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Zeitschriftendaten
Format
Zeitschrift
eISSN
1875-855X
Erstveröffentlichung
01 Jun 2007
Erscheinungsweise
6 Hefte pro Jahr
Sprachen
Englisch

Suche

Volumen 15 (2021): Heft 6 (December 2021)

Zeitschriftendaten
Format
Zeitschrift
eISSN
1875-855X
Erstveröffentlichung
01 Jun 2007
Erscheinungsweise
6 Hefte pro Jahr
Sprachen
Englisch

Suche

6 Artikel

Editorial

access type Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Congenital heart disease: magnitude of problem and possible interventions

Online veröffentlicht: 30 Dec 2021
Seitenbereich: 251 - 252

Zusammenfassung

Minireview

access type Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Propofol effects in rodent models of traumatic brain injury: a systematic review

Online veröffentlicht: 30 Dec 2021
Seitenbereich: 253 - 265

Zusammenfassung

Abstract Background

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) causes high mortality and disability worldwide. Animal models have been developed to explore the complex processes in TBI. Propofol is used to manage head injuries during surgical intervention and mechanical ventilation in patients with TBI. Many studies have investigated the neuroprotective effect of propofol on TBI. However, other studies have shown neurotoxic effects.

Objectives

To review systematically the literature regarding the neuroprotective and neurotoxic effects of propofol in rodent models of TBI.

Methods

Data from rodents as models of TBI with propofol as one of the intervention agents, and/or comparing the neuroprotective effects of propofol with the other substances in rodent models of TBI, were obtained from PubMed, EBSCO Host, and ProQuest databases. The PRISMA 2020 statement recommendations were followed and research questions were developed based on PICOS guidelines. Data was extracted from the literature using a standardized Cochrane method.

Results

We analyzed data from 12 articles on physiological changes of experimental animals before and after trauma, the effects of propofol administration, and the observed neurotoxic effects. The effects of propofol administration were observed in terms of changes in traumatic lesion volume, the release of antioxidants and inflammatory factors, and the neurological function of rodent models of TBI.

Conclusion

Propofol has neuroprotective and neurotoxic effects via several mechanisms, and various doses have been used in research to determine its effects. The timing of administration, the dose administered, and the duration of administration contribute to determine the effect of propofol in rodent models of TBI. However, the doses that produce neuroprotective and neurotoxic effects are not yet clear and further research is needed to determine them.

Schlüsselwörter

  • anesthetics
  • brain injuries, traumatic
  • neuroprotection
  • propofol
  • Rodentia

Original article

access type Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Parental risk factors associated with congenital heart disease in a Thai population: multivariable analysis

Online veröffentlicht: 30 Dec 2021
Seitenbereich: 267 - 276

Zusammenfassung

Abstract Background

Congenital heart diseases (CHDs) are the most common types of birth defects and contribute to a large proportion of infant morbidities and mortalities worldwide. These defects may require multiple surgical interventions impacting the infant's quality of life.

Objectives

To identify risk factors associated with CHD in a population of Thai children.

Methods

We conducted a case–control study of patients attending the Pediatric Clinic, Naresuan University Hospital, Thailand. We included data from pediatric patients diagnosed with CHDs as cases, and patients without cardiovascular abnormalities as controls. Risk data were collected from July 2019 to April 2020 using face-to-face interviews. Multiple logistic regression was used to analyze parental factors associated with CHDs.

Results

We included 249 cases classified into 2 groups according to severity and 304 patients as controls. For those less-severely affected (155 patients, 62.2%), ventricular septal defect (27.7%) was the most prevalent, whereas for those with severe CHDs, tetralogy of Fallot was the most prevalent (14.0%). There was no difference in sex distribution or maternal obstetric history between the groups. In multivariable analysis, a family history of CHDs (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 4.67, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.61–13.57, P = 0.005) and maternal exposure to second-hand cigarette smoke (AOR 1.58, 95% CI 1.03–2.42, P = 0.002) were identified as significant risk factors for CHDs.

Conclusion

A family history of CHDs and maternal exposure to second-hand cigarette smoke are associated with having offspring with CHDs in the population studied. These findings help us to encourage affected parents to obtain a fetal echocardiogram.

Schlüsselwörter

  • heart defects, congenital
  • heart disease risk factors
  • pregnancy
  • smoking
  • Thailand
access type Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Knowledge and attitude of dental professionals toward COVID-19 in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia: a cross-sectional survey

Online veröffentlicht: 30 Dec 2021
Seitenbereich: 277 - 284

Zusammenfassung

Abstract Background

Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) is a life-threatening global pandemic. The dental profession is considered a high-risk group in the transmission of the responsible virus.

Objective

To assess the knowledge and attitude among dental professionals in response to the COVID-19 pandemic.

Methods

We conducted a cross-sectional study of dental graduates, interns, postgraduates, and dental faculty from May to July 2020. A standardized questionnaire was developed to assess knowledge and attitude of 650 participants. The questionnaire comprised 14 questions to assess general knowledge about COVID-19, 11 questions regarding knowledge about prevention of COVID-19 in dental practice, and 10 questions regarding the attitude toward preventing COVID-19.

Results

Among the study population, only 376 (57.8%) knew the causative virus for COVID-19. Only 425 (65.3%) knew about rinsing the mouth with an antimicrobial solution or 1% hydrogen peroxide before the dental procedure. Regarding the hand hygiene guidelines, 357 (54.9%) had knowledge of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and 377 (58.0%) about World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines. At the time of our survey, 72% of the participants showed sufficient knowledge, while 28% had low or insufficient knowledge about COVID-19.

Conclusion

While there was a lack of knowledge among dental professionals in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia about COVID-19, there was an excellent positive attitude toward preventing disease. Greater awareness is needed to control the spread of this disease.

Schlüsselwörter

  • COVID-19
  • dental
  • pandemics
  • preventive health services
  • SARS-CoV-2

Brief communication (original)

access type Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Regulatory roles of lncRNA PANDAR in breast cancer cell proliferation

Online veröffentlicht: 30 Dec 2021
Seitenbereich: 285 - 291

Zusammenfassung

Abstract Background

Breast cancer represents the second most deadly malignancy in women, and long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have crucial functions in its development.

Objective

To investigate effects of the promoter of CDKN1A antisense DNA damage-activated RNA (PANDAR) on epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in breast cancer cells and their proliferation.

Methods

lncRNAs potentially regulating the transcriptional activity of the E-cadherin (E-cad, an epithelial cell marker) gene promoter were screened using a dual-luciferase reporter assay. PANDAR was overexpressed in Michigan cancer foundation 7 (MCF-7) breast cancer cells. E-cad and N-cadherin (N-cad, a mesenchymal cell marker) levels were detected by immunoblotting. Cell viability was assessed using a cell counting kit-8.

Results

PANDAR and TCONS00068220/LOC105375819 conservatively regulated the promoter activity of E-cad. PANDAR overexpression in MCF-7 inhibited E-cad expression, but upregulated N-cad. The enhanced expression of PANDAR promoted cell proliferation.

Conclusion

PANDAR is a key transcriptional repressor of E-cad and has regulatory effects on the promotion of cell proliferation. PANDAR is an oncogene in breast cancer, potentially facilitating the EMT process and promoting cell proliferation.

Schlüsselwörter

  • breast neoplasms
  • epithelial-mesenchymal transition
  • long noncoding RNA PANDAR
  • human
  • cell proliferation

Clinical vignette

access type Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Intraventricular tuberculosis abscess in an immunocompromised patient: clinical vignette

Online veröffentlicht: 30 Dec 2021
Seitenbereich: 293 - 297

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Tuberculosis is caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Tuberculosis of the central nervous system is common and manifestations include meningeal and intraparenchymal diseases. However, intraventricular tuberculous abscess is a rare manifestation of intracranial tuberculous infection. We present a case of an immunocompromised female patient with high-grade fever and signs of meningism. The computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain showed hydrocephalus with rim-enhancing lesion in the right lateral ventricle. The MRI demonstrated a hypointense signal on T1-weighted imaging, hyperintense signal on T2-weighted imaging, and mild restricted diffusion in diffusion-weighted imaging. She underwent emergency external ventricular drainage and frank pus was drained. Diagnosis of tuberculosis was made via polymerase chain reaction analysis and culture. Understanding the intracranial manifestation of neurotuberculosis is imperative to arrive at the diagnosis correctly and ensure prompt treatment.

Schlüsselwörter

  • abscess
  • diagnostic imaging
  • neuroradiology
  • tuberculosis
6 Artikel

Editorial

access type Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Congenital heart disease: magnitude of problem and possible interventions

Online veröffentlicht: 30 Dec 2021
Seitenbereich: 251 - 252

Zusammenfassung

Minireview

access type Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Propofol effects in rodent models of traumatic brain injury: a systematic review

Online veröffentlicht: 30 Dec 2021
Seitenbereich: 253 - 265

Zusammenfassung

Abstract Background

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) causes high mortality and disability worldwide. Animal models have been developed to explore the complex processes in TBI. Propofol is used to manage head injuries during surgical intervention and mechanical ventilation in patients with TBI. Many studies have investigated the neuroprotective effect of propofol on TBI. However, other studies have shown neurotoxic effects.

Objectives

To review systematically the literature regarding the neuroprotective and neurotoxic effects of propofol in rodent models of TBI.

Methods

Data from rodents as models of TBI with propofol as one of the intervention agents, and/or comparing the neuroprotective effects of propofol with the other substances in rodent models of TBI, were obtained from PubMed, EBSCO Host, and ProQuest databases. The PRISMA 2020 statement recommendations were followed and research questions were developed based on PICOS guidelines. Data was extracted from the literature using a standardized Cochrane method.

Results

We analyzed data from 12 articles on physiological changes of experimental animals before and after trauma, the effects of propofol administration, and the observed neurotoxic effects. The effects of propofol administration were observed in terms of changes in traumatic lesion volume, the release of antioxidants and inflammatory factors, and the neurological function of rodent models of TBI.

Conclusion

Propofol has neuroprotective and neurotoxic effects via several mechanisms, and various doses have been used in research to determine its effects. The timing of administration, the dose administered, and the duration of administration contribute to determine the effect of propofol in rodent models of TBI. However, the doses that produce neuroprotective and neurotoxic effects are not yet clear and further research is needed to determine them.

Schlüsselwörter

  • anesthetics
  • brain injuries, traumatic
  • neuroprotection
  • propofol
  • Rodentia

Original article

access type Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Parental risk factors associated with congenital heart disease in a Thai population: multivariable analysis

Online veröffentlicht: 30 Dec 2021
Seitenbereich: 267 - 276

Zusammenfassung

Abstract Background

Congenital heart diseases (CHDs) are the most common types of birth defects and contribute to a large proportion of infant morbidities and mortalities worldwide. These defects may require multiple surgical interventions impacting the infant's quality of life.

Objectives

To identify risk factors associated with CHD in a population of Thai children.

Methods

We conducted a case–control study of patients attending the Pediatric Clinic, Naresuan University Hospital, Thailand. We included data from pediatric patients diagnosed with CHDs as cases, and patients without cardiovascular abnormalities as controls. Risk data were collected from July 2019 to April 2020 using face-to-face interviews. Multiple logistic regression was used to analyze parental factors associated with CHDs.

Results

We included 249 cases classified into 2 groups according to severity and 304 patients as controls. For those less-severely affected (155 patients, 62.2%), ventricular septal defect (27.7%) was the most prevalent, whereas for those with severe CHDs, tetralogy of Fallot was the most prevalent (14.0%). There was no difference in sex distribution or maternal obstetric history between the groups. In multivariable analysis, a family history of CHDs (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 4.67, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.61–13.57, P = 0.005) and maternal exposure to second-hand cigarette smoke (AOR 1.58, 95% CI 1.03–2.42, P = 0.002) were identified as significant risk factors for CHDs.

Conclusion

A family history of CHDs and maternal exposure to second-hand cigarette smoke are associated with having offspring with CHDs in the population studied. These findings help us to encourage affected parents to obtain a fetal echocardiogram.

Schlüsselwörter

  • heart defects, congenital
  • heart disease risk factors
  • pregnancy
  • smoking
  • Thailand
access type Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Knowledge and attitude of dental professionals toward COVID-19 in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia: a cross-sectional survey

Online veröffentlicht: 30 Dec 2021
Seitenbereich: 277 - 284

Zusammenfassung

Abstract Background

Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) is a life-threatening global pandemic. The dental profession is considered a high-risk group in the transmission of the responsible virus.

Objective

To assess the knowledge and attitude among dental professionals in response to the COVID-19 pandemic.

Methods

We conducted a cross-sectional study of dental graduates, interns, postgraduates, and dental faculty from May to July 2020. A standardized questionnaire was developed to assess knowledge and attitude of 650 participants. The questionnaire comprised 14 questions to assess general knowledge about COVID-19, 11 questions regarding knowledge about prevention of COVID-19 in dental practice, and 10 questions regarding the attitude toward preventing COVID-19.

Results

Among the study population, only 376 (57.8%) knew the causative virus for COVID-19. Only 425 (65.3%) knew about rinsing the mouth with an antimicrobial solution or 1% hydrogen peroxide before the dental procedure. Regarding the hand hygiene guidelines, 357 (54.9%) had knowledge of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and 377 (58.0%) about World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines. At the time of our survey, 72% of the participants showed sufficient knowledge, while 28% had low or insufficient knowledge about COVID-19.

Conclusion

While there was a lack of knowledge among dental professionals in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia about COVID-19, there was an excellent positive attitude toward preventing disease. Greater awareness is needed to control the spread of this disease.

Schlüsselwörter

  • COVID-19
  • dental
  • pandemics
  • preventive health services
  • SARS-CoV-2

Brief communication (original)

access type Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Regulatory roles of lncRNA PANDAR in breast cancer cell proliferation

Online veröffentlicht: 30 Dec 2021
Seitenbereich: 285 - 291

Zusammenfassung

Abstract Background

Breast cancer represents the second most deadly malignancy in women, and long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have crucial functions in its development.

Objective

To investigate effects of the promoter of CDKN1A antisense DNA damage-activated RNA (PANDAR) on epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in breast cancer cells and their proliferation.

Methods

lncRNAs potentially regulating the transcriptional activity of the E-cadherin (E-cad, an epithelial cell marker) gene promoter were screened using a dual-luciferase reporter assay. PANDAR was overexpressed in Michigan cancer foundation 7 (MCF-7) breast cancer cells. E-cad and N-cadherin (N-cad, a mesenchymal cell marker) levels were detected by immunoblotting. Cell viability was assessed using a cell counting kit-8.

Results

PANDAR and TCONS00068220/LOC105375819 conservatively regulated the promoter activity of E-cad. PANDAR overexpression in MCF-7 inhibited E-cad expression, but upregulated N-cad. The enhanced expression of PANDAR promoted cell proliferation.

Conclusion

PANDAR is a key transcriptional repressor of E-cad and has regulatory effects on the promotion of cell proliferation. PANDAR is an oncogene in breast cancer, potentially facilitating the EMT process and promoting cell proliferation.

Schlüsselwörter

  • breast neoplasms
  • epithelial-mesenchymal transition
  • long noncoding RNA PANDAR
  • human
  • cell proliferation

Clinical vignette

access type Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Intraventricular tuberculosis abscess in an immunocompromised patient: clinical vignette

Online veröffentlicht: 30 Dec 2021
Seitenbereich: 293 - 297

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Tuberculosis is caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Tuberculosis of the central nervous system is common and manifestations include meningeal and intraparenchymal diseases. However, intraventricular tuberculous abscess is a rare manifestation of intracranial tuberculous infection. We present a case of an immunocompromised female patient with high-grade fever and signs of meningism. The computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain showed hydrocephalus with rim-enhancing lesion in the right lateral ventricle. The MRI demonstrated a hypointense signal on T1-weighted imaging, hyperintense signal on T2-weighted imaging, and mild restricted diffusion in diffusion-weighted imaging. She underwent emergency external ventricular drainage and frank pus was drained. Diagnosis of tuberculosis was made via polymerase chain reaction analysis and culture. Understanding the intracranial manifestation of neurotuberculosis is imperative to arrive at the diagnosis correctly and ensure prompt treatment.

Schlüsselwörter

  • abscess
  • diagnostic imaging
  • neuroradiology
  • tuberculosis

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