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Zeitschriftendaten
Format
Zeitschrift
eISSN
1875-855X
Erstveröffentlichung
01 Jun 2007
Erscheinungsweise
6 Hefte pro Jahr
Sprachen
Englisch

Suche

Volumen 4 (2010): Heft 1 (February 2010)

Zeitschriftendaten
Format
Zeitschrift
eISSN
1875-855X
Erstveröffentlichung
01 Jun 2007
Erscheinungsweise
6 Hefte pro Jahr
Sprachen
Englisch

Suche

25 Artikel
access type Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Ethical guidelines for publication in Asian Biomedicine

Online veröffentlicht: 13 Apr 2018
Seitenbereich: 1 - 2

Zusammenfassung

access type Uneingeschränkter Zugang

BK virus: microbiology, epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical manifestations and treatment

Online veröffentlicht: 13 Apr 2018
Seitenbereich: 3 - 18

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Background: BK virus infection is common but is usually asymptomatic. However, it can become life threatening as severe hemorrhagic cystitis (HC) or the polyomavirus-associated nephropathy (PVAN) particularly in immune compromised and transplant recipients. Some investigators have studied the pathophysiology and there are anecdotal and uncontrolled studies of therapy with few conclusions allowing treatment guidelines. Objectives: Summarize literature review of current knowledge concerning the nature, epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis and treatment of this common virus infection. Results: HC is a not uncommon and often misdiagnosed infection from BK virus. It is usually self limited but can become life threatening in immune compromised patients. PVAN threatens survival of transplanted kidneys and is difficult to differentiate from rejection without sophisticated molecular diagnostic technology. We have sufficient information for making a diagnosis of BK virus disease by using clinical, serological and molecular technology. Studies using manipulation of immunosuppression and a variety of antiviral agents, including cidofovir, leflunomide, intravenous immunoglobulin, vidarabine, fluroquinolones, have been published but most were uncontrolled reports of few cases. Cidofovir offers some promise but more must be learned before there is hope for evidence-based treatment guidelines.

Schlüsselwörter

  • BK-virus
  • clinical feature
  • diagnosis
  • epimiology
  • pathophysiology
  • polyoma virus
  • treatment
access type Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Diagnostic accuracy of combined dipyridamole stress perfusion and delayed enhancement cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging for detection of coronary artery disease

Online veröffentlicht: 13 Apr 2018
Seitenbereich: 19 - 25

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Background: The diagnosis of coronary artery disease (CAD) is one of the most common clinical issues that face medical practitioners. Myocardial ischemia can be noninvasively assessed with cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging (CMRI), which has become an emerging modality. Objective: Determine the accuracy of dipyridamole stress CMRI by using stress and rest perfusion combined with delayed enhancement imaging for detecting CAD. Methods: Thirty-nine patients (24 men, 15 women; mean age 64±11.4 years) who had experienced prior myocardial infarction or had suspected CAD were enrolled. Dipyridamole stress CMRI with subsequent coronary angiography was performed within a mean time interval of 16 days (range: 1-30 days). The dipyridamole stress CMR protocol included stress and rest perfusion followed by delayed enhancement imaging. Per-vessel analysis was done according to 17-segment model recommendation by the American Heart Association. Results: Coronary angiography depicted significant coronary artery stenosis (>70% stenosis of major epicardial artery) in 26 patients (55 coronary arteries). The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and accuracy of the combined stress and rest perfusion with delayed enhancement imaging for detection of significant coronary artery stenosis were 76-96%, 79-96%, 87-93%, 83-96%, and 85-95%, in left anterior descending, left circumflex, and right coronary arteries, respectively. Without delayed enhancement imaging, stress and rest perfusion produced slightly lower sensitivity (69-92%), specificity (73- 96%), positive predictive value (79-93%), negative predictive value (80-92%), and accuracy (79-92%). Conclusion: Dipyridamole stress CMRI combined with delayed enhancement imaging yielded high diagnostic accuracy for the detection of coronary artery disease. This modality allows the clinical application for detection of CAD in selected group of patients.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging
  • coronary angiography
  • coronary artery disease
  • delayed enhancement imaging
  • dipyridamole stress
access type Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Increased cardiac microvascular permeability and activation of cardiac endothelial nitric oxide synthase in high tidal volume ventilation-induced lung injury

Online veröffentlicht: 13 Apr 2018
Seitenbereich: 27 - 36

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Background: Positive pressure ventilation with large tidal volumes has been shown to cause lung injury via the serine/threonine kinase-protein kinase B (Akt) and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS)-pathways. However, the effects of high tidal volume (VT) ventilation on the heart are unclear. Objectives: Evaluate the effect of VT ventilation on the cardiac vascular permeability and intracellular Akt and eNOS signaling pathway. Methods: C57BL/6 and Akt knock-out (heterozygotes, +/−) mice were exposed to high VT (30 mL/kg) mechanical ventilation with room air for one and/or five hours. Results: High VT ventilation increased cardiac microvascular permeability and eNOS phosphorylation in a timedependent manner. Serum cardiac troponin I was increased after one hour of high VT ventilation. Cardiac Akt phosphorylation was accentuated after one hour and attenuated after five hours of high VT ventilation. Pharmacological inhibition of Akt with LY294002 and high VT ventilation of Akt+/− mice attenuated cardiac Akt phosphorylation, but not eNOS phosphorylation. Conclusion: High VT ventilation increased cardiac myocardial injury, microvascular permeability, and eNOS phosphorylation. Involvement of cardiac Akt in high VT ventilation was transient.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Akt
  • eNOS
  • lung injury
  • vascular permeability
  • ventilation
access type Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Analysis of EEG dynamics in epileptic children during carbamazepine therapy

Online veröffentlicht: 13 Apr 2018
Seitenbereich: 37 - 47

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Background: The analysis of the dynamics of background EEG characteristics on the different stages of CBZtherapy is very important for revealing the possible early predictors of benefit/adverse effects of the treatment and optimizing the anti-epileptic therapy. Objective: Evaluate the carbamazepine (CBZ) effect on the dynamics of EEG pattern in epileptic children at different stages of CBZ-monotherapy. Methods: Forty-five children (aged 3-9) with partial epilepsy were investigated. The EEG was recorded at rest and during functional tests prior to CBZ administration and three and six months after the initiation of CBZtherapy. Epileptiform graphoelements and baseline EEG activities were analyzed. Results: Following three months of CBZ-therapy an absolute power value in the low frequency bands of EEG spectrum increased while an average frequency of alpha waves decreased. During rest, CBZ reduced density of spontaneous epileptiform graphoelements and generalized epileptiform bursts. Generalized paroxysmal bursts decreased under functional tests. The EEG pattern maintained the same characteristics for six months. Deterioration of EEG pattern and clinical signs was observed in four children. Conclusion: Elevation of indices of low frequency bands, especially in occipital and parietal regions, concomitant with reduction of epileptiform elements and seizure frequency three months after initiation of therapy suggests that CBZ in appropriate doses might be continued. Otherwise, the strategy of antiepileptic therapy should be revised.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Carbamazepine
  • children
  • EEG power value
  • epilepsy
access type Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Trichuris vulpis and T. trichiura infections among schoolchildren of a rural community in northwestern Thailand: the possible role of dogs in disease transmission

Online veröffentlicht: 13 Apr 2018
Seitenbereich: 49 - 60

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Background: Trichuriasis is an important soil-transmitted helminth infection caused by Trichuris trichiura. About one-tenth of the world population may be infected. Incidentally, T. vulpis or dog whipworm has been reported to infect humans based on the egg size. However, an overlapping egg dimension occurs between T. trichiura and T. vulpis leading to the potential for misdiagnosis. Objective: Develop a PCR method to differentiate T. trichiura and T. vulpis eggs in stool samples and to investigate the prevalence of both whipworms in humans and dogs in a rural community in Thailand. Materials and methods: We determined and compared the small subunit ribosomal RNA sequences of both species of whipworms for developing species-specific PCR diagnosis. After validation of the method, we conducted a cross-sectional survey at Ta Song Yang District in Tak Province, northwestern Thailand in 2008. Stool samples were randomly recruited from 80 schoolchildren (36 males, 44 females) and 79 dogs in this community. Results: Fifty-six individuals harbored Trichuris eggs in their stools. The PCR-based diagnosis revealed that 50 cases were infected with T. trichiura and six (10.7%) were co-infected with both T. trichiura and T. vulpis. Although the dimension of Trichuris eggs provided some diagnostic clues for species differentiation, a remarkable variation in the length of these whipworm eggs was observed among samples that could lead to misdiagnosis. Conclusion: Both T. trichiura and T. vulpis eggs were detected in stool samples of dogs that roamed around this community, highlighting the potential reservoir role of dogs in the transmission of both human and dog whipworms in this population.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Trichuris vulpis
  • Trichuris trichiura
  • PCR
  • Thailand
access type Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Safety and immunogenicity of rabies pre- and postexposure intradermal regimens using Abhayrab, a purified vero cell rabies vaccine (PVRV) produced in India in healthy volunteers: towards greater affordability of rabies prophylaxis

Online veröffentlicht: 13 Apr 2018
Seitenbereich: 61 - 67

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Background: Rabies is 100% fatal, but is preventable. However, due to the high cost of vaccines and immunoglobulins, as well as their limited availability, many dog-bite victims in the Philippines do not complete the required PEP regimen. This concern may be addressed by the introduction of various new brands of affordable rabies vaccines and biologicals for use with the ID regimen. Objective: Study the safety and immunogenicity of rabies pre- and post-exposure intradermal regimens using Abhayrab, a purified vero cell rabies vaccine (PVRV) produced by the human biological institute of Ooty India in healthy volunteers. Methods: In a randomized, single blind, unicentric trial, 149 healthy volunteers (5 - 50 years in age) were recruited to the study. The subjects were then randomized into two groups. Group 1 (pre-exposure) (73 subjects) followed the standard ID regimen using a dose of 0.1 mL PVRV (Abhayrab) given intradermally on either deltoid on days 0, 7 and 28. Group 2 (post-exposure) (76 Subjects) followed the modified Thai Red Cross ID regimen (2-2-2-0-2) using a dose of 0.1 mL PVRV (Abhayrab) each given intradermally on both deltoids on days 0, 3, 7, and 28. Following administration of vaccine, subjects were observed closely for 30 minutes at the site for adverse reactions. Four ml of blood from each subject was drawn on days 0, 14, and 28 for anti-rabies antibody titres. Safety and immunogenicity were assessed through follow-up of adverse events and anti rabies antibody response, respectively. Results: Eventually, 120 subjects, 60 in each group, completed the day 28 ID immunization. All the 120 subjects demonstrated seroconversions with antibody titers greater than the WHO recommended cut-off level of 0.5 IU/mL on days 14 and 28. The GMC values for Group 1 were 3.30 IU/ml and 4.37 IU/mL on days 14 and 28, respectively, while those of Group 2 were 3.73 IU/mL and 4.82 IU/mL, respectively. These GMC values were within their 95% CIs. Only a few mild adverse events were observed with no incidences of moderate or severe events. Conclusion: Abhayrab is a safe and immunogenic rabies vaccine when administered intradermally.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Human rabies
  • PVRV
  • Intradermal
  • post-exposure treatment
  • RFFIT
access type Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Cytokine induction after Epstein-Barr virus infection of peripheral T-lymphocytes in vitro

Online veröffentlicht: 13 Apr 2018
Seitenbereich: 69 - 77

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Background: Although the presence of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) in different T-cell malignancies has been widely reported, there is very few data available for EBV infection of normal T cells. This leads to the lack of knowledge on the early events after T cell infection. Objective: Investigate the early events occurring after normal human peripheral T-cells are infected with EBV in vitro. Methods: T-cells were treated with EBV in vitro. The expression of tumor necrosis factor- α (TNF-α) mRNA were determined using reverse-transcription (RT)-PCR, and the level of TNF-α and interferon- γ (IFN-γ) in the culture supernatant were measured using ELISA. The effect of virus inactivation on cytokine induction from T-cells was also determined. Results: At the beginning of T cell infection by EBV, the expression of several lytic EBV transcripts (BALF5, BcLF1, and BLLF1) were observed using RT-PCR. This indicated the susceptibility of in vitro EBV infection and the entering lytic cycle of EBV-infected T-cells. The interactions of EBV with T-cells lead to induction of inflammatory cytokines, tumour necrosis factor- α (TNF-α) and interferon- γ (IFN-γ), production from the T-cells. Inactivation of the virus by UV irradiation eliminated the TNF-α and IFN-γ induction by EBV, suggesting the involvement in the expression of viral gene(s). Conclusion: This in vitro analysis demonstrated the cytokine induction by EBV after primary infection of T-cells.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Cytokines
  • early events
  • Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)
  • IFN-γ
  • lytic replication
  • T lymphocytes
  • TNF-α
access type Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Association between serum interleukin-6 levels and severity of perinatal asphyxia

Online veröffentlicht: 13 Apr 2018
Seitenbereich: 79 - 85

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Background: Perinatal asphyxia is a major cause of neurologic morbidity and mortality in infants. Objective: Determine the serum level of interleukin-6 (IL-6) in neonates with perinatal asphyxia and its relation to the severity of hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy and short term neurological outcome. Methods: Serum IL-6 levels were measured at birth, and at 24 and 48 hour post-partum in 37 consecutive uninfected neonates with peri-natal asphyxia and 45 randomly selected healthy newborns. Results: Serum IL-6 concentrations in the infants who developed hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy was 43 folds higher compared to values in the normal infants (p < 0.001) and 1.9 folds higher as compared to infants with asphyxia who did not subsequently develop hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (p <0.001). Serum IL-6 concentrations were also related to the degree of hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy and neurologicaldevelopmental outcomes at the time of discharge. Conclusion: Serum levels of IL-6 increased in neonates with asphyxia, and this was most pronounced in neonates with adverse outcomes.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy
  • interleukin-6
  • perinatal asphyxia
  • newborn
access type Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Walk performance in Thai men and women: physical activity dependence

Online veröffentlicht: 13 Apr 2018
Seitenbereich: 87 - 93

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Background: Six-minute walk test (6MWT) is a measure of functional capacity and a predictor of morbidity and mortality in the elderly. Published reference equations for the six-minute walk distance (6MWD) were derived from healthy subjects with sufficient physical activity, and may not be valid for patients with limited physical activity. Objective: To measure 6MWD in healthy individuals with sufficient (Suff) and insufficient (Insuff) levels of physical activity in Thai, and to compare the measured 6MWD with those calculated using published reference equations. Methods: Healthy volunteers aged 45-65 years (77 men and 85 women) performed three standard 6MWT. Physical activity levels were determined using a one-week recall physical activity questionnaire. The subjects were classified as having sufficient or insufficient levels of physical activity. Results: 6MWD of the Suff group was greater than the Insuff group in both men (701+89 m vs. 652+55 m, p = 0.005) and women (619+49 m vs. 571+35 m, p <0.001). The predicted 6MWD from published reference equations underestimated the measured 6MWD of men in Suff group, while it overestimated the measured 6MWD of women in Insuff group. Conclusion: Level of physical activity affected 6MWD of the subjects. Published references must be carefully applied for predicting 6MWD of individuals with various levels of physical activity.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Asian
  • healthy
  • physical activity
  • six minute walk test
access type Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Bioequivalence of indinavir capsules in healthy volunteers

Online veröffentlicht: 13 Apr 2018
Seitenbereich: 95 - 101

Zusammenfassung

Schlüsselwörter

  • Bioequivalence
  • indinavir
  • pharmacokinetics
  • protease inhibitors
  • Thai volunteers
access type Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Mechanisms of Kaempferia parviflora extract (KPE)- induced vasorelaxation in the rat aorta

Online veröffentlicht: 13 Apr 2018
Seitenbereich: 103 - 111

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Background: The rhizomes of Kaempferia parviflora (KP) have been widely used in Thai traditional medicine to treat several diseases such as hypertension. Recent studies have shown that the ethanolic extract of KP (KPE) exerts vasorelaxant effects in the rat aorta. However, the underlying mechanisms of these vascular responses remain unclear. Objectives: Investigate the mechanisms of KPE-induced vasorelaxation in the rat aorta. Methods: Aortic rings from male Wistar rats were precontracted with methoxamine. Changes in tension were measured using an isometric force transducer and recorded on the MacLab recording system. Vasorelaxation to KPE was examined in the presence of 10 μM indomethacin, 300 μM NG-nitro L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), 60 mM KCl, 5 mM tetraethylammonium chloride (TEA), 10 μM glibenclamide, 1 mM 4-aminopyridine (4-AP) or 30 μM barium chloride (BaCl2). The effects of KPE on vascular responses to carbachol, sodium nitroprusside, and CaCl2 were evaluated. Results: KPE (0.1-100 μg/mL) caused vasorelaxations, which were reduced with removal of the endothelium. In addition, indomethacin, L-NAME, and indomethacin plus L-NAME reduced KPE-induced vasorelaxation. Raising the extracellular KCl concentration to 60 mM, or pre-treatment with BaCl2, TEA, or glibenclamide reduced relaxant responses to KPE. Contractions to CaCl2 were inhibited after pre-incubation with KPE. Pre-treatment with KPE enhanced endothelium-dependent relaxations to carbachol, but not to sodium nitroprusside. Conclusion: KPE had a vasodilator effect in the rat isolated aortic rings. These effects involved endotheliumderived NO and prostanoids via a COX pathway. In addition, KPE-induced vasorelaxation was due to increasing K+ efflux probably through KCa, KIR and KATP channels. These provide pharmacological evidence for mechanism of KPE-induced vasorelaxation and support the traditional use of KPE as an antihypertensive agent.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Kaempferia parviflora
  • vasorelaxation
  • endothelium
  • potassium channels
  • calcium channels
  • rat aorta
access type Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Magnetic resonance imaging findings of hepatocellular carcinoma: typical and atypical findings

Online veröffentlicht: 13 Apr 2018
Seitenbereich: 113 - 124

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Background: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common primary liver malignancy. Magnetic resonance imaging has been widely used for detection and characterization of HCC. Objective: Describe MRI findings of HCC and to define the typical and atypical appearances of HCC on magnetic resonance images. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed MRI findings of 100 HCC in 78 patients. Diagnosis was confirmed by angiography, pathology or follow up imaging. The signal intensity, size, margins, enhancement pattern, and other features were evaluated. Imaging findings between small HCC (< 2 cm) and large HCC (>2 cm) were compared. Results: The most common signal intensity of HCC on unenhanced T1- and T2-weighted images was hypointense on T1-weighted images and hyperintense on T2-weighted images (65%). Most HCC (91%) were hyperintense on T2-weighted images. Isointensity on T2-weighted images were found in 9% of HCC. The typical enhancement pattern of HCC was enhancement on the arterial phase and washout on the portovenous phase (84%). Atypical enhancement pattern of HCC were enhancement on the portovenous phase in 5%, rim enhancement on the arterial phase or portovenous phase were demonstrated in 2%. Hyperintensity of the tumor on delayed phase was found in 19%. There was no statistically significant difference in signal intensity, enhancement, and washout pattern between small and large HCC. Fatty metamorphosis, mosaic pattern, necrosis, capsule and vascular involvement were found in 18%, 42%, 5%, 62%, and 6%, respectively. Mosaic pattern, necrosis, capsule, and vascular involvement were observed more frequently in large HCC. Conclusion: The typical appearance of HCC was hypointense on T1-weighted, hyperintense on T2-weighted images, arterial enhancement and portovenous washout. Atypical appearances of HCC were rim enhancement on the arterial phase or portovenous phase and persistent enhancement on the delayed phase

Schlüsselwörter

  • Capsule
  • fatty metamorphosis
  • hepatocellular carcinoma
  • magnetic resonance imaging
  • mosaic pattern
  • necrosis
access type Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Bilateral hip disarticulation in paraplegics

Online veröffentlicht: 13 Apr 2018
Seitenbereich: 125 - 129

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Background: Decubitus ulcers are severe challenges to paraplegic patients, as well as to the medical providers caring for such disabled persons. Severe, chronic infection often can lead to death, especially in developing countries. Sometimes, hip disarticulation is the most appropriate surgical response to chronic ulceration. Objective: Report the results of bilateral disarticulations in 3 patients, one in Cambodia, and two in Australia. Methods: Chart reviews, examinations, and interviews with the patients were conducted to identify appropriate details of the indications and results. Results: Severe decubitus ulcers were successfully treated using the technique, without undue surgical complications. The general health of the patients was much improved. Conclusion: Bilateral hip disarticulations were performed as last stage salvage operations in three patients, who expressed satisfaction with the results, even though some problems with balance and recurrent ulceration persisted.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Chronic ulceration
  • hip disarticulation
  • paraplegia
access type Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Dosimetry of conformal dynamic arc radiotherapy and intensity modulated radiotherapy in unresectable cholangiocarcinoma

Online veröffentlicht: 13 Apr 2018
Seitenbereich: 131 - 139

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Background: Radiotherapy in cholangiocrcinoma has to overcome organ tolerance of the upper abdomen. Hi-technology radiotherapy may improve conformity and reduce dose to those organ. Objective: Quantitatively compare the dosimetry of conformal dynamic arc radiotherapy (CD-arcRT) and intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) in unresectable cholangiocarcinoma. Material and methods: Eleven cases of unresectable cholangiocarcinoma were re-planned with IMRT and CDarcRT at King Chulalongkhorn Memorial Hospital between 20 September 2004 and 31 December 2005. Both the planning techniques were evaluated using the dose volume histogram of the planning target volume and organ at risk. The conformation number and dose to critical normal structures were used to determine the techniques. Results: IMRT technique was significantly conformed to the planning target volume than CD-arcRT in term of conformation number. For critical structure, IMRT significantly reduced the radiation dose to liver in terms of mean liver dose, V30Gy and V20Gy of the right kidney. Conclusion: The advantage of IMRT was more conformity and reduced dose to critical structure compared with CD-arcRT, but there was no difference between these techniques in terms of V20Gy of left kidney and maximum dose to the spinal cord.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Conformal dynamic arc radiotherapy
  • cholangiocarcinoma
  • dosimetry
  • Intensity modulated radiotherapy
  • radiotherapy
access type Uneingeschränkter Zugang

An evaluation of 2.0 McFarland Etest method for detection of heterogeneous vancomycin-intermediate Staphylococcus aureus

Online veröffentlicht: 13 Apr 2018
Seitenbereich: 141 - 145

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Background: Staphylococcus aureus with reduced susceptibility to vancomycin or heterogeneous vancomycinintermediate S. aureus (hVISA) have become increasingly reported from various parts of the world. hVISA cannot be detected by routine test for minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) for vancomycin. The gold standard method for detection, population analysis profiles (PAP) method, is complicated, time-consuming, expensive, and needs well-trained microbiologists. Objective: Evaluate of 2.0 McFarland Etest method, in comparison with the PAP method, for detection of hVISA in clinical specimens. Methods: All methicillin-resistant S. aureus strains from clinical specimens isolated from consecutive patients attended at King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital and Siriraj Hospital, Bangkok between 2006 and 2007 were studied. 1 hundred nineteen specimens were obtained. The PAP method detected six hVISA strains 5 from blood and from cultures) from four patients at King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital, accounting for a prevalence of 6.35%. The MIC determined by agar dilution method was in the range of 2-3 μg/mL. Results: 2.0 McFarland Etest method detected no false positive and five false negatives (42%), and gave a sensitivity and a specificity of 16.7% and 100%, respectively. The one-point population analysis screening method detected two false positives and 1 false negative, and gave a sensitivity of 83.3% and a specificity and 98.2%. Conclusion: The 2.0 McFarland Etest method had a very good specificity but a poor sensitivity for detecting hVISA. It may be used as an alternative method to confirm detection of hVISA.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Etest
  • heterogeneous vancomycin-intermediate S. aureus
  • population analysis profiles
  • Staphylococcus aureus
  • susceptibility
access type Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Comparing anterior cervical fusion using titanium cage with hydroxyapatite and with autograft

Online veröffentlicht: 13 Apr 2018
Seitenbereich: 147 - 152

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Background: Anterior cervical discectomy and fusion using autogenous iliac bone graft may lead to donor site pain. This has led some surgeons to use hydroxyapatite but it has greater rates of complications. Objective: Analyze results of the treatment of cervical spine spondylosis by anterior cervical discectomy, and to compare fusion using titanium cage with hydroxyapatite and with autograft. Methods: We evaluated eighty patients (at 146 cervical levels) that had been treated by anterior cervical discectomy and fusion with hydroxyapatite or autograft. In a prospective study, patients were divided into two groups: 1) 77 levels of anterior cervical fusion from in 40 patients who were treated with cage and hydroxyapatite, and 2) 69 levels of anterior cervical fusions in 40 patients who were treated with cage and autograft. Results were evaluated using the Japanese Orthopedic Association (JOA) scoring system before and after surgery, subsidence, non-union and complication. Results: According to JOA score, the first group (hydroxyapatite) had improved from 9.8 preoperation to 14.5 postoperation. The subsidence rate was 26.0%, the non-union rate was 10.4%, and there was no intra and post-operative complication. In the other group (autograft), the preoperative JOA score had improved from 9.3 to 14.1. The subsidence rate was 11.6%, and there were no non-union and complications. Statistical significance was found in non-union and subsidence aspect between groups, but the clinical outcome of JOA score was not significantly different. Conclusion: Anterior cervical discectomy and fusion in cervical spondylosis patients, titanium cage implantation with hydroxyapatite is a highly useful alternative to autograft.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Anterior cervical fusion
  • autograft
  • hydroxyapatite
  • titanium cage
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Improved vascular repair is relevant to enhanced renal function with vasodilators in early stage of chronic kidney disease

Online veröffentlicht: 13 Apr 2018
Seitenbereich: 153 - 157

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Background: Treatment with vasodilators can improve renal function in early stage of chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. Objective: Study the mechanism of vascular repair in 20 CKD patients associated with actual creatinine clearance greater than 60 mL/min/1.73m2 (mean 84+24 mL/min/1.73m2) who had been under treatment with vasodilators. Results: Initial study on angiogenic factors revealed a low value of VEGF, no significant change in VEGF-R1, whereas antiangiogenic factors showed elevated angiopoietin-2 and no significant change in VEGF-R2. Initial actual creatinine clearance was significantly depleted and fractional excretion of magnesium (FE Mg) was elevated significantly. Follow-up study showed improved VEGF and a significant decline in angiopoietin-2. Such improved vascular repair coincided with enhanced creatinine clearance. Conclusion: Improved renal function can be achieved by vasodilators under environment favourable for adequate vascular repair.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Angiopoietin
  • CKD
  • vascular repair
  • VEGF
  • VEGF-R1
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Incidence of acquired lacrimal drainage system obstruction in epiphoric patients in Thailand

Online veröffentlicht: 13 Apr 2018
Seitenbereich: 159 - 162

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Background: There were few reports regarding the incidence of the acquired nasolacrimal duct obstruction, and the incidence in different geography or countries might be alike. Since the nasolacrimal drainage system obstruction is a common problem in Thailand, knowledge of the incidence may disclose the burden of the disease that has never been reported. Objectives: Evaluate the incidence of acquired lacrimal drainage system obstruction (ALDO) in Thailand. Methods: This study was conducted in multi-centers. It was based on prospective and descriptive design. All patients with epiphoric symptoms visiting the outpatient departments of five tertiary eyecare centers were recruited between 2004 and 2007. Features of epiphoric symptoms and medical history were recorded, and complete ophthalmic examinations were performed. Results: Epiphoric patients were enrolled from all medical centers with 245 eligible patients, female:male ratio was 4.2:1. Ninety-nine patients (40%) had duration of epiphoric symptoms between one-five years. ALDO was found in 111 patients (45%) with female preponderance (6.9:1). Seventy-one patients (64%) had pre-sac obstruction and 40 patients (36%) had post-sac obstruction. Among other causes of epiphora, dry eye was the most common. Conclusion: The most common cause of epiphora was ALDO. The four-year incidence rate of ALDO among epiphoric patients was 45%.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Dacryocystitis
  • epidemiology
  • epiphora
  • incidence
  • lacrimal duct obstruction
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Mutations of ATP7B gene in two Thai siblings with Wilson disease

Online veröffentlicht: 13 Apr 2018
Seitenbereich: 163 - 169

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Background: Wilson disease (WD) is an autosomal recessive disorder of copper metabolism caused by mutations in ATP7B gene. Objective: Report the clinical data and mutation analysis of two Thai siblings suspected of WD. Subject and methods: A 13-year-old boy who presented with cirrhosis, arthralgia, hypoalbuminemia, and coagulopathy, and his 11-year-old sister who was asymptomatic but had hepatomegaly with elevation of transaminases, were studied. Mutation analysis of ATP7B gene and mRNA analysis was performed in both patients and their parents. Results: Investigations were consistent with WD, and their liver diseases improved after standard treatment for WD. DNA analyses in these two patients revealed two novel mutations, which were a deletion of the first 2bp of exon 6 (c.1870_1871delGA), and a single base substitution from A to G at nucleotide 4075 (c.4075A>G) in the exon 20 (p.M1359V). PCR-restriction digestion with NcoI restriction enzyme was employed as the second method for confirmation of the c.4075A>G mutation and for rapid screening in 100 chromosomes from unrelated healthy controls, and this variant was not present in the controls. The c.1870_1871delGA deletion caused a frameshift effect, which results in a premature stop codon (p.E624fsX753), and the p.M1359V mutation is a substitution of methionine with valine, which may have effects upon its orientation and interaction with other adjacent amino acids. Conclusion: Two novel mutations of ATP7B gene were identified in two Thai siblings with WD.

Schlüsselwörter

  • ATP7B gene
  • cirrhosis
  • liver disease
  • Wilson disease
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The prevalence of unrecognized congenital heart disease among healthy elementary school students in northern Thailand

Online veröffentlicht: 13 Apr 2018
Seitenbereich: 171 - 175

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Background: Congenital heart disease (CHD) is one of the major congenital anomalies among newborns. Although many infants with CHD are symptomatic and identified soon after birth, others remain undiagnosed until the disease becomes severe. Objectives: Unravel the number of CHD cases among 7-12 years old students who reported neither clinical complication nor history about cardiac diseases, stressing the importance for regular cardiac examination in children, even if they appeared healthy. Methods: The study selected students without clinical history of heart disease from 1,041 elementary schools in northern Thailand (Tak, Nakhon Sawan and Uttaradit). Certified nurses and health officers examined the students for abnormal heart conditions. Pediatric cardiologists scrutinized the students with suspected CHD for confirmation and characterization of cardiac lesion types. Results: Out of 144,293 students included in the study, 851 students showed atypical heart symptoms, and 87 were verified to have the CHD. This conferred the prevalence rate of unrecognized CHD among the elementary school children to be 0.60 per 1,000. The frequently-detected heart defects were ventricular septal defect (41.4%) and pulmonary stenosis (16.1%). Fifty-one children (58.6%) required surgery for cardiovascular correction. The prevalence of the CHD in elementary school students ranged from 0.41 to 1.05 cases per 1000 study subjects. The greatest number of incidences was found in Tak province where medical resources are inadequate. Conclusion: This study highlights the significance of routine cardiac examination among school-aged students, particularly in the regions with limited medical facilities, providing information essential for appropriate health care planning and managements.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Asymptomatic
  • congenital
  • elementary school students
  • heart defect
  • heart disease
  • prevalence
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Comparative study of effective-site target controlled infusion with standard bolus induction of propofol for laryngeal mask airway insertion

Online veröffentlicht: 13 Apr 2018
Seitenbereich: 177 - 182

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Several studies demonstrated induction of anesthesia with different plasma target-controlled infusion (TCI) of propofol for LMA insertion. However, there has been no study to compare the standard bolus propofol induction with the effective site TCI for LMA insertion. Objective: Compare the efficacy of induction of anesthesia with propofol for LMA insertion between the effective-site TCI, using 6 μg/mL, and the standard bolus propofol dose of 2.5 mg/kg in elective surgical patients. Methods: A randomized, prospective, single-blinded, clinical study was used for this study. Seventy-eight unpremedicated patients, American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) physical status I and II undergoing elective surgical procedure were randomly allocated between two groups. Group 1 received the standard bolus propofol dose of 2.5 mg/kg. Group 2 received effective site TCI (Schnider model) dose of 6 μg/mL for LMA insertion. The hemodynamics and anesthetic depth (Bispectral index score) were monitored and recorded during and immediately after LMA insertion. The number of insertion attempted, insertion quality score, induction time, and propofol doses used were recorded and compared between groups. Results: The success rate of first insertion attempt was equal in both groups (92.3%). There was no significant hemodynamic response difference between the groups during pre-induction, induction, insertion, and post insertion period. The BIS score was significantly lower during post insertion period in group 1 (51.4+11.0) than group 2 (58.4+3.2) (p=0.013). The propofol doses in group 2 were significantly lower than in group 1 (110.6+14.8 vs. 153.5+21.5) (p <0.001). Patients in group 2 required significantly more induction time than group 1 (146.9+42.3 vs. 103.4+33.6 (p <0.001). Conclusion: Propofol induction with TCI provided equal success rate as compared with standard bolus propofol induction for LMA insertion and insertion quality score. TCI significantly lowered the propofol consumption when compared with the standard 2.5 mg/kg propofol dose.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Anesthetics
  • effect-site concentration
  • laryngeal mask airway
  • propofol
  • target-controlled infusion
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Light-enhanced antibiotic activity of Brazilian medical plants (Croton campestris A, Ocimum gratissimum L and Cordia verbenaceae DC)

Online veröffentlicht: 13 Apr 2018
Seitenbereich: 183 - 186

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Background: Although broad-band ultraviolet (UV)-A has been described as a therapeutic option for various skin diseases, there are few studies investigating the efficacy of UV-A irradiation in treating diseases related to infectious agents. Objective: Evaluate the light-enhanced antibacterial activity of Brazilian medical plants, Croton campestris A (Euphorbiaceae), Ocimum gratissimum L. (Lamiaceae), and Cordia verbenaceae DC (Boraginaceae). Methods: Hexane extracts of Croton campestris A., Ocimum gratissimum L., and Cordia verbenaceae DC were assayed using a UV-A exposure method against strains of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. Assays were performed in triplicate with and without exposure to UV-A radiation to test for light-activated or lightenhanced antibacterial activity. Results: All extracts showed activity against the S. aureus strain. Extracts of O. gratissimum and C. verbenaceae were the most active after exposure to UV-A light, with an increase in antibacterial activity of 140 and 100%, respectively. No extract showed light-activated antibacterial activity against E. coli. Conclusion: C. campestris, O. gravissimum and C. verbenaceae showed light-enhanced antibiotic activity. This suggests that phytochemical investigations may be warranted.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Croton zehntneri
  • UV-A
  • Light-enhanced antibacterial activity
  • Staphylococcus aureus
  • Escherichia coli
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Is renal microvascular disease a reversible process in chronic kidney disease?

Online veröffentlicht: 13 Apr 2018
Seitenbereich: 187 - 187

Zusammenfassung

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News from other pages

Online veröffentlicht: 13 Apr 2018
Seitenbereich: 189 - 189

Zusammenfassung

25 Artikel
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Ethical guidelines for publication in Asian Biomedicine

Online veröffentlicht: 13 Apr 2018
Seitenbereich: 1 - 2

Zusammenfassung

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BK virus: microbiology, epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical manifestations and treatment

Online veröffentlicht: 13 Apr 2018
Seitenbereich: 3 - 18

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Background: BK virus infection is common but is usually asymptomatic. However, it can become life threatening as severe hemorrhagic cystitis (HC) or the polyomavirus-associated nephropathy (PVAN) particularly in immune compromised and transplant recipients. Some investigators have studied the pathophysiology and there are anecdotal and uncontrolled studies of therapy with few conclusions allowing treatment guidelines. Objectives: Summarize literature review of current knowledge concerning the nature, epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis and treatment of this common virus infection. Results: HC is a not uncommon and often misdiagnosed infection from BK virus. It is usually self limited but can become life threatening in immune compromised patients. PVAN threatens survival of transplanted kidneys and is difficult to differentiate from rejection without sophisticated molecular diagnostic technology. We have sufficient information for making a diagnosis of BK virus disease by using clinical, serological and molecular technology. Studies using manipulation of immunosuppression and a variety of antiviral agents, including cidofovir, leflunomide, intravenous immunoglobulin, vidarabine, fluroquinolones, have been published but most were uncontrolled reports of few cases. Cidofovir offers some promise but more must be learned before there is hope for evidence-based treatment guidelines.

Schlüsselwörter

  • BK-virus
  • clinical feature
  • diagnosis
  • epimiology
  • pathophysiology
  • polyoma virus
  • treatment
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Diagnostic accuracy of combined dipyridamole stress perfusion and delayed enhancement cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging for detection of coronary artery disease

Online veröffentlicht: 13 Apr 2018
Seitenbereich: 19 - 25

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Background: The diagnosis of coronary artery disease (CAD) is one of the most common clinical issues that face medical practitioners. Myocardial ischemia can be noninvasively assessed with cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging (CMRI), which has become an emerging modality. Objective: Determine the accuracy of dipyridamole stress CMRI by using stress and rest perfusion combined with delayed enhancement imaging for detecting CAD. Methods: Thirty-nine patients (24 men, 15 women; mean age 64±11.4 years) who had experienced prior myocardial infarction or had suspected CAD were enrolled. Dipyridamole stress CMRI with subsequent coronary angiography was performed within a mean time interval of 16 days (range: 1-30 days). The dipyridamole stress CMR protocol included stress and rest perfusion followed by delayed enhancement imaging. Per-vessel analysis was done according to 17-segment model recommendation by the American Heart Association. Results: Coronary angiography depicted significant coronary artery stenosis (>70% stenosis of major epicardial artery) in 26 patients (55 coronary arteries). The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and accuracy of the combined stress and rest perfusion with delayed enhancement imaging for detection of significant coronary artery stenosis were 76-96%, 79-96%, 87-93%, 83-96%, and 85-95%, in left anterior descending, left circumflex, and right coronary arteries, respectively. Without delayed enhancement imaging, stress and rest perfusion produced slightly lower sensitivity (69-92%), specificity (73- 96%), positive predictive value (79-93%), negative predictive value (80-92%), and accuracy (79-92%). Conclusion: Dipyridamole stress CMRI combined with delayed enhancement imaging yielded high diagnostic accuracy for the detection of coronary artery disease. This modality allows the clinical application for detection of CAD in selected group of patients.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging
  • coronary angiography
  • coronary artery disease
  • delayed enhancement imaging
  • dipyridamole stress
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Increased cardiac microvascular permeability and activation of cardiac endothelial nitric oxide synthase in high tidal volume ventilation-induced lung injury

Online veröffentlicht: 13 Apr 2018
Seitenbereich: 27 - 36

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Background: Positive pressure ventilation with large tidal volumes has been shown to cause lung injury via the serine/threonine kinase-protein kinase B (Akt) and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS)-pathways. However, the effects of high tidal volume (VT) ventilation on the heart are unclear. Objectives: Evaluate the effect of VT ventilation on the cardiac vascular permeability and intracellular Akt and eNOS signaling pathway. Methods: C57BL/6 and Akt knock-out (heterozygotes, +/−) mice were exposed to high VT (30 mL/kg) mechanical ventilation with room air for one and/or five hours. Results: High VT ventilation increased cardiac microvascular permeability and eNOS phosphorylation in a timedependent manner. Serum cardiac troponin I was increased after one hour of high VT ventilation. Cardiac Akt phosphorylation was accentuated after one hour and attenuated after five hours of high VT ventilation. Pharmacological inhibition of Akt with LY294002 and high VT ventilation of Akt+/− mice attenuated cardiac Akt phosphorylation, but not eNOS phosphorylation. Conclusion: High VT ventilation increased cardiac myocardial injury, microvascular permeability, and eNOS phosphorylation. Involvement of cardiac Akt in high VT ventilation was transient.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Akt
  • eNOS
  • lung injury
  • vascular permeability
  • ventilation
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Analysis of EEG dynamics in epileptic children during carbamazepine therapy

Online veröffentlicht: 13 Apr 2018
Seitenbereich: 37 - 47

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Background: The analysis of the dynamics of background EEG characteristics on the different stages of CBZtherapy is very important for revealing the possible early predictors of benefit/adverse effects of the treatment and optimizing the anti-epileptic therapy. Objective: Evaluate the carbamazepine (CBZ) effect on the dynamics of EEG pattern in epileptic children at different stages of CBZ-monotherapy. Methods: Forty-five children (aged 3-9) with partial epilepsy were investigated. The EEG was recorded at rest and during functional tests prior to CBZ administration and three and six months after the initiation of CBZtherapy. Epileptiform graphoelements and baseline EEG activities were analyzed. Results: Following three months of CBZ-therapy an absolute power value in the low frequency bands of EEG spectrum increased while an average frequency of alpha waves decreased. During rest, CBZ reduced density of spontaneous epileptiform graphoelements and generalized epileptiform bursts. Generalized paroxysmal bursts decreased under functional tests. The EEG pattern maintained the same characteristics for six months. Deterioration of EEG pattern and clinical signs was observed in four children. Conclusion: Elevation of indices of low frequency bands, especially in occipital and parietal regions, concomitant with reduction of epileptiform elements and seizure frequency three months after initiation of therapy suggests that CBZ in appropriate doses might be continued. Otherwise, the strategy of antiepileptic therapy should be revised.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Carbamazepine
  • children
  • EEG power value
  • epilepsy
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Trichuris vulpis and T. trichiura infections among schoolchildren of a rural community in northwestern Thailand: the possible role of dogs in disease transmission

Online veröffentlicht: 13 Apr 2018
Seitenbereich: 49 - 60

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Background: Trichuriasis is an important soil-transmitted helminth infection caused by Trichuris trichiura. About one-tenth of the world population may be infected. Incidentally, T. vulpis or dog whipworm has been reported to infect humans based on the egg size. However, an overlapping egg dimension occurs between T. trichiura and T. vulpis leading to the potential for misdiagnosis. Objective: Develop a PCR method to differentiate T. trichiura and T. vulpis eggs in stool samples and to investigate the prevalence of both whipworms in humans and dogs in a rural community in Thailand. Materials and methods: We determined and compared the small subunit ribosomal RNA sequences of both species of whipworms for developing species-specific PCR diagnosis. After validation of the method, we conducted a cross-sectional survey at Ta Song Yang District in Tak Province, northwestern Thailand in 2008. Stool samples were randomly recruited from 80 schoolchildren (36 males, 44 females) and 79 dogs in this community. Results: Fifty-six individuals harbored Trichuris eggs in their stools. The PCR-based diagnosis revealed that 50 cases were infected with T. trichiura and six (10.7%) were co-infected with both T. trichiura and T. vulpis. Although the dimension of Trichuris eggs provided some diagnostic clues for species differentiation, a remarkable variation in the length of these whipworm eggs was observed among samples that could lead to misdiagnosis. Conclusion: Both T. trichiura and T. vulpis eggs were detected in stool samples of dogs that roamed around this community, highlighting the potential reservoir role of dogs in the transmission of both human and dog whipworms in this population.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Trichuris vulpis
  • Trichuris trichiura
  • PCR
  • Thailand
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Safety and immunogenicity of rabies pre- and postexposure intradermal regimens using Abhayrab, a purified vero cell rabies vaccine (PVRV) produced in India in healthy volunteers: towards greater affordability of rabies prophylaxis

Online veröffentlicht: 13 Apr 2018
Seitenbereich: 61 - 67

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Background: Rabies is 100% fatal, but is preventable. However, due to the high cost of vaccines and immunoglobulins, as well as their limited availability, many dog-bite victims in the Philippines do not complete the required PEP regimen. This concern may be addressed by the introduction of various new brands of affordable rabies vaccines and biologicals for use with the ID regimen. Objective: Study the safety and immunogenicity of rabies pre- and post-exposure intradermal regimens using Abhayrab, a purified vero cell rabies vaccine (PVRV) produced by the human biological institute of Ooty India in healthy volunteers. Methods: In a randomized, single blind, unicentric trial, 149 healthy volunteers (5 - 50 years in age) were recruited to the study. The subjects were then randomized into two groups. Group 1 (pre-exposure) (73 subjects) followed the standard ID regimen using a dose of 0.1 mL PVRV (Abhayrab) given intradermally on either deltoid on days 0, 7 and 28. Group 2 (post-exposure) (76 Subjects) followed the modified Thai Red Cross ID regimen (2-2-2-0-2) using a dose of 0.1 mL PVRV (Abhayrab) each given intradermally on both deltoids on days 0, 3, 7, and 28. Following administration of vaccine, subjects were observed closely for 30 minutes at the site for adverse reactions. Four ml of blood from each subject was drawn on days 0, 14, and 28 for anti-rabies antibody titres. Safety and immunogenicity were assessed through follow-up of adverse events and anti rabies antibody response, respectively. Results: Eventually, 120 subjects, 60 in each group, completed the day 28 ID immunization. All the 120 subjects demonstrated seroconversions with antibody titers greater than the WHO recommended cut-off level of 0.5 IU/mL on days 14 and 28. The GMC values for Group 1 were 3.30 IU/ml and 4.37 IU/mL on days 14 and 28, respectively, while those of Group 2 were 3.73 IU/mL and 4.82 IU/mL, respectively. These GMC values were within their 95% CIs. Only a few mild adverse events were observed with no incidences of moderate or severe events. Conclusion: Abhayrab is a safe and immunogenic rabies vaccine when administered intradermally.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Human rabies
  • PVRV
  • Intradermal
  • post-exposure treatment
  • RFFIT
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Cytokine induction after Epstein-Barr virus infection of peripheral T-lymphocytes in vitro

Online veröffentlicht: 13 Apr 2018
Seitenbereich: 69 - 77

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Background: Although the presence of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) in different T-cell malignancies has been widely reported, there is very few data available for EBV infection of normal T cells. This leads to the lack of knowledge on the early events after T cell infection. Objective: Investigate the early events occurring after normal human peripheral T-cells are infected with EBV in vitro. Methods: T-cells were treated with EBV in vitro. The expression of tumor necrosis factor- α (TNF-α) mRNA were determined using reverse-transcription (RT)-PCR, and the level of TNF-α and interferon- γ (IFN-γ) in the culture supernatant were measured using ELISA. The effect of virus inactivation on cytokine induction from T-cells was also determined. Results: At the beginning of T cell infection by EBV, the expression of several lytic EBV transcripts (BALF5, BcLF1, and BLLF1) were observed using RT-PCR. This indicated the susceptibility of in vitro EBV infection and the entering lytic cycle of EBV-infected T-cells. The interactions of EBV with T-cells lead to induction of inflammatory cytokines, tumour necrosis factor- α (TNF-α) and interferon- γ (IFN-γ), production from the T-cells. Inactivation of the virus by UV irradiation eliminated the TNF-α and IFN-γ induction by EBV, suggesting the involvement in the expression of viral gene(s). Conclusion: This in vitro analysis demonstrated the cytokine induction by EBV after primary infection of T-cells.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Cytokines
  • early events
  • Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)
  • IFN-γ
  • lytic replication
  • T lymphocytes
  • TNF-α
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Association between serum interleukin-6 levels and severity of perinatal asphyxia

Online veröffentlicht: 13 Apr 2018
Seitenbereich: 79 - 85

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Background: Perinatal asphyxia is a major cause of neurologic morbidity and mortality in infants. Objective: Determine the serum level of interleukin-6 (IL-6) in neonates with perinatal asphyxia and its relation to the severity of hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy and short term neurological outcome. Methods: Serum IL-6 levels were measured at birth, and at 24 and 48 hour post-partum in 37 consecutive uninfected neonates with peri-natal asphyxia and 45 randomly selected healthy newborns. Results: Serum IL-6 concentrations in the infants who developed hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy was 43 folds higher compared to values in the normal infants (p < 0.001) and 1.9 folds higher as compared to infants with asphyxia who did not subsequently develop hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (p <0.001). Serum IL-6 concentrations were also related to the degree of hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy and neurologicaldevelopmental outcomes at the time of discharge. Conclusion: Serum levels of IL-6 increased in neonates with asphyxia, and this was most pronounced in neonates with adverse outcomes.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy
  • interleukin-6
  • perinatal asphyxia
  • newborn
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Walk performance in Thai men and women: physical activity dependence

Online veröffentlicht: 13 Apr 2018
Seitenbereich: 87 - 93

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Background: Six-minute walk test (6MWT) is a measure of functional capacity and a predictor of morbidity and mortality in the elderly. Published reference equations for the six-minute walk distance (6MWD) were derived from healthy subjects with sufficient physical activity, and may not be valid for patients with limited physical activity. Objective: To measure 6MWD in healthy individuals with sufficient (Suff) and insufficient (Insuff) levels of physical activity in Thai, and to compare the measured 6MWD with those calculated using published reference equations. Methods: Healthy volunteers aged 45-65 years (77 men and 85 women) performed three standard 6MWT. Physical activity levels were determined using a one-week recall physical activity questionnaire. The subjects were classified as having sufficient or insufficient levels of physical activity. Results: 6MWD of the Suff group was greater than the Insuff group in both men (701+89 m vs. 652+55 m, p = 0.005) and women (619+49 m vs. 571+35 m, p <0.001). The predicted 6MWD from published reference equations underestimated the measured 6MWD of men in Suff group, while it overestimated the measured 6MWD of women in Insuff group. Conclusion: Level of physical activity affected 6MWD of the subjects. Published references must be carefully applied for predicting 6MWD of individuals with various levels of physical activity.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Asian
  • healthy
  • physical activity
  • six minute walk test
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Bioequivalence of indinavir capsules in healthy volunteers

Online veröffentlicht: 13 Apr 2018
Seitenbereich: 95 - 101

Zusammenfassung

Schlüsselwörter

  • Bioequivalence
  • indinavir
  • pharmacokinetics
  • protease inhibitors
  • Thai volunteers
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Mechanisms of Kaempferia parviflora extract (KPE)- induced vasorelaxation in the rat aorta

Online veröffentlicht: 13 Apr 2018
Seitenbereich: 103 - 111

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Background: The rhizomes of Kaempferia parviflora (KP) have been widely used in Thai traditional medicine to treat several diseases such as hypertension. Recent studies have shown that the ethanolic extract of KP (KPE) exerts vasorelaxant effects in the rat aorta. However, the underlying mechanisms of these vascular responses remain unclear. Objectives: Investigate the mechanisms of KPE-induced vasorelaxation in the rat aorta. Methods: Aortic rings from male Wistar rats were precontracted with methoxamine. Changes in tension were measured using an isometric force transducer and recorded on the MacLab recording system. Vasorelaxation to KPE was examined in the presence of 10 μM indomethacin, 300 μM NG-nitro L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), 60 mM KCl, 5 mM tetraethylammonium chloride (TEA), 10 μM glibenclamide, 1 mM 4-aminopyridine (4-AP) or 30 μM barium chloride (BaCl2). The effects of KPE on vascular responses to carbachol, sodium nitroprusside, and CaCl2 were evaluated. Results: KPE (0.1-100 μg/mL) caused vasorelaxations, which were reduced with removal of the endothelium. In addition, indomethacin, L-NAME, and indomethacin plus L-NAME reduced KPE-induced vasorelaxation. Raising the extracellular KCl concentration to 60 mM, or pre-treatment with BaCl2, TEA, or glibenclamide reduced relaxant responses to KPE. Contractions to CaCl2 were inhibited after pre-incubation with KPE. Pre-treatment with KPE enhanced endothelium-dependent relaxations to carbachol, but not to sodium nitroprusside. Conclusion: KPE had a vasodilator effect in the rat isolated aortic rings. These effects involved endotheliumderived NO and prostanoids via a COX pathway. In addition, KPE-induced vasorelaxation was due to increasing K+ efflux probably through KCa, KIR and KATP channels. These provide pharmacological evidence for mechanism of KPE-induced vasorelaxation and support the traditional use of KPE as an antihypertensive agent.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Kaempferia parviflora
  • vasorelaxation
  • endothelium
  • potassium channels
  • calcium channels
  • rat aorta
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Magnetic resonance imaging findings of hepatocellular carcinoma: typical and atypical findings

Online veröffentlicht: 13 Apr 2018
Seitenbereich: 113 - 124

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Background: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common primary liver malignancy. Magnetic resonance imaging has been widely used for detection and characterization of HCC. Objective: Describe MRI findings of HCC and to define the typical and atypical appearances of HCC on magnetic resonance images. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed MRI findings of 100 HCC in 78 patients. Diagnosis was confirmed by angiography, pathology or follow up imaging. The signal intensity, size, margins, enhancement pattern, and other features were evaluated. Imaging findings between small HCC (< 2 cm) and large HCC (>2 cm) were compared. Results: The most common signal intensity of HCC on unenhanced T1- and T2-weighted images was hypointense on T1-weighted images and hyperintense on T2-weighted images (65%). Most HCC (91%) were hyperintense on T2-weighted images. Isointensity on T2-weighted images were found in 9% of HCC. The typical enhancement pattern of HCC was enhancement on the arterial phase and washout on the portovenous phase (84%). Atypical enhancement pattern of HCC were enhancement on the portovenous phase in 5%, rim enhancement on the arterial phase or portovenous phase were demonstrated in 2%. Hyperintensity of the tumor on delayed phase was found in 19%. There was no statistically significant difference in signal intensity, enhancement, and washout pattern between small and large HCC. Fatty metamorphosis, mosaic pattern, necrosis, capsule and vascular involvement were found in 18%, 42%, 5%, 62%, and 6%, respectively. Mosaic pattern, necrosis, capsule, and vascular involvement were observed more frequently in large HCC. Conclusion: The typical appearance of HCC was hypointense on T1-weighted, hyperintense on T2-weighted images, arterial enhancement and portovenous washout. Atypical appearances of HCC were rim enhancement on the arterial phase or portovenous phase and persistent enhancement on the delayed phase

Schlüsselwörter

  • Capsule
  • fatty metamorphosis
  • hepatocellular carcinoma
  • magnetic resonance imaging
  • mosaic pattern
  • necrosis
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Bilateral hip disarticulation in paraplegics

Online veröffentlicht: 13 Apr 2018
Seitenbereich: 125 - 129

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Background: Decubitus ulcers are severe challenges to paraplegic patients, as well as to the medical providers caring for such disabled persons. Severe, chronic infection often can lead to death, especially in developing countries. Sometimes, hip disarticulation is the most appropriate surgical response to chronic ulceration. Objective: Report the results of bilateral disarticulations in 3 patients, one in Cambodia, and two in Australia. Methods: Chart reviews, examinations, and interviews with the patients were conducted to identify appropriate details of the indications and results. Results: Severe decubitus ulcers were successfully treated using the technique, without undue surgical complications. The general health of the patients was much improved. Conclusion: Bilateral hip disarticulations were performed as last stage salvage operations in three patients, who expressed satisfaction with the results, even though some problems with balance and recurrent ulceration persisted.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Chronic ulceration
  • hip disarticulation
  • paraplegia
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Dosimetry of conformal dynamic arc radiotherapy and intensity modulated radiotherapy in unresectable cholangiocarcinoma

Online veröffentlicht: 13 Apr 2018
Seitenbereich: 131 - 139

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Background: Radiotherapy in cholangiocrcinoma has to overcome organ tolerance of the upper abdomen. Hi-technology radiotherapy may improve conformity and reduce dose to those organ. Objective: Quantitatively compare the dosimetry of conformal dynamic arc radiotherapy (CD-arcRT) and intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) in unresectable cholangiocarcinoma. Material and methods: Eleven cases of unresectable cholangiocarcinoma were re-planned with IMRT and CDarcRT at King Chulalongkhorn Memorial Hospital between 20 September 2004 and 31 December 2005. Both the planning techniques were evaluated using the dose volume histogram of the planning target volume and organ at risk. The conformation number and dose to critical normal structures were used to determine the techniques. Results: IMRT technique was significantly conformed to the planning target volume than CD-arcRT in term of conformation number. For critical structure, IMRT significantly reduced the radiation dose to liver in terms of mean liver dose, V30Gy and V20Gy of the right kidney. Conclusion: The advantage of IMRT was more conformity and reduced dose to critical structure compared with CD-arcRT, but there was no difference between these techniques in terms of V20Gy of left kidney and maximum dose to the spinal cord.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Conformal dynamic arc radiotherapy
  • cholangiocarcinoma
  • dosimetry
  • Intensity modulated radiotherapy
  • radiotherapy
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An evaluation of 2.0 McFarland Etest method for detection of heterogeneous vancomycin-intermediate Staphylococcus aureus

Online veröffentlicht: 13 Apr 2018
Seitenbereich: 141 - 145

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Background: Staphylococcus aureus with reduced susceptibility to vancomycin or heterogeneous vancomycinintermediate S. aureus (hVISA) have become increasingly reported from various parts of the world. hVISA cannot be detected by routine test for minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) for vancomycin. The gold standard method for detection, population analysis profiles (PAP) method, is complicated, time-consuming, expensive, and needs well-trained microbiologists. Objective: Evaluate of 2.0 McFarland Etest method, in comparison with the PAP method, for detection of hVISA in clinical specimens. Methods: All methicillin-resistant S. aureus strains from clinical specimens isolated from consecutive patients attended at King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital and Siriraj Hospital, Bangkok between 2006 and 2007 were studied. 1 hundred nineteen specimens were obtained. The PAP method detected six hVISA strains 5 from blood and from cultures) from four patients at King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital, accounting for a prevalence of 6.35%. The MIC determined by agar dilution method was in the range of 2-3 μg/mL. Results: 2.0 McFarland Etest method detected no false positive and five false negatives (42%), and gave a sensitivity and a specificity of 16.7% and 100%, respectively. The one-point population analysis screening method detected two false positives and 1 false negative, and gave a sensitivity of 83.3% and a specificity and 98.2%. Conclusion: The 2.0 McFarland Etest method had a very good specificity but a poor sensitivity for detecting hVISA. It may be used as an alternative method to confirm detection of hVISA.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Etest
  • heterogeneous vancomycin-intermediate S. aureus
  • population analysis profiles
  • Staphylococcus aureus
  • susceptibility
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Comparing anterior cervical fusion using titanium cage with hydroxyapatite and with autograft

Online veröffentlicht: 13 Apr 2018
Seitenbereich: 147 - 152

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Background: Anterior cervical discectomy and fusion using autogenous iliac bone graft may lead to donor site pain. This has led some surgeons to use hydroxyapatite but it has greater rates of complications. Objective: Analyze results of the treatment of cervical spine spondylosis by anterior cervical discectomy, and to compare fusion using titanium cage with hydroxyapatite and with autograft. Methods: We evaluated eighty patients (at 146 cervical levels) that had been treated by anterior cervical discectomy and fusion with hydroxyapatite or autograft. In a prospective study, patients were divided into two groups: 1) 77 levels of anterior cervical fusion from in 40 patients who were treated with cage and hydroxyapatite, and 2) 69 levels of anterior cervical fusions in 40 patients who were treated with cage and autograft. Results were evaluated using the Japanese Orthopedic Association (JOA) scoring system before and after surgery, subsidence, non-union and complication. Results: According to JOA score, the first group (hydroxyapatite) had improved from 9.8 preoperation to 14.5 postoperation. The subsidence rate was 26.0%, the non-union rate was 10.4%, and there was no intra and post-operative complication. In the other group (autograft), the preoperative JOA score had improved from 9.3 to 14.1. The subsidence rate was 11.6%, and there were no non-union and complications. Statistical significance was found in non-union and subsidence aspect between groups, but the clinical outcome of JOA score was not significantly different. Conclusion: Anterior cervical discectomy and fusion in cervical spondylosis patients, titanium cage implantation with hydroxyapatite is a highly useful alternative to autograft.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Anterior cervical fusion
  • autograft
  • hydroxyapatite
  • titanium cage
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Improved vascular repair is relevant to enhanced renal function with vasodilators in early stage of chronic kidney disease

Online veröffentlicht: 13 Apr 2018
Seitenbereich: 153 - 157

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Background: Treatment with vasodilators can improve renal function in early stage of chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. Objective: Study the mechanism of vascular repair in 20 CKD patients associated with actual creatinine clearance greater than 60 mL/min/1.73m2 (mean 84+24 mL/min/1.73m2) who had been under treatment with vasodilators. Results: Initial study on angiogenic factors revealed a low value of VEGF, no significant change in VEGF-R1, whereas antiangiogenic factors showed elevated angiopoietin-2 and no significant change in VEGF-R2. Initial actual creatinine clearance was significantly depleted and fractional excretion of magnesium (FE Mg) was elevated significantly. Follow-up study showed improved VEGF and a significant decline in angiopoietin-2. Such improved vascular repair coincided with enhanced creatinine clearance. Conclusion: Improved renal function can be achieved by vasodilators under environment favourable for adequate vascular repair.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Angiopoietin
  • CKD
  • vascular repair
  • VEGF
  • VEGF-R1
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Incidence of acquired lacrimal drainage system obstruction in epiphoric patients in Thailand

Online veröffentlicht: 13 Apr 2018
Seitenbereich: 159 - 162

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Background: There were few reports regarding the incidence of the acquired nasolacrimal duct obstruction, and the incidence in different geography or countries might be alike. Since the nasolacrimal drainage system obstruction is a common problem in Thailand, knowledge of the incidence may disclose the burden of the disease that has never been reported. Objectives: Evaluate the incidence of acquired lacrimal drainage system obstruction (ALDO) in Thailand. Methods: This study was conducted in multi-centers. It was based on prospective and descriptive design. All patients with epiphoric symptoms visiting the outpatient departments of five tertiary eyecare centers were recruited between 2004 and 2007. Features of epiphoric symptoms and medical history were recorded, and complete ophthalmic examinations were performed. Results: Epiphoric patients were enrolled from all medical centers with 245 eligible patients, female:male ratio was 4.2:1. Ninety-nine patients (40%) had duration of epiphoric symptoms between one-five years. ALDO was found in 111 patients (45%) with female preponderance (6.9:1). Seventy-one patients (64%) had pre-sac obstruction and 40 patients (36%) had post-sac obstruction. Among other causes of epiphora, dry eye was the most common. Conclusion: The most common cause of epiphora was ALDO. The four-year incidence rate of ALDO among epiphoric patients was 45%.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Dacryocystitis
  • epidemiology
  • epiphora
  • incidence
  • lacrimal duct obstruction
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Mutations of ATP7B gene in two Thai siblings with Wilson disease

Online veröffentlicht: 13 Apr 2018
Seitenbereich: 163 - 169

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Background: Wilson disease (WD) is an autosomal recessive disorder of copper metabolism caused by mutations in ATP7B gene. Objective: Report the clinical data and mutation analysis of two Thai siblings suspected of WD. Subject and methods: A 13-year-old boy who presented with cirrhosis, arthralgia, hypoalbuminemia, and coagulopathy, and his 11-year-old sister who was asymptomatic but had hepatomegaly with elevation of transaminases, were studied. Mutation analysis of ATP7B gene and mRNA analysis was performed in both patients and their parents. Results: Investigations were consistent with WD, and their liver diseases improved after standard treatment for WD. DNA analyses in these two patients revealed two novel mutations, which were a deletion of the first 2bp of exon 6 (c.1870_1871delGA), and a single base substitution from A to G at nucleotide 4075 (c.4075A>G) in the exon 20 (p.M1359V). PCR-restriction digestion with NcoI restriction enzyme was employed as the second method for confirmation of the c.4075A>G mutation and for rapid screening in 100 chromosomes from unrelated healthy controls, and this variant was not present in the controls. The c.1870_1871delGA deletion caused a frameshift effect, which results in a premature stop codon (p.E624fsX753), and the p.M1359V mutation is a substitution of methionine with valine, which may have effects upon its orientation and interaction with other adjacent amino acids. Conclusion: Two novel mutations of ATP7B gene were identified in two Thai siblings with WD.

Schlüsselwörter

  • ATP7B gene
  • cirrhosis
  • liver disease
  • Wilson disease
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The prevalence of unrecognized congenital heart disease among healthy elementary school students in northern Thailand

Online veröffentlicht: 13 Apr 2018
Seitenbereich: 171 - 175

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Background: Congenital heart disease (CHD) is one of the major congenital anomalies among newborns. Although many infants with CHD are symptomatic and identified soon after birth, others remain undiagnosed until the disease becomes severe. Objectives: Unravel the number of CHD cases among 7-12 years old students who reported neither clinical complication nor history about cardiac diseases, stressing the importance for regular cardiac examination in children, even if they appeared healthy. Methods: The study selected students without clinical history of heart disease from 1,041 elementary schools in northern Thailand (Tak, Nakhon Sawan and Uttaradit). Certified nurses and health officers examined the students for abnormal heart conditions. Pediatric cardiologists scrutinized the students with suspected CHD for confirmation and characterization of cardiac lesion types. Results: Out of 144,293 students included in the study, 851 students showed atypical heart symptoms, and 87 were verified to have the CHD. This conferred the prevalence rate of unrecognized CHD among the elementary school children to be 0.60 per 1,000. The frequently-detected heart defects were ventricular septal defect (41.4%) and pulmonary stenosis (16.1%). Fifty-one children (58.6%) required surgery for cardiovascular correction. The prevalence of the CHD in elementary school students ranged from 0.41 to 1.05 cases per 1000 study subjects. The greatest number of incidences was found in Tak province where medical resources are inadequate. Conclusion: This study highlights the significance of routine cardiac examination among school-aged students, particularly in the regions with limited medical facilities, providing information essential for appropriate health care planning and managements.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Asymptomatic
  • congenital
  • elementary school students
  • heart defect
  • heart disease
  • prevalence
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Comparative study of effective-site target controlled infusion with standard bolus induction of propofol for laryngeal mask airway insertion

Online veröffentlicht: 13 Apr 2018
Seitenbereich: 177 - 182

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Several studies demonstrated induction of anesthesia with different plasma target-controlled infusion (TCI) of propofol for LMA insertion. However, there has been no study to compare the standard bolus propofol induction with the effective site TCI for LMA insertion. Objective: Compare the efficacy of induction of anesthesia with propofol for LMA insertion between the effective-site TCI, using 6 μg/mL, and the standard bolus propofol dose of 2.5 mg/kg in elective surgical patients. Methods: A randomized, prospective, single-blinded, clinical study was used for this study. Seventy-eight unpremedicated patients, American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) physical status I and II undergoing elective surgical procedure were randomly allocated between two groups. Group 1 received the standard bolus propofol dose of 2.5 mg/kg. Group 2 received effective site TCI (Schnider model) dose of 6 μg/mL for LMA insertion. The hemodynamics and anesthetic depth (Bispectral index score) were monitored and recorded during and immediately after LMA insertion. The number of insertion attempted, insertion quality score, induction time, and propofol doses used were recorded and compared between groups. Results: The success rate of first insertion attempt was equal in both groups (92.3%). There was no significant hemodynamic response difference between the groups during pre-induction, induction, insertion, and post insertion period. The BIS score was significantly lower during post insertion period in group 1 (51.4+11.0) than group 2 (58.4+3.2) (p=0.013). The propofol doses in group 2 were significantly lower than in group 1 (110.6+14.8 vs. 153.5+21.5) (p <0.001). Patients in group 2 required significantly more induction time than group 1 (146.9+42.3 vs. 103.4+33.6 (p <0.001). Conclusion: Propofol induction with TCI provided equal success rate as compared with standard bolus propofol induction for LMA insertion and insertion quality score. TCI significantly lowered the propofol consumption when compared with the standard 2.5 mg/kg propofol dose.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Anesthetics
  • effect-site concentration
  • laryngeal mask airway
  • propofol
  • target-controlled infusion
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Light-enhanced antibiotic activity of Brazilian medical plants (Croton campestris A, Ocimum gratissimum L and Cordia verbenaceae DC)

Online veröffentlicht: 13 Apr 2018
Seitenbereich: 183 - 186

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Background: Although broad-band ultraviolet (UV)-A has been described as a therapeutic option for various skin diseases, there are few studies investigating the efficacy of UV-A irradiation in treating diseases related to infectious agents. Objective: Evaluate the light-enhanced antibacterial activity of Brazilian medical plants, Croton campestris A (Euphorbiaceae), Ocimum gratissimum L. (Lamiaceae), and Cordia verbenaceae DC (Boraginaceae). Methods: Hexane extracts of Croton campestris A., Ocimum gratissimum L., and Cordia verbenaceae DC were assayed using a UV-A exposure method against strains of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. Assays were performed in triplicate with and without exposure to UV-A radiation to test for light-activated or lightenhanced antibacterial activity. Results: All extracts showed activity against the S. aureus strain. Extracts of O. gratissimum and C. verbenaceae were the most active after exposure to UV-A light, with an increase in antibacterial activity of 140 and 100%, respectively. No extract showed light-activated antibacterial activity against E. coli. Conclusion: C. campestris, O. gravissimum and C. verbenaceae showed light-enhanced antibiotic activity. This suggests that phytochemical investigations may be warranted.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Croton zehntneri
  • UV-A
  • Light-enhanced antibacterial activity
  • Staphylococcus aureus
  • Escherichia coli
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Is renal microvascular disease a reversible process in chronic kidney disease?

Online veröffentlicht: 13 Apr 2018
Seitenbereich: 187 - 187

Zusammenfassung

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Online veröffentlicht: 13 Apr 2018
Seitenbereich: 189 - 189

Zusammenfassung

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