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Zeitschriftendaten
Format
Zeitschrift
eISSN
1875-855X
Erstveröffentlichung
01 Jun 2007
Erscheinungsweise
6 Hefte pro Jahr
Sprachen
Englisch

Suche

Volumen 6 (2012): Heft 5 (October 2012)

Zeitschriftendaten
Format
Zeitschrift
eISSN
1875-855X
Erstveröffentlichung
01 Jun 2007
Erscheinungsweise
6 Hefte pro Jahr
Sprachen
Englisch

Suche

19 Artikel

Editorial

Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Passive smoking: a reluctance to simplicity

Online veröffentlicht: 04 Feb 2017
Seitenbereich: 637 - 638

Zusammenfassung

Review article

Uneingeschränkter Zugang

A step forward into respiratory genetics: overview contribution of genetics in respiratory diseases

Online veröffentlicht: 04 Feb 2017
Seitenbereich: 639 - 651

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Background: In developing countries, especially in Southeast Asia, there is a misconception that genetics is only relevant to dysmorphology and prenatal obstetrics. Respiratory diseases, which are the most prevalent, range from simple Mendelian (single gene) diseases to complex (polygenic) disorders, surely have genetic determinants. Now, even in this “post-genomic era” many clinicians are not aware of advances in genetics available for prevention, diagnosis, and therapy of respiratory diseases.

Objective: The aim of this study is not to serve as a comprehensive review of genetics or genomics but to highlight genetic information relevant to clinical practice. Here, we describe genetic information pertaining to some of the most frequently encountered respiratory diseases.

Methods: The present review was prepared by reviewing the current literature using PubMed and Web of Science searches.

Results: Knowledge of the basic principles and genetic terms is important in clinical practice. Based on that knowledge, we can now recognize much progress in the respiratory field. The single gene and complex diseases have been identified. Translating genetic information into prevention, diagnosis, or therapy of such diseases can have great potential benefit for patients.

Conclusion: Genomics and molecular genetics could be integrated in the clinical setting. Ultimately, genomic knowledge and approaches will become increasingly important in the clinical setting for many respiratory diseases.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Genetics
  • genomics
  • lung diseases
  • medical sciences
  • respiratory

Original article

Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Living with a nonsmoking partner and smoking cessation of middle-aged Japanese male smokers: a prospective cohort study

Online veröffentlicht: 04 Feb 2017
Seitenbereich: 653 - 658

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Background: Smokers’ nonsmoking partners may be expected to encourage the smokers to quit smoking. However, there is little evidence regarding whether this expectation is applicable to the cases of middle-aged Japanese male smokers.

Objective: We examined the relationship between living with a nonsmoking partner and smoking cessation of middle-aged Japanese male smokers.

Methods: A prospective cohort study was performed. Five hundred seventy nine male smokers were observed for two years during which no intensive smoking cessation interventions were offered to either the subjects or their partners. The smoking status of the subjects and their partners was assessed based on the subjects’ selfreporting. Age, the number of cigarettes smoked per day, educational background, illness being treated, frequent alcohol use, and occupational class of the subjects at the baseline were considered as the covariates related to their smoking behaviors. Using a multiple logistic regression analysis, we calculated the odds ratio of living with a nonsmoking partner at the baseline on smoking cessation of the subjects at the follow-up adjusted for the covariates .

Results: At the follow-up, smoking cessation rates were 5.7% (24/419) among the subjects who were living with a nonsmoking partner at the baseline and 4.4% (7/160) among those who were not. The difference in cessation rates between these two groups was not statistically significant. The adjusted odds ratio of living with a nonsmoking partner at the baseline on smoking cessation was 0.79 (95% confidence interval: 0.31, 2.01, p = 0.625).

Conclusion: This study did not show that living with a nonsmoking partner significantly facilitated smoking cessation of middle-aged Japanese male smokers. It may be an excessive, unreal expectation that nonsmoking women in Japan automatically encourage their middle-aged male smoking partners to quit smoking when no intensive support for smoking cessation is offered.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Japan
  • middle-aged smokers
  • partners of smokers
  • prospective cohort study
  • smoking cessation
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Circulation and transmission of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus among college students in Malaysia (cell phones as reservoir)

Online veröffentlicht: 04 Feb 2017
Seitenbereich: 659 - 673

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Background: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a nosocomial pathogen of increasing risk to man.

Objective: We determined the risk of using cell phones as silent and underestimated tools for spreading MRSA in community.

Methods: One hundred swabs of cell phones were collected from college students in Malaysia. A series of identification and differentiating tests were conducted for the precise identification of MRSA bacteria. Moreover, this study compared the efficacy of the different identification tests with gold standard, PCR assay. The tests used were tube coagulase, DNase agar test, antibiogram, several routine biochemical identification tests, and PCR assays. PCR assay used specific primers for resistance or ID -related genes: mecA, ermA, ermB, ermC, msrA, linA, femA, and nuc genes.

Results: One hundred fifty bacterial isolates were collected from college students’ cell phones, non-PCR assays of identification and resistance detection revealed presence and spread of MRSA in cell phones of 14 college students. PCR-amplification of the nuc gene was used as a baseline test to detect Staphylococcus aureus. Seven isolates (50%) were detected as Staphylococcus aureus with the presence of nuc gene, and the remaining seven isolates (50%) were negative for nuc gene. However, of the seven positive nuc gene isolates, six isolates (6/14; 42.9%) were positive for mecA gene, making them MRSA. Using PCR as gold standard, the specificity and the sensitivity of antibiogram test in the detection of methicillin resistance was only 55.6% and 40%, respectively. Most of the MRSA carriers were found to study in the field of Science (33.3%) and Education (33.3%).

Conclusions: Cell phones proved to be silent tool for transferring MRSA in the community of college students in South East Asia. Moreover, PCR assay for identification of S. aureus and resistance evaluation for MRSA is superior when compared to other conventional methods.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Cell phones
  • MRSA
  • PCR
  • resistance
  • Staphylococcus aureus
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

The C-514T polymorphism of hepatic lipase gene modulates the impact of a high carbohydrate diet on lipid profile in healthy Chinese young adults

Online veröffentlicht: 04 Feb 2017
Seitenbereich: 675 - 681

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Background: Serum lipid concentrations are associated with genetic and environmental factors. Studies of interaction between genetic variations and diets may provide more insight into the mechanisms of lipid metabolism and the development of coronary heart disease.

Objective: We studied the interaction of a common C-to-T substitution at position -514 of the hepatic lipase promoter with high carbohydrate diet in a young and healthy Chinese population lipid profiles.

Methods: Fifty-six young, healthy Chinese subjects were given stabilization diets of 54% carbohydrate to exclude interference from the dietary background of the subjects. This was followed with a high carbohydrate diet of 70%. We analyzed the serum lipid profiles at baseline, after the stabilization diet, and after the high carbohydrate diet. Hepatic lipase gene polymorphisms were also determined.

Results: After the high carbohydrate diet, almost the whole population had significantly lower levels of phospholipids and all the females showed significantly higher levels of triacylglycerol (TAG). Notably, carriers of C allele had significantly lower levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). Males with CC, CT genotypes and females with CC genotype had significantly lower levels of total cholesterol. Furthermore, CC genotype males showed significantly increased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). A significant difference in the hepatic lipase C-514T polymorphism was found in phospholipid of males with TT >CT >CC.

Conclusion: Our results demonstrated that the C-514T polymorphism in the hepatic lipase gene could modulate the impact of a high carbohydrate diet on lipid profiles in this young and healthy Chinese cohort. This influence is gender-specific.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Coronary heart disease
  • hepatic lipase gene
  • high carbohydrate diet
  • risk factors
  • serum lipids
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Vaccaria segetalis extract can inhibit angiogenesis

Online veröffentlicht: 04 Feb 2017
Seitenbereich: 683 - 692

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Background: Study of antiangiogenic drugs is one of the cutting-edge fields in new antitumor drug development. However, system studies on Vaccaria segetalis extract as an inhibitor of tumor-induced neovascularization have not been published yet. In the current study, we performed a preliminary investigation of the antiangiogenic effect of Vaccaria segetalis extract on angiogenesis.

Objective: We studied the inhibitory effect of Vaccaria segetalis extract on neovascularization.

Methods: The effects of Vaccaria segetalis extract on in vitro proliferation, migration, and tube formation of human mammary endothelial cells (HMECs) were determined by 3 - (4,5) - dimethylthiahiazo (-z-y1) - 3, 5 -diphenytetrazoliumromide (MTT) assay and Matrigel plug assay. The antiangiogenic effect of Vaccaria segetalis extract was observed on the chick chorioallantoic-membrane (CAM) angiogenesis model. The CD31 expression on HMECs was detected by immunohistochemical staining. The therapeutic effect of Vaccaria segetalis extract on the metastasis of Lewis lung cancer was also observed in the mouse model.

Results: The proliferation and migration of human mammary epithelial cells (HMECs) were inhibited significantly by Vaccaria segetalis extract in a dose-dependent manner (IC50 = 50 μg/mL). Angiogenesis was also inhibited in the Matrigel-plug mouse model and the chick chorioallantoic-membrane model. The Vaccaria segetalis extract treatment reduced the expression of CD31 in HMECs and inhibited the growth and metastasis of Lewis lung carcinoma cells in the mouse model.

Conclusion: The Vaccaria segetalis extract, which can obviously inhibit angiogenesis, could be developed as a promising new antiangiogenic drug.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Angiogenensis
  • CD31
  • endothelial cell
  • human mammary endothelial cells
  • Vaccaria segetalis
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Effect of sodium sulphate salinity for production of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) by Thraustochytrids aureum RAK-21

Online veröffentlicht: 04 Feb 2017
Seitenbereich: 693 - 701

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Background: The demand for DHAs in human nutrition, fish feeds, and pharmaceutical applications is rapidly growing and it will become inadequate for supplying the expanding market. In order to meet the expected rise in the demand and to circumvent the drawbacks of the fish oil, it is important to develop new sources of this important nutrient, which leads the need for alternative production processes for DHA.

Objectives: The effect of sodium sulphate salinity on Docasahexaenoic acid (DHA) synthesis in Thraustochytrids aureum RAK-21 was studied with media constitution as well as conditions in batch fermentation.

Methods: Thraustochytrids aureum RAK-21 resuspended cell system using shake ask fermentation was deployed to study the production of DHA synthesis. The effects of key parameters such as salinity, different types of carbon sources, nitrogen sources, temperature, and pH on DHA production were also investigated.

Results: The sodium sulphate salinity was much influenced in growth as well as DHA production as compared with sodium chloride in medium. The results showed that sodium sulphate (30g/L) in the presence of peptone (15g/L) and sucrose (20g/L) were the most effective medium for higher DHA production at pH 7 and 35° C.

Conclusions: The present study reveals that sulphate ions are an important element for effective DHA synthesis along with sodium ions. It may influence the primary or co-metabolism pathways of DHA and other Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LCPUFA) production.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Docasahexaenoic acid (DHA)
  • long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LCPUFA)
  • sodium sulphate
  • Thraustochytrids aureum RAK-21
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Association between types of play materials and cognitive development among 12-month-old Thai infants: the prospective cohort study of Thai children

Online veröffentlicht: 04 Feb 2017
Seitenbereich: 703 - 711

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Background: Cognitive development is one of the most important aspects of child development. Stimulation is essential, especially for children between 1 and 2 years of age. Play materials is one realm where choice is relatively limited.

Objective: We investigated the relationships between play materials and cognitive ability.

Methods: This large, prospective, community-based cohort study, in the four regions and the capital of Thailand, studied the relationships between toys and cognitive ability in 4,116 children when they reached the first year of life. Details of play toys were collected at home and cognitive scores were measured using the Capute scale two weeks later. Multivariable analysis incorporated the following variables in the final multiple regression model, the 12 types of play materials, study center, parent factors (i.e., age, education, marital status, and income), and child factors (i.e., sex, weight, height, gestational age, birth weight, breastfed, hospital admission, mother-child attachment, number of members in family, number of sibling, iodine consumption, and life events).

Results: The first three common materials played with at home included push/pull toys (75.3%), home utensils (75.0%), and sound-making toys (73.9%). Adjusted for the potential factors, five out of the 12 types of play materials were significantly associated with the Capute scale, viz., sound-making toys (p = 0.029), push/pull toys (p = 0.003), creative toys (p = 0.003), natural materials (p = 0.002), and storybooks (p = 0.027). Children who played with natural materials had a higher Capute score than those who did not, with the mean difference of 1.9 (95%CI: 0.7 to 3.1). This was followed by creative materials (mean difference = 1.8, 95%CI: 0.6 to 2.9), and push/ pull toys (mean difference = 1.8, 95%CI: 0.6 to 3.0).

Conclusion: The results of the current study underscore the importance that natural materials, creative materials, and push/pull toys be available for children to play with during the first year of life.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Capute scale
  • cognitive development
  • infant
  • play materials
  • toys
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Effect of MIC interpretative breakpoint revision on cephalosporin and carbapenem susceptibility among ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae

Online veröffentlicht: 04 Feb 2017
Seitenbereich: 713 - 721

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Background: Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) breakpoints of selected cephalosporins and carbapenems against Enterobacteriaceae have been revised by major guidelines including CLSI and EUCAST mainly according to available pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic data. A decrease of breakpoint may obviate the need to detect specific resistance mechanisms such as extended-spectrum -lactamase (ESBL) and carbapenemase, which may be less correlated to treatment outcome than does the actual MIC of each agent.

Objective: To analyze cephalosporin and carbapenem MIC distributions among ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae at a university hospital against revised interpretative breakpoints.

Methods: MIC distributions of selected cephalosporins and carbapenems among 505 isolates of genotypically confirmed ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae were determined by E-testTM method and analyzed according to interpretative breakpoints comparing between CLSI and EUCAST guidelines.

Results: ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae demonstrated a wide range of cephalosporin MIC (≤1 to ≥64). Up to 9.7% of isolates displayed MIC lower than a revised cephalosporin breakpoint. Most isolates remained susceptible to imipenem and meropenem while as high as 24.6% were not susceptible to ertapenem. Lowered breakpoints may result in a change in categorical interpretations.

Conclusion: ESBL-producing isolates could be reported as susceptible to a cephalosporin with revised breakpoints although clinical use is uncertain. A higher proportion of isolates would be reported as nonsusceptible to cephalosporins or carbapenems with lowered breakpoints and thus increasing use of broadspectrum antimicrobial agents should be monitored.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Breakpoint
  • carbapenem
  • cephalosporin
  • enterobacteriaceae
  • ESBL
  • MIC
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

A modified posterior spinal fusion technique: surgical technique and clinical outcome in minimal 2-year follow-up

Online veröffentlicht: 04 Feb 2017
Seitenbereich: 723 - 729

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Background: Fusion of the spine region for congenital, traumatic, and degenerative lesions is more common now. Many orthopedic surgeons prefer posterior arthrodesis to restore the stability. Several studies have reported benefits, technical demands, clinical results, and postoperative complications with each method. For lumbar spine fusion, the best technique for a particular patient remains controversial.

Objective: We described a technique of posterior spinal fusion that can achieve solid fusion and produce clinical success.

Method: Between June 2008 and May 2010, a single surgeon treated 46 patients with this modified technique of posterior spinal fusion. All patients underwent postoperative computed tomography (CT) with coronal and sagittal three-dimensional reconstruction in assessing lumbar spine fusion. All patients were instructed to complete a self-assessment Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) questionnaire. These patients were analyzed for clinical outcome and fusion rate.

Results: The study group included 24 women and 22 men with a mean age of 71.2. Mean operating time was 106 minutes in a single-level fusion, 133 minutes in a two-level fusion, 210 minutes in a three-level fusion, and 288 minutes in a four-level fusion. The amount of blood loss during the operation and on the first postoperative day was 632 ml in a single-level fusion, 738 ml in a two-level fusion, 986 ml in a three-level fusion, and 1122 ml in a four-level fusion. There were postoperative complications in two patients. The minimum follow-up period was two years. Postoperative ODI was reduced significantly and had evidence of spinal fusion in CT scan assessing.

Conclusions: This posterior spinal fusion technique is effective in degenerative lumbar disease. Success rates have also been noted. This method of fusion can give the osseous fusion. It may also improve the clinical outcome. This modified posterior spinal fusion technique has some benefits when comparing to the previous methods.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Clinical outcome
  • computed tomography (CT)
  • posterior lumbar fusion
  • Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) questionnaire
  • spinal fusion
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Hepatic villin expression in biliary atresia

Online veröffentlicht: 04 Feb 2017
Seitenbereich: 731 - 736

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Background: Villin is a protein that severs, binds, and bundles actin filaments, necessary for maintenance of the structural integrity of the microvilli in the absorptive epithelia, which include enterocytes, kidney proximal tubule cells, and bile canaliculi. Biliary atresia (BA) is a progressive, sclerosing, inflammatory process that results in complete obliteration of the extrahepatic bile ducts. Liver histopathology in BA might be similar to idiopathic neonatal hepatitis (INH).

Objective: We compared the hepatic expression of villin in children with BA and INH.

Methods: This study was conducted on stored liver specimens of 28 children with BA (age 2.78±1.33 months) and 10 children with INH (age 2.40±1.26 months). Villin was investigated on liver tissue by immunohistochemistry. Villin mRNA analyzes were undertaken on liver homogenates using real-time PCR technique, with primers from coding regions of the human villin gene. Amounts of villin PCR product (villin mRNA relative to the concentrations of GAPDH product) were expressed as median (minimum, maximum).

Results: Villin mRNA expression in patients with BA and INH were 15.98 (0.02, 11880.47) and 0.09 (0, 111.95), respectively. Villin mRNA expression in BA patients was significantly higher than in patients with INH (p = 0.01). Villin staining and mRNA expression were undetectable in two INH.

Conclusions: The higher villin expression in BA might have been due to pronounced bile duct proliferation in comparison with INH. Hepatic villin expression might be helpful in discrimination BA from INH and hence BA patients can be timely diagnosed.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Actin
  • biliary atresia
  • cholestatic liver disease
  • idiopathic neonatal hepatitis
  • villin
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Gender differences in depressive symptoms in Thai adolescents

Online veröffentlicht: 04 Feb 2017
Seitenbereich: 737 - 745

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Background: Studies found that males and females differ in many aspects of psychiatric disorders, such as in prevalence, symptoms, and symptom severity. Objective: We studied gender differences in depressive symptoms in Thai adolescents.

Methods: Through stratified random sampling 1,220 students in grade 10 to 12 from 10 high schools in Bangkok were recruited for the Study of Depression in Thai Youth Project. The Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), Thai version, which is a 20-item self-report questionnaire, was used to assess depression. In this report, the response to CES-D were compared between boys (n = 473) and girls (n = 747).

Results: By using the score of 22 as a cut-off for significant depression, 19% of boys and 17% of girls were found to be depressed. The mean CES-D score of boys was 15.0 (SD = 7.1) and of girls was 15.5 (SD = 6.8). However, the difference did not have statistical significance. Depressive symptom prevalence in both groups was compared. Boys were significantly more likely than girls to view life as failure (36.7% vs. 23.2%, p < 0.05), to not feel happy (43.4% vs. 27.4%, p <0.05), and to not enjoy life (55.6% vs. 36.0%, p <0.01). Girls were significantly more likely to have crying spells (45.3% vs. 10.0%, p <0.001), and to feel sad (54.6% vs. 36.6%, p = 0.01). The comparison of symptom severity revealed that boys scored higher in cognitive symptoms and girls scored higher in mood symptoms. CES-D subscales were compared. Boys scored higher in positive affect subscale and girls scored higher in negative affect and somatic subscales. The difference was also significant even in the nondepressed group.

Conclusion: There is no significant difference in the prevalence and severity of depression in both genders. The significant difference lies in the symptom profiles. Girls have more mood and somatic symptoms while boys have more cognitive symptoms and lack of well-being. This difference also exists in the non-depressed group. The findings have important implications in both diagnosis and treatment of depression in adolescents.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Adolescents
  • depression
  • depressive symptoms
  • gender

Brief communication (Original)

Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Otosclerosis: association of COLIA1 Sp1 binding site polymorphism in Alexandria, Egypt

Online veröffentlicht: 04 Feb 2017
Seitenbereich: 747 - 752

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Background: Otosclerosis is a common form of hearing loss characterized by abnormal bone remodeling in the otic capsule. It is a complex genetic disease, caused by a combination of genetic and environmental factors. COL1A1 gene is one of the most important candidate genes in otosclerosis. A strong association has been described between otosclerosis and single nucleotide polymorphism in Sp1 binding site of the first intron of the COL1A1 gene.

Objective: Investigate the association between the G/T polymorphism at Sp1 binding site in the COL1A1 first intron and otosclerosis.

Methods: Polymerase chain reaction-based restriction enzyme analysis was applied to determine the polymorphic distribution of the Sp1 site in 160 patients with otosclerosis and 100 control subjects.

Results: This study showed a significant association between otosclerosis and the COL1A1 first intron Sp1 site. The T allele was 0.33 in the patients with otosclerosis and 0.18 in controls. This indicates a significant association between T allele and otosclerosis in Egyptian patients (p <0.0001).

Conclusion: The association of CL1A1 Sp1 binding site polymorphism with the risk of otosclerosis in an Egyptian population has been confirmed.

Schlüsselwörter

  • COL1A1 gene
  • otosclerosis
  • Sp1 binding site
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Preparation and evaluation of porous alginate/ hydroxyapatite composite scaffold coated with a biodegradable triblock copolymer

Online veröffentlicht: 04 Feb 2017
Seitenbereich: 753 - 758

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Background: The scaffolds for bone tissue engineering must meet the functional requirements such as porosity, biocompatibility, and biodegradability. Composite materials could improve mechanical properties compared with polymers, and structural integrity and flexibility compared with brittle ceramics.

Objective: The effect of a biodegradable triblock copolymer in the cell attachment into the alginate/hydroxyapatite composite scaffold was evaluated.

Methods: Scaffolds were fabricated by freeze-drying method in different alginate/hydroxyapatite weight ratios. Hydroxyapatite was incorporated into the alginate gel solution to improve both the mechanical and cellattachment properties of the scaffolds. The scaffolds were then coated with triblock copolymer (as a surface modifier) and sterilized by ultraviolet light. Then, human mesenchymal stem cells were cultured on the scaffolds, which are an attractive cell source for tissue engineering.

Results: Cell adhesion to the scaffolds was observed after three days by 4, 6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) fluorescence microscopy. In addition, microstructural observation with SEM suggests the formation of about 50 micrometer size pores and interconnected porosity so that cell adhesion within this structure is well in depth as also observed in DAPI results.

Conclusion: These results suggest that the triblock-coated alginate/hydroxyapatite porous scaffolds could provide enhanced cell adhesion and proliferation, which may be a promising approach for tissue-engineering applications.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Alginate
  • cell adhesion
  • freeze-drying
  • human mesenchymal stem cells
  • hydroxyapatite
  • porous scaffold
  • tissue engineering
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Significance of serum 8-Hydroxydeoxyguanosine levels to the intima-media thickness of the carotid artery in type 2 diabetes

Online veröffentlicht: 04 Feb 2017
Seitenbereich: 759 - 764

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Background: Cardiovascular disease is the largest cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Interestingly, previous studies demonstrated that type 2 diabetic patients had a significantly higher concentration of 8-Hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) although it role in the pathogenesis of carotid artery atheroma and insulin resistance has not been identified.

Objective: We investigated the role of serum 8-OHdG levels in the intima-media thickness (IMT) of the carotid artery, and its significance in insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes.

Methods: Fifty patients with disease-onset type 2 diabetes were enrolled and divided into two groups according to the intima-media thickness of the carotid artery (<1.0 mm = group A or ≥1.0 mm = group B). Blood samples from patients were used within one month for the determination of 8-OHdG using a competitive ELISA kit, and other coronary heart disease (CHD) risk factors were also measured.

Results: Patients in Group B showed significant higher levels of serum 8-OHdG compared to that of group A and control. Serum 8-OHdG had significant positive correlations with BMI, SBP, FPG, FINS, HbA1c, TC, and Homa-IR. Similarly, a significant positive correlation existed between the serum 8-OHdG and IMT levels. 8-OHdG, Homa-IR, HbA1c and TC were independently associated with increased IMT in type 2 diabetes patients.

Conclusion: Serum 8-OHdG is a useful indicator for the severity of IMT of the carotid artery and reflects the severity of insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Carotid artery
  • insulin resistance
  • intima-media thickness
  • type 2 diabetes
  • 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Novel biomarkers of hyperlipidemic acute pancreatitis: metabolomic identification

Online veröffentlicht: 04 Feb 2017
Seitenbereich: 765 - 769

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Background: Recognition of hypertriglyceridemia is critical for the diagnosis of hyperlipidemic pancreatitis (HLP) and the selection and evaluation of therapy.

Objective: Investigate metabolic profiling technologies for identifying novel biomarkers and pathways activated in HLP.

Methods: Blood and urine samples were obtained from 24 patients and 39 healthy people. A gas chromatography and mass spectrometry was employed to study the metabolic profile in HLP and healthy groups. Functional pathway trend analysis using multivariate statistical analysis was performed.

Results: HLP patients could be precisely distinguished from the healthy controls. In the patient, levels of aconitate, citrate, hippurate, p-hydroxyphenylacetate and p-hydroxyphenylpopionic acid were decreased, while levels of tryptophan, tyrosine, tyramine,16-hexadecanoic acid, and 18-octadecanoic acid were increased. The change of energy metabolism-related mechanisms, fatty acid metabolism, gut microbiota metabolism, and metabolism of tyrosine could be used to distinguish HLP patients.

Conclusions: Novel biomarkers could be identified by application of metabolomics. Metabolic profiling was useful for studies of pathogenesis of HLP.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Blood
  • hyperlipidemic pancreatitis
  • metabolism
  • urine
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Does GnRH agonist enhance the final adult height in girls with precocious puberty?

Online veröffentlicht: 04 Feb 2017
Seitenbereich: 771 - 774

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Background: Girls with sign of secondary sexual characteristic before the age of 8 years are defined as precocious puberty (PP). Early activation of hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis causes central PP. Without treatment, some become short adult height and early menstruation may develop.

Objective: Report the final adult height in precocious puberty girls who have been treated with GnRH agonist.

Methods: Seventy girls with PP and early puberty (EP) who were treated with GnRH agonist have been followed up until they reach final height (FH). FH was compared with predicted adult height (PAH) before treatment and mid-parental height (MPH).

Results: All subjects were treated with GnRH agonist for a mean duration of 1.9 0.6 years. FH was significantly higher than PAH before treatment (156.6±5.1 vs. 151.6±6 cm, p <0.001). FH is positively correlated with MPH. However, treatment with GnRH agonist in EP girls and in PP girls with bone age of more than 12.5 years or those who already had menstruation may have less benefit.

Conclusion: GnRH agonist can enhance FH in girls with PP. Early treatment in those with bone age of less than 12.5 years or before menstruation may result in good outcome.

Schlüsselwörter

  • GnRH agonist
  • early puberty
  • final adult height
  • precocious puberty

Clinical report

Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Marjolin’s ulcers: the lasting effect of landmines in Cambodia

Online veröffentlicht: 04 Feb 2017
Seitenbereich: 775 - 780

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Background: Marjolin’s ulcer is a rare malignancy often associated with burn scars, traumatic wounds and chronic infections. Cambodia is still contaminated with landmines and unexploded ordinance, and a significant number of people suffer from related injuries, as well as latent development of Marjolin’s ulcers.

Objectives: Report on the incidence of suspected and histopathologically confirmed cases of Marjolin’s ulcers at the Children’s Surgical Centre (CSC), Phnom Penh, Cambodia. Comment on 2 similar cases of landmine injuries to the lower limb resulting in Marjolin’s ulcers.

Methods: Independent retrospective analysis of electronic and hardcopy patient records (January 2003 to January 2012) was performed by two examiners. Patients were selected based on primary and secondary inclusion criteria.

Results: Forty-eight patients were selected from the initial analysis and of those selected, 8 patients met secondary inclusion criteria. From these 8 cases, the preceding pathology included burns (62.5%), landmine blast injuries (25%) and chronic infection (12.5%).

Conclusion: The high prevalence of landmine blast victims in Cambodia suggests that there is likely to be a correspondingly high incidence of Marjolin’s ulcers in the population. Improved surveillance for malignancy and prompt intervention in these patients may improve outcomes.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Cambodia
  • landmine
  • Marjolin’s ulcer
  • squamous cell carcinoma
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

A fatal case of intestinal capillariasis due to misleading investigations

Online veröffentlicht: 04 Feb 2017
Seitenbereich: 781 - 785

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Background: Intestinal capillariasis is an important agent in the differential diagnosis of chronic diarrhea and protein-losing enteropathy. The disease is uncommon and possibly under-diagnosed in Thailand and neighboring countries.

Objective: Report a fatal case of intestinal capillariasis that underwent misleading diagnostic efforts for six months. We also reviewed previous cases of intestinal capillariasis from our hospital.

Patient and Method: A descriptive study of a fatal case of intestinal capillariasis, and review of patients admitted for capillariasis during the past 10 years.

Conclusion: This case highlights the importance of adequate and repeated microscopic stool examinations before proceeding to other sophisticated investigations that may cause delay in diagnosis and confusing results that result in inappropriate therapy.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Diagnosis
  • fatal
  • intestinal capillariasis
19 Artikel

Editorial

Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Passive smoking: a reluctance to simplicity

Online veröffentlicht: 04 Feb 2017
Seitenbereich: 637 - 638

Zusammenfassung

Review article

Uneingeschränkter Zugang

A step forward into respiratory genetics: overview contribution of genetics in respiratory diseases

Online veröffentlicht: 04 Feb 2017
Seitenbereich: 639 - 651

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Background: In developing countries, especially in Southeast Asia, there is a misconception that genetics is only relevant to dysmorphology and prenatal obstetrics. Respiratory diseases, which are the most prevalent, range from simple Mendelian (single gene) diseases to complex (polygenic) disorders, surely have genetic determinants. Now, even in this “post-genomic era” many clinicians are not aware of advances in genetics available for prevention, diagnosis, and therapy of respiratory diseases.

Objective: The aim of this study is not to serve as a comprehensive review of genetics or genomics but to highlight genetic information relevant to clinical practice. Here, we describe genetic information pertaining to some of the most frequently encountered respiratory diseases.

Methods: The present review was prepared by reviewing the current literature using PubMed and Web of Science searches.

Results: Knowledge of the basic principles and genetic terms is important in clinical practice. Based on that knowledge, we can now recognize much progress in the respiratory field. The single gene and complex diseases have been identified. Translating genetic information into prevention, diagnosis, or therapy of such diseases can have great potential benefit for patients.

Conclusion: Genomics and molecular genetics could be integrated in the clinical setting. Ultimately, genomic knowledge and approaches will become increasingly important in the clinical setting for many respiratory diseases.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Genetics
  • genomics
  • lung diseases
  • medical sciences
  • respiratory

Original article

Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Living with a nonsmoking partner and smoking cessation of middle-aged Japanese male smokers: a prospective cohort study

Online veröffentlicht: 04 Feb 2017
Seitenbereich: 653 - 658

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Background: Smokers’ nonsmoking partners may be expected to encourage the smokers to quit smoking. However, there is little evidence regarding whether this expectation is applicable to the cases of middle-aged Japanese male smokers.

Objective: We examined the relationship between living with a nonsmoking partner and smoking cessation of middle-aged Japanese male smokers.

Methods: A prospective cohort study was performed. Five hundred seventy nine male smokers were observed for two years during which no intensive smoking cessation interventions were offered to either the subjects or their partners. The smoking status of the subjects and their partners was assessed based on the subjects’ selfreporting. Age, the number of cigarettes smoked per day, educational background, illness being treated, frequent alcohol use, and occupational class of the subjects at the baseline were considered as the covariates related to their smoking behaviors. Using a multiple logistic regression analysis, we calculated the odds ratio of living with a nonsmoking partner at the baseline on smoking cessation of the subjects at the follow-up adjusted for the covariates .

Results: At the follow-up, smoking cessation rates were 5.7% (24/419) among the subjects who were living with a nonsmoking partner at the baseline and 4.4% (7/160) among those who were not. The difference in cessation rates between these two groups was not statistically significant. The adjusted odds ratio of living with a nonsmoking partner at the baseline on smoking cessation was 0.79 (95% confidence interval: 0.31, 2.01, p = 0.625).

Conclusion: This study did not show that living with a nonsmoking partner significantly facilitated smoking cessation of middle-aged Japanese male smokers. It may be an excessive, unreal expectation that nonsmoking women in Japan automatically encourage their middle-aged male smoking partners to quit smoking when no intensive support for smoking cessation is offered.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Japan
  • middle-aged smokers
  • partners of smokers
  • prospective cohort study
  • smoking cessation
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Circulation and transmission of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus among college students in Malaysia (cell phones as reservoir)

Online veröffentlicht: 04 Feb 2017
Seitenbereich: 659 - 673

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Background: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a nosocomial pathogen of increasing risk to man.

Objective: We determined the risk of using cell phones as silent and underestimated tools for spreading MRSA in community.

Methods: One hundred swabs of cell phones were collected from college students in Malaysia. A series of identification and differentiating tests were conducted for the precise identification of MRSA bacteria. Moreover, this study compared the efficacy of the different identification tests with gold standard, PCR assay. The tests used were tube coagulase, DNase agar test, antibiogram, several routine biochemical identification tests, and PCR assays. PCR assay used specific primers for resistance or ID -related genes: mecA, ermA, ermB, ermC, msrA, linA, femA, and nuc genes.

Results: One hundred fifty bacterial isolates were collected from college students’ cell phones, non-PCR assays of identification and resistance detection revealed presence and spread of MRSA in cell phones of 14 college students. PCR-amplification of the nuc gene was used as a baseline test to detect Staphylococcus aureus. Seven isolates (50%) were detected as Staphylococcus aureus with the presence of nuc gene, and the remaining seven isolates (50%) were negative for nuc gene. However, of the seven positive nuc gene isolates, six isolates (6/14; 42.9%) were positive for mecA gene, making them MRSA. Using PCR as gold standard, the specificity and the sensitivity of antibiogram test in the detection of methicillin resistance was only 55.6% and 40%, respectively. Most of the MRSA carriers were found to study in the field of Science (33.3%) and Education (33.3%).

Conclusions: Cell phones proved to be silent tool for transferring MRSA in the community of college students in South East Asia. Moreover, PCR assay for identification of S. aureus and resistance evaluation for MRSA is superior when compared to other conventional methods.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Cell phones
  • MRSA
  • PCR
  • resistance
  • Staphylococcus aureus
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

The C-514T polymorphism of hepatic lipase gene modulates the impact of a high carbohydrate diet on lipid profile in healthy Chinese young adults

Online veröffentlicht: 04 Feb 2017
Seitenbereich: 675 - 681

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Background: Serum lipid concentrations are associated with genetic and environmental factors. Studies of interaction between genetic variations and diets may provide more insight into the mechanisms of lipid metabolism and the development of coronary heart disease.

Objective: We studied the interaction of a common C-to-T substitution at position -514 of the hepatic lipase promoter with high carbohydrate diet in a young and healthy Chinese population lipid profiles.

Methods: Fifty-six young, healthy Chinese subjects were given stabilization diets of 54% carbohydrate to exclude interference from the dietary background of the subjects. This was followed with a high carbohydrate diet of 70%. We analyzed the serum lipid profiles at baseline, after the stabilization diet, and after the high carbohydrate diet. Hepatic lipase gene polymorphisms were also determined.

Results: After the high carbohydrate diet, almost the whole population had significantly lower levels of phospholipids and all the females showed significantly higher levels of triacylglycerol (TAG). Notably, carriers of C allele had significantly lower levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). Males with CC, CT genotypes and females with CC genotype had significantly lower levels of total cholesterol. Furthermore, CC genotype males showed significantly increased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). A significant difference in the hepatic lipase C-514T polymorphism was found in phospholipid of males with TT >CT >CC.

Conclusion: Our results demonstrated that the C-514T polymorphism in the hepatic lipase gene could modulate the impact of a high carbohydrate diet on lipid profiles in this young and healthy Chinese cohort. This influence is gender-specific.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Coronary heart disease
  • hepatic lipase gene
  • high carbohydrate diet
  • risk factors
  • serum lipids
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Vaccaria segetalis extract can inhibit angiogenesis

Online veröffentlicht: 04 Feb 2017
Seitenbereich: 683 - 692

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Background: Study of antiangiogenic drugs is one of the cutting-edge fields in new antitumor drug development. However, system studies on Vaccaria segetalis extract as an inhibitor of tumor-induced neovascularization have not been published yet. In the current study, we performed a preliminary investigation of the antiangiogenic effect of Vaccaria segetalis extract on angiogenesis.

Objective: We studied the inhibitory effect of Vaccaria segetalis extract on neovascularization.

Methods: The effects of Vaccaria segetalis extract on in vitro proliferation, migration, and tube formation of human mammary endothelial cells (HMECs) were determined by 3 - (4,5) - dimethylthiahiazo (-z-y1) - 3, 5 -diphenytetrazoliumromide (MTT) assay and Matrigel plug assay. The antiangiogenic effect of Vaccaria segetalis extract was observed on the chick chorioallantoic-membrane (CAM) angiogenesis model. The CD31 expression on HMECs was detected by immunohistochemical staining. The therapeutic effect of Vaccaria segetalis extract on the metastasis of Lewis lung cancer was also observed in the mouse model.

Results: The proliferation and migration of human mammary epithelial cells (HMECs) were inhibited significantly by Vaccaria segetalis extract in a dose-dependent manner (IC50 = 50 μg/mL). Angiogenesis was also inhibited in the Matrigel-plug mouse model and the chick chorioallantoic-membrane model. The Vaccaria segetalis extract treatment reduced the expression of CD31 in HMECs and inhibited the growth and metastasis of Lewis lung carcinoma cells in the mouse model.

Conclusion: The Vaccaria segetalis extract, which can obviously inhibit angiogenesis, could be developed as a promising new antiangiogenic drug.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Angiogenensis
  • CD31
  • endothelial cell
  • human mammary endothelial cells
  • Vaccaria segetalis
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Effect of sodium sulphate salinity for production of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) by Thraustochytrids aureum RAK-21

Online veröffentlicht: 04 Feb 2017
Seitenbereich: 693 - 701

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Background: The demand for DHAs in human nutrition, fish feeds, and pharmaceutical applications is rapidly growing and it will become inadequate for supplying the expanding market. In order to meet the expected rise in the demand and to circumvent the drawbacks of the fish oil, it is important to develop new sources of this important nutrient, which leads the need for alternative production processes for DHA.

Objectives: The effect of sodium sulphate salinity on Docasahexaenoic acid (DHA) synthesis in Thraustochytrids aureum RAK-21 was studied with media constitution as well as conditions in batch fermentation.

Methods: Thraustochytrids aureum RAK-21 resuspended cell system using shake ask fermentation was deployed to study the production of DHA synthesis. The effects of key parameters such as salinity, different types of carbon sources, nitrogen sources, temperature, and pH on DHA production were also investigated.

Results: The sodium sulphate salinity was much influenced in growth as well as DHA production as compared with sodium chloride in medium. The results showed that sodium sulphate (30g/L) in the presence of peptone (15g/L) and sucrose (20g/L) were the most effective medium for higher DHA production at pH 7 and 35° C.

Conclusions: The present study reveals that sulphate ions are an important element for effective DHA synthesis along with sodium ions. It may influence the primary or co-metabolism pathways of DHA and other Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LCPUFA) production.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Docasahexaenoic acid (DHA)
  • long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LCPUFA)
  • sodium sulphate
  • Thraustochytrids aureum RAK-21
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Association between types of play materials and cognitive development among 12-month-old Thai infants: the prospective cohort study of Thai children

Online veröffentlicht: 04 Feb 2017
Seitenbereich: 703 - 711

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Background: Cognitive development is one of the most important aspects of child development. Stimulation is essential, especially for children between 1 and 2 years of age. Play materials is one realm where choice is relatively limited.

Objective: We investigated the relationships between play materials and cognitive ability.

Methods: This large, prospective, community-based cohort study, in the four regions and the capital of Thailand, studied the relationships between toys and cognitive ability in 4,116 children when they reached the first year of life. Details of play toys were collected at home and cognitive scores were measured using the Capute scale two weeks later. Multivariable analysis incorporated the following variables in the final multiple regression model, the 12 types of play materials, study center, parent factors (i.e., age, education, marital status, and income), and child factors (i.e., sex, weight, height, gestational age, birth weight, breastfed, hospital admission, mother-child attachment, number of members in family, number of sibling, iodine consumption, and life events).

Results: The first three common materials played with at home included push/pull toys (75.3%), home utensils (75.0%), and sound-making toys (73.9%). Adjusted for the potential factors, five out of the 12 types of play materials were significantly associated with the Capute scale, viz., sound-making toys (p = 0.029), push/pull toys (p = 0.003), creative toys (p = 0.003), natural materials (p = 0.002), and storybooks (p = 0.027). Children who played with natural materials had a higher Capute score than those who did not, with the mean difference of 1.9 (95%CI: 0.7 to 3.1). This was followed by creative materials (mean difference = 1.8, 95%CI: 0.6 to 2.9), and push/ pull toys (mean difference = 1.8, 95%CI: 0.6 to 3.0).

Conclusion: The results of the current study underscore the importance that natural materials, creative materials, and push/pull toys be available for children to play with during the first year of life.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Capute scale
  • cognitive development
  • infant
  • play materials
  • toys
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Effect of MIC interpretative breakpoint revision on cephalosporin and carbapenem susceptibility among ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae

Online veröffentlicht: 04 Feb 2017
Seitenbereich: 713 - 721

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Background: Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) breakpoints of selected cephalosporins and carbapenems against Enterobacteriaceae have been revised by major guidelines including CLSI and EUCAST mainly according to available pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic data. A decrease of breakpoint may obviate the need to detect specific resistance mechanisms such as extended-spectrum -lactamase (ESBL) and carbapenemase, which may be less correlated to treatment outcome than does the actual MIC of each agent.

Objective: To analyze cephalosporin and carbapenem MIC distributions among ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae at a university hospital against revised interpretative breakpoints.

Methods: MIC distributions of selected cephalosporins and carbapenems among 505 isolates of genotypically confirmed ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae were determined by E-testTM method and analyzed according to interpretative breakpoints comparing between CLSI and EUCAST guidelines.

Results: ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae demonstrated a wide range of cephalosporin MIC (≤1 to ≥64). Up to 9.7% of isolates displayed MIC lower than a revised cephalosporin breakpoint. Most isolates remained susceptible to imipenem and meropenem while as high as 24.6% were not susceptible to ertapenem. Lowered breakpoints may result in a change in categorical interpretations.

Conclusion: ESBL-producing isolates could be reported as susceptible to a cephalosporin with revised breakpoints although clinical use is uncertain. A higher proportion of isolates would be reported as nonsusceptible to cephalosporins or carbapenems with lowered breakpoints and thus increasing use of broadspectrum antimicrobial agents should be monitored.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Breakpoint
  • carbapenem
  • cephalosporin
  • enterobacteriaceae
  • ESBL
  • MIC
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

A modified posterior spinal fusion technique: surgical technique and clinical outcome in minimal 2-year follow-up

Online veröffentlicht: 04 Feb 2017
Seitenbereich: 723 - 729

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Background: Fusion of the spine region for congenital, traumatic, and degenerative lesions is more common now. Many orthopedic surgeons prefer posterior arthrodesis to restore the stability. Several studies have reported benefits, technical demands, clinical results, and postoperative complications with each method. For lumbar spine fusion, the best technique for a particular patient remains controversial.

Objective: We described a technique of posterior spinal fusion that can achieve solid fusion and produce clinical success.

Method: Between June 2008 and May 2010, a single surgeon treated 46 patients with this modified technique of posterior spinal fusion. All patients underwent postoperative computed tomography (CT) with coronal and sagittal three-dimensional reconstruction in assessing lumbar spine fusion. All patients were instructed to complete a self-assessment Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) questionnaire. These patients were analyzed for clinical outcome and fusion rate.

Results: The study group included 24 women and 22 men with a mean age of 71.2. Mean operating time was 106 minutes in a single-level fusion, 133 minutes in a two-level fusion, 210 minutes in a three-level fusion, and 288 minutes in a four-level fusion. The amount of blood loss during the operation and on the first postoperative day was 632 ml in a single-level fusion, 738 ml in a two-level fusion, 986 ml in a three-level fusion, and 1122 ml in a four-level fusion. There were postoperative complications in two patients. The minimum follow-up period was two years. Postoperative ODI was reduced significantly and had evidence of spinal fusion in CT scan assessing.

Conclusions: This posterior spinal fusion technique is effective in degenerative lumbar disease. Success rates have also been noted. This method of fusion can give the osseous fusion. It may also improve the clinical outcome. This modified posterior spinal fusion technique has some benefits when comparing to the previous methods.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Clinical outcome
  • computed tomography (CT)
  • posterior lumbar fusion
  • Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) questionnaire
  • spinal fusion
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Hepatic villin expression in biliary atresia

Online veröffentlicht: 04 Feb 2017
Seitenbereich: 731 - 736

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Background: Villin is a protein that severs, binds, and bundles actin filaments, necessary for maintenance of the structural integrity of the microvilli in the absorptive epithelia, which include enterocytes, kidney proximal tubule cells, and bile canaliculi. Biliary atresia (BA) is a progressive, sclerosing, inflammatory process that results in complete obliteration of the extrahepatic bile ducts. Liver histopathology in BA might be similar to idiopathic neonatal hepatitis (INH).

Objective: We compared the hepatic expression of villin in children with BA and INH.

Methods: This study was conducted on stored liver specimens of 28 children with BA (age 2.78±1.33 months) and 10 children with INH (age 2.40±1.26 months). Villin was investigated on liver tissue by immunohistochemistry. Villin mRNA analyzes were undertaken on liver homogenates using real-time PCR technique, with primers from coding regions of the human villin gene. Amounts of villin PCR product (villin mRNA relative to the concentrations of GAPDH product) were expressed as median (minimum, maximum).

Results: Villin mRNA expression in patients with BA and INH were 15.98 (0.02, 11880.47) and 0.09 (0, 111.95), respectively. Villin mRNA expression in BA patients was significantly higher than in patients with INH (p = 0.01). Villin staining and mRNA expression were undetectable in two INH.

Conclusions: The higher villin expression in BA might have been due to pronounced bile duct proliferation in comparison with INH. Hepatic villin expression might be helpful in discrimination BA from INH and hence BA patients can be timely diagnosed.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Actin
  • biliary atresia
  • cholestatic liver disease
  • idiopathic neonatal hepatitis
  • villin
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Gender differences in depressive symptoms in Thai adolescents

Online veröffentlicht: 04 Feb 2017
Seitenbereich: 737 - 745

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Background: Studies found that males and females differ in many aspects of psychiatric disorders, such as in prevalence, symptoms, and symptom severity. Objective: We studied gender differences in depressive symptoms in Thai adolescents.

Methods: Through stratified random sampling 1,220 students in grade 10 to 12 from 10 high schools in Bangkok were recruited for the Study of Depression in Thai Youth Project. The Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), Thai version, which is a 20-item self-report questionnaire, was used to assess depression. In this report, the response to CES-D were compared between boys (n = 473) and girls (n = 747).

Results: By using the score of 22 as a cut-off for significant depression, 19% of boys and 17% of girls were found to be depressed. The mean CES-D score of boys was 15.0 (SD = 7.1) and of girls was 15.5 (SD = 6.8). However, the difference did not have statistical significance. Depressive symptom prevalence in both groups was compared. Boys were significantly more likely than girls to view life as failure (36.7% vs. 23.2%, p < 0.05), to not feel happy (43.4% vs. 27.4%, p <0.05), and to not enjoy life (55.6% vs. 36.0%, p <0.01). Girls were significantly more likely to have crying spells (45.3% vs. 10.0%, p <0.001), and to feel sad (54.6% vs. 36.6%, p = 0.01). The comparison of symptom severity revealed that boys scored higher in cognitive symptoms and girls scored higher in mood symptoms. CES-D subscales were compared. Boys scored higher in positive affect subscale and girls scored higher in negative affect and somatic subscales. The difference was also significant even in the nondepressed group.

Conclusion: There is no significant difference in the prevalence and severity of depression in both genders. The significant difference lies in the symptom profiles. Girls have more mood and somatic symptoms while boys have more cognitive symptoms and lack of well-being. This difference also exists in the non-depressed group. The findings have important implications in both diagnosis and treatment of depression in adolescents.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Adolescents
  • depression
  • depressive symptoms
  • gender

Brief communication (Original)

Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Otosclerosis: association of COLIA1 Sp1 binding site polymorphism in Alexandria, Egypt

Online veröffentlicht: 04 Feb 2017
Seitenbereich: 747 - 752

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Background: Otosclerosis is a common form of hearing loss characterized by abnormal bone remodeling in the otic capsule. It is a complex genetic disease, caused by a combination of genetic and environmental factors. COL1A1 gene is one of the most important candidate genes in otosclerosis. A strong association has been described between otosclerosis and single nucleotide polymorphism in Sp1 binding site of the first intron of the COL1A1 gene.

Objective: Investigate the association between the G/T polymorphism at Sp1 binding site in the COL1A1 first intron and otosclerosis.

Methods: Polymerase chain reaction-based restriction enzyme analysis was applied to determine the polymorphic distribution of the Sp1 site in 160 patients with otosclerosis and 100 control subjects.

Results: This study showed a significant association between otosclerosis and the COL1A1 first intron Sp1 site. The T allele was 0.33 in the patients with otosclerosis and 0.18 in controls. This indicates a significant association between T allele and otosclerosis in Egyptian patients (p <0.0001).

Conclusion: The association of CL1A1 Sp1 binding site polymorphism with the risk of otosclerosis in an Egyptian population has been confirmed.

Schlüsselwörter

  • COL1A1 gene
  • otosclerosis
  • Sp1 binding site
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Preparation and evaluation of porous alginate/ hydroxyapatite composite scaffold coated with a biodegradable triblock copolymer

Online veröffentlicht: 04 Feb 2017
Seitenbereich: 753 - 758

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Background: The scaffolds for bone tissue engineering must meet the functional requirements such as porosity, biocompatibility, and biodegradability. Composite materials could improve mechanical properties compared with polymers, and structural integrity and flexibility compared with brittle ceramics.

Objective: The effect of a biodegradable triblock copolymer in the cell attachment into the alginate/hydroxyapatite composite scaffold was evaluated.

Methods: Scaffolds were fabricated by freeze-drying method in different alginate/hydroxyapatite weight ratios. Hydroxyapatite was incorporated into the alginate gel solution to improve both the mechanical and cellattachment properties of the scaffolds. The scaffolds were then coated with triblock copolymer (as a surface modifier) and sterilized by ultraviolet light. Then, human mesenchymal stem cells were cultured on the scaffolds, which are an attractive cell source for tissue engineering.

Results: Cell adhesion to the scaffolds was observed after three days by 4, 6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) fluorescence microscopy. In addition, microstructural observation with SEM suggests the formation of about 50 micrometer size pores and interconnected porosity so that cell adhesion within this structure is well in depth as also observed in DAPI results.

Conclusion: These results suggest that the triblock-coated alginate/hydroxyapatite porous scaffolds could provide enhanced cell adhesion and proliferation, which may be a promising approach for tissue-engineering applications.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Alginate
  • cell adhesion
  • freeze-drying
  • human mesenchymal stem cells
  • hydroxyapatite
  • porous scaffold
  • tissue engineering
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Significance of serum 8-Hydroxydeoxyguanosine levels to the intima-media thickness of the carotid artery in type 2 diabetes

Online veröffentlicht: 04 Feb 2017
Seitenbereich: 759 - 764

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Background: Cardiovascular disease is the largest cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Interestingly, previous studies demonstrated that type 2 diabetic patients had a significantly higher concentration of 8-Hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) although it role in the pathogenesis of carotid artery atheroma and insulin resistance has not been identified.

Objective: We investigated the role of serum 8-OHdG levels in the intima-media thickness (IMT) of the carotid artery, and its significance in insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes.

Methods: Fifty patients with disease-onset type 2 diabetes were enrolled and divided into two groups according to the intima-media thickness of the carotid artery (<1.0 mm = group A or ≥1.0 mm = group B). Blood samples from patients were used within one month for the determination of 8-OHdG using a competitive ELISA kit, and other coronary heart disease (CHD) risk factors were also measured.

Results: Patients in Group B showed significant higher levels of serum 8-OHdG compared to that of group A and control. Serum 8-OHdG had significant positive correlations with BMI, SBP, FPG, FINS, HbA1c, TC, and Homa-IR. Similarly, a significant positive correlation existed between the serum 8-OHdG and IMT levels. 8-OHdG, Homa-IR, HbA1c and TC were independently associated with increased IMT in type 2 diabetes patients.

Conclusion: Serum 8-OHdG is a useful indicator for the severity of IMT of the carotid artery and reflects the severity of insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Carotid artery
  • insulin resistance
  • intima-media thickness
  • type 2 diabetes
  • 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Novel biomarkers of hyperlipidemic acute pancreatitis: metabolomic identification

Online veröffentlicht: 04 Feb 2017
Seitenbereich: 765 - 769

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Background: Recognition of hypertriglyceridemia is critical for the diagnosis of hyperlipidemic pancreatitis (HLP) and the selection and evaluation of therapy.

Objective: Investigate metabolic profiling technologies for identifying novel biomarkers and pathways activated in HLP.

Methods: Blood and urine samples were obtained from 24 patients and 39 healthy people. A gas chromatography and mass spectrometry was employed to study the metabolic profile in HLP and healthy groups. Functional pathway trend analysis using multivariate statistical analysis was performed.

Results: HLP patients could be precisely distinguished from the healthy controls. In the patient, levels of aconitate, citrate, hippurate, p-hydroxyphenylacetate and p-hydroxyphenylpopionic acid were decreased, while levels of tryptophan, tyrosine, tyramine,16-hexadecanoic acid, and 18-octadecanoic acid were increased. The change of energy metabolism-related mechanisms, fatty acid metabolism, gut microbiota metabolism, and metabolism of tyrosine could be used to distinguish HLP patients.

Conclusions: Novel biomarkers could be identified by application of metabolomics. Metabolic profiling was useful for studies of pathogenesis of HLP.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Blood
  • hyperlipidemic pancreatitis
  • metabolism
  • urine
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Does GnRH agonist enhance the final adult height in girls with precocious puberty?

Online veröffentlicht: 04 Feb 2017
Seitenbereich: 771 - 774

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Background: Girls with sign of secondary sexual characteristic before the age of 8 years are defined as precocious puberty (PP). Early activation of hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis causes central PP. Without treatment, some become short adult height and early menstruation may develop.

Objective: Report the final adult height in precocious puberty girls who have been treated with GnRH agonist.

Methods: Seventy girls with PP and early puberty (EP) who were treated with GnRH agonist have been followed up until they reach final height (FH). FH was compared with predicted adult height (PAH) before treatment and mid-parental height (MPH).

Results: All subjects were treated with GnRH agonist for a mean duration of 1.9 0.6 years. FH was significantly higher than PAH before treatment (156.6±5.1 vs. 151.6±6 cm, p <0.001). FH is positively correlated with MPH. However, treatment with GnRH agonist in EP girls and in PP girls with bone age of more than 12.5 years or those who already had menstruation may have less benefit.

Conclusion: GnRH agonist can enhance FH in girls with PP. Early treatment in those with bone age of less than 12.5 years or before menstruation may result in good outcome.

Schlüsselwörter

  • GnRH agonist
  • early puberty
  • final adult height
  • precocious puberty

Clinical report

Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Marjolin’s ulcers: the lasting effect of landmines in Cambodia

Online veröffentlicht: 04 Feb 2017
Seitenbereich: 775 - 780

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Background: Marjolin’s ulcer is a rare malignancy often associated with burn scars, traumatic wounds and chronic infections. Cambodia is still contaminated with landmines and unexploded ordinance, and a significant number of people suffer from related injuries, as well as latent development of Marjolin’s ulcers.

Objectives: Report on the incidence of suspected and histopathologically confirmed cases of Marjolin’s ulcers at the Children’s Surgical Centre (CSC), Phnom Penh, Cambodia. Comment on 2 similar cases of landmine injuries to the lower limb resulting in Marjolin’s ulcers.

Methods: Independent retrospective analysis of electronic and hardcopy patient records (January 2003 to January 2012) was performed by two examiners. Patients were selected based on primary and secondary inclusion criteria.

Results: Forty-eight patients were selected from the initial analysis and of those selected, 8 patients met secondary inclusion criteria. From these 8 cases, the preceding pathology included burns (62.5%), landmine blast injuries (25%) and chronic infection (12.5%).

Conclusion: The high prevalence of landmine blast victims in Cambodia suggests that there is likely to be a correspondingly high incidence of Marjolin’s ulcers in the population. Improved surveillance for malignancy and prompt intervention in these patients may improve outcomes.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Cambodia
  • landmine
  • Marjolin’s ulcer
  • squamous cell carcinoma
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

A fatal case of intestinal capillariasis due to misleading investigations

Online veröffentlicht: 04 Feb 2017
Seitenbereich: 781 - 785

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Background: Intestinal capillariasis is an important agent in the differential diagnosis of chronic diarrhea and protein-losing enteropathy. The disease is uncommon and possibly under-diagnosed in Thailand and neighboring countries.

Objective: Report a fatal case of intestinal capillariasis that underwent misleading diagnostic efforts for six months. We also reviewed previous cases of intestinal capillariasis from our hospital.

Patient and Method: A descriptive study of a fatal case of intestinal capillariasis, and review of patients admitted for capillariasis during the past 10 years.

Conclusion: This case highlights the importance of adequate and repeated microscopic stool examinations before proceeding to other sophisticated investigations that may cause delay in diagnosis and confusing results that result in inappropriate therapy.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Diagnosis
  • fatal
  • intestinal capillariasis

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