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Zeitschriftendaten
Format
Zeitschrift
eISSN
1875-855X
Erstveröffentlichung
01 Jun 2007
Erscheinungsweise
6 Hefte pro Jahr
Sprachen
Englisch

Suche

Volumen 4 (2010): Heft 6 (December 2010)

Zeitschriftendaten
Format
Zeitschrift
eISSN
1875-855X
Erstveröffentlichung
01 Jun 2007
Erscheinungsweise
6 Hefte pro Jahr
Sprachen
Englisch

Suche

25 Artikel
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Biological activities of essential oils from the genus Ferula (Apiaceae)

Online veröffentlicht: 13 Apr 2018
Seitenbereich: 835 - 847

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The genus Ferula (Apiaceae) comprises about 170 species occurring from central Asia westward to northern Africa. This genus is well-known in folk medicine for the treatment of various organ disorders. Most of Ferula species possess strong aromatic smell that is due to the presence of essential oil or oleoresin in their different organs. This article reviews anti-bacterial, anti-fungal and other biological activities of Ferula oils reported to date. For medicinal applications, the chemical composition of volatile oils obtained from different Ferula species is summarized in Appendix.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Apiaceae
  • essential oil
  • Ferula
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Blindness as a result of acid attacks in Cambodia

Online veröffentlicht: 13 Apr 2018
Seitenbereich: 849 - 854

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Background: Fifty-three patients who had been attacked with acid were treated over the last three years, and 45% suffered blindness in one or both eyes as a result. Objective: Review the charts of all 53 patients to see if the proximate cause of the blindness could be determined to prevent it happening to others. Results: Three principal causes of blindness were direct damage from acid, limbal stem cell loss leading to later eyeball perforation, and delayed corneal abrasion from eyelid deformity. Only the latter cause could be prevented at this time, since the strength of the acid used in the attack could not be controlled, nor could limbal stem cell transplants be performed. Conclusion: Assessment of the ophthalmic injuries revealed three main categories of visual impairment, only one of which could be treated effectively at this stage.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Acid attack
  • blindness
  • Cambodia
  • limbal stem cells
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Saga of ghrelin: its structure, actions, and therapeutic uses

Online veröffentlicht: 13 Apr 2018
Seitenbereich: 855 - 860

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The fat-regulating hormones, adiponectin, ghrelin, and leptin have been studied extensively because therapeutic modality might be gleaned from their augmentation or blockade. Since a link between the hormone and control of hunger was found, ghrelin levels in the human body have received a great deal of attention over the past several years. This mini-review summarizes the role of ghrelin, describing its actions and therapeutic uses.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Adipocytes
  • ageing
  • ghrelin
  • growth hormone
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Sleep-disordered breathing and self-reported general health status in Thai patients

Online veröffentlicht: 13 Apr 2018
Seitenbereich: 861 - 868

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Background: Sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) has been a rapidly increasing health problem in Thai. Its effect on quality of life of Thai patients has not been adequately addressed. Objective: Determine the relationship between SDB and self-reported general health status in Thai patients. Materials and methods: A descriptive and cross-sectional study was used. Two hundred and sixtyeight patients (195 men and 73 women, age: 16-82 years) are recruited from King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital between January 2006 and December 2007. A health profile was obtained by self-administered questionnaire. SDB severity was assessed using an attended single-night comprehensive polysomnography. Results: SDB was not directly associated with the general health status. Presence of excessive daytime sleepiness, which was the major symptom of obstructive sleep apnea, was associated with a decrease in all domains of Short Form 36. Age, sex, and body mass index were also related to a lower physical function. Hypertension and excessive daytime sleepiness were associated with the severity of SDB. Conclusion: SDB is indirectly related to a lower general health status, and this relationship is of clinical significance.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Quality of life
  • sleep apnea syndromes
  • sleep-disordered breathing (SDB)
  • Thai
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Relationship between vitamin D receptor gene polymorphisms and anemia in postmenopausal Vietnamese women

Online veröffentlicht: 13 Apr 2018
Seitenbereich: 869 - 875

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Background: Both in vitro and in vivo studies have shown that calcitriol, the active form of vitamin D, is involved in hematopoiesis. Vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene has been suggested as one of the candidate genes for anemia. Objective: Investigate relationship between anemia and the commonly studied polymorphisms of VDR gene (FokI, BsmI, ApaI and TaqI) in terms of genotype and haplotype in Vietnamese. Methods: A case-control study including 132 postmenopausal women without chronic kidney diseases was designed to investigate the relationship between VDR polymorphism and anemia. Four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) FokI (rs2228570), BsmI (rs1544410), ApaI (rs7975232), and TaqI (rs731236) were typed by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism method. Results: Genotype distributions of four SNPs were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium in both anemia and control groups. The SNPs at the 3’end of the VDR gene (BsmI, ApaI and TaqI) exhibited a strong linkage disequilibrium. There was no significant association between anemia and VDR polymorphism in terms of allele, genotype, and haplotype in the analyses unadjusted or adjusted for the covariates (age, body mass index, educational level, serum ferritin, iron and albumin). Conclusion: VDR gene did not influence anemia in postmenopausal women without chronic kidney disease. For further study on the association between VDR gene and anemia, the use of larger sample size, a prospective study design, and additional markers would enhance the reliability and validity of findings.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Anemia
  • association
  • haplotype
  • postmenopausal Vietnamese women
  • vitamin D receptor
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Thai version of the Minnesota Living with Heart Failure Questionnaire: psychometric testing using a longitudinal design

Online veröffentlicht: 13 Apr 2018
Seitenbereich: 877 - 884

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Background: The Minnesota Living with Heart Failure Questionnaire (MLHFQ) is the most widely used diseasespecific instrument for heart failure (HF). However, a Thai version of the MLHFQ has not been available yet. Objective: Test the psychometric properties of the Thai version of the MLHFQ in terms of practicality, reliability, validity, and responsiveness, using a longitudinal design. Methods: One hundred eighty HF outpatients (mean age: 65±12 years; 58% male) were interviewed at Phramongkutklao Hospital, Bangkok between December 2008 and August 2009. Practicality was assessed with interview-times. Reliability was evaluated using Cronbach’s α and intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs). Validity was tested with correlations between the MLHFQ scores and the SF-36 scores, confirmatory factor analysis, and known-groups validity. Responsiveness was observed with effect sizes (ES) and minimal clinically important differences (MCID). Results: The averaged interview-time was approximately five minutes. The Cronbach’s α and ICCs of the MLHFQ were 0.86-0.93 and 0.84-0.88, respectively. The MLHFQ scores were moderately correlated with the Short Form-36 Health Survey (SF-36) scores, and discriminated the patients with different classes by New York Heart Association. The average ES were medium, ranging from 0.2 to 0.5. The MCID ranged from 1.4 to 14.5 for improved patients and from -1.4 to -12.7 for worsened patients. Conclusion: The Thai version of the MLHFQ showed acceptable psychometric properties. It can be used as a disease-specific instrument to measure health-related quality of life of Thai patients with HF.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Disease-specific measure
  • health-related quality of life
  • heart failure
  • psychometrics
  • reliability
  • responsiveness
  • Thailand
  • validity
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Transient temperature distribution on the corneal endothelium during ophthalmic phacoemulsification: a numerical simulation using the nodeless variable element

Online veröffentlicht: 13 Apr 2018
Seitenbereich: 885 - 892

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Background: During cataract operation (phacoemulsification), a phaco needle-tip is inserted into the anterior chamber of eye. Then, heat is generated by the oscillation of the phaco needle, which may injury the corneal endothelial cells. There are no data available for temperature responses at the corneal endothelium to heat from the phaco needle during phacoemulsification. Objective: Investigate temperature distribution on the corneal endothelium during ophthalmic phacoemulsification using numerical simulation, and compare the transient temperature response to heat between balanced salt solution (BSS) and ophthalmic viscoelastic device (OVD), Viscoat®. Methods: Heat flux from a phaco needle was measured with thermal properties of BSS and AVS in an experimental setting. Then, nodeless variable finite element method was applied to predict temperature changes in the eye by the phaco needle inserted into the anterior chamber. The transient temperature distribution on the corneal endothelium was calculated at 10, 20, and 30 seconds after heat generation by the needle. Results: The heat generation of phaco needle without sleeve cover was 1.6 kW/m2. The numerical simulation showed that the maximum temperature occurs on the wound location at all times after heat generation by the phaco needle. Especially, at time 30 seconds, it was 49.2 and 41.7°C in BSS and OVD, respectively. The temperature elevation by the phaco needle was lower in OVD than BSS. Conclusion: Phacoemulsification is a heat-generating procedure performed between the anterior chamber structures of eye. During this procedure, OVD may protect the corneal endothelium against heat better than BSS.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Balanced salt solution
  • corneal endothelial cell
  • nodeless variable element
  • numerical simulation
  • phacoemulsification
  • ophthalmic viscoelastic device
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Influence of demographic factors and serotonin transporter-linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) variants on major depression in a northeastern Thai population

Online veröffentlicht: 13 Apr 2018
Seitenbereich: 893 - 899

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Background: Several lines of evidence suggest that the serotonergic system may be involved in the etiology of major depressive disorder (MDD). Objective: Investigate a potential association between the functional polymorphism in the serotonin transporter-linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) and MDD in a northeastern Thai population, and explore the involvement of demographic characteristics in this disorder. Methods: One hundred eighty seven patients with MDD and 207 healthy controls were recruited from the same geographical area into the study. The 5-HTTLPR genotypes were determined using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and analyzed statically. Results: Significant demographic differences between the two groups were observed, which included age, marital status, occupation, educational background, income, and alcohol use. The allele frequencies of the 5- HTTLPR polymorphism in our studied population were relatively near those of Asian populations, especially Chinese, which was regarded as enormously distinct from those of Caucasians. Nevertheless, our present study found no significant association between this polymorphism and MDD with respect to either genotype distributions or allele frequencies. Conclusion: No involvement of the 5-HTTLPR polymorphism was suggested, but demographic features in MDD were highlighted with respect to this studied population.

Schlüsselwörter

  • 5-HTTLPR
  • association study
  • demographic data
  • genetic polymorphism
  • major depressive disorder
  • Thai population
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Antimicrobial susceptibility, plasmid profiles, and RAPD-PCR typing of Acinetobacter bacteria

Online veröffentlicht: 13 Apr 2018
Seitenbereich: 901 - 911

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Background: Multiple-drug resistant Acinetobacter have widely spread in the last decades imposing a serious nosocomial source of infection. Nevertheless, little knowledge was gaimed on tracing the development of antibiotic resistance in Acinetobacter species. Objectives: Explore Acinetobacter spp. via antimicrobial susceptibility, plasmid profiles, and random amplified polymorphism DNA polymerase chain reaction (RAPD-PCR) typing. Methods: One hundred twelve Acinetobacter isolates (including 66 A. baumannii and 46 non-Acinetobacter baumannii strains) were obtained from three university hospitals. The source of infection of these isolates included blood, urine, wound, and respiratory tract. Their susceptibilities to 17 antibiotics were tested and then all Acinetobacter isolates were typed by plasmid analysis and RAPD-PCR method. Results: A. baumannii isolates revealed nine different patterns of antibiotic resistance. Of those, non- A. baumannii, were associated with plasmid and RAPD-PCR typings (p <0.05). A. baumannii was more resistant to multiple antibiotics than non-A. baumannii (p <0.05). Seven different plasmid profiles were observed among 112 Acinetobacter isolates. Plasmids were found in 107 (95.5%) of the 112 isolates. Unlike in RAPD-PCR typing, there was no difference between the type of Acinetobacter, A. or non-A. baumannii strains and plasmid profiles (p >0.05). By RAPD-PCR, six profiles were found for each A. and non-A. baumannii strains. The pattern 6 was the most common pattern among the isolates. Both plasmid and RAPD-PCR typing showed no association between plasmid profiling and site of infection (p >0.05). Conclusion: There is a wide spread of multi-drug resistant Acinetobacter spp., particularly A. baumannii, in the Middle East region that can be traced efficiently by plasmid and genotyping typing of Acinetobacter. More care should be taken for tracing the development of antimicrobial resistance of Acinetobacter using precise molecular typing techniques.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Acinetobacter baumannii
  • antimicrobial susceptibility
  • molecular typing
  • plasmid profiles RAPD-PCR
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Osteoinductive potential of small intestinal submucosa/ demineralized bone matrix as composite scaffolds for bone tissue engineering

Online veröffentlicht: 13 Apr 2018
Seitenbereich: 913 - 922

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Background: Demineralized bone matrix (DBM) is extensively used in orthopedic, periodontal, and maxillofacial application and investigated as a material to induce new bone formation. Small intestinal submucosa (SIS) derived from the submucosa layer of porcine intestine has widely utilized as biomaterial with minimum immune response. Objectives: Determine the osteoinductive potential of SIS, DBM, SIS/DBM composites in the in vitro cell culture and in vivo animal bioassays for bone tissue engineering. Materials and methods: Human periosteal (HPO) cells were treated in the absence or presence SIS, DBM, and SIS/DBM. Cell proliferation was examined by direct cell counting. Osteoblast differentiation of the HPO cells was analyzed with alkaline phosphatase activity assay. The Wistar rat muscle implant model was used to evaluate the osteoinductive potential of SIS, DBM, and SIS/DBM composites. Results: HPO cells could differentiate along osteogenic lineage when treated with either DBM or SIS/DBM. SIS/ DBM had a tendency to promote more cellular proliferation and osteoblast differentiation than the other treatments. In Wistar rat bioassay, SIS showed no new bone formation and the implants were surrounded by fibrous tissues. DBM demonstrated new bone formation along the edge of old DBM particles. SIS/DBM composite exhibited high osteoinductivity, and the residual SIS/DBM was surrounded by osteoid-like matrix and newly formed bone. Conclusion: DBM and SIS/DBM composites could retain their osteoinductive capability. SIS/DBM scaffolds may provide an alternative approach for bone tissue engineering.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Demineralized bone matrix
  • human periosteal cells
  • small intestinal submucosa
  • osteoblast differentiation
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

The relationship between human muth homolog 1 gene mutation at site 415 and sporadic colon cancers in Chinese Han population

Online veröffentlicht: 13 Apr 2018
Seitenbereich: 923 - 930

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Background: The genetic factors of colon cancer play an important role in the tumor development and growth. The incidence of colon cancers has greatly increased in China. However, few data is available for the relationship between human muth homolog 1 (hMLH1) gene mutation at site 415 and sporadic colon cancers in Chinese population. Objective: Investigate the relationship between G→C mutation in hMLH1 gene at site 415 and sporadic colon cancers in Chinese Han population. Methods: Using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) and DNA sequencing techniques, the genotype of the hMLH1 gene was analyzed at site 415 in 97 cases of sporadic colon cancer patients and 138 controls. Reverse-transcription (RT)-PCR was used to determine the level of hMLH1 mRNA expression in normal colonic mucosa of patients with different genotype. Results: The frequency of genotype C/C at the 415 site of the hMLH1 gene was significantly higher in colon cancer patients than in controls. The expression levels of hMLH1 mRNA in normal colonic mucosa were similar in colon cancer patients with different genotypes. Conclusion: G’!C mutation in hMLH1 gene at site 415 may represent a genetic factor that is associated with sporadic colon cancer in a small group of Chinese Han population.

Schlüsselwörter

  • human mutl homolog 1 gene
  • mutation
  • sporadic colon cancers
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Twin pregnancy after renal transplant: the first case report in Thailand

Online veröffentlicht: 13 Apr 2018
Seitenbereich: 931 - 934

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Background: With more advanced technology, the renal transplant women have more chance to get pregnant, even multiple gestations. Obstetricians need the knowledge to provide the better care for these patients. Objective: Report the natural course of disease and the intervention for renal transplant woman with twin pregnancy. Patient and methods: A 20-year-old primigravida who underwent living-related renal transplantation eight months before pregnancy with monochrorionic diamniotic twins was treated throughout her pregnancy. Results: At 30 weeks of gestation, the patient was admitted due to rising of creatinine level, high blood pressure, and proteinuria. After conservative treatment for 12 days, the pregnancy was terminated by cesarean section with tubal resection. Both alive twins weighed 1385 g and 1525 g. Allograft kidney biopsy was undertaken, and histologic examination showed acute rejection. The renal function gradually improved after one month of antirejection therapy. Conclusion: The complications of pregnancy and poor perinatal outcomes are higher in renal transplant recipients. A multidisciplinary team is required for the management of these patients.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Acute graft rejection
  • renal transplantation
  • twin pregnancy
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Transitional cell carcinoma of ureter presenting acute ureteric colic and ruptured caliceal fornix with extravasation of urine

Online veröffentlicht: 13 Apr 2018
Seitenbereich: 935 - 938

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Background: Primary ureteral tumors are not common. The most common presentations of upper urinary tract urothelial carcinoma are gross or microscopic hematuria. Objective: Report a rare case of acute ureteric colic with perirenal urinoma, secondary to primary ureteric carcinoma. Methods: Case report and review of literature. Result: Perirenal extravasation and ureteric obstruction by tumor was diagnosed by contrast-enhanced computed tomography. The patient was successfully treated with laparoscopic radical nephroureterectomy after the obstruction was relieved by ureteric stent. Adjuvant radiation was done at the renal fossa for local control. There was no evidence of disease recurrence at twelve month after surgery. Conclusion: The renal caliceal fornix rupture is usually associated with acute ureteric obstruction by stone. Rarely, it occurs by primary ureteric tumor.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Acute ureteric colic
  • perirenal urinoma
  • ruptured caliceal fornix
  • ureteric carcinoma
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Septicemia due to Klebsiella rhinoscleromatis: a rare case

Online veröffentlicht: 13 Apr 2018
Seitenbereich: 939 - 942

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Background: Klebsiella rhinoscleromatis is the etiologic bacterium of rhinoscleroma. While rare, it has been implicated as a cause of septicemia. Only five cases of septicemia due to K. rhinoscleromatis have been reported previously. Objective: Report a case of K. rhinoscleromatis septicemia in Thailand and literature review. Results: K. rhinoscleromatis septicemia was observed in a 71-years-old-female diabetic patient suffering with acute fever.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Bacterial infection
  • gram-negative bacteremia
  • Klebsiella
  • rhinoscleroma
  • rhinoscleromatis
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Efficacy of electro-acupuncture at the main acupoints for weight reduction in Thai obese women

Online veröffentlicht: 13 Apr 2018
Seitenbereich: 943 - 947

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Background:Alternative medicine and Asian traditional medicine propose the use of acupuncture for treating obesity that generates several collateral effects on overall health. Objective: Analyze the efficacy of electro-acupuncture (EA) at the main acupoints in overweight/obese Thai women. Methods: Thirty women were recruited from Srinakharinwirot University Hospital. The patients were divided into three groups based on the type of obesity by the traditional Chinese medicine. Electro-acupuncture was done at 22 main acupoints. The primary outcome was efficacy of EA effect on body-weight reduction, while changes of other anthropometric parameters were considered as secondary outcome. Results: At the end of acupuncture, 87% of women had weight reduction, and major benefit was observed in type 2 and type 3 groups. The overall weight reduction was 2.6 kg (95%CI: 1.2-4.0 kg). However, the deficiency-type obese women (type 2 and 3) had more weight reduction than the excess-type obese women (type 1) with mean weight reduction of 2.3 kg and 0.8 kg, respectively. All other anthropometric parameters decreased significantly compared to those at the beginning of acupuncture. Conclusion: Acupuncture was useful for treatment for obesity in middle age women. Our standardized acupoints may be of clinical use for the application of acupuncture to patients.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Acupuncture
  • deficiency
  • obesity
  • traditional medicine
  • weight loss
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

The learning curve in head and neck reconstruction with microvascular free flaps: a retrospective review

Online veröffentlicht: 13 Apr 2018
Seitenbereich: 949 - 954

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Background: Tissue defect around the head and neck region is a great challenge for reconstructive surgeons. Successful outcomes of surgery is influenced by many factors such as surgical technique in recipient and donor site, meticulous microvascular anastomosis, position of vascular pedicle, and post-surgery monitoring. The learning curve is important for any new microvascular surgeons. Objectives: Evaluate the quality of training for a new otolaryngologist, head and neck surgeon, on their performance of free flaps in facial plastic and reconstructive surgery using a retrospective review. Methods: Nineteen microvascular free flaps in patients from the ENT Center of Rajavithi Hospital were reviewed between November 2008 and October 2009. Incidences of free flap survival, and partial and complete necrosis were examined. Results: Eighteen patients with microvascular free flaps had head and neck cancer. 88.9% of the patients had squamous cell carcinoma. There were nine radial forearm free flaps, five anterolateral thigh free flaps, two rectus abdominis free flap, two iliac-free flap, and one fibular-free flap. The overall success rate of the free flap reconstructions was 84%. One partial and three total necrosis were done on the 19 flaps. Conclusion: Causes of free flap failure were similar and not dependent on the experienced of the surgeons. The postgraduate training program in facial plastic and reconstructive surgery is effective in providing new microvascular surgeons the skills to perform successful microvascular and reconstructive surgeries.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Free flaps
  • head and neck reconstruction
  • learning curve
  • microvascular surgery
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Adrenomedullin administration alters vascular endothelial growth factor levels in rats in cold stress

Online veröffentlicht: 13 Apr 2018
Seitenbereich: 955 - 958

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Background: Many endogenous peptides play important regulatory roles in angiogenesis by modulating endothelial cell behavior. Adrenomedullin (AdM) is one of such factors. Angiogenesis and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) are indistinguishable. Exposure to cold environment stimulates capillary angiogenesis. Objectives: Examine the effect of the bioactive peptide AdM on VEGF levels in rat liver, lung, brain, and heart tissues after cold stress treatment. Methods: Male wistar rats were divided into four groups as control, AdM treatment, cold stress and AdM+cold stress treated groups. In AdM-treated group, animals received intraperitoneal injection of AdM (2000 ng/kg body weight) once a day during a week. For the cold stress exposure, the rats were kept in separate cages at 10°C for a week. Results: The administration of AdM increased VEGF levels in all tissues in cold exposed rats. Conclusion: AdM may be a major regulatory factor in angiogenesis by modulating VEGF levels that is closely associated with cold exposure-related metabolic stimulation.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Adrenomedullin
  • angiogenesis
  • cold stress
  • rat
  • vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Intraocular pressure outcome after phacoemulsification and intraocular lens implantation in chronic angle closure glaucoma patients without extensive peripheral anterior synechiae

Online veröffentlicht: 13 Apr 2018
Seitenbereich: 959 - 963

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Background:Cataract extraction surgery significantly decreases intraocular pressure (IOP) in patients with various forms of angle closure glaucoma (ACG). However, most reports did not specify the circumferential extent of peripheral anterior synechiae (PAS). Objective: Evaluate IOP after phacoemulsification with intraocular lens (IOL) implantation in chronic ACG patients without extensive PAS. Materials and methods: Data of chronic ACG patients with documented peripheral PAS <180 degrees and clinically significant cataract, who underwent phacoemulsification with IOL implantation at King Chulalongkorn Momorial Hospital between May 2002 and June 2007 were reviewed retrospectively. Baseline characteristics as gender, degree of PAS, IOP, and number of medications were collected. The outcomes were post-operative IOP at 6, 12, and 18 months, and number of hypotensive medications. Results: Twenty-five eyes from 25 patients (mean age: 73.0 years old) were included in this study. Twenty-three out of 25 patients were female, and 17 had PAS less than 90 degrees. Pre-operative mean IOP was 15.6 mmHg, while pre-operative median (Q1, Q3) number of hypotensive medications was 2 (1, 2). After operation, statistically significant lower IOPs were seen at all time points. Mean IOP at 6, 12, and 18 months were 12.4, 11.0, and 11.9 mmHg respectively. In addition, post-operative number of hypotensive medication was also statistically significantly less than baseline, with median (Q1, Q3) 1 (0, 1), and 20% of these eyes were medication-free. Conclusion: Phacoemulsification and IOL implantation surgery alone in chronic ACG patients without extensive PAS can significantly lower IOP up to 18 months postoperatively.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Angle-closure
  • glaucoma
  • intraocular pressure
  • phacoemulsification
  • peripheral anterior synechiae
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Prevalence of obesity among Thai schoolchildren: a survey in Khon Kaen, Northeast Thailand

Online veröffentlicht: 13 Apr 2018
Seitenbereich: 965 - 970

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Background: There is a worldwide increase in obese children and adolescents. No systematized biometric data are available to confirm this trend in Thailand. Objective: Estimate the prevalence of obesity among 12- to 18-years-old attending the secondary school in the municipality of Khon Kaen, Northeast Thailand. Materials and methods: We used stratified, two-stage, cluster sampling to select 7,096 healthy boys and girls from 12,021 students of grades 7 to 12 at three government schools. Height and weight were measured to calculate body mass index (BMI) (weight (kg)/height (m)2). Sex-specific, BMI-for-age growth charts were created from the data on the 2,593 boys and 4,503 girls (between 12 and 18 years of age) using simple random sampling. Sex-specific BMI-for-age growth charts and the weight-for-height (W/H) were used to estimate the prevalence of obesity and overweight. Results: The respective national prevalence of obese and overweight children was 4.9% and 9.5% in the BMI-forage, the rates between boys and girls being comparable. There were no significant differences in the prevalence of either obesity or overweight with increasing age. In the Thai standard W/H, 13.7% of the children were obese and 5.3% were overweight. Obesity was more prevalent n boys (18.9%) than girls (10.8%) and decreased with age. The prevalence of overweight did not change with age regardless of gender. Conclusion: Obesity among children in Khon Kaen was similar to, or less prevalent than that reported for other areas of Thailand. The prevalence of obesity needs to be judged by the same (or similar) criteria before any comparison among various studies is done.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Children
  • obesity
  • prevalence
  • Northeast Thailand
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Detection of equine infectious anemia nucleic acid in asymptomatic carrier horses by nested PCR

Online veröffentlicht: 13 Apr 2018
Seitenbereich: 971 - 975

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Background: Equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) is a lentivirus with an almost worldwide distribution, infecting equids. It causes a persistent infection that is characterized by recurring episodes of fever, anemia, and thrombocytopenia. Most of the horses may control EIAV replication within a year, remaining persistently infected without clinical signs of disease. Objective: Detect EIA nucleic acid from peripheral blood of asymptomatic horses using nested PCR. Materials and method: We used nested PCR, amplifying P26 gag gene of EIAV, for direct detection of viral RNA in plasma and proviral DNA from PBMC in asymptomatic carrier horses in comparison with the Coggins test. EIA nucleic acid was prepared from 20 seropositive and five EIAV seronegative horses. Amplification of 246 bp expected size fragments was obtained using two different sets of primers targeting the P26 gag gene. Results: Among 20 seropositive horses, nine samples were positive for RNA and DNA. The five samples were positive for DNA but not for RNA, which indicates that the virus integrated into the host cell genome with a low level of viral replication. However, six samples were negative for both DNA and RNA. False negative could result due to primer failure caused by gag sequences variation among strains circulating in Thailand when compared with various strains from other parts of the world. EIAV antigens may also be prepared from cell cultures contaminated with other retroviruses thus causing false positives with the Coggins test. Conclusion: Nested PCR can be a useful tool for detecting the presence of EIAV in asymptomatic carrier horses. This may be especially true during the acute stage of the disease where the viremia levels are usually at the highest levels before detectable antibodies appear.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Proviral DNA
  • PBMC
  • viral nucleic Acid
  • viral RNA
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Effect of cyproheptadine on weight gain in malnourished children: a randomized, controlled trial

Online veröffentlicht: 13 Apr 2018
Seitenbereich: 977 - 982

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Background: Cyproheptadine has been used therapeutically as an appetite stimulant in various chronic illnesses. However, no clinical data are available on the therapeutic effect of cyproheptadine in malnourished children without underlying pathological conditions. Objective: Investigate the short-term effect of cyproheptadine on weight gain in malnourished children who appear otherwise normal on physical examination. Methods: Seventy malnourished children who were otherwise normal on physical examination were recruited to participate in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Thirty-seven children were randomized to a treatment regimen of cyproheptadine (0.1 mg/kg/dose, three times/day for eight weeks), and 33 children were randomized to receive placebo over a period of eight weeks. Subjects were evaluated at a baseline visit and at four visits at two-week intervals. Parameters assessed included baseline demographics, anthropometrics (weight, height, skin-fold thickness, waist and hip circumferences, and fat composition by bioelectric impedance analysis), adverse events, and pill counts. Data were analyzed by Student’s t-test and Chi-square test; a p- value < 0.05 was considered significant. Results: No significant differences were observed in baseline demographic characteristics and anthropometric parameters between the groups. The cyproheptadine-treated group showed a significantly greater weight gain over the baseline compared with the control group. The absolute weight gain was significantly higher in the cyproheptadine-treated group than in the control group at the end of study. No significant difference was observed in the change in the body fat percentage between the groups. No serious adverse events were reported. Adverse events included mild sedation, nausea, diarrhea, abdominal pain, and headache. No significant differences in the frequency of adverse events were observed between the groups. Conclusions: Cyproheptadine treatment was well tolerated and resulted in significant weight gain in malnourished children, without increasing the body fat percentage.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Child
  • cyproheptadine
  • malnutrition
  • randomized controlled trial
  • weight gain
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Accuracy of ultrasound in pediatric undescended testes

Online veröffentlicht: 13 Apr 2018
Seitenbereich: 983 - 986

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Background: The undescended testis represents a common condition affecting male infants with significant clinical implications such as infertility and testicular malignancy. There is controversy as to the diagnosis when a clinical examination fails to identify a testis. Objective: Investigate the value of ultrasound in the diagnosis of undescended testis, and evaluate the correlation between the preoperative ultrasonographic data and operative findings. Material and method: Thirty-nine boys (age: 3months -12 years) with undescended testes were examined between January 2003 and December 2007. All the boys had undergone a sonogram performed for localizing the undescended testes. Only 20 boys were sent for inguinal exploration, or other surgical procedures for localizing the undescended testes. We calculated specificity, sensitivity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), and the accuracy of ultrasonographic diagnosis in boys with undescended testes. Results: Twenty-nine undescended testes were included in this study. Ultrasonography had a sensitivity of 82%, a specificity of 0%, PPV of 96%, NPV of 0%, and accuracy of 79% in the diagnosis of the undescended testis. Conclusions: The sensitivity and specificity including NPV of uetrasound had the unsatisfactory outcomes.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Accuracy
  • pediatric
  • testis
  • ultrasound
  • undescended
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Vascular homeostasis in early (normo-albuminuric) type 2 diabetic nephropathy

Online veröffentlicht: 13 Apr 2018
Seitenbereich: 987 - 990

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Background: Renal microvascular disease and reduction in peritubular capillary flow are generally observed in type 2 diabetic nephropathy (DN). Earlier therapeutic strategy with vasodilators has improved renal function in normo-albuminuric type 2 DN. Objective: Study the mechanism of vascular homeostasis in twenty patients associated with normo-albuminuric type 2 DN. Results: Angiogenic factors were observed in normo-albuminuric type 2 DN, where vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), was 420 ± 341 vs. 428±291 pg/mL (normal), and vascular endothelial growth factor - receptor 1 (VEGF-R1) was 60±12 vs. 49±5 ng/mL (normal), which were not significantly different from the controls. Anti-angiogenic factors were observed in normo-albuminuric type 2 DN, where angiopoietin-2, was 2309+1125 vs. 1671±835 pg/mL (normal), and vascular endothelial growth factor - receptor 2 (VEGF-R2) was 5715±1400 vs.6126 ±1060 ng/mL (normal), which were not significantly different from the controls. Conclusion: The mechanism of vascular homeostasis was adequately functional in normo-albuminuric type 2 DN. This mechanism may explain the positive response to vasodilators and improved renal function in early stage of type 2 DN following the vasodilator treatment.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Enhanced renal perfusion
  • normo-albuminuric type 2 diabetic nephropathy
  • vascular homeostasis
  • restoring renal function
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Professor Clement Alfred Finch: hematologist, humanist, and mentor for many (July 4, 1915 - June 28, 2010)

Online veröffentlicht: 13 Apr 2018
Seitenbereich: 991 - 991

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Clement Alfred Finch was a physician, researcher and educator who helped advance the scientific basis and practices of diagnosis and treatment of anemia since the time when little was known about the disease. He was born in New York, USA and graduated from medical school in 1941. He had a 60-year tenure at the University of Washington and published extensively (more than 300 scholarly articles and close to 30 key reviews). He was instrumental in collaborating with key Thai hematologists, particularly at the premier Siriraj Medical School. His contribution on iron metabolization in the bloodstream has been a corner stone of hematology. It included seminal research which led to the widespread supplementation with iron in diets by women to avoid iron deficiency anemia.

Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Tropical Diseases in Travelers

Online veröffentlicht: 13 Apr 2018
Seitenbereich: 993 - 994

Zusammenfassung

25 Artikel
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Biological activities of essential oils from the genus Ferula (Apiaceae)

Online veröffentlicht: 13 Apr 2018
Seitenbereich: 835 - 847

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The genus Ferula (Apiaceae) comprises about 170 species occurring from central Asia westward to northern Africa. This genus is well-known in folk medicine for the treatment of various organ disorders. Most of Ferula species possess strong aromatic smell that is due to the presence of essential oil or oleoresin in their different organs. This article reviews anti-bacterial, anti-fungal and other biological activities of Ferula oils reported to date. For medicinal applications, the chemical composition of volatile oils obtained from different Ferula species is summarized in Appendix.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Apiaceae
  • essential oil
  • Ferula
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Blindness as a result of acid attacks in Cambodia

Online veröffentlicht: 13 Apr 2018
Seitenbereich: 849 - 854

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Background: Fifty-three patients who had been attacked with acid were treated over the last three years, and 45% suffered blindness in one or both eyes as a result. Objective: Review the charts of all 53 patients to see if the proximate cause of the blindness could be determined to prevent it happening to others. Results: Three principal causes of blindness were direct damage from acid, limbal stem cell loss leading to later eyeball perforation, and delayed corneal abrasion from eyelid deformity. Only the latter cause could be prevented at this time, since the strength of the acid used in the attack could not be controlled, nor could limbal stem cell transplants be performed. Conclusion: Assessment of the ophthalmic injuries revealed three main categories of visual impairment, only one of which could be treated effectively at this stage.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Acid attack
  • blindness
  • Cambodia
  • limbal stem cells
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Saga of ghrelin: its structure, actions, and therapeutic uses

Online veröffentlicht: 13 Apr 2018
Seitenbereich: 855 - 860

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The fat-regulating hormones, adiponectin, ghrelin, and leptin have been studied extensively because therapeutic modality might be gleaned from their augmentation or blockade. Since a link between the hormone and control of hunger was found, ghrelin levels in the human body have received a great deal of attention over the past several years. This mini-review summarizes the role of ghrelin, describing its actions and therapeutic uses.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Adipocytes
  • ageing
  • ghrelin
  • growth hormone
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Sleep-disordered breathing and self-reported general health status in Thai patients

Online veröffentlicht: 13 Apr 2018
Seitenbereich: 861 - 868

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Background: Sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) has been a rapidly increasing health problem in Thai. Its effect on quality of life of Thai patients has not been adequately addressed. Objective: Determine the relationship between SDB and self-reported general health status in Thai patients. Materials and methods: A descriptive and cross-sectional study was used. Two hundred and sixtyeight patients (195 men and 73 women, age: 16-82 years) are recruited from King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital between January 2006 and December 2007. A health profile was obtained by self-administered questionnaire. SDB severity was assessed using an attended single-night comprehensive polysomnography. Results: SDB was not directly associated with the general health status. Presence of excessive daytime sleepiness, which was the major symptom of obstructive sleep apnea, was associated with a decrease in all domains of Short Form 36. Age, sex, and body mass index were also related to a lower physical function. Hypertension and excessive daytime sleepiness were associated with the severity of SDB. Conclusion: SDB is indirectly related to a lower general health status, and this relationship is of clinical significance.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Quality of life
  • sleep apnea syndromes
  • sleep-disordered breathing (SDB)
  • Thai
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Relationship between vitamin D receptor gene polymorphisms and anemia in postmenopausal Vietnamese women

Online veröffentlicht: 13 Apr 2018
Seitenbereich: 869 - 875

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Background: Both in vitro and in vivo studies have shown that calcitriol, the active form of vitamin D, is involved in hematopoiesis. Vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene has been suggested as one of the candidate genes for anemia. Objective: Investigate relationship between anemia and the commonly studied polymorphisms of VDR gene (FokI, BsmI, ApaI and TaqI) in terms of genotype and haplotype in Vietnamese. Methods: A case-control study including 132 postmenopausal women without chronic kidney diseases was designed to investigate the relationship between VDR polymorphism and anemia. Four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) FokI (rs2228570), BsmI (rs1544410), ApaI (rs7975232), and TaqI (rs731236) were typed by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism method. Results: Genotype distributions of four SNPs were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium in both anemia and control groups. The SNPs at the 3’end of the VDR gene (BsmI, ApaI and TaqI) exhibited a strong linkage disequilibrium. There was no significant association between anemia and VDR polymorphism in terms of allele, genotype, and haplotype in the analyses unadjusted or adjusted for the covariates (age, body mass index, educational level, serum ferritin, iron and albumin). Conclusion: VDR gene did not influence anemia in postmenopausal women without chronic kidney disease. For further study on the association between VDR gene and anemia, the use of larger sample size, a prospective study design, and additional markers would enhance the reliability and validity of findings.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Anemia
  • association
  • haplotype
  • postmenopausal Vietnamese women
  • vitamin D receptor
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Thai version of the Minnesota Living with Heart Failure Questionnaire: psychometric testing using a longitudinal design

Online veröffentlicht: 13 Apr 2018
Seitenbereich: 877 - 884

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Background: The Minnesota Living with Heart Failure Questionnaire (MLHFQ) is the most widely used diseasespecific instrument for heart failure (HF). However, a Thai version of the MLHFQ has not been available yet. Objective: Test the psychometric properties of the Thai version of the MLHFQ in terms of practicality, reliability, validity, and responsiveness, using a longitudinal design. Methods: One hundred eighty HF outpatients (mean age: 65±12 years; 58% male) were interviewed at Phramongkutklao Hospital, Bangkok between December 2008 and August 2009. Practicality was assessed with interview-times. Reliability was evaluated using Cronbach’s α and intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs). Validity was tested with correlations between the MLHFQ scores and the SF-36 scores, confirmatory factor analysis, and known-groups validity. Responsiveness was observed with effect sizes (ES) and minimal clinically important differences (MCID). Results: The averaged interview-time was approximately five minutes. The Cronbach’s α and ICCs of the MLHFQ were 0.86-0.93 and 0.84-0.88, respectively. The MLHFQ scores were moderately correlated with the Short Form-36 Health Survey (SF-36) scores, and discriminated the patients with different classes by New York Heart Association. The average ES were medium, ranging from 0.2 to 0.5. The MCID ranged from 1.4 to 14.5 for improved patients and from -1.4 to -12.7 for worsened patients. Conclusion: The Thai version of the MLHFQ showed acceptable psychometric properties. It can be used as a disease-specific instrument to measure health-related quality of life of Thai patients with HF.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Disease-specific measure
  • health-related quality of life
  • heart failure
  • psychometrics
  • reliability
  • responsiveness
  • Thailand
  • validity
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Transient temperature distribution on the corneal endothelium during ophthalmic phacoemulsification: a numerical simulation using the nodeless variable element

Online veröffentlicht: 13 Apr 2018
Seitenbereich: 885 - 892

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Background: During cataract operation (phacoemulsification), a phaco needle-tip is inserted into the anterior chamber of eye. Then, heat is generated by the oscillation of the phaco needle, which may injury the corneal endothelial cells. There are no data available for temperature responses at the corneal endothelium to heat from the phaco needle during phacoemulsification. Objective: Investigate temperature distribution on the corneal endothelium during ophthalmic phacoemulsification using numerical simulation, and compare the transient temperature response to heat between balanced salt solution (BSS) and ophthalmic viscoelastic device (OVD), Viscoat®. Methods: Heat flux from a phaco needle was measured with thermal properties of BSS and AVS in an experimental setting. Then, nodeless variable finite element method was applied to predict temperature changes in the eye by the phaco needle inserted into the anterior chamber. The transient temperature distribution on the corneal endothelium was calculated at 10, 20, and 30 seconds after heat generation by the needle. Results: The heat generation of phaco needle without sleeve cover was 1.6 kW/m2. The numerical simulation showed that the maximum temperature occurs on the wound location at all times after heat generation by the phaco needle. Especially, at time 30 seconds, it was 49.2 and 41.7°C in BSS and OVD, respectively. The temperature elevation by the phaco needle was lower in OVD than BSS. Conclusion: Phacoemulsification is a heat-generating procedure performed between the anterior chamber structures of eye. During this procedure, OVD may protect the corneal endothelium against heat better than BSS.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Balanced salt solution
  • corneal endothelial cell
  • nodeless variable element
  • numerical simulation
  • phacoemulsification
  • ophthalmic viscoelastic device
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Influence of demographic factors and serotonin transporter-linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) variants on major depression in a northeastern Thai population

Online veröffentlicht: 13 Apr 2018
Seitenbereich: 893 - 899

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Background: Several lines of evidence suggest that the serotonergic system may be involved in the etiology of major depressive disorder (MDD). Objective: Investigate a potential association between the functional polymorphism in the serotonin transporter-linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) and MDD in a northeastern Thai population, and explore the involvement of demographic characteristics in this disorder. Methods: One hundred eighty seven patients with MDD and 207 healthy controls were recruited from the same geographical area into the study. The 5-HTTLPR genotypes were determined using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and analyzed statically. Results: Significant demographic differences between the two groups were observed, which included age, marital status, occupation, educational background, income, and alcohol use. The allele frequencies of the 5- HTTLPR polymorphism in our studied population were relatively near those of Asian populations, especially Chinese, which was regarded as enormously distinct from those of Caucasians. Nevertheless, our present study found no significant association between this polymorphism and MDD with respect to either genotype distributions or allele frequencies. Conclusion: No involvement of the 5-HTTLPR polymorphism was suggested, but demographic features in MDD were highlighted with respect to this studied population.

Schlüsselwörter

  • 5-HTTLPR
  • association study
  • demographic data
  • genetic polymorphism
  • major depressive disorder
  • Thai population
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Antimicrobial susceptibility, plasmid profiles, and RAPD-PCR typing of Acinetobacter bacteria

Online veröffentlicht: 13 Apr 2018
Seitenbereich: 901 - 911

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Background: Multiple-drug resistant Acinetobacter have widely spread in the last decades imposing a serious nosocomial source of infection. Nevertheless, little knowledge was gaimed on tracing the development of antibiotic resistance in Acinetobacter species. Objectives: Explore Acinetobacter spp. via antimicrobial susceptibility, plasmid profiles, and random amplified polymorphism DNA polymerase chain reaction (RAPD-PCR) typing. Methods: One hundred twelve Acinetobacter isolates (including 66 A. baumannii and 46 non-Acinetobacter baumannii strains) were obtained from three university hospitals. The source of infection of these isolates included blood, urine, wound, and respiratory tract. Their susceptibilities to 17 antibiotics were tested and then all Acinetobacter isolates were typed by plasmid analysis and RAPD-PCR method. Results: A. baumannii isolates revealed nine different patterns of antibiotic resistance. Of those, non- A. baumannii, were associated with plasmid and RAPD-PCR typings (p <0.05). A. baumannii was more resistant to multiple antibiotics than non-A. baumannii (p <0.05). Seven different plasmid profiles were observed among 112 Acinetobacter isolates. Plasmids were found in 107 (95.5%) of the 112 isolates. Unlike in RAPD-PCR typing, there was no difference between the type of Acinetobacter, A. or non-A. baumannii strains and plasmid profiles (p >0.05). By RAPD-PCR, six profiles were found for each A. and non-A. baumannii strains. The pattern 6 was the most common pattern among the isolates. Both plasmid and RAPD-PCR typing showed no association between plasmid profiling and site of infection (p >0.05). Conclusion: There is a wide spread of multi-drug resistant Acinetobacter spp., particularly A. baumannii, in the Middle East region that can be traced efficiently by plasmid and genotyping typing of Acinetobacter. More care should be taken for tracing the development of antimicrobial resistance of Acinetobacter using precise molecular typing techniques.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Acinetobacter baumannii
  • antimicrobial susceptibility
  • molecular typing
  • plasmid profiles RAPD-PCR
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Osteoinductive potential of small intestinal submucosa/ demineralized bone matrix as composite scaffolds for bone tissue engineering

Online veröffentlicht: 13 Apr 2018
Seitenbereich: 913 - 922

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Background: Demineralized bone matrix (DBM) is extensively used in orthopedic, periodontal, and maxillofacial application and investigated as a material to induce new bone formation. Small intestinal submucosa (SIS) derived from the submucosa layer of porcine intestine has widely utilized as biomaterial with minimum immune response. Objectives: Determine the osteoinductive potential of SIS, DBM, SIS/DBM composites in the in vitro cell culture and in vivo animal bioassays for bone tissue engineering. Materials and methods: Human periosteal (HPO) cells were treated in the absence or presence SIS, DBM, and SIS/DBM. Cell proliferation was examined by direct cell counting. Osteoblast differentiation of the HPO cells was analyzed with alkaline phosphatase activity assay. The Wistar rat muscle implant model was used to evaluate the osteoinductive potential of SIS, DBM, and SIS/DBM composites. Results: HPO cells could differentiate along osteogenic lineage when treated with either DBM or SIS/DBM. SIS/ DBM had a tendency to promote more cellular proliferation and osteoblast differentiation than the other treatments. In Wistar rat bioassay, SIS showed no new bone formation and the implants were surrounded by fibrous tissues. DBM demonstrated new bone formation along the edge of old DBM particles. SIS/DBM composite exhibited high osteoinductivity, and the residual SIS/DBM was surrounded by osteoid-like matrix and newly formed bone. Conclusion: DBM and SIS/DBM composites could retain their osteoinductive capability. SIS/DBM scaffolds may provide an alternative approach for bone tissue engineering.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Demineralized bone matrix
  • human periosteal cells
  • small intestinal submucosa
  • osteoblast differentiation
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

The relationship between human muth homolog 1 gene mutation at site 415 and sporadic colon cancers in Chinese Han population

Online veröffentlicht: 13 Apr 2018
Seitenbereich: 923 - 930

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Background: The genetic factors of colon cancer play an important role in the tumor development and growth. The incidence of colon cancers has greatly increased in China. However, few data is available for the relationship between human muth homolog 1 (hMLH1) gene mutation at site 415 and sporadic colon cancers in Chinese population. Objective: Investigate the relationship between G→C mutation in hMLH1 gene at site 415 and sporadic colon cancers in Chinese Han population. Methods: Using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) and DNA sequencing techniques, the genotype of the hMLH1 gene was analyzed at site 415 in 97 cases of sporadic colon cancer patients and 138 controls. Reverse-transcription (RT)-PCR was used to determine the level of hMLH1 mRNA expression in normal colonic mucosa of patients with different genotype. Results: The frequency of genotype C/C at the 415 site of the hMLH1 gene was significantly higher in colon cancer patients than in controls. The expression levels of hMLH1 mRNA in normal colonic mucosa were similar in colon cancer patients with different genotypes. Conclusion: G’!C mutation in hMLH1 gene at site 415 may represent a genetic factor that is associated with sporadic colon cancer in a small group of Chinese Han population.

Schlüsselwörter

  • human mutl homolog 1 gene
  • mutation
  • sporadic colon cancers
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Twin pregnancy after renal transplant: the first case report in Thailand

Online veröffentlicht: 13 Apr 2018
Seitenbereich: 931 - 934

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Background: With more advanced technology, the renal transplant women have more chance to get pregnant, even multiple gestations. Obstetricians need the knowledge to provide the better care for these patients. Objective: Report the natural course of disease and the intervention for renal transplant woman with twin pregnancy. Patient and methods: A 20-year-old primigravida who underwent living-related renal transplantation eight months before pregnancy with monochrorionic diamniotic twins was treated throughout her pregnancy. Results: At 30 weeks of gestation, the patient was admitted due to rising of creatinine level, high blood pressure, and proteinuria. After conservative treatment for 12 days, the pregnancy was terminated by cesarean section with tubal resection. Both alive twins weighed 1385 g and 1525 g. Allograft kidney biopsy was undertaken, and histologic examination showed acute rejection. The renal function gradually improved after one month of antirejection therapy. Conclusion: The complications of pregnancy and poor perinatal outcomes are higher in renal transplant recipients. A multidisciplinary team is required for the management of these patients.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Acute graft rejection
  • renal transplantation
  • twin pregnancy
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Transitional cell carcinoma of ureter presenting acute ureteric colic and ruptured caliceal fornix with extravasation of urine

Online veröffentlicht: 13 Apr 2018
Seitenbereich: 935 - 938

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Background: Primary ureteral tumors are not common. The most common presentations of upper urinary tract urothelial carcinoma are gross or microscopic hematuria. Objective: Report a rare case of acute ureteric colic with perirenal urinoma, secondary to primary ureteric carcinoma. Methods: Case report and review of literature. Result: Perirenal extravasation and ureteric obstruction by tumor was diagnosed by contrast-enhanced computed tomography. The patient was successfully treated with laparoscopic radical nephroureterectomy after the obstruction was relieved by ureteric stent. Adjuvant radiation was done at the renal fossa for local control. There was no evidence of disease recurrence at twelve month after surgery. Conclusion: The renal caliceal fornix rupture is usually associated with acute ureteric obstruction by stone. Rarely, it occurs by primary ureteric tumor.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Acute ureteric colic
  • perirenal urinoma
  • ruptured caliceal fornix
  • ureteric carcinoma
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Septicemia due to Klebsiella rhinoscleromatis: a rare case

Online veröffentlicht: 13 Apr 2018
Seitenbereich: 939 - 942

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Background: Klebsiella rhinoscleromatis is the etiologic bacterium of rhinoscleroma. While rare, it has been implicated as a cause of septicemia. Only five cases of septicemia due to K. rhinoscleromatis have been reported previously. Objective: Report a case of K. rhinoscleromatis septicemia in Thailand and literature review. Results: K. rhinoscleromatis septicemia was observed in a 71-years-old-female diabetic patient suffering with acute fever.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Bacterial infection
  • gram-negative bacteremia
  • Klebsiella
  • rhinoscleroma
  • rhinoscleromatis
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Efficacy of electro-acupuncture at the main acupoints for weight reduction in Thai obese women

Online veröffentlicht: 13 Apr 2018
Seitenbereich: 943 - 947

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Background:Alternative medicine and Asian traditional medicine propose the use of acupuncture for treating obesity that generates several collateral effects on overall health. Objective: Analyze the efficacy of electro-acupuncture (EA) at the main acupoints in overweight/obese Thai women. Methods: Thirty women were recruited from Srinakharinwirot University Hospital. The patients were divided into three groups based on the type of obesity by the traditional Chinese medicine. Electro-acupuncture was done at 22 main acupoints. The primary outcome was efficacy of EA effect on body-weight reduction, while changes of other anthropometric parameters were considered as secondary outcome. Results: At the end of acupuncture, 87% of women had weight reduction, and major benefit was observed in type 2 and type 3 groups. The overall weight reduction was 2.6 kg (95%CI: 1.2-4.0 kg). However, the deficiency-type obese women (type 2 and 3) had more weight reduction than the excess-type obese women (type 1) with mean weight reduction of 2.3 kg and 0.8 kg, respectively. All other anthropometric parameters decreased significantly compared to those at the beginning of acupuncture. Conclusion: Acupuncture was useful for treatment for obesity in middle age women. Our standardized acupoints may be of clinical use for the application of acupuncture to patients.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Acupuncture
  • deficiency
  • obesity
  • traditional medicine
  • weight loss
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

The learning curve in head and neck reconstruction with microvascular free flaps: a retrospective review

Online veröffentlicht: 13 Apr 2018
Seitenbereich: 949 - 954

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Background: Tissue defect around the head and neck region is a great challenge for reconstructive surgeons. Successful outcomes of surgery is influenced by many factors such as surgical technique in recipient and donor site, meticulous microvascular anastomosis, position of vascular pedicle, and post-surgery monitoring. The learning curve is important for any new microvascular surgeons. Objectives: Evaluate the quality of training for a new otolaryngologist, head and neck surgeon, on their performance of free flaps in facial plastic and reconstructive surgery using a retrospective review. Methods: Nineteen microvascular free flaps in patients from the ENT Center of Rajavithi Hospital were reviewed between November 2008 and October 2009. Incidences of free flap survival, and partial and complete necrosis were examined. Results: Eighteen patients with microvascular free flaps had head and neck cancer. 88.9% of the patients had squamous cell carcinoma. There were nine radial forearm free flaps, five anterolateral thigh free flaps, two rectus abdominis free flap, two iliac-free flap, and one fibular-free flap. The overall success rate of the free flap reconstructions was 84%. One partial and three total necrosis were done on the 19 flaps. Conclusion: Causes of free flap failure were similar and not dependent on the experienced of the surgeons. The postgraduate training program in facial plastic and reconstructive surgery is effective in providing new microvascular surgeons the skills to perform successful microvascular and reconstructive surgeries.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Free flaps
  • head and neck reconstruction
  • learning curve
  • microvascular surgery
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Adrenomedullin administration alters vascular endothelial growth factor levels in rats in cold stress

Online veröffentlicht: 13 Apr 2018
Seitenbereich: 955 - 958

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Background: Many endogenous peptides play important regulatory roles in angiogenesis by modulating endothelial cell behavior. Adrenomedullin (AdM) is one of such factors. Angiogenesis and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) are indistinguishable. Exposure to cold environment stimulates capillary angiogenesis. Objectives: Examine the effect of the bioactive peptide AdM on VEGF levels in rat liver, lung, brain, and heart tissues after cold stress treatment. Methods: Male wistar rats were divided into four groups as control, AdM treatment, cold stress and AdM+cold stress treated groups. In AdM-treated group, animals received intraperitoneal injection of AdM (2000 ng/kg body weight) once a day during a week. For the cold stress exposure, the rats were kept in separate cages at 10°C for a week. Results: The administration of AdM increased VEGF levels in all tissues in cold exposed rats. Conclusion: AdM may be a major regulatory factor in angiogenesis by modulating VEGF levels that is closely associated with cold exposure-related metabolic stimulation.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Adrenomedullin
  • angiogenesis
  • cold stress
  • rat
  • vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)
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Intraocular pressure outcome after phacoemulsification and intraocular lens implantation in chronic angle closure glaucoma patients without extensive peripheral anterior synechiae

Online veröffentlicht: 13 Apr 2018
Seitenbereich: 959 - 963

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Background:Cataract extraction surgery significantly decreases intraocular pressure (IOP) in patients with various forms of angle closure glaucoma (ACG). However, most reports did not specify the circumferential extent of peripheral anterior synechiae (PAS). Objective: Evaluate IOP after phacoemulsification with intraocular lens (IOL) implantation in chronic ACG patients without extensive PAS. Materials and methods: Data of chronic ACG patients with documented peripheral PAS <180 degrees and clinically significant cataract, who underwent phacoemulsification with IOL implantation at King Chulalongkorn Momorial Hospital between May 2002 and June 2007 were reviewed retrospectively. Baseline characteristics as gender, degree of PAS, IOP, and number of medications were collected. The outcomes were post-operative IOP at 6, 12, and 18 months, and number of hypotensive medications. Results: Twenty-five eyes from 25 patients (mean age: 73.0 years old) were included in this study. Twenty-three out of 25 patients were female, and 17 had PAS less than 90 degrees. Pre-operative mean IOP was 15.6 mmHg, while pre-operative median (Q1, Q3) number of hypotensive medications was 2 (1, 2). After operation, statistically significant lower IOPs were seen at all time points. Mean IOP at 6, 12, and 18 months were 12.4, 11.0, and 11.9 mmHg respectively. In addition, post-operative number of hypotensive medication was also statistically significantly less than baseline, with median (Q1, Q3) 1 (0, 1), and 20% of these eyes were medication-free. Conclusion: Phacoemulsification and IOL implantation surgery alone in chronic ACG patients without extensive PAS can significantly lower IOP up to 18 months postoperatively.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Angle-closure
  • glaucoma
  • intraocular pressure
  • phacoemulsification
  • peripheral anterior synechiae
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Prevalence of obesity among Thai schoolchildren: a survey in Khon Kaen, Northeast Thailand

Online veröffentlicht: 13 Apr 2018
Seitenbereich: 965 - 970

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Background: There is a worldwide increase in obese children and adolescents. No systematized biometric data are available to confirm this trend in Thailand. Objective: Estimate the prevalence of obesity among 12- to 18-years-old attending the secondary school in the municipality of Khon Kaen, Northeast Thailand. Materials and methods: We used stratified, two-stage, cluster sampling to select 7,096 healthy boys and girls from 12,021 students of grades 7 to 12 at three government schools. Height and weight were measured to calculate body mass index (BMI) (weight (kg)/height (m)2). Sex-specific, BMI-for-age growth charts were created from the data on the 2,593 boys and 4,503 girls (between 12 and 18 years of age) using simple random sampling. Sex-specific BMI-for-age growth charts and the weight-for-height (W/H) were used to estimate the prevalence of obesity and overweight. Results: The respective national prevalence of obese and overweight children was 4.9% and 9.5% in the BMI-forage, the rates between boys and girls being comparable. There were no significant differences in the prevalence of either obesity or overweight with increasing age. In the Thai standard W/H, 13.7% of the children were obese and 5.3% were overweight. Obesity was more prevalent n boys (18.9%) than girls (10.8%) and decreased with age. The prevalence of overweight did not change with age regardless of gender. Conclusion: Obesity among children in Khon Kaen was similar to, or less prevalent than that reported for other areas of Thailand. The prevalence of obesity needs to be judged by the same (or similar) criteria before any comparison among various studies is done.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Children
  • obesity
  • prevalence
  • Northeast Thailand
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Detection of equine infectious anemia nucleic acid in asymptomatic carrier horses by nested PCR

Online veröffentlicht: 13 Apr 2018
Seitenbereich: 971 - 975

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Background: Equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) is a lentivirus with an almost worldwide distribution, infecting equids. It causes a persistent infection that is characterized by recurring episodes of fever, anemia, and thrombocytopenia. Most of the horses may control EIAV replication within a year, remaining persistently infected without clinical signs of disease. Objective: Detect EIA nucleic acid from peripheral blood of asymptomatic horses using nested PCR. Materials and method: We used nested PCR, amplifying P26 gag gene of EIAV, for direct detection of viral RNA in plasma and proviral DNA from PBMC in asymptomatic carrier horses in comparison with the Coggins test. EIA nucleic acid was prepared from 20 seropositive and five EIAV seronegative horses. Amplification of 246 bp expected size fragments was obtained using two different sets of primers targeting the P26 gag gene. Results: Among 20 seropositive horses, nine samples were positive for RNA and DNA. The five samples were positive for DNA but not for RNA, which indicates that the virus integrated into the host cell genome with a low level of viral replication. However, six samples were negative for both DNA and RNA. False negative could result due to primer failure caused by gag sequences variation among strains circulating in Thailand when compared with various strains from other parts of the world. EIAV antigens may also be prepared from cell cultures contaminated with other retroviruses thus causing false positives with the Coggins test. Conclusion: Nested PCR can be a useful tool for detecting the presence of EIAV in asymptomatic carrier horses. This may be especially true during the acute stage of the disease where the viremia levels are usually at the highest levels before detectable antibodies appear.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Proviral DNA
  • PBMC
  • viral nucleic Acid
  • viral RNA
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Effect of cyproheptadine on weight gain in malnourished children: a randomized, controlled trial

Online veröffentlicht: 13 Apr 2018
Seitenbereich: 977 - 982

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Background: Cyproheptadine has been used therapeutically as an appetite stimulant in various chronic illnesses. However, no clinical data are available on the therapeutic effect of cyproheptadine in malnourished children without underlying pathological conditions. Objective: Investigate the short-term effect of cyproheptadine on weight gain in malnourished children who appear otherwise normal on physical examination. Methods: Seventy malnourished children who were otherwise normal on physical examination were recruited to participate in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Thirty-seven children were randomized to a treatment regimen of cyproheptadine (0.1 mg/kg/dose, three times/day for eight weeks), and 33 children were randomized to receive placebo over a period of eight weeks. Subjects were evaluated at a baseline visit and at four visits at two-week intervals. Parameters assessed included baseline demographics, anthropometrics (weight, height, skin-fold thickness, waist and hip circumferences, and fat composition by bioelectric impedance analysis), adverse events, and pill counts. Data were analyzed by Student’s t-test and Chi-square test; a p- value < 0.05 was considered significant. Results: No significant differences were observed in baseline demographic characteristics and anthropometric parameters between the groups. The cyproheptadine-treated group showed a significantly greater weight gain over the baseline compared with the control group. The absolute weight gain was significantly higher in the cyproheptadine-treated group than in the control group at the end of study. No significant difference was observed in the change in the body fat percentage between the groups. No serious adverse events were reported. Adverse events included mild sedation, nausea, diarrhea, abdominal pain, and headache. No significant differences in the frequency of adverse events were observed between the groups. Conclusions: Cyproheptadine treatment was well tolerated and resulted in significant weight gain in malnourished children, without increasing the body fat percentage.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Child
  • cyproheptadine
  • malnutrition
  • randomized controlled trial
  • weight gain
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Accuracy of ultrasound in pediatric undescended testes

Online veröffentlicht: 13 Apr 2018
Seitenbereich: 983 - 986

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Background: The undescended testis represents a common condition affecting male infants with significant clinical implications such as infertility and testicular malignancy. There is controversy as to the diagnosis when a clinical examination fails to identify a testis. Objective: Investigate the value of ultrasound in the diagnosis of undescended testis, and evaluate the correlation between the preoperative ultrasonographic data and operative findings. Material and method: Thirty-nine boys (age: 3months -12 years) with undescended testes were examined between January 2003 and December 2007. All the boys had undergone a sonogram performed for localizing the undescended testes. Only 20 boys were sent for inguinal exploration, or other surgical procedures for localizing the undescended testes. We calculated specificity, sensitivity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), and the accuracy of ultrasonographic diagnosis in boys with undescended testes. Results: Twenty-nine undescended testes were included in this study. Ultrasonography had a sensitivity of 82%, a specificity of 0%, PPV of 96%, NPV of 0%, and accuracy of 79% in the diagnosis of the undescended testis. Conclusions: The sensitivity and specificity including NPV of uetrasound had the unsatisfactory outcomes.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Accuracy
  • pediatric
  • testis
  • ultrasound
  • undescended
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Vascular homeostasis in early (normo-albuminuric) type 2 diabetic nephropathy

Online veröffentlicht: 13 Apr 2018
Seitenbereich: 987 - 990

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Background: Renal microvascular disease and reduction in peritubular capillary flow are generally observed in type 2 diabetic nephropathy (DN). Earlier therapeutic strategy with vasodilators has improved renal function in normo-albuminuric type 2 DN. Objective: Study the mechanism of vascular homeostasis in twenty patients associated with normo-albuminuric type 2 DN. Results: Angiogenic factors were observed in normo-albuminuric type 2 DN, where vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), was 420 ± 341 vs. 428±291 pg/mL (normal), and vascular endothelial growth factor - receptor 1 (VEGF-R1) was 60±12 vs. 49±5 ng/mL (normal), which were not significantly different from the controls. Anti-angiogenic factors were observed in normo-albuminuric type 2 DN, where angiopoietin-2, was 2309+1125 vs. 1671±835 pg/mL (normal), and vascular endothelial growth factor - receptor 2 (VEGF-R2) was 5715±1400 vs.6126 ±1060 ng/mL (normal), which were not significantly different from the controls. Conclusion: The mechanism of vascular homeostasis was adequately functional in normo-albuminuric type 2 DN. This mechanism may explain the positive response to vasodilators and improved renal function in early stage of type 2 DN following the vasodilator treatment.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Enhanced renal perfusion
  • normo-albuminuric type 2 diabetic nephropathy
  • vascular homeostasis
  • restoring renal function
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Professor Clement Alfred Finch: hematologist, humanist, and mentor for many (July 4, 1915 - June 28, 2010)

Online veröffentlicht: 13 Apr 2018
Seitenbereich: 991 - 991

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Clement Alfred Finch was a physician, researcher and educator who helped advance the scientific basis and practices of diagnosis and treatment of anemia since the time when little was known about the disease. He was born in New York, USA and graduated from medical school in 1941. He had a 60-year tenure at the University of Washington and published extensively (more than 300 scholarly articles and close to 30 key reviews). He was instrumental in collaborating with key Thai hematologists, particularly at the premier Siriraj Medical School. His contribution on iron metabolization in the bloodstream has been a corner stone of hematology. It included seminal research which led to the widespread supplementation with iron in diets by women to avoid iron deficiency anemia.

Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Tropical Diseases in Travelers

Online veröffentlicht: 13 Apr 2018
Seitenbereich: 993 - 994

Zusammenfassung

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