gene delivery system as a noninvasive gene transfer method is now widely used in gene therapy of cardiovascular disease, muscular tissue, and tumor, and proved to effectively enhance gene transfer in various studies in vitro and in vivo. However, it is just the beginning of application for ophthalmological disease.

Objective: Review the latest advancements in UTMD-mediated ocular gene transfection and discuss mechanisms of UTMD involved in gene transfection, obstacles, and limitations to the use of this technology, as well as the perspectives for future applications of UTMD-mediated gene delivery system.

Methods: Summarize published literature concerning UTMD-mediated ocular gene transfection.

Results: UTMD is an effective and safe gene delivery method of therapy for ocular diseases. Considerable progress has been made in US or UTMD-mediated viral and nonviral ocular gene delivery to retina, like recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) and nanoparticles as nonviral gene carriers. In addition, UTMD has potential for producing the blood-retinal barrier opening and serves as a promising method for intravenous ocular gene delivery.

Conclusion: UTMD-mediated gene delivery system could effectively enhance gene transfer into ocular tissue. Though several problems remain to be solved, UTMD is a promising technology for the targeted gene therapy of ocular disease.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Gene delivery
  • ultrasound
  • ocular disease
  • microbubbles
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Time interval for booster vaccination following reexposure to rabies in previously vaccinated subjects

Online veröffentlicht: 04 Feb 2017
Seitenbereich: 589 - 593

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Background: In rabies endemic areas, re-exposures to rabies are quite common and the incidence could be up to 15%. The recent guidelines of World Health Organization do not specify the duration of protection provided by previous pre- or post exposure prophylaxis. This often puts the treating physician in a dilemma in such cases of re-exposure.

Objective: Study the time interval between primary and booster vaccination in individuals who have taken previously a full course of either pre- or post exposure prophylaxis and are now re-exposed to rabies.

Methods: The data obtained through a literature search using Pubmed and advanced Google search along with data from in house clinical trials were used for analysis. Sixty-six vaccine cohorts spanning more than 27 years from 1983 to 2010 from six countries were studied. The duration of protection offered by previous vaccination was assessed by using a surrogate marker of adequate (> 0.5 IU per mL) rabies virus neutralizing antibody levels in the individuals vaccinated either by pre-exposure or post exposure regimens received by intramuscular or intradermal routes.

Results: The proportions of 2,795 subjects who had received prior post-exposure immunization and produced rabies virus neutralizing antibody levels of less than 0.5 IU per mL were 0.07% and 0.14% at the end of the first and third month post primary vaccination. All 577 subjects with previous pre-exposure vaccination had antibody responses above 0.5 IU per mL at the end of the first and third month post primary vaccination.

Conclusion: We concluded that it may be safe for up to three months after previous pre- or post exposure vaccination to not administer boosters to healthy subjects who have been re-exposed to rabies.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Booster vaccination
  • post exposure prophylaxis
  • pre-exposure vaccination
  • rabies
  • re-exposure

Original article

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Sub-acute toxicological studies 2α, 3β, 21β, 23, 28-penta hydroxyl 12-oleanene isolated from roots of Laportea crenulata Gaud

Online veröffentlicht: 04 Feb 2017
Seitenbereich: 595 - 599

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Background: 2α,3β,21β,23,28-penta hydroxyl 12-oleanene was isolated from roots of Laportea crenulata Gaud (Urticaceae) as a new triterpenoid and its antifungal activities was evaluated against a number of fungi where moderate antifungal activities were reported. However, no toxicological study has yet been carried out.

Objective: The sub-acute toxicity of 2α,3β,21β,23,28-penta hydroxyl 12-oleanene was studied on albino mice.

Methods: The triterpenoid was administered on intraperitoneal route at 300 μg per mouse (20-27g) daily for 14 consecutive days. The studies included the determination of changes in body weight, hematological profiles (total count of red blood cell, white blood cell and platelet, differential count of white blood cell, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and hemoglobin percentage), and biochemical parameters of blood (serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase, serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase, serum alkaline phosphatase, serum bilirubin, creatinine, and urea) as well as histopathology of the liver, kidney, heart, and lung.

Result: The changes in body weight, hematological, and biochemical parameters were statistically not significant when compared to control group mice. Histopathologically no abnormality was found on liver, kidney, heart, and lung of experimental group mice after treatment when compared to that of control group mice.

Conclusion: In sub-acute toxicity studies, the triterpenoid was found to be nontoxic. We suggest further studies such as chronic toxicological studies as well as route selection experiments.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Biochemical parameters
  • body weight
  • hematological parameters
  • histopathological study
  • 2α,3β,21β,23,28-penta hydroxyl 12-oleanene
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

The anti proliferative effect of palm oil γ-tocotrienol involves alterations in MEK-2 and ERK-2 protein expressions in CaSki cells

Online veröffentlicht: 04 Feb 2017
Seitenbereich: 601 - 609

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Background: Vitamin E is a potent growth inhibitor of various cancer cell types in vitro and in vivo. The cell death mechanism is believed to be via cell cycle blockage, differentiation, and apoptosis.

Objectives: To determine the possible involvement of protein expression of MEK-2 and ERK-2 in the cell death mechanism induced by palm oil γ-tocotrienol and α-tocopherol in human cervical cancer cell line, CaSki cells.

Methods: In this study, we tested the effect of γ-tocotrienol and α-tocopherol on the proliferation and apoptosis in CaSki cells. Western blot analysis was used to determine the involvement of MEK-2 and ERK-2 in regulating the cell death mechanism.

Results: Gamma-tocotrienol and α-tocopherol efficiently inhibited the proliferation of CaSki cells by 85.2% to 90.8% (p<0.01, n=4) and 10.2% to 39.1% (p<0.01, n=4) beginning at 100 μM and 50 μM, respectively. The possible cell death mechanism induced by both compounds may be due to apoptosis as confirmed by the presence of cellular DNA fragments separated by electrophoresis and enhancement of apoptotic activity. Treatment with γ-tocotrienol at 150 μM markedly decreased the protein expression of MEK-2 and ERK-2 at 12 hours and 18 hours. In contrast, treatment with α-tocopherol at 300μM has no effect on both protein expressions.

Conclusion: The transient decreases in the protein expression of MEK-2 and ERK-2 suggested that the anti proliferative effect of γ-tocotrienol might involve alteration of the proliferative signaling cascade.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Alpha-tocopherol
  • anti-proliferation
  • cervical cancer cell line
  • MEK-2 and ERK-2 protein expressions
  • γ-tocotrienol
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Determination of antibiotic susceptibility pattern in Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli isolated from children with acute diarrhea

Online veröffentlicht: 04 Feb 2017
Seitenbereich: 611 - 618

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Background: The emergence of antimicrobial resistant Campylobacter populations, which become an important consideration on the use of antimicrobial agents, especially in veterinary and human medicine, has become a serious concern worldwide. For monitoring the drug resistance, there is a need to develop reliable and reproducible laboratory techniques. There are several methods including disk diffusion, broth micro-dilution, agar dilution, and E-test to determine in-vitro susceptibility profiles of Campylobacter to a range of antimicrobial agents.

Objectives: Study the Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli from children with diarrhea and determine the antimicrobial susceptibilities of the isolates to clinically relevant antimicrobials.

Materials and methods: Two hundred twenty stool samples of children with diarrhea were cultured on Preston agar and the isolated campylobacter species were identified by further standard identification test. Susceptibility testing was carried out using Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method and E-test.

Results: Fourteen Campylobacter strains were isolated (6.36%), of which nine (64.3%) were identified as C. jejuni and five (35.7%) as C. coli. Using disk diffusion, all the campylobacter isolates were fully resistant to cephalothin, oxacillin, and ampicillin followed by ceftazidime with resistance rate of 71.42%. Gentamicin and ciprofloxacin were the most effective antibiotics against both isolated campylobacter species. According to E-test results, Campylobacter isolates demonstrated the greatest resistance to cephalothin (92.85%), oxacillin (92.85%), and ampicillin (78.57%).

Conclusions: Our study reveals a high-level correlation between the E-test and agar disk diffusion method in evaluating the resistance of Campylobacter species to tested antimicrobial agents. This study also suggests disk diffusion is a reliable and cost effective technique for determining the prevalence of resistance among Campylobacter isolates.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Antibiotic resistance
  • campylobacter
  • disk diffusion
  • E-test
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Field efficacy of siege gel bait in an IPM program on life stages of German cockroach (Blataria, Blattellidae) in a residential building

Online veröffentlicht: 04 Feb 2017
Seitenbereich: 619 - 624

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Background: Current control strategies that rely on residual contact insecticides have resulted in insecticide resistance or tolerance to all the major groups of insecticides. New strategies are based on repeated monitoring, sanitation, educational programs and use of pesticides such as gel bait.

Objective: Investigate the effectiveness of an Integrated Pest Management (IPM) program on life stages of German cockroaches at infested units of a residential building in southwestern Iran.

Methods: Life stages (adult, nymph, and ootheca) of German cockroaches at 53 units (rooms) were monitored by sticky traps for eight months. The infested units were subjected randomly to IPM treatments and compared to controls following five weeks of monitoring. The IPM approach was based on an educational program using pamphlets, posters, lectures, sanitation with vacuuming, and application of hydramethylnon gel baits.

Results: There was a high proportion of nymph population (76% of cockroach trap counts) before treatment. German cockroaches showed the highest frequency distribution in trap counts at surveyed residential units. Percentage reduction in nymphs was lower than the reduction in adults in the first week post treatment, although from the fourth to the twenty-sixth week, the percentage reduction was higher than in adults or equal when they reached 100% reduction. Mean total results showed significant reduction in adult and nymph stages throughout the treatment period. Reduction in ootheca fluctuated over the IPM program.

Conclusion: Siege gel bait (Hydramethylnon 2%) in an IPM program successfully reduced adult and nymph stages of German cockroach infestation over the post treatment weeks especially after the fourth post treatment week.

Keyword

  • German cockroach
  • hydramethylnon
  • integrated pest management
  • siege
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Efficacy of differential non-invasive approaches in determining the clinical course in patients with Crohn’s disease

Online veröffentlicht: 04 Feb 2017
Seitenbereich: 625 - 633

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Background: We tested the hypothesis that, elevated levels of C-reactive protein might serve as prognostic marker for the classification of Crohn’s disease and its clinical course.

Objectives: The present study was undertaken to explore if serum C-reactive protein (sCRP) levels along with the conventional cytogenetic and molecular genetic approaches might serve as efficient prognostic markers with respect to disease classification and clinical course in Crohn’s disease (CD) patients.

Methods: We enrolled 43 patients with Crohn’s disease from Tamilnadu region, south of India. The patients were mainly classified into four groups based on disease location. A further sub-classification based on activity of disease was also undertaken in the study. Classification of type of disease activity was based on colonoscopic reports and radiological findings. An equal number of healthy normal age and sex-matched controls were also taken for the study.

Results: A positive correlation between sCRP levels, and disease location was observed. Employing a cut-off level of 10 mg/dL, the index CRP level was found to discriminate patients with different locations of the disease along with disease condition when compared to controls. Cytogenetic analysis showed sporadic changes in such patients. The widely reported NOD2 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were absent in the patients studied.

Conclusion: Different levels of sCRP seem to correlate well with disease location and disease activity. In some of the patients, the CRP levels appeared to reflect disease activity, while in others persistently high levels seem to suggest active disease. Altogether, a positive correlation of CDAI values with CRP levels along with an increase in frequency of chromosomal aberrations was observed in CD patients.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Chromosomal aberrations
  • crohn’s disease
  • c-reactive protein
  • inflammation
  • NOD2
  • SNP
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Optimal subculture methods for passaging and growing human epidermal keratinocytes

Online veröffentlicht: 04 Feb 2017
Seitenbereich: 635 - 641

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Background: Human epidermal keratinocytes (HEKs) cover the outer layer of the skin and play a key role in wound repair. Although the methods for isolation and cultivation of primary HEKs from epidermis have been used successfully in both laboratory and clinical settings, the ability to subculture (passage) these cells has yet to be established and is the primary factor hindering their usage.

Objectives: We conducted this study to identify optimal subculture conditions for HEKs.

Methods: We first harvested the primary HEKs from prepuce tissue specimens, and then compared three different reagent compositions (0.25% trypsin, 0.25% trypsin plus 0.01% EDTA, and 0.25% dispase digestion solution) for various periods of time at 4°C with the conventional 0.25% trypsin or 0.25% trypsin plus 0.01% EDTA digestion at room temperature.

Results: Our data indicated that the cold digestion conditions yielded higher cell numbers and more viable cells than the conventional methods. Furthermore, the subcultured HEKs also adhered and grew better after four hours of a 0.25% trypsin cold digestion or after six hours of a 0.25% dispase cold digestion. These procedures produced higher numbers of HEK passages than that commonly seen experienced with conventional methods.

Conclusion: The data from the current study demonstrated that the optimal subculture condition for passaging and growing HEKs in vitro is four hours digestion with 0.25% trypsin.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Cell subculture
  • cold digestion
  • culture conditions
  • HEKs
  • human epidermal keratinocytes
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Interferon Alpha mRNA level and subtypes in lesion and non-lesion from discoid lupus erythematosus patients without systemic lupus erythematosus

Online veröffentlicht: 04 Feb 2017
Seitenbereich: 643 - 647

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Background: Up-regulation of interferon alpha (IFN-α) in cutaneous lesions of lupus erythematosus (LE) has been proposed to play a role in the pathogenesis of cutaneous LE lesions of LE patients. IFN- α is composed of 13 subtypes of immunoregulatory cytokines that promote innate and adaptive immune responses. However, the precise biological properties may differ among subtypes.

Objective: To investigate the mRNA level of IFN-α and subtypes in cutaneous LE patients

Methods: We analyzed the mRNA level of IFN-α and subtypes in normal skin from 12 healthy female controls and compared it to normal skin and discoid lupus erythematosus (DLE) lesions from 16 DLE patients without systemic involvement (14 females and 2 males) by real-time PCR, cloning, and sequencing.

Results: Significant up-regulation of mRNA level of IFN-α was found in both lesional and non-lesional skin from DLE patients without SLE when compared to normal skin from healthy donors (P=0.05 and P=0.04, respectively). An analysis of the IFN-α subtypes from skin biopsies detected a reduction of IFN-α subtype 5 in DLE lesion compared to healthy control skin.

Conclusions: Our results indicate that IFN- α is upregulated in both lesional and non-lesional DLE in cutaneous LE patients. IFN-α subtype 5 is the main subtype of IFN- α expression in normal skin but declines in DLE.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Cutaneous LE patients
  • DLE
  • interferon-alpha
  • mRNA
  • subtype
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Treadmill training with music cueing: a new approach for Parkinson’s gait facilitation

Online veröffentlicht: 04 Feb 2017
Seitenbereich: 649 - 654

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Background: It has been pointed that cueing techniques may have influence upon gait training in Parkinson’s disease (PD).

Objective: Study the effects of music cue on treadmill training in PD patients.

Subject and methods: A randomized single-blind controlled trial was conducted. Thirty male PD patients, aged 60 to 80 years with Hoehn and Yahr stage 2-3 were allocated into three groups (each 10 patients). Group A: treadmill with music three days and home walking three days/week, Group B: treadmill three days and home walking three days/week, and Group C: home walking six days/week. Each group received four weeks training followed by self-practice for other four weeks. Gait performances at pre-program, fourth, and eighth week were compared.

Results: The results showed that A, B, and C, stride length gained 12%, 5.2%, and 6.7% (p=0.042), walking-speed gained 8.6%, 6.5%, and -2.4%, six-minute walk distance gained 10.2%, 5.4%, and 2.9%, and Timed Up and Go (TUG) gained 14.2%, 12.5%, and 7.6%.

Conclusion: Music cue enhanced gait training in mild to moderate PD patients.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Cueing technique
  • music cue
  • Parkinson’s disease
  • treadmill training

Brief communication (Original)

Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Effects of mechanical stimulus on mesenchymal stem cells differentiation toward cardiomyocytes

Online veröffentlicht: 04 Feb 2017
Seitenbereich: 655 - 661

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Background: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) known to be sensitive to mechanical stimulus. This type of stimulus plays a role in cellular differentiation, so that it might affect MSCs differentiation toward cardiomyocytes.

Objectives: Investigate the effect of mechanical stimulus on MSCs differentiation toward cardiomyocytes.

Methods: The adipose tissue-derived MSCs were induced to differentiate with 5-azacytidine, and stimulated by one Hz mechanical stretching up to 8%. After 10 days, the cell’s cardiac markers and cardiogenesis-related genes were detected by immumohistochemistrical staining and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, and the cell’s ATPase activity was detected.

Results: The cyclic mechanical stretching enhanced the expression of cardiogenesis-related genes and cardiac markers, and stimulated the activity of Na+-K+-ATPase and Ca2+-ATPase in the MSCs treated with 5-azacytidine. Without 5-azacytidine pre-treatment, cyclic mechanical stretch alone has little effect.

Conclusion: Mechanical stretch combined with 5-azacytidine treatment could accelerate MSCs differentiation toward cardiomyocytes.

Keywords

  • 5-azacytidine
  • cardiomyocyte
  • differentiation
  • mechanical stretch
  • mesenchymal stem cells
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Serum levels of 25-OH vitamin D, folic acid and testosterone in patients with breast cancer: a case control study

Online veröffentlicht: 04 Feb 2017
Seitenbereich: 663 - 667

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Background: Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women. To study factors causing breast cancer, various epidemiological and experimental studies are being conducted. A relation may exist between vitamin D, folic acid, testosterone, and various neoplasms.

Objectives: Detect the levels of vitamin D, folic acid, and testosterone in breast cancer of patients and healthy subjects, and determine the relation of the levels of vitamin D, folic acid, and testosterone with tumor histopathology, stage, and receptor status.

Methods: Eighty patients diagnosed with breast cancer and 20 controls (healthy volunteers) were enrolled in the study. Serum samples were collected from the patients and the controls, and examined using Roche E-170 with its own special kit.

Results: Folic acid levels were higher in the patient group and the difference was statistically significant (p=0.044). The levels of testosterone were lower in post-menopausal patients (p=0 .018). In stage I-II (early-stage) patients, vitamin D levels were higher, while in the stage III-IV (advanced-stage) patients, the levels were lower (p=0.048).

Conclusions: Low vitamin D levels may be related to poor prognosis. Low levels of folic acid were detected in the control group. Low levels of folic acid but high vitamin D and testosterone levels may be protective against breast cancer.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Breast neoplasms
  • folic acid
  • serum
  • testosterone
  • vitamin D
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Anticlastogenic potential of Thai vegetable, Siamese cassia, using mouse erythrocyte micronucleus assay

Online veröffentlicht: 04 Feb 2017
Seitenbereich: 669 - 673

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Background: Some Thai vegetables may enhance the activities of some phase II enzymes and decrease activities of phase I enzymes. Thus, they may possess cancer chemo-preventive potentials.

Objective: Determine the anti-clastogenic activity of Thai vegetable, Siamese cassia (SC), against an indirectacting clastogens, cyclophosphamide (CYP), and 7, 12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA).

Methods: Male mice were fed either with semi-purified diet, containing 2% or 4% of ground lyophilized SC leaves, for two weeks prior to administration of clastogens. The anti-clastogenicity of SC leaves using the in vivo erythrocyte micronucleus assay in mice was performed. Blood samples were collected and counted for reticulocytes with and without a micronucleus using the fluorescent microscope.

Results: Feeding SC leaves at 2% or 4% in the diets reduced the number of micronucleated peripheral reticulocytes (MNRETs) induced by both CYP and DMBA. However, the effect was statistically significant only at 4% in CYP-induced mice.

Conclusion: Siamese cassia leaves possess anti-clastogenic activity against clastogens in mice, particularly in a high dose.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Anticlastogenic
  • micronucleus
  • MNRETs
  • Siamese cassia
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Comparison of bacterial eradication between standard and double-painted antiseptic application method in minor hand surgery

Online veröffentlicht: 04 Feb 2017
Seitenbereich: 675 - 680

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Background: Bacteria need to be eliminated for skin preparation in minor hand surgery. The standard method of skin preparation uses an antiseptic scrub and antiseptic solution, which is expensive and time-consuming.

Objective: Design a “double-painted antiseptic application method”, and compare the effectiveness of eliminating bacteria at the area around the hand and wrist between the standard method and the double-painted antiseptic application method.

Methods: This cross-over designed experimental study was performed on seven volunteers. The standard and the double-painted antiseptic application method were alternately used for skin preparation around the hand, wrist, and half of the forearm. The bacterial colony counts were collected before, immediately after, and at 45 minutes after skin preparation by using the modified glove-juice technique. The primary outcomes were the eradication rate and the number of bacterial colonies.

Results: There was no statistical difference in bacterial colonies between either method before skin preparation. The median of bacterial colony counts immediately after and at 45 minutes after skin preparation were zero colony forming units per milliliter in both methods. The eradication rate was 61.5% and 76.9% in the standard and double-painted antiseptic application method, respectively, for a risk difference of -15.4. There was no statistically significant difference (p=0.67).

Conclusion: The number of bacterial colonies and eradication rate were not significantly different between either method. The double-painted antiseptic application method can be used instead of the standard method for the skin preparation in minor hand surgery, which has an expected duration of about 45 minutes or less.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Bacterial eradication
  • minor surgery
  • paint only
  • scrub hand
  • skin preparation
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Physical, chemical, and microbiological stability of extemporaneous furosemide suspensions

Online veröffentlicht: 04 Feb 2017
Seitenbereich: 681 - 686

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Background: Furosemide is a potent diuretic used in treatment of oedematous states associated with cardiac, renal, and hepatic failure and the treatment of hypertension. In Thailand, no liquid formulation of furosemide is commercially available for pediatric administration and for adult who cannot swallow furosemide tablets.

Objective: Prepare extemporaneous furosemide suspensions from commercial furosemide tablets using two compounded suspending vehicles, and determine the physical, chemical, and microbiological stability of these preparations.

Methods: Two formulations of extemporaneous furosemide suspensions were prepared from commercially available furosemide 40-mg tablets using two compounded suspending vehicles. The final concentration of furosemide in each formulation was 2 mg/mL. Three samples of each formulation were stored in glass bottles protected from light, and kept at three controlled temperature, 4±2°C, room temperature (30±2°C), and 45°C. A sample was removed from each bottle immediately after preparation and at 7, 14, 30, 45, and 60 days. The stability-indicating highperformance liquid chromatography was used to analyze for furosemide. The pH was measured. The physical and microbiological properties of these formulations were evaluated after storage for two months. The stability of furosemide suspensions was determined by calculating the percentage of the initial concentration remaining on each test day. Stability was defined as retention of at least 90% of the initial concentration.

Results: At least 93% of the initial furosemide concentration remained in both compounded furosemide suspensions for up to 60 days. There were no substantial changes in the appearance (color and consistency) or odor of both formulations. The pH values of both formulations kept at 4±2°C increased slightly, while the pH values of both formulations kept at 45±2°C decreased significantly compared with the initial pH value of both formulations. Both formulations maintained microbiologic stability for 60 days.

Conclusion: Extemporaneously compounded furosemide suspensions, 2 mg/mL, were stable for at least 60 days when stored in glass bottles protected from light at three controlled temperatures. These compounded furosemide suspensions are better suited for administration to children and adults who cannot swallow furosemide tablets. They may provide an alternative in situations where the marketed suspension is unavailable.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Chemical
  • extemporaneous
  • furosemide
  • microbiological
  • physical
  • stability
  • suspension
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Geographic information system of Opisthorchis viverrini in northeast Thailand

Online veröffentlicht: 04 Feb 2017
Seitenbereich: 687 - 691

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Background: Opisthorchiasis caused by Opisthorchis viverrini remains a major public health problem in many parts of Southeast Asia including Thailand, Lao PDR, Vietnam, and Cambodia. The epicenter of this disease is located in northeast Thailand, where high a prevalence of opisthorchiasis coexists with a high incidence of cholangiocarcinoma (CHCA), a major primary carcinoma of the liver with a very poor prognosis.

Objective: Determine the surveillance characteristics of O. viverrini infections in northeast Thailand.

Methods: Four thousand one hundred eighteen stool samples from 19 provinces were used in this study. All age groups were included, from below four years to more than 60 years. The geographic information system (GIS) was deployed to overlay the prevalence of disease on urban and agricultural areas as well as manmade land uses.

Results: Results showed a rate of Opisthorchiasis of 20.39% (840/4,118). Farmland and forests (loam soil) were highly associated with infection.

Conclusion: The rate of Opisthorchiasis is high in farmland and forests and lower in residential areas. Mass treatment targeted at high-risk areas may be a cost-effective control strategy and warrants further study.

Keywords

  • GIS
  • liver fluke
  • northeast Thailand
  • Opisthorchis viverrini

Technical report

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Development of in-house software to calculate dose for intensity-modulated radiation therapy based on lung CT-patient data

Online veröffentlicht: 04 Feb 2017
Seitenbereich: 693 - 698

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Background: In external radiotherapy, the delivered dose is calculated from the treatment planning system. Various types of software have been used to verify the patient dose distribution.

Objective: Develop the in-house software (ISOFT) to calculate dose in intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) based on lung CT-patient data by combining the modified Clarkson integration with 3D-beam subtraction method.

Materials and methods: An ISOFT was developed for 6MV X-rays Varian Clinac21EX linear accelerator and the CT-based patient data. The multileaf collimators (MLCs) file from the Varian Eclipse treatment planning was transferred to the ISOFT. The ISOFT was used to calculate the dose distribution with correction of tissue inhomogeneity. To test the accuracy of the ISOFT, the normal MLC-shaped fields and IMRT plans were measured in a water phantom and in a thorax phantom, respectively. Then, these measurements were compared with the doses calculated from the ISOFT and the Varian Eclipse treatment planning system.

Results: The deviation between the measurements and calculations by the ISOFT for MLC-shaped fields in the water phantom fell within 0.5%. There were mostly higher calculated doses in lung compared with the measured result in the thorax phantom. The overestimated doses due to loss of scattering in the low-density materials were considered less in all methods of calculation. The measured lung dose difference from the ISOFT was within 5% criterion of acceptability.

Conclusion: The ISOFT can be used conveniently to verify dose calculation in heterogeneous media.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Clarkson’s method
  • inhomogeneity correction
  • irregular field
  • multi-leaf collimators
  • 3D-beam subtraction method
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Assisted delivery of high floating fetal head: a comparison of vacuum-assisted delivery with manual extraction

Online veröffentlicht: 04 Feb 2017
Seitenbereich: 699 - 703

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Background: It is a well-established obstetric practice to use a vacuum device to assist in delivery of the fetal head at cesarean delivery. As a vacuum sauce, the hospital piped-vacuum supply is often used. However, no study has compared the safety and efficacy of vacuum-assisted delivery with the traditional manual extraction.

Objective: Compare the safety and efficacy of delivery of the high floating fetal head using a soft cup vacuum extractor with the traditional manual extraction.

Methods: This randomized study included 90 cases of caesarean sections with vacuum-assisted delivery using the soft cup vacuum extractor (V group) and 90 cases of caesarean sections with manual extraction of the head (M group). The hospital piped-vacuum supply was used to develop the required vacuum. Operative and postoperative maternal and neonatal data of importance were analyzed using Student t-test for continuous variables and Chi Square test for categorical variables.

Results: The U-D interval (the time of entry into the uterus until the full delivery of the fetal head) was significantly prolonged (p <0.001) in M group (86.3±53.9 and 65.3±31.2 seconds, respectively). Mean blood loss in the V group was higher (576.7±182.9 mL and 504.4±204.9 mL, respectively). However, this difference was not statistically significant (p=0.306). There was no difference in the Apgar scores and resuscitation in the newborns of the two groups. Infants did not show evidence of any scalp remarks.

Conclusion: The extraction of the fetal head at caesarean section with vacuum extractor was a non-traumatic and rapid method that did not need the prolonged fundal compression and thus avoid unwanted consequences.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Cesarean section
  • high floating fetal head
  • manual deliver of the head
  • soft cup vacuum extractor

Clinical report

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Chronic traumatic hip dislocation: the Cambodian experience

Online veröffentlicht: 04 Feb 2017
Seitenbereich: 705 - 712

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Background: Evidence is conflicting on the best way to manage patients presenting late following a traumatic hip dislocation.

Objective: Report our experience of managing patients presenting late following a traumatic dislocation of the hip.

Patients and method: A retrospective analysis of patients presenting late with a traumatic hip dislocation to the Children’s Surgical Centre between January 2002 and September 2010 was performed. Thirty-three eligible patients were identified. Twenty-eight patients underwent femoral head conserving treatments. In four patients, total or hemi-arthroplasty was performed, and one patient underwent hip arthrodesis.

Results: Eleven patients had documentation of the absence or presence of evidence of avascular necrosis (AVN). Of these, three patients had clinical or radiological signs of AVN. Nineteen patients returned for follow-up and five had an excellent outcome, seven had a good outcome, four had a fair outcome, and one had a poor outcome. Two patients did not have enough clinical information in their medical records to have their outcome classified. A better outcome at follow-up was associated with a shorter mean average time from trauma and the use of femoral head conserving operative interventions.

Conclusion: This study supports the theory that patients presenting late following a traumatic hip dislocation can achieve satisfactory outcomes if managed with femoral head conserving strategies, as the femoral head retains its vascular supply in the majority of cases. We also propose that consideration be given to drilling the femoral head during open reduction to ascertain the integrity of its blood supply.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Avascular necrosis
  • hip dislocation
  • hip trauma
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Giant malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors of the occipital scalp

Online veröffentlicht: 04 Feb 2017
Seitenbereich: 713 - 719

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Background: Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNST) are rare neoplasms, usually arising from peripheral nerves or showing a nerve sheath differentiation. Primary MPNSTs of the scalp is exceptionally rare, and only sporadic cases have been reported recently.

Objectives: Report a rare case of giant malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (MPNST) beneath occipital scalp, and discuss how to treat with this kind of tumor.

Methods: Descriptive study of a rare case of giant peripheral nerve sheath tumors of occipital scalp without adjuvant treatment with nine months follow up.

Results: In a 52-year-old man with MPNSTs beneath occipital scalp, the tumor was treated with complete surgical resection. Histological examination proved that the lesion was a scalp MPNST. The patient was followed up asymptomatic for the following nine months after surgical resection without adjuvant radiotherapy.

Conclusion: MPNSTs beneath the occipital scalp should be treated individually, for those well-circumscribed MPNSTs without bone destruction or brain invasion (low-grade tumors), complete surgical resection with clear margins (if possible) is recommended. Otherwise, adjuvant postoperative radiotherapy is necessary.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor
  • occipital scalp
  • S-100
  • surgical resection
  • radiotherapy

History of Asian Biomedicine

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Professor Tada Yipintsoi: beloved teacher, great researcher and practicing cardiologist (10 February 1934 - 9 January 2011)

Online veröffentlicht: 04 Feb 2017
Seitenbereich: 721 - 723

Zusammenfassung

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