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Zeitschriftendaten
Format
Zeitschrift
eISSN
1875-855X
Erstveröffentlichung
01 Jun 2007
Erscheinungsweise
6 Hefte pro Jahr
Sprachen
Englisch

Suche

Volumen 15 (2021): Heft 2 (April 2021)

Zeitschriftendaten
Format
Zeitschrift
eISSN
1875-855X
Erstveröffentlichung
01 Jun 2007
Erscheinungsweise
6 Hefte pro Jahr
Sprachen
Englisch

Suche

6 Artikel

Editorial

Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Health risks among shift workers: the need for a multipronged approach

Online veröffentlicht: 30 Apr 2021
Seitenbereich: 49 - 50

Zusammenfassung

Review

Uneingeschränkter Zugang

COVID-19 immunity and vaccines: what a pharmacist needs to know

Online veröffentlicht: 30 Apr 2021
Seitenbereich: 51 - 67

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

COVID-19 vaccines are being produced using different platforms by different companies, some of which are entering Phase 3 and 4 trials. Due to the pandemic, this production has been accelerated, which leaves a window for speculation on the method of production and safety. Pharmacists are familiar with vaccination; however, COVID-19 vaccines are still new and further work is needed to clarify many aspects, including side effects, methods of storage, and number of doses. Prioritization of vaccination has been implemented to a certain extent, but no clear strategy is available. A comprehensive overview on immunity and immunological principles for the design of COVID-19 vaccine strategies is provided in this narrative review and the current COVID-19 vaccine landscape is discussed, in addition to exploring the principles for prioritization of vaccination using data from articles available in PubMed and from health organizations. Pharmacists should have a better understanding of COVID-19 vaccines and their manufacture. This would also allow better counseling of the public on COVID 19, immunization, and explaining prioritization basis and vaccination programs.

Schlüsselwörter

  • COVID-19
  • coronavirus
  • pharmacist
  • SARS-CoV-2
  • vaccines

Original article

Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Association of industrial work schedules with development of metabolic syndrome, insulin resistance, and serum adipokine concentrations

Online veröffentlicht: 30 Apr 2021
Seitenbereich: 69 - 77

Zusammenfassung

Abstract Background

Association of work schedule in industrial workers with the progression of metabolic syndrome, insulin resistance, and serum adipokine concentrations is incompletely explored.

Objective

To determine the association of work schedule with the progression of metabolic syndrome, insulin resistance, and adipokine concentrations in industrial workers.

Methods

In a cross-sectional study design of industrial workers we compared metabolic syndrome, insulin resistance, and adipokines concentration between workers in the day shift (n = 52), rotational shift (n = 21), and night shift (n = 15). The international Diabetes Federation criteria were used to diagnose metabolic syndrome. We used a homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). Serum insulin, leptin, and adiponectin concentrations were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Serum glucose, triglyceride, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) concentrations were monitored using Prietest clinical chemistry reagents.

Results

The proportional difference in metabolic syndrome (0.31, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.036–0.587, P = 0.026), median difference of leptin (0.61, 95% CI 0.186–1.034, P = 0.005), and leptin-to-adiponectin ratio (LAR; 0.45, 95% CI 0.235–0.665, P < 0.001) was significantly higher, and serum adiponectin was lower (–2.00, 95% CI −4.197 to 0.197, P = 0.07) in the night-shift workers compared with that of day-shift workers. Among rotational-shift workers, the proportional difference between metabolic syndrome (0.14, 95% CI −0.098 to 0.378, P = 0.25), median difference of leptin (0.25, 95% CI −0.124 to 0.624, P = 0.19), and LAR (0.09, 95% CI −0.099 to 0.279, P = 0.35) was higher, and serum adiponectin concentration was lower (−0.73, 95% CI −2.660 to 1.208, P = 0.46) compared with that of day-shift workers; however, the altered differences were not significant. We observed a higher proportion of difference in HOMA-IR in shift workers (night and rotation) than in day-shift workers.

Conclusion

Night-shift workers are vulnerable to a higher risk of metabolic syndrome, HOMA-IR, and adipokine changes.

Schlüsselwörter

  • metabolic syndrome
  • insulin resistance
  • adipokines
  • shift work schedule
  • occupational health
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Cytogenetic characteristics of and prognosis for acute myeloid leukemia in 107 children

Online veröffentlicht: 30 Apr 2021
Seitenbereich: 79 - 89

Zusammenfassung

Abstract Background

Patients diagnosed with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in childhood have a poor prognosis. A better understanding of prognostic factors will assist patients and clinicians in making difficult treatment decisions.

Objectives

To understand further the cytogenetic characteristics of and reassess the prognostic value of cytogenetic abnormalities in childhood AML.

Methods

Conventional karyotypes of 107 children with AML were analyzed retrospectively. The cases were divided into 4 groups based on genetic rearrangements; namely patients with: t(15;17)/PML-RARA; t(8;21)/RUNX1-RUNX1T1 or inv(16)(p13;q22) and t(16;16)/CBFB-MYH11; −7 or complex karyotypes; normal karyotypes or other cytogenetic changes. Differences in age, sex, leukocyte count, event-free survival (EFS), and overall survival (OS) were analyzed.

Results

All French-American-British (FAB) subtypes of AML were detected in 107 patients. We successfully cultured 81 of 107 bone marrow specimens, of which 60 cases had abnormal karyotypes. The most common abnormal karyotypes were t(8;21) (17/81 cases), followed by t(15;17) (13/81 cases), –X/Y (10/81 cases). There were no significant differences (P > 0.05) in age, sex, or leukocyte counts between the 4 groups. The differences in 3-year EFS and OS between each pair were significant, except for groups of patients with t(8;21)/RUNX1-RUNX1T1 and patients with normal karyotypes or other cytogenetic changes (P = 0.054).

Conclusions

Chromosomal abnormalities may provide important prognostic factors for AML in children and be helpful for risk stratification and individual treatment.

Schlüsselwörter

  • childhood leukemias
  • cytogenetic analysis
  • karyotype
  • leukemia
  • myeloid
  • acute
  • prognosis

Technical report

Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Primary culture of chondrocytes after collagenase IA or II treatment of articular cartilage from elderly patients undergoing arthroplasty

Online veröffentlicht: 30 Apr 2021
Seitenbereich: 91 - 99

Zusammenfassung

Abstract Background

Joint replacement surgery provides articular cartilage samples for chondrocyte isolation. To our knowledge, the effect of the collagenase type on releasing of chondrocytes from the extracellular matrix of cartilage is not reported.

Objectives

To determine whether cartilage digested with collagenase IA yielded more chondrocytes than that digested with collagenase II and determine whether chondrocytes isolated with collagenase IA could be cultured in vitro.

Methods

Cartilage slices collected from 18 elderly patients who received joint replacement surgery (16 hips, 2 knees) were digested sequentially with 0.4% pronase E and 0.02% collagenase IA, or with 0.15% collagenase II alone, or sequentially with 0.4% pronase E and 0.02% collagenase II. We compared cell yield from each method. Cell viability by the most effective method was calculated and plotted. The morphology of cultured monolayer chondrocytes was recorded with a light microscope.

Results

Sequential digestion with pronase E and collagenase IA yielded 2566 ± 873 chondrocytes per mg wet cartilage, which was more effective than the other isolation methods (P = 0.018). The average chondrocyte viability could reach 84% ± 8% (n = 11). Light microscopic images showed typical chondrocyte morphology in monolayer cultures.

Conclusion

Sequential digestion of human articular cartilage with pronase E and collagenase IA was more effective than collagenase II alone or collagenase II combined with pronase E for releasing chondrocytes from extracellular matrix of cartilage. Chondrocytes isolated with this method could be maintained in monolayer cultures for at least 2 passages with unaltered morphology.

Schlüsselwörter

  • arthroplasty, replacement, knee, hip
  • cartilage, articular
  • chondrocytes
  • collagenases
  • primary cell culture

Brief communication (original)

Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Peguero–Lo Presti criteria modified by body surface area for the electrocardiographic diagnosis of left ventricular hypertrophy in Thai patients

Online veröffentlicht: 30 Apr 2021
Seitenbereich: 101 - 107

Zusammenfassung

Abstract Background

Several electrocardiographic (ECG) criteria are used to diagnose left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH); however, they have low sensitivity.

Objective

To assess the sensitivity of LVH diagnosis using Peguero–Lo Presti criteria modified by body surface area (BSA).

Methods

This study used retrospective data from 9,438 patients who attended the Central Chest Institute of Thailand from January 2017 to December 2017 with available echocardiography, and who were categorized into those with and without LVH to determine diagnostic accuracy. We randomly selected 317 patients after excluding others based on various conditions. The left ventricular mass of the 317 patients was estimated using echocardiography. Peguero–Lo Presti criteria were modified by dividing original criteria by BSA. The accuracy of the modified criteria was compared with that of the original Peguero–Lo Presti, Sokolow–Lyon, and Cornell voltage criteria. A McNemar test was used to determine the agreement of all ECG criteria examined with LV mass index. The area under a receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) was used to assess the performance of the criteria.

Results

LVH was diagnosed in 164 of the 317 patients using echocardiography. The sensitivity of modified Peguero–Lo Presti criteria was 50.6% (95% confidence interval [CI] 42.7% to 58.5%), and specificity was 88.2% (95% CI 82.0% to 92.9%), with an AUC of 0.67 (95% CI 0.61–0.73).

Conclusions

Peguero–Lo Presti criteria modified by dividing them by BSA can improve sensitivity with acceptable specificity for the diagnosis of LVH compared with other ECG criteria examined, at least in selected Thai patients. The modified Peguero–Lo Presti criteria have accuracy similar to that for the original criteria.

Schlüsselwörter

  • hypertrophy
  • left ventricular
  • left ventricular dysfunction
  • point-of-care testing
  • predictive value of tests
  • sensitivity and specificity
6 Artikel

Editorial

Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Health risks among shift workers: the need for a multipronged approach

Online veröffentlicht: 30 Apr 2021
Seitenbereich: 49 - 50

Zusammenfassung

Review

Uneingeschränkter Zugang

COVID-19 immunity and vaccines: what a pharmacist needs to know

Online veröffentlicht: 30 Apr 2021
Seitenbereich: 51 - 67

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

COVID-19 vaccines are being produced using different platforms by different companies, some of which are entering Phase 3 and 4 trials. Due to the pandemic, this production has been accelerated, which leaves a window for speculation on the method of production and safety. Pharmacists are familiar with vaccination; however, COVID-19 vaccines are still new and further work is needed to clarify many aspects, including side effects, methods of storage, and number of doses. Prioritization of vaccination has been implemented to a certain extent, but no clear strategy is available. A comprehensive overview on immunity and immunological principles for the design of COVID-19 vaccine strategies is provided in this narrative review and the current COVID-19 vaccine landscape is discussed, in addition to exploring the principles for prioritization of vaccination using data from articles available in PubMed and from health organizations. Pharmacists should have a better understanding of COVID-19 vaccines and their manufacture. This would also allow better counseling of the public on COVID 19, immunization, and explaining prioritization basis and vaccination programs.

Schlüsselwörter

  • COVID-19
  • coronavirus
  • pharmacist
  • SARS-CoV-2
  • vaccines

Original article

Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Association of industrial work schedules with development of metabolic syndrome, insulin resistance, and serum adipokine concentrations

Online veröffentlicht: 30 Apr 2021
Seitenbereich: 69 - 77

Zusammenfassung

Abstract Background

Association of work schedule in industrial workers with the progression of metabolic syndrome, insulin resistance, and serum adipokine concentrations is incompletely explored.

Objective

To determine the association of work schedule with the progression of metabolic syndrome, insulin resistance, and adipokine concentrations in industrial workers.

Methods

In a cross-sectional study design of industrial workers we compared metabolic syndrome, insulin resistance, and adipokines concentration between workers in the day shift (n = 52), rotational shift (n = 21), and night shift (n = 15). The international Diabetes Federation criteria were used to diagnose metabolic syndrome. We used a homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). Serum insulin, leptin, and adiponectin concentrations were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Serum glucose, triglyceride, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) concentrations were monitored using Prietest clinical chemistry reagents.

Results

The proportional difference in metabolic syndrome (0.31, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.036–0.587, P = 0.026), median difference of leptin (0.61, 95% CI 0.186–1.034, P = 0.005), and leptin-to-adiponectin ratio (LAR; 0.45, 95% CI 0.235–0.665, P < 0.001) was significantly higher, and serum adiponectin was lower (–2.00, 95% CI −4.197 to 0.197, P = 0.07) in the night-shift workers compared with that of day-shift workers. Among rotational-shift workers, the proportional difference between metabolic syndrome (0.14, 95% CI −0.098 to 0.378, P = 0.25), median difference of leptin (0.25, 95% CI −0.124 to 0.624, P = 0.19), and LAR (0.09, 95% CI −0.099 to 0.279, P = 0.35) was higher, and serum adiponectin concentration was lower (−0.73, 95% CI −2.660 to 1.208, P = 0.46) compared with that of day-shift workers; however, the altered differences were not significant. We observed a higher proportion of difference in HOMA-IR in shift workers (night and rotation) than in day-shift workers.

Conclusion

Night-shift workers are vulnerable to a higher risk of metabolic syndrome, HOMA-IR, and adipokine changes.

Schlüsselwörter

  • metabolic syndrome
  • insulin resistance
  • adipokines
  • shift work schedule
  • occupational health
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Cytogenetic characteristics of and prognosis for acute myeloid leukemia in 107 children

Online veröffentlicht: 30 Apr 2021
Seitenbereich: 79 - 89

Zusammenfassung

Abstract Background

Patients diagnosed with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in childhood have a poor prognosis. A better understanding of prognostic factors will assist patients and clinicians in making difficult treatment decisions.

Objectives

To understand further the cytogenetic characteristics of and reassess the prognostic value of cytogenetic abnormalities in childhood AML.

Methods

Conventional karyotypes of 107 children with AML were analyzed retrospectively. The cases were divided into 4 groups based on genetic rearrangements; namely patients with: t(15;17)/PML-RARA; t(8;21)/RUNX1-RUNX1T1 or inv(16)(p13;q22) and t(16;16)/CBFB-MYH11; −7 or complex karyotypes; normal karyotypes or other cytogenetic changes. Differences in age, sex, leukocyte count, event-free survival (EFS), and overall survival (OS) were analyzed.

Results

All French-American-British (FAB) subtypes of AML were detected in 107 patients. We successfully cultured 81 of 107 bone marrow specimens, of which 60 cases had abnormal karyotypes. The most common abnormal karyotypes were t(8;21) (17/81 cases), followed by t(15;17) (13/81 cases), –X/Y (10/81 cases). There were no significant differences (P > 0.05) in age, sex, or leukocyte counts between the 4 groups. The differences in 3-year EFS and OS between each pair were significant, except for groups of patients with t(8;21)/RUNX1-RUNX1T1 and patients with normal karyotypes or other cytogenetic changes (P = 0.054).

Conclusions

Chromosomal abnormalities may provide important prognostic factors for AML in children and be helpful for risk stratification and individual treatment.

Schlüsselwörter

  • childhood leukemias
  • cytogenetic analysis
  • karyotype
  • leukemia
  • myeloid
  • acute
  • prognosis

Technical report

Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Primary culture of chondrocytes after collagenase IA or II treatment of articular cartilage from elderly patients undergoing arthroplasty

Online veröffentlicht: 30 Apr 2021
Seitenbereich: 91 - 99

Zusammenfassung

Abstract Background

Joint replacement surgery provides articular cartilage samples for chondrocyte isolation. To our knowledge, the effect of the collagenase type on releasing of chondrocytes from the extracellular matrix of cartilage is not reported.

Objectives

To determine whether cartilage digested with collagenase IA yielded more chondrocytes than that digested with collagenase II and determine whether chondrocytes isolated with collagenase IA could be cultured in vitro.

Methods

Cartilage slices collected from 18 elderly patients who received joint replacement surgery (16 hips, 2 knees) were digested sequentially with 0.4% pronase E and 0.02% collagenase IA, or with 0.15% collagenase II alone, or sequentially with 0.4% pronase E and 0.02% collagenase II. We compared cell yield from each method. Cell viability by the most effective method was calculated and plotted. The morphology of cultured monolayer chondrocytes was recorded with a light microscope.

Results

Sequential digestion with pronase E and collagenase IA yielded 2566 ± 873 chondrocytes per mg wet cartilage, which was more effective than the other isolation methods (P = 0.018). The average chondrocyte viability could reach 84% ± 8% (n = 11). Light microscopic images showed typical chondrocyte morphology in monolayer cultures.

Conclusion

Sequential digestion of human articular cartilage with pronase E and collagenase IA was more effective than collagenase II alone or collagenase II combined with pronase E for releasing chondrocytes from extracellular matrix of cartilage. Chondrocytes isolated with this method could be maintained in monolayer cultures for at least 2 passages with unaltered morphology.

Schlüsselwörter

  • arthroplasty, replacement, knee, hip
  • cartilage, articular
  • chondrocytes
  • collagenases
  • primary cell culture

Brief communication (original)

Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Peguero–Lo Presti criteria modified by body surface area for the electrocardiographic diagnosis of left ventricular hypertrophy in Thai patients

Online veröffentlicht: 30 Apr 2021
Seitenbereich: 101 - 107

Zusammenfassung

Abstract Background

Several electrocardiographic (ECG) criteria are used to diagnose left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH); however, they have low sensitivity.

Objective

To assess the sensitivity of LVH diagnosis using Peguero–Lo Presti criteria modified by body surface area (BSA).

Methods

This study used retrospective data from 9,438 patients who attended the Central Chest Institute of Thailand from January 2017 to December 2017 with available echocardiography, and who were categorized into those with and without LVH to determine diagnostic accuracy. We randomly selected 317 patients after excluding others based on various conditions. The left ventricular mass of the 317 patients was estimated using echocardiography. Peguero–Lo Presti criteria were modified by dividing original criteria by BSA. The accuracy of the modified criteria was compared with that of the original Peguero–Lo Presti, Sokolow–Lyon, and Cornell voltage criteria. A McNemar test was used to determine the agreement of all ECG criteria examined with LV mass index. The area under a receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) was used to assess the performance of the criteria.

Results

LVH was diagnosed in 164 of the 317 patients using echocardiography. The sensitivity of modified Peguero–Lo Presti criteria was 50.6% (95% confidence interval [CI] 42.7% to 58.5%), and specificity was 88.2% (95% CI 82.0% to 92.9%), with an AUC of 0.67 (95% CI 0.61–0.73).

Conclusions

Peguero–Lo Presti criteria modified by dividing them by BSA can improve sensitivity with acceptable specificity for the diagnosis of LVH compared with other ECG criteria examined, at least in selected Thai patients. The modified Peguero–Lo Presti criteria have accuracy similar to that for the original criteria.

Schlüsselwörter

  • hypertrophy
  • left ventricular
  • left ventricular dysfunction
  • point-of-care testing
  • predictive value of tests
  • sensitivity and specificity

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