Zeitschriften und Ausgaben

Volumen 16 (2022): Heft 3 (June 2022)

Volumen 16 (2022): Heft 2 (April 2022)

Volumen 16 (2022): Heft 1 (February 2022)

Volumen 15 (2021): Heft 6 (December 2021)

Volumen 15 (2021): Heft 5 (October 2021)

Volumen 15 (2021): Heft 4 (August 2021)

Volumen 15 (2021): Heft 3 (June 2021)

Volumen 15 (2021): Heft 2 (April 2021)

Volumen 15 (2021): Heft 1 (February 2021)

Volumen 14 (2020): Heft 6 (December 2020)

Volumen 14 (2020): Heft 5 (October 2020)

Volumen 14 (2020): Heft 4 (August 2020)

Volumen 14 (2020): Heft 3 (June 2020)

Volumen 14 (2020): Heft 2 (April 2020)

Volumen 14 (2020): Heft 1 (February 2020)

Volumen 13 (2019): Heft 6 (December 2019)

Volumen 13 (2019): Heft 5 (October 2019)

Volumen 13 (2019): Heft 4 (August 2019)

Volumen 13 (2019): Heft 3 (June 2019)

Volumen 13 (2019): Heft 2 (April 2019)

Volumen 13 (2019): Heft 1 (February 2019)

Volumen 12 (2018): Heft 6 (December 2018)

Volumen 12 (2018): Heft 5 (October 2018)

Volumen 12 (2018): Heft 4 (August 2018)

Volumen 12 (2018): Heft 3 (June 2018)

Volumen 12 (2018): Heft 2 (April 2018)

Volumen 12 (2018): Heft 1 (February 2018)

Volumen 11 (2017): Heft 6 (December 2017)

Volumen 11 (2017): Heft 5 (October 2017)

Volumen 11 (2017): Heft 4 (August 2017)

Volumen 11 (2017): Heft 3 (June 2017)

Volumen 11 (2017): Heft 2 (April 2017)

Volumen 11 (2017): Heft 1 (February 2017)

Volumen 10 (2016): Heft 6 (December 2016)

Volumen 10 (2016): Heft 5 (October 2016)

Volumen 10 (2016): Heft 4 (August 2016)

Volumen 10 (2016): Heft 3 (June 2016)

Volumen 10 (2016): Heft 2 (April 2016)

Volumen 10 (2016): Heft s1 (December 2016)

Volumen 10 (2016): Heft 1 (February 2016)

Volumen 9 (2015): Heft 6 (December 2015)

Volumen 9 (2015): Heft 5 (October 2015)

Volumen 9 (2015): Heft 4 (August 2015)

Volumen 9 (2015): Heft 3 (June 2015)

Volumen 9 (2015): Heft 2 (April 2015)

Volumen 9 (2015): Heft 1 (February 2015)

Volumen 8 (2014): Heft 6 (December 2014)

Volumen 8 (2014): Heft 5 (October 2014)

Volumen 8 (2014): Heft 4 (August 2014)

Volumen 8 (2014): Heft 3 (June 2014)

Volumen 8 (2014): Heft 2 (April 2014)

Volumen 8 (2014): Heft 1 (February 2014)

Volumen 7 (2013): Heft 6 (December 2013)

Volumen 7 (2013): Heft 5 (October 2013)

Volumen 7 (2013): Heft 4 (August 2013)

Volumen 7 (2013): Heft 3 (June 2013)

Volumen 7 (2013): Heft 2 (April 2013)

Volumen 7 (2013): Heft 1 (February 2013)

Volumen 6 (2012): Heft 6 (December 2012)

Volumen 6 (2012): Heft 5 (October 2012)

Volumen 6 (2012): Heft 4 (August 2012)

Volumen 6 (2012): Heft 3 (June 2012)

Volumen 6 (2012): Heft 2 (April 2012)

Volumen 6 (2012): Heft 1 (February 2012)

Volumen 5 (2011): Heft 6 (December 2011)

Volumen 5 (2011): Heft 5 (October 2011)

Volumen 5 (2011): Heft 4 (August 2011)

Volumen 5 (2011): Heft 3 (June 2011)

Volumen 5 (2011): Heft 2 (April 2011)

Volumen 5 (2011): Heft 1 (February 2011)

Volumen 4 (2010): Heft 6 (December 2010)

Volumen 4 (2010): Heft 5 (October 2010)

Volumen 4 (2010): Heft 4 (August 2010)

Volumen 4 (2010): Heft 3 (June 2010)

Volumen 4 (2010): Heft 2 (April 2010)

Volumen 4 (2010): Heft 1 (February 2010)

Zeitschriftendaten
Format
Zeitschrift
eISSN
1875-855X
Erstveröffentlichung
01 Jun 2007
Erscheinungsweise
6 Hefte pro Jahr
Sprachen
Englisch

Suche

Volumen 10 (2016): Heft 6 (December 2016)

Zeitschriftendaten
Format
Zeitschrift
eISSN
1875-855X
Erstveröffentlichung
01 Jun 2007
Erscheinungsweise
6 Hefte pro Jahr
Sprachen
Englisch

Suche

10 Artikel

Editorial

Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Enhancing cultural competency and health literacy: a critical component to quality care and empowerment

Online veröffentlicht: 31 Mar 2017
Seitenbereich: 535 - 536

Zusammenfassung

Review article

Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Practice of iron chelation therapy for transfusion-dependent thalassemia in Southeast Asia

Online veröffentlicht: 31 Mar 2017
Seitenbereich: 537 - 547

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Thalassemia is a common monogenic disease in Southeast Asia. Patients with transfusion-dependent thalassemia require frequent blood transfusions, which can lead to iron overload and subsequent organ dysfunction and damage. Iron overload is avoided by chelation therapy. There are 3 types of chelators available for iron chelation therapy, namely, desferrioxamine, deferiprone, and deferasirox. Although practical guidelines are available for the management of transfusion-dependent thalassemia, not all countries are able to provide “ideal” treatment for their patients.

To discuss the scope of iron chelation practices including the types of chelators that are available in Southeast Asia, and explore issues relevant to the treatment of transfusion-dependent thalassemic patients in this region.

A literature search for information pertaining to thalassemia and its management from 2000 to 2015 was conducted using the following websites: PubMed/MEDLINE, Google Scholar, Scopus, and SpringerLink.

Not all Southeast Asian countries have yet published detailed information about their iron chelation practice and not all countries in Southeast Asia have uniform practices for thalassemia management based on published recommendations.

Advances in treatment have improved the management of thalassemic patients. However, because of various issues, not all countries are able to provide an ideal treatment for their patients. Southeast Asian countries should work together to prevent this inherited disease.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Iron chelation therapy
  • practice
  • Southeast Asia
  • thalassemia

Original article

Uneingeschränkter Zugang

The development and application of the ABCDE-health literacy scale for Thais

Online veröffentlicht: 31 Mar 2017
Seitenbereich: 587 - 594

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The 7th Global Conference on Health Promotion was held in 2009. The World Health Organization advocated focus on the development of health literacy (HL), which refers to cognitive and social skills of individuals to access, understand, and use information to promote and maintain a healthy life.

To synthesize and develop an ABCDE (alcohol, baccy, coping, diet, and exercise) HL Scale for Thai adults, to evaluate their HL, and to determine whether the path model of HL influences health outcomes.

The synthesis used 12 research articles published in PubMed and Science Direct (1996-2013), and the participants used to test the research hypothesis were Thais aged >15 years. We selected 4,401 participants by systematic sampling, who responded to a 5-point scale for 64 items, with a Cronbach -coefficient of reliability between 0.61 and 0.91.

(1) The HL scales were in a good range of factor loading from 0.326 to 0.861. (2) The overall HL of the subjects was fair for 72.0%. The health outcomes were poor for 53.5% of all participants, fair in 44.7%, and good in 1.8% percent. (3) The path model of HL that influences health outcomes was consistent with the empirical data (χ2 27.48, with 7 degrees of freedom, P = 0.003, and root mean square error of approximation of 0.032).

We recommend application of the ABCDE-HL Scale for Thai Adults as a screening tool to develop HL using a public health promotion policy for Thai adults with low levels of HL.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Health behavior
  • health literacy
  • health outcome
  • HL scale
  • research synthesis
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Epidemiology of congenital anomalies in the Kurram Tribal Agency, northwest Pakistan

Online veröffentlicht: 31 Mar 2017
Seitenbereich: 575 - 585

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

We know of no study reporting hereditary and congenital anomalies (CA) prevalent among northwestern populations in the Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA) of Pakistan, a region of war and geopolitical unrest.

To determine and report the epidemiology of CA in the Kurram Tribal Agency in northwest Pakistan.

A cross-sectional clinical and genetic epidemiological study was conducted in relatively safe pockets of the Kurram Agency of FATA and individuals or families with CA were randomly recruited through door-to-door surveys and visiting public places like the Jirgah and hospitals.

This study ascertained 246 independent families or individuals with CA. They were grouped into 9 major and 49 minor phenotypic categories. Among the major categories, neurological disorders were the most frequent (n = 83; proportion = 0.337; CI = 0.278,0.397), followed by musculoskeletal defects (n = 56), limb anomalies (n = 52), sensorineural/ear defects (n = 18), ectodermal anomalies (n = 11), congenital heart defects (n = 10), and eye/visual impairments (n = 6). Sporadic occurrence of anomalies was more frequent than familial occurrence (169 vs. 77), and isolated presentations were more common than syndromic appearance (170 vs. 76). The distribution of various ascertainment types (e.g. sex-wise, familial/sporadic, isolated/syndromic presentations), with demographic variables such as age, origin, ethnicity, education, family type, and parental consanguinity were mostly not significant.

Neurological disorders were the most frequent type of congenital anomalies in the Kurram Federal Tribal Agency of Pakistan.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Congenital anomalies
  • descriptive epidemiology
  • FATA
  • genetic disorders
  • Pakistani
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Multiple sclerosis lesions on magnetic resonance imaging, their characterization and pathological correlation with musculoskeletal disability in Pakistanis

Online veröffentlicht: 31 Mar 2017
Seitenbereich: 567 - 574

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory disease affecting movement. MS has a worldwide distribution.

Early detection of MS lesions in Pakistanis by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI); to describe characteristics and to determine the association with musculoskeletal disability.

We included 100 patients (18–65 years old) diagnosed with cases of MS from March 2012 to March 2013. A detailed clinical history of the musculoskeletal system was taken and MR imaging was performed to characterize lesions acquiring T1-weighted (T1W), T2W, proton density, fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR), and T1W postgadolinium sequences.

Most patients belonged to a middle-aged group (42–62 years) and MS was common in women. MS lesions were found in the deep white matter of central nervous system (95 patients), supratentorially (97), periventricularly (96), juxtacortically (62), infratentorially (16), and in the temporal lobes (9). T2W sequences (99 patients detected) were superior to T1W sequences (47). By contrast, FLAIR sequence was more accurate and 100% of these cases were detected on this sequence of MRI. Muscle spasticity was found in 10 patients, muscle weakness in 53, uncoordinated movements in 7, ataxic gait in 9, and slurred speech in 3. However, numbness remained the more common clinical history (69 patients). Muscle fatigue (19), hemiparesis (8), and monoparesis in either upper and lower limbs (5) were other clinical presentations.

MRI plays a pivotal role in detection and characterization of MS plaques. Clinical manifestations and imaging findings are similar to those reported from other parts of the world.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Ataxia
  • FLAIR
  • MRI
  • multiple sclerosis
  • muscle weakness
  • spasticity
  • T1W1
  • T2WI
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Isolation and polymerase chain reaction identification of bacteria from the 2014–2015 flood of Kota Bharu, Kelantan, Malaysia

Online veröffentlicht: 31 Mar 2017
Seitenbereich: 549 - 565

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The transmission of waterborne, foodborne, and airborne infections following flooding is common around the world. There is a need to study and understand the bacterial biodiversity of flood water during massive floods.

To determine the 16S rRNA bacterial biodiversity of flood water that affected parts of Kota Bharu, Kelantan, Malaysia from December 2014 to January 2015.

We collected 31 water samples in 50 mL sterile containers from 6 different locations. Bacteria were cultured by inoculating into blood and nutrient agar using sterile swabs. Various bacteria were identified from the cultures that grew within 24-48 h, using colony morphology, differential/selective media, and biochemical tests. The isolated bacteria were identified using DNA Sanger sequencing and comparing with sequences at NCBI BLAST and SepsiTest BLAST up to species level, and sequences were deposited at GenBank. A 16S rRNA biodiversity chart was obtained. Sequences with low trace score (< 20) were removed, sequences were trimmed, capped (pair-wise assembled) and the 16S biodiversity was analyzed using a 16S biodiversity tool (Geneious version R8.1).

The 16S biodiversity tool results revealed 22 genera of bacteria belonging to 12 families: Moraxellaceae (10%), Aeromonadaceae (8%), Comamonadaceae (13%), Neisseriaceae (2%), Bacillaceae 1 (16%), Staphylococcaceae (8%), Bacillales Incertae Sedis XII (3%), Bacillaceae 2 (3%), Streptococcaceae (2%), Flavobacteriaceae (2%), Enterobacteriaceae (25%), and Pseudomonadaceae (10%). Antibiotic susceptibility tests revealed Klebsiella pneumoniae of the family Enterobacteriaceae as the most resistant (71.4%) to all 7 antibiotics tested.

The isolation of some relatively new species of bacteria in the floodwater in Malaysia needs to be taken into consideration for epidemiological study of flood pathogens to determine future public health implications. Antibiotic resistance of bacteria should support choice of therapy.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Bacteria
  • biodiversity
  • flood
  • isolation
  • Malaysia
  • PCR
  • 16S rRNA

Brief communication (Original)

Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Determining safe entry sites for filler injections on the lateral canthal vertical line: anatomical study of the midface arterial perforators in soft embalmed cadavers

Online veröffentlicht: 31 Mar 2017
Seitenbereich: 619 - 625

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Filler injections are frequently associated with vascular complications.

To investigate the course and location of the middle-midface perforators to establish safe cannula entry sites for filler injections.

The middle-midface was studied using 28 hemiface specimens from soft embalmed Thai cadavers at the Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University. Investigations were performed following injection of red latex.

Middle-midface perforators were classified into 3 groups according to their origin. These perforators originated from the buccal branch of the facial artery (57%); the parotid artery (25%); or directly from the facial artery (18%). The distance between the buccal artery perforator (level with the upper alar crease) and the lateral canthal (Y axis) line was 2.6 (SD 6.0) mm and Frankfort’s horizontal (X axis) lines was –16.4 (5.4) mm. The distance between the parotid artery perforator and the lateral canthal vertical line was 4.2 (10.8) mm and Frankfort’s horizontal line was –13.9 (3.4) mm. The distance between the facial artery perforator and the lateral canthal vertical line was 11.2 (10.8) and Frankfort’s horizontal line was–16.0 (5.3) mm.

A single long perforator was identified along the lateral canthal vertical line. This most commonly originated from the buccal branch emerging from the facial artery. Therefore, we recommend a cannula be inserted at the Beut site 2 cm inferolateral to the lateral canthus. This injection site is recommended as a safe to avoid injury to the middle-midface perforator.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Facial artery perforator
  • filler injection technique
  • injectable filler complications
  • midface volumization
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Human immunodeficiency virus infection and related risk behavior in people who inject drugs in Nepal

Online veröffentlicht: 31 Mar 2017
Seitenbereich: 609 - 617

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Injecting drugs is major driver of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections in Nepal.

To estimate the HIV prevalence and to examine factors associated with it among people who inject (illicit) drugs (PWID) in Nepal.

The present study was based on data secondary to Integrated Biological and Behavioral Surveillance (IBBS) surveys of PWID in Nepal from 2002 to 2015. A χ2 test was used to determine significant risk factors for HIV infection. A logistic regression model was used to identify the most important determinants for HIV infection.

We included cross-sectional data from 7,073 PWID in the surveys from 2002 to 2015 in this retrospective observational study; among these 1,257 (17.8%) had tested HIV positive. The prevalence of HIV infection showed a sharp decrease from 2002 (68%) to 2015 (6.2%). After adjusting each factor for the confounding effects of other factors, year, region, age, education, and duration of injecting drags were significantly associated with HIV (P < 0.001). Prevalence of HIV infection was highest for the following factors: year 2002, Kathmandu Region (30.5%), aged ≥30 years (32%), illiterate (28.5%), and injecting drugs >10 years (35%).

HIV infection shows a steady decreasing trend, but the number of cases remains high. The factors strongly contributing to HIV were advanced age, Kathmandu region, low educational achievement, and longer duration of injecting drags. Intensified and focused programs are needed to reduce the HIV in the region focusing on its associated risk behaviors.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Drug users
  • HIV
  • IBBS
  • Nepal
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Molecular epidemiology of Crimean–Congo hemorrhagic fever virus in ticks collected from western Iran

Online veröffentlicht: 31 Mar 2017
Seitenbereich: 603 - 607

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Crimean–Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a tick-borne viral disease that is endemic in Africa, southeastern Europe, and Asia. Ticks are both the reservoir and the vector of the CCHF virus (CCHFV). Determining the virus infection rate of the tick population in different geographical regions is necessary to design public health policies to prevent CCHF outbreaks.

To determine the prevalence, seasonal activity, and the frequency of CCHFV infection of the tick population in Hamadan province of west Iran.

This cross-sectional study was conducted in 3 counties of Hamadan Province from June 2013 to May 2014. The study areas included both lowland (plains) and highland (mountains) and covered 5% of the villages where 10 herds per village of sheep and goats were randomly selected for hard tick collection.

We examined 983 sheep and goats, and 881 ticks were collected and identified before being preserved for molecular tests. The collected ticks belonged to 3 genera including, Rhipicephalus (95.6%, n = 842), Hyalomma (4.1%, n = 36) and Haemaphysalis (0.4%, n = 4). After species identification, 100 randomly selected ticks were analyzed using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) to detect viral infection. CCHFV infection was observed in 7 collected ticks, of which 4 belonged to R. sanguineus, 2 belonged to R. bursa, and one Hy. asiaticum.

Hyalomma and Rhipicephalus ticks are the main vectors of CCHFV in Hamadan province where CCHF is focal and endemic.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever
  • Hamadan
  • Iran
  • molecular epidemiology
  • tick-borne diseases
  • zoonotic viral disease
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Vitamin D abnormalities in Thai patients with spinal cord injuries

Online veröffentlicht: 31 Mar 2017
Seitenbereich: 595 - 601

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Thai patients with spinal cord injury (SCI) are at risk of hypovitaminosis D. Data regarding prevalence and factors associated with low vitamin D levels in Asian patients with SCI are limited. Sunlight is considered adequate for vitamin D generation in tropical countries, but dietary factors may play a role in vitamin D deficiency in Thai patients with SCI.

To determine the prevalence and factors associated with low vitamin D levels in Thai patients with SCI.

Were enrolled patients who were treated for SCI at Khon Kaen University Hospital between August 2013 and April 2014. Inclusion criteria were ≥18 years old and diagnosed as having an SCI of >3 months. Patients were excluded if they had bone cancer, stroke, cirrhosis, chronic kidney disease, were pregnant, or were taking medications that might affect vitamin D levels, including supplements. Vitamin D levels and histories of sunlight exposure, diet, and sunscreen use were studied.

During the study period, 85 patients met inclusion criteria. Low vitamin D levels were found in 52 (61%). Two factors were found significantly associated with low vitamin D levels by multivariate logistic regression analysis: sunlight exposure of <2 times/week and low mushroom consumption. The adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) for these factors were 7.72 (1.09, 54.27) and 0.066 (0.009, 0.490) respectively.

The prevalence of low vitamin D levels in Thai patients with SCI was 61%. Factors associated with low vitamin D levels in SCI patients were the frequency of sunlight exposure and mushroom consumption.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Risk factors
  • spinal cord injury
  • sunlight
  • vitamin D
  • 25 (OH) D
10 Artikel

Editorial

Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Enhancing cultural competency and health literacy: a critical component to quality care and empowerment

Online veröffentlicht: 31 Mar 2017
Seitenbereich: 535 - 536

Zusammenfassung

Review article

Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Practice of iron chelation therapy for transfusion-dependent thalassemia in Southeast Asia

Online veröffentlicht: 31 Mar 2017
Seitenbereich: 537 - 547

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Thalassemia is a common monogenic disease in Southeast Asia. Patients with transfusion-dependent thalassemia require frequent blood transfusions, which can lead to iron overload and subsequent organ dysfunction and damage. Iron overload is avoided by chelation therapy. There are 3 types of chelators available for iron chelation therapy, namely, desferrioxamine, deferiprone, and deferasirox. Although practical guidelines are available for the management of transfusion-dependent thalassemia, not all countries are able to provide “ideal” treatment for their patients.

To discuss the scope of iron chelation practices including the types of chelators that are available in Southeast Asia, and explore issues relevant to the treatment of transfusion-dependent thalassemic patients in this region.

A literature search for information pertaining to thalassemia and its management from 2000 to 2015 was conducted using the following websites: PubMed/MEDLINE, Google Scholar, Scopus, and SpringerLink.

Not all Southeast Asian countries have yet published detailed information about their iron chelation practice and not all countries in Southeast Asia have uniform practices for thalassemia management based on published recommendations.

Advances in treatment have improved the management of thalassemic patients. However, because of various issues, not all countries are able to provide an ideal treatment for their patients. Southeast Asian countries should work together to prevent this inherited disease.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Iron chelation therapy
  • practice
  • Southeast Asia
  • thalassemia

Original article

Uneingeschränkter Zugang

The development and application of the ABCDE-health literacy scale for Thais

Online veröffentlicht: 31 Mar 2017
Seitenbereich: 587 - 594

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The 7th Global Conference on Health Promotion was held in 2009. The World Health Organization advocated focus on the development of health literacy (HL), which refers to cognitive and social skills of individuals to access, understand, and use information to promote and maintain a healthy life.

To synthesize and develop an ABCDE (alcohol, baccy, coping, diet, and exercise) HL Scale for Thai adults, to evaluate their HL, and to determine whether the path model of HL influences health outcomes.

The synthesis used 12 research articles published in PubMed and Science Direct (1996-2013), and the participants used to test the research hypothesis were Thais aged >15 years. We selected 4,401 participants by systematic sampling, who responded to a 5-point scale for 64 items, with a Cronbach -coefficient of reliability between 0.61 and 0.91.

(1) The HL scales were in a good range of factor loading from 0.326 to 0.861. (2) The overall HL of the subjects was fair for 72.0%. The health outcomes were poor for 53.5% of all participants, fair in 44.7%, and good in 1.8% percent. (3) The path model of HL that influences health outcomes was consistent with the empirical data (χ2 27.48, with 7 degrees of freedom, P = 0.003, and root mean square error of approximation of 0.032).

We recommend application of the ABCDE-HL Scale for Thai Adults as a screening tool to develop HL using a public health promotion policy for Thai adults with low levels of HL.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Health behavior
  • health literacy
  • health outcome
  • HL scale
  • research synthesis
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Epidemiology of congenital anomalies in the Kurram Tribal Agency, northwest Pakistan

Online veröffentlicht: 31 Mar 2017
Seitenbereich: 575 - 585

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

We know of no study reporting hereditary and congenital anomalies (CA) prevalent among northwestern populations in the Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA) of Pakistan, a region of war and geopolitical unrest.

To determine and report the epidemiology of CA in the Kurram Tribal Agency in northwest Pakistan.

A cross-sectional clinical and genetic epidemiological study was conducted in relatively safe pockets of the Kurram Agency of FATA and individuals or families with CA were randomly recruited through door-to-door surveys and visiting public places like the Jirgah and hospitals.

This study ascertained 246 independent families or individuals with CA. They were grouped into 9 major and 49 minor phenotypic categories. Among the major categories, neurological disorders were the most frequent (n = 83; proportion = 0.337; CI = 0.278,0.397), followed by musculoskeletal defects (n = 56), limb anomalies (n = 52), sensorineural/ear defects (n = 18), ectodermal anomalies (n = 11), congenital heart defects (n = 10), and eye/visual impairments (n = 6). Sporadic occurrence of anomalies was more frequent than familial occurrence (169 vs. 77), and isolated presentations were more common than syndromic appearance (170 vs. 76). The distribution of various ascertainment types (e.g. sex-wise, familial/sporadic, isolated/syndromic presentations), with demographic variables such as age, origin, ethnicity, education, family type, and parental consanguinity were mostly not significant.

Neurological disorders were the most frequent type of congenital anomalies in the Kurram Federal Tribal Agency of Pakistan.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Congenital anomalies
  • descriptive epidemiology
  • FATA
  • genetic disorders
  • Pakistani
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Multiple sclerosis lesions on magnetic resonance imaging, their characterization and pathological correlation with musculoskeletal disability in Pakistanis

Online veröffentlicht: 31 Mar 2017
Seitenbereich: 567 - 574

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory disease affecting movement. MS has a worldwide distribution.

Early detection of MS lesions in Pakistanis by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI); to describe characteristics and to determine the association with musculoskeletal disability.

We included 100 patients (18–65 years old) diagnosed with cases of MS from March 2012 to March 2013. A detailed clinical history of the musculoskeletal system was taken and MR imaging was performed to characterize lesions acquiring T1-weighted (T1W), T2W, proton density, fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR), and T1W postgadolinium sequences.

Most patients belonged to a middle-aged group (42–62 years) and MS was common in women. MS lesions were found in the deep white matter of central nervous system (95 patients), supratentorially (97), periventricularly (96), juxtacortically (62), infratentorially (16), and in the temporal lobes (9). T2W sequences (99 patients detected) were superior to T1W sequences (47). By contrast, FLAIR sequence was more accurate and 100% of these cases were detected on this sequence of MRI. Muscle spasticity was found in 10 patients, muscle weakness in 53, uncoordinated movements in 7, ataxic gait in 9, and slurred speech in 3. However, numbness remained the more common clinical history (69 patients). Muscle fatigue (19), hemiparesis (8), and monoparesis in either upper and lower limbs (5) were other clinical presentations.

MRI plays a pivotal role in detection and characterization of MS plaques. Clinical manifestations and imaging findings are similar to those reported from other parts of the world.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Ataxia
  • FLAIR
  • MRI
  • multiple sclerosis
  • muscle weakness
  • spasticity
  • T1W1
  • T2WI
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Isolation and polymerase chain reaction identification of bacteria from the 2014–2015 flood of Kota Bharu, Kelantan, Malaysia

Online veröffentlicht: 31 Mar 2017
Seitenbereich: 549 - 565

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The transmission of waterborne, foodborne, and airborne infections following flooding is common around the world. There is a need to study and understand the bacterial biodiversity of flood water during massive floods.

To determine the 16S rRNA bacterial biodiversity of flood water that affected parts of Kota Bharu, Kelantan, Malaysia from December 2014 to January 2015.

We collected 31 water samples in 50 mL sterile containers from 6 different locations. Bacteria were cultured by inoculating into blood and nutrient agar using sterile swabs. Various bacteria were identified from the cultures that grew within 24-48 h, using colony morphology, differential/selective media, and biochemical tests. The isolated bacteria were identified using DNA Sanger sequencing and comparing with sequences at NCBI BLAST and SepsiTest BLAST up to species level, and sequences were deposited at GenBank. A 16S rRNA biodiversity chart was obtained. Sequences with low trace score (< 20) were removed, sequences were trimmed, capped (pair-wise assembled) and the 16S biodiversity was analyzed using a 16S biodiversity tool (Geneious version R8.1).

The 16S biodiversity tool results revealed 22 genera of bacteria belonging to 12 families: Moraxellaceae (10%), Aeromonadaceae (8%), Comamonadaceae (13%), Neisseriaceae (2%), Bacillaceae 1 (16%), Staphylococcaceae (8%), Bacillales Incertae Sedis XII (3%), Bacillaceae 2 (3%), Streptococcaceae (2%), Flavobacteriaceae (2%), Enterobacteriaceae (25%), and Pseudomonadaceae (10%). Antibiotic susceptibility tests revealed Klebsiella pneumoniae of the family Enterobacteriaceae as the most resistant (71.4%) to all 7 antibiotics tested.

The isolation of some relatively new species of bacteria in the floodwater in Malaysia needs to be taken into consideration for epidemiological study of flood pathogens to determine future public health implications. Antibiotic resistance of bacteria should support choice of therapy.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Bacteria
  • biodiversity
  • flood
  • isolation
  • Malaysia
  • PCR
  • 16S rRNA

Brief communication (Original)

Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Determining safe entry sites for filler injections on the lateral canthal vertical line: anatomical study of the midface arterial perforators in soft embalmed cadavers

Online veröffentlicht: 31 Mar 2017
Seitenbereich: 619 - 625

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Filler injections are frequently associated with vascular complications.

To investigate the course and location of the middle-midface perforators to establish safe cannula entry sites for filler injections.

The middle-midface was studied using 28 hemiface specimens from soft embalmed Thai cadavers at the Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University. Investigations were performed following injection of red latex.

Middle-midface perforators were classified into 3 groups according to their origin. These perforators originated from the buccal branch of the facial artery (57%); the parotid artery (25%); or directly from the facial artery (18%). The distance between the buccal artery perforator (level with the upper alar crease) and the lateral canthal (Y axis) line was 2.6 (SD 6.0) mm and Frankfort’s horizontal (X axis) lines was –16.4 (5.4) mm. The distance between the parotid artery perforator and the lateral canthal vertical line was 4.2 (10.8) mm and Frankfort’s horizontal line was –13.9 (3.4) mm. The distance between the facial artery perforator and the lateral canthal vertical line was 11.2 (10.8) and Frankfort’s horizontal line was–16.0 (5.3) mm.

A single long perforator was identified along the lateral canthal vertical line. This most commonly originated from the buccal branch emerging from the facial artery. Therefore, we recommend a cannula be inserted at the Beut site 2 cm inferolateral to the lateral canthus. This injection site is recommended as a safe to avoid injury to the middle-midface perforator.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Facial artery perforator
  • filler injection technique
  • injectable filler complications
  • midface volumization
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Human immunodeficiency virus infection and related risk behavior in people who inject drugs in Nepal

Online veröffentlicht: 31 Mar 2017
Seitenbereich: 609 - 617

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Injecting drugs is major driver of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections in Nepal.

To estimate the HIV prevalence and to examine factors associated with it among people who inject (illicit) drugs (PWID) in Nepal.

The present study was based on data secondary to Integrated Biological and Behavioral Surveillance (IBBS) surveys of PWID in Nepal from 2002 to 2015. A χ2 test was used to determine significant risk factors for HIV infection. A logistic regression model was used to identify the most important determinants for HIV infection.

We included cross-sectional data from 7,073 PWID in the surveys from 2002 to 2015 in this retrospective observational study; among these 1,257 (17.8%) had tested HIV positive. The prevalence of HIV infection showed a sharp decrease from 2002 (68%) to 2015 (6.2%). After adjusting each factor for the confounding effects of other factors, year, region, age, education, and duration of injecting drags were significantly associated with HIV (P < 0.001). Prevalence of HIV infection was highest for the following factors: year 2002, Kathmandu Region (30.5%), aged ≥30 years (32%), illiterate (28.5%), and injecting drugs >10 years (35%).

HIV infection shows a steady decreasing trend, but the number of cases remains high. The factors strongly contributing to HIV were advanced age, Kathmandu region, low educational achievement, and longer duration of injecting drags. Intensified and focused programs are needed to reduce the HIV in the region focusing on its associated risk behaviors.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Drug users
  • HIV
  • IBBS
  • Nepal
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Molecular epidemiology of Crimean–Congo hemorrhagic fever virus in ticks collected from western Iran

Online veröffentlicht: 31 Mar 2017
Seitenbereich: 603 - 607

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Crimean–Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a tick-borne viral disease that is endemic in Africa, southeastern Europe, and Asia. Ticks are both the reservoir and the vector of the CCHF virus (CCHFV). Determining the virus infection rate of the tick population in different geographical regions is necessary to design public health policies to prevent CCHF outbreaks.

To determine the prevalence, seasonal activity, and the frequency of CCHFV infection of the tick population in Hamadan province of west Iran.

This cross-sectional study was conducted in 3 counties of Hamadan Province from June 2013 to May 2014. The study areas included both lowland (plains) and highland (mountains) and covered 5% of the villages where 10 herds per village of sheep and goats were randomly selected for hard tick collection.

We examined 983 sheep and goats, and 881 ticks were collected and identified before being preserved for molecular tests. The collected ticks belonged to 3 genera including, Rhipicephalus (95.6%, n = 842), Hyalomma (4.1%, n = 36) and Haemaphysalis (0.4%, n = 4). After species identification, 100 randomly selected ticks were analyzed using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) to detect viral infection. CCHFV infection was observed in 7 collected ticks, of which 4 belonged to R. sanguineus, 2 belonged to R. bursa, and one Hy. asiaticum.

Hyalomma and Rhipicephalus ticks are the main vectors of CCHFV in Hamadan province where CCHF is focal and endemic.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever
  • Hamadan
  • Iran
  • molecular epidemiology
  • tick-borne diseases
  • zoonotic viral disease
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Vitamin D abnormalities in Thai patients with spinal cord injuries

Online veröffentlicht: 31 Mar 2017
Seitenbereich: 595 - 601

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Thai patients with spinal cord injury (SCI) are at risk of hypovitaminosis D. Data regarding prevalence and factors associated with low vitamin D levels in Asian patients with SCI are limited. Sunlight is considered adequate for vitamin D generation in tropical countries, but dietary factors may play a role in vitamin D deficiency in Thai patients with SCI.

To determine the prevalence and factors associated with low vitamin D levels in Thai patients with SCI.

Were enrolled patients who were treated for SCI at Khon Kaen University Hospital between August 2013 and April 2014. Inclusion criteria were ≥18 years old and diagnosed as having an SCI of >3 months. Patients were excluded if they had bone cancer, stroke, cirrhosis, chronic kidney disease, were pregnant, or were taking medications that might affect vitamin D levels, including supplements. Vitamin D levels and histories of sunlight exposure, diet, and sunscreen use were studied.

During the study period, 85 patients met inclusion criteria. Low vitamin D levels were found in 52 (61%). Two factors were found significantly associated with low vitamin D levels by multivariate logistic regression analysis: sunlight exposure of <2 times/week and low mushroom consumption. The adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) for these factors were 7.72 (1.09, 54.27) and 0.066 (0.009, 0.490) respectively.

The prevalence of low vitamin D levels in Thai patients with SCI was 61%. Factors associated with low vitamin D levels in SCI patients were the frequency of sunlight exposure and mushroom consumption.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Risk factors
  • spinal cord injury
  • sunlight
  • vitamin D
  • 25 (OH) D

Planen Sie Ihre Fernkonferenz mit Scienceendo