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Edizione Editors: Magdalena Bielska, Jerzy Pilawski, Katarzyna Skupniewicz

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Dettagli della rivista
Formato
Rivista
eISSN
2300-8733
Pubblicato per la prima volta
25 Nov 2011
Periodo di pubblicazione
4 volte all'anno
Lingue
Inglese

Cerca

Volume 17 (2017): Edizione 2 (May 2017)

Dettagli della rivista
Formato
Rivista
eISSN
2300-8733
Pubblicato per la prima volta
25 Nov 2011
Periodo di pubblicazione
4 volte all'anno
Lingue
Inglese

Cerca

20 Articoli

Review

Accesso libero

Feed additives regulating calcium homeostasis in the bones of poultry – a review

Pubblicato online: 28 Apr 2017
Pagine: 303 - 316

Astratto

Abstract

The strength of leg bones is not only genetically determined but it also depends on the gender, age, health condition and nutrition of slaughter birds. Calcium ions deficit in bones results in the deterioration of skeleton structure and reduction of bone strength. The presented work compiles the results of studies concerning the effect of feed additives on the level of calcium in the bones of broiler chickens, published during the past 10 years. From the analysis of available literature it follows that some additives had a positive effect on the accumulation of calcium (e.g. vitamin D, probiotics, prebiotics and synbiotics), some were not very explicit (e.g. ascorbic acid and phytase), while others did not have a significant effect on the accumulation of calcium in bones (e.g. herbs and chelates). It is concluded from our collected information that the use of probiotics, prebiotics and synbiotics offers the best advantages for poultry. These additives, apart from stimulating the accumulation of calcium in bones, also benefit animal health.

Parole chiave

  • feed additives
  • calcium
  • accumulation
  • bones
  • broilers
Accesso libero

Use of essential oils in broiler chicken production – a review

Pubblicato online: 28 Apr 2017
Pagine: 317 - 335

Astratto

Abstract

Biological activity of volatile plant metabolites is the property that can potentially find application in animal nutrition. Nowadays, the use of bioactive compounds is encouraged in many areas of industry and agriculture, since these substances have similar properties as withdrawn antibiotic growth promoters. Meat poultry production is focused on the maximization of performance parameters, namely rapid chicken growth with low feed consumption, and with the optimum health status of the flock. Essential oils can stimulate the growth and functioning of the body, which translates into both chicken’s health and enhanced production parameters. The substances are characterized by a range of effects, are easily biodegradable, and do not usually require a waiting period - hence they can be used in breeding broiler chickens. Given the increasing restrictions imposed on poultry production in terms of food safety and ethical aspects of husbandry, it seems appropriate to look for the use of new, natural substances to be applied in animal production. The article presents the characteristics of essential oils in this context, with a particular focus on their antimicrobial and immunostimulatory properties. The paper also describes production applications of essential oils tested in experiments on hybrid Ross 308 and Cobb 500 chickens.

Parole chiave

  • essential oils
  • biological activity
  • natural alternatives
  • performance
Accesso libero

Cross-talk between leptin, ghrelin and orexins in the central nervous system of seasonal animals – a review

Pubblicato online: 28 Apr 2017
Pagine: 337 - 350

Astratto

Abstract

The maintenance of energy homeostasis is achieved with ‘detectors’ that receive signals from the external and internal environment and with multidirectional ‘communication routes’ including neuronal networks and body fluids, such as blood and cerebrospinal fluid. Changes in the energy demands of organisms are caused by current physiological status and environmental conditions, including season and food availability. Little is known about the interactions between the metabolic indicators involved in the maintenance of energy homeostasis, e.g., leptin, orexins and ghrelin. Sheep and other seasonal animals are highly adaptable to their environments because of the plasticity of their neural and endocrine systems. Sheep exhibit leptin resistance and are thus an extremely interesting model for research on the relationship between hormonal indicators of energy metabolism. The paper is focused mainly on the anatomical and functional communication between leptin, ghrelin and orexins, which play principal roles in the adaptation of energetic demands to environmental fluctuations.

Parole chiave

  • leptin
  • ghrelin
  • orexins
  • energy homeostasis
  • sheep
  • seasonality
Accesso libero

Rye non-starch polysaccharides: their impact on poultry intestinal physiology, nutrients digestibility and performance indices – a review

Pubblicato online: 28 Apr 2017
Pagine: 351 - 369

Astratto

Abstract

A high content of non-starch polysaccharides (NSP), namely arabinoxylans (AX), in rye is a reason for the potential adverse effect of this grain on intestinal functions, gut microflora, absorption of nutrients and performance indices. As such, the use of rye grain in intensively produced poultry diets is limited. However, recently developed new types of hybrid rye are characterised not only by increased yield potential, resistance to fungus and pests and low production costs, but also the content of antinutritive substances may be reduced in these varieties. The aim of this paper is to discuss the mechanisms of NSP effects in the digestive tract, as well as to review the results of recent studies on the use of rye in poultry nutrition. Based on the literature data, it can be concluded that the use of new hybrid rye varieties with decreased NSP concentration and NSP-hydrolising enzymes may be a way of increasing the share of rye grain in poultry diets.

Parole chiave

  • poultry
  • intestinal physiology
  • feed enzymes
  • rye
  • non-starch polysaccharides

Animal genetics and breeding

Accesso libero

Effect of β-lactoglobulin gene polymorphism, lactation stage and breed on milk traits in Chios and Karagouniko sheep breeds

Pubblicato online: 28 Apr 2017
Pagine: 371 - 384

Astratto

Abstract

The animal selection with favourable phenotypes of the past has been, currently, replaced by the genotype selection on quantitative traits, assisted by the expanding molecular techniques in the context of livestock improvement. In this study, the c.112T>C polymorphism in exon II of β-lactoglobulin (β-LG) gene was investigated in Karagouniko and Chios sheep breeds by using polymerase chain reaction - restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP), and possible associations with milk traits were examined. In total, 125 blood DNA samples were isolated for PCR-RFLP analysis and the respective 217 milk samples′ composition profile was obtained. The goodness of fit test to Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) for β-LG genotypes was estimated and associations found between β-LG genotypes and raw milk composition. Two alleles and three genotypes were observed (AA, AB and BB) in both breeds, and Chios breed significantly deviated (P≤0.05) from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE). Conclusively, linear mixed model analysis on samples, from both breeds collectively, showed significant effects of β-LG genotype on lactose percentage and somatic cell count (SCC), lactation stage on daily milk yield and protein, while the breed effect was significant only on daily milk yield.

Parole chiave

  • sheep
  • β-lactoglobulin
  • polymorphism
  • lactation
  • breed
Accesso libero

Distribution of non-allelic histone H1 subtypes in five avian species

Pubblicato online: 28 Apr 2017
Pagine: 385 - 398

Astratto

Abstract

The arrays of histone H1 subtypes from five avian species (chicken, grey partridge, pheasant, quail and duck) were compared to evaluate their intra- and inter-species variability. The electrophoretic patterns of linker histone preparations revealed the presence of subtypes that occur in all species (H1.a, H1.b, H1.c, H1.c′, H1.d and H5) and those which are confined to some species only (H1.a′, H1.b′, H1.z). In the densitometric profiles of histone H1 bands resolved in one-dimension acetic acid-urea polyacrylamide gel, the quantitative differences were observed both within a species (the ratio of H1.b to H1.d = 8.13 in quail) and between species (the ratio of H1.d in grey partridge and quail = 8.37). The comparable levels of abundant histone H5 that constitute from 53.62% (quail) to 60.86% (duck) of whole linker histone complement were detected in all species. Likewise, the quantification of H1 protein spots separated in a two-dimension SDS-polyacrylamide gel indicated that their intensity ratios could vary up to about 17-fold within a species (the ratio of H1.d to H1.a′ in grey partridge) and up to 10-fold between species (the ratio of pheasant H1.d to quail H1.d). Differences (P<0.05) in the histone H1 subtype levels were found both within and between avian species. A low to moderate range for the coefficients of H1 spot variation (from 0.13 to 0.72) was obtained for several independent histone H1 preparations.

Parole chiave

  • avian
  • histone H1
  • non-allelic subtypes
  • quantification
  • variability
Accesso libero

Associations of six SNPs of POU1F1-PROP1-PITX1-SIX3 pathway genes with growth traits in two Chinese indigenous goat breeds

Pubblicato online: 28 Apr 2017
Pagine: 399 - 411

Astratto

Abstract

In the process of anterior pituitary gland development and maturation, numerous transcription factors were involved in the pituitary organogenesis. To date, the lack of knowledge on POU1F1-PROP1-PITX1-SIX3 pathway genes affecting growth traits was reported in Chinese goat breeds. The objective of this work was to identify genetic variants of the POU1F1, PROP1, PITX1 and SIX3 genes, as well as to evaluate their associations with growth traits in goats. The results showed that one novel and five reported single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) were confirmed in above four genes. The novel SNP (NC_019460.2:g.1100T>A) was located in intron 1 of SIX3 gene. Among these loci, DQ826397.1:g.102T>G (SNP1), DQ826397.1:g.279T>C (SNP2) and NC_019460.2:g.1100T>A (SNP6) were associated with growth traits. In details, the SNP1 locus had significant association with hucklebone width (P<0.05) and hucklebone width index (P<0.05) in the Guanzhong dairy goat. The SNP2 locus was associated with body weight (P<0.05), chest circumference (P<0.01), chest width (P<0.05), hucklebone width (P<0.05), cannon circumference (P<0.01) and trunk index (P<0.01) in the Hainan black goat. The SNP6 locus was significantly associated with hucklebone width index (P<0.05) and chest width (P<0.05) in the Guanzhong dairy goat and Hainan black goat, respectively. These findings indicated that goat POU1F1-PROP1-PITX1-SIX3 pathway genes were important genetic factors, which could affect growth traits. Three SNPs detected in this study may be useful for potential marker-assisted selection programs in goat breeding and production.

Parole chiave

  • goat
  • POU1F1 gene
  • PROP1 gene
  • PITX1 gene
  • SIX3 gene
  • polymorphism
  • growth traits
Accesso libero

Production, carcass characteristics and valuable cuts of purebred Simmental and Simmental × beef breed crossbred bulls in Finnish beef cattle population

Pubblicato online: 28 Apr 2017
Pagine: 413 - 422

Astratto

Abstract

The objective of the present research was to study the potential for improvement of growth and carcass traits through Simmental (Si) × beef breed crossbreeding compared to purebred Si bulls in Finnish beef cattle population. The data collected from Finnish slaughterhouses included observations of 6 224 purebred Si bulls plus Si × beef breed crosses. For estimating valuable cuttings, a separate dataset including in total 314 bulls was also collected. The estimated average daily carcass gain of the purebred Si bulls was 686 g/d and it improved by 3 and 6% with Si×Blonde d’Aquitaine and Si×Charolais crossbreds, respectively. Carcass conformation improved by using Blonde d’Aquitaine, Limousin and Charolais crossbreeding compared to the pure Si bulls. Si×British breed crossbreds (Angus and Hereford) had poorer carcass gain and produced poorer conformed carcasses compared to purebred Si bulls. Furthermore, the yield of subcutaneous fat was higher in the Si×Angus and Si×Hereford bulls than in the purebred Si bulls.

Parole chiave

  • beef production
  • breeds
  • bulls
  • carcass characteristics
  • crossbreeding

The biology, physiology, reproduction, and health

Accesso libero

Changes in the expression of selected antioxidative proteins in roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) epididymis in different periods of the rutting season

Pubblicato online: 28 Apr 2017
Pagine: 423 - 431

Astratto

Abstract

One of the factors determining the homeostasis of biological systems is the balance between the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the activity of the antioxidative defence system. Regarding seasonal variations in secretory activity in different parts of roe buck’s (Capreolus capreolus) epididymis, the aim of present study was to compare the expression of selected antioxidative proteins in three periods of the rutting season. Using proteomics methods (2D PAGE , tandem mass spectrometry MS/MS) 5 antioxidative enzymes were identified for the first time in different segments of the epididymis of the roe buck. The highest expression of these enzymes was found in the rutting season. Findings indicated that the antioxidative function of the buck’s epididymis, regardless of the period of the rutting season, but particularly in the rutting season, is maintained mainly because of the presence of three conservative polypeptides: glutathione S-transferase (GST), protein disulfide isomerase A3 (PDIA3), and PDIA3 precursor. Moreover, a protective role against the harmful products of redox reactions is played during the discussed periods by peroxiredoxin-2 (PRDX2), identified in the cauda of the epididymis. In the tissue of the corpus and caput of the epididymis its expression was only found in the rutting season. The expression of biliverdin reductase A (BRVA ) in the epididymis was only observed in the rutting season.

Parole chiave

  • roe deer (Capreolus capreolus)
  • epididymis
  • antioxidant system
  • proteomics
Accesso libero

Inflammation-related oxidative stress in white adipose tissues of an inbred obese pig

Pubblicato online: 28 Apr 2017
Pagine: 433 - 446

Astratto

Abstract

The uneven development of adipose tissues reflects a differential occurrence of biological events in vivo while the underlying molecular mechanism remains largely unknown. In the present study, the in vivo inflammatory status of an inbred obese porcine model, Lantang pig, was assessed, aiming to provide evidence for obesity biology. Compared with genetically lean pigs (crossbred, Duroc × Landrace × Large White), Lantang pigs exhibited a larger amount of ultra large adipocytes in subcutaneous adipose tissue accompanied with higher expression of macrophage/monocytes markers and pro-inflammatory genes (TLR4, CD14, CD11β, MCP1, TNFα, IL1β and IL6) and lower expression of cellular antioxidant enzymes (SOD1, 2 and 3). Plasma concentrations of LPS and TNF-α were also higher in Lantang pigs than in lean pigs. Among adipose tissues of Lantang pigs, the subcutaneous tissue had the most abundant expression of inflammation related genes (TLR4, CD14, TNFα and IL6) and the lowest level of cellular antioxidant genes (SOD 1 and 2), while the perirenal adipose tissue had opposite profile. Significant activation of p38 MAPK pathway was indicated by increased phosphorylation of p38 in the subcutaneous adipose tissue of Lantang pigs. Collectively, the bacteria-derived LPS induced inflammation-associated oxidative stress indeed exists in adipose tissues of Lantang pig, and the differential expressions of inflammatory and antioxidant genes, to some extent, account for the uneven development of the adipose tissue within bodies.

Parole chiave

  • obese pig
  • adipose tissue
  • oxidative stress
  • LPS
  • inflammation
Accesso libero

Effect of hen age and storage time on egg weight loss and hatchability results in turkeys

Pubblicato online: 28 Apr 2017
Pagine: 447 - 462

Astratto

Abstract

The aim of this study was to determine the effect of egg water loss during storage and incubation on hatch rates in heavy-type broad-breasted white BUT Big 6 turkeys. Turkey hens started laying eggs at 30 weeks of age. In weeks 2, 8, 16 and 21 of the laying season, 1512 eggs were selected randomly and divided into 4 groups of 378 eggs each. The groups of eggs were stored for 7, 10, 13 or 17 days before incubation. At the beginning and end of the storage period and on days 9, 15, 21 and 24 of incubation, eggs were weighed to determine the percent water loss relative to the egg’s weight. Four incubation cycles of 378 eggs each were performed for each storage period. A total of 16 incubation cycles were carried out (4 weeks of the laying season × 4 egg storage periods) and the following parameters were determined (%): egg fertilization, dead embryos, unhatched eggs and hatchability results from fertilized eggs. The percentages of dead embryos and unhatched poults with physical defects and abnormal position were determined in hatchery waste from each incubation cycle. Egg water loss varied throughout storage and reached 0.57% of total egg weight after 7 days, 0.79% after 10 days, 0.87% after 13 days and 1.28% after 17 days (P≤0.05). After 7 days of storage, egg water loss during a 15-day and 21-day incubation period reached 5.76% and 8.72%, and lower values were noted after 17 days of storage (P≤0.05). Egg water loss of 1.28% during storage resulted in a high rate of early embryonic mortality (14.81%) and a low hatch rate (72.12%) (P≤0.05). High water loss in stored eggs contributed to a higher percentage of congested embryos. During storage, egg water loss reached 0.72% in week 2 of the laying season, 0.78% in week 8 and ≥1% in weeks 16 and 21 of the laying season (P≤0.05). Egg water loss during a 21-day incubation period was similar in weeks 2, 8 and 16 of the laying season, and lower in week 21 (P≤0.05). The hatchability of turkey eggs was lowest in weeks 16 and 21 of the laying season (P≤0.05). Low water loss during incubation contributed to a high rate of late embryonic mortality (13.2%). High water loss during egg storage is accompanied by lower water loss during incubation. Water loss should be monitored after storage and on days 15 and 21 of incubation to evaluate water metabolism in hatching eggs.

Parole chiave

  • turkey
  • egg storage
  • breeder age
  • water loss
  • hatchability

Animal nutrition, and feedstuffs

Accesso libero

Effects of dietary supplementation of inorganic, organic or nano zinc forms on performance, eggshell quality, and bone characteristics in laying hens

Pubblicato online: 28 Apr 2017
Pagine: 463 - 476

Astratto

Abstract

This study was conducted to evaluate the efficiency of dietary zinc forms and dosages on egg production performance, egg quality, and bone characteristics in laying hens. Forty-two-week-old, 144 Lohmann LSL-Lite laying hens were allocated to 12 experimental groups in a 4 (forms) × 3 (dosages) factorial arrangement. Four zinc forms including zinc-sulphate and zinc-oxide as inorganic forms, zinc-glycine as organic form and nano zinc-oxide powder as nano form at different dosages (50, 75 and 100 mg per kg diet) were tested. Compared to the inorganic (zinc-sulphate) form, the zinc-glycine supplementation significantly depressed the egg weight, egg mass and feed conversion ratio. The eggshell thickness was significantly decreased by supplementation with nano zinc-oxide. The shear force of tibia was significantly decreased by zinc-glycine or nano zinc-oxide supplemented in the diet when compared to inorganic forms of zinc. On the other hand, the dietary 50 mg/kg dosage of zinc was sufficient for optimum performance and the dietary 75 mg/kg dosage of zinc significantly improved shear force of tibia in laying hens. Tibia zinc content increased with the dietary 100 mg/kg dosage of zinc. The interactions between zinc forms and dosages had a significant effect on egg weight, feed intake, feed conversion ratio, eggshell thickness, shear force and shear stress of bone, and tibia calcium concentration. The highest egg weight and the lowest eggshell thickness were observed for the group fed with nano Zn-oxide at 100 mg/kg in the diet. These results showed that nano zinc form supplementation negatively affects the eggshell thickness and bone mechanical properties. The zinc in nano form may not be suggested for feeding laying hens, but other forms of zinc could be used safely in layer diets.

Parole chiave

  • zinc
  • nano
  • eggshell
  • bone
  • laying hens
Accesso libero

Alterations in intestinal and liver histomorphology and basal hematological and biochemical parameters in relation to different sources of dietary copper in adult rats

Pubblicato online: 28 Apr 2017
Pagine: 477 - 490

Astratto

Abstract

Copper (Cu) is required for all basic biochemical and physiological processes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of different sources of dietary Cu on the histomorphometry of liver and jejunal epithelium in adult rats. Male 12-week-old rats were used in a 12-week experiment. The control diet provided the required Cu level from sulfate, and other two diets were supplemented with Cu as a glycine complex at 75% and 100% of daily requirement. Basal hematological and plasma biochemical analyses were also performed. There was no effect of Cu supplementation on the liver weight and the plasma and liver Cu concentration. Histomorphometric analysis of liver tissue showed an increase in the collagen amount and intracellular space in the group supplemented with Cu amino acid. Cu given in the organic form at 100% of daily requirement decreased the muscular and submucosa layer and the crypt depth. In turn, organic copper given at 75% of daily requirement did not influence the intestinal morphology. Dietary Cu given to adult rats as copper sulfate or a glycine complex meeting 100% of the daily requirement appears to be less harmful with regard to intestinal epithelium than when given as a glycine complex at 100% of daily requirement.

Parole chiave

  • copper
  • Cu-Gly
  • liver histomorphometry
  • jejunum
  • biochemical parameter
  • adult rat
Accesso libero

An in vitro study on the ability of tannic acid to inhibit methanogenesis and biohydrogenation of C18 PUFA in the rumen of goats

Pubblicato online: 28 Apr 2017
Pagine: 491 - 502

Astratto

Abstract

An in vitro gas production technique, using rumen fluid from four Kacang × Boer crossbred adult goats was used to study the effects of commercial tannic acid (TA, a hydrolysable tannin) on methanogenesis, fatty acid composition and biohydrogenation (BH) of C18 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in the rumen. Treatments were control (CON, 50% alfalfa hay (AH) + 50% concentrate), 25 mg TA/250 mgDM (LTA, low TA) and 50 mg TA/250 mgDM (HTA, High TA), which were mixed with 30 mL of buffered rumen fluid and incubated for 24 h. The study revealed that TA supplementation had no negative effect on rumen fermentation parameters such as pH, NH3N, acetic/propionic ratio and total volatile fatty acid (tVFA). Methane (CH4) production (mL/250 mg DM) decreased (P<0.05) with increasing levels of TA. Greatest CH4 reduction (%) was recorded for MTA (20.30%) and LTA (13.00%) compared with CON. Supplementation of the diet with TA did not affect the rate of rumen BH (%) of C18:1n-9 (oleic acid; OA), C18:2n-6 (linoleic acid; LA), C18:3n-3 (linolenic acid; LNA) and the concentration of fatty acids after 24 h of in vitro incubation. Based on this study, the addition of TA in vitro reduced rumen methanogenesis without negative effect of rumen fermentation characteristics, but in vivo studies need to be performed to determine if concentrations that inhibit methane are below toxic levels.

Parole chiave

  • biohydrogenation
  • gas production
  • goat
  • methanogenesis
  • rumen
  • tannic acid
Accesso libero

Dietary organic trace minerals level influences eggshell quality and minerals retention in hens

Pubblicato online: 28 Apr 2017
Pagine: 503 - 515

Astratto

Abstract

The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of reduced levels of Cu, Zn, Mn in combination from organic mineral source on eggshell quality and mineral retention in hens. After feeding the basal diet (8.82 mg/kg Cu, 24.94 mg/kg Zn, and 16.38 mg/kg Mn) without Cu, Zn, and Mn addition for 4 weeks, hens (39-week-old) were assigned to 5 treatments according to the equal body weight and egg production for 12-week experimental trial. The 5 treatments included the basal diet without Cu, Zn, and Mn (NCON), and NCON added with 16-80-60 mg/kg Cu-Zn-Mn from sulfates (ITM100%), or 4-20-15, 8-40-30 or 16-80-60 mg/kg Cu-Zn-Mn from 2-hydroxy-4-(methylthio)butanoic acid (HMTBA) mineral chelates (OTM25%, OTM50% or OTM100%). Supplementation of Cu, Zn, and Mn had no significant influences on the performance of hens. After 12 weeks feeding, eggshell breaking strength (EBS) decreased in the following order: OTM25% and ITM100% > OTM50% > NCON and OTM100%. The eggshell weight and thickness in OTM25% were greater than that in NCON, while not differing from that in ITM100%. The EBS and eggshell weight linearly decreased with increasing level of OTM. After 12 weeks feeding, supplementation of Cu, Zn, and Mn increased the concentrations of liver Zn, tibia Zn and Mn, and Zn and Mn retention in eggs as compared with NCON. No significant difference was observed in the concentrations of Cu, Zn, and Mn in liver and plasma, and Zn and Mn in eggs between any OTM treatment and ITM100% groups. Addition of OTM at increasing level had quadratic effect on tibia Cu, Zn, Mn concentrations, with the greater retention of Cu, Zn, and Mn in OTM50%. In conclusion, the OTM25% from HMT BA mineral chelates can substitute for ITM100% evaluated by the eggshell quality in the diet of laying hens.

Parole chiave

  • copper
  • manganese
  • zinc
  • 2-hydroxy-4-(methylthio)butanoic acid mineral chelates
  • eggs

Behavior, well-being, production technology, and environment

Accesso libero

Microbial nitrogen production, nitrogen balance and excretion of urinary purine derivatives in Corriedale ewes under water deprivation

Pubblicato online: 28 Apr 2017
Pagine: 517 - 527

Astratto

Abstract

The objective of this study was to determine microbial N production, and urinary excretion of PDs in Corriedale ewes under water deprivation. Nine Corriedale ewes (average BW=45±4.5 kg) were individually fed diets based on maintenance requirements in metabolic crates. Ewes were assigned to three treatment groups according to a 3×3 Latin square design for 3 periods of 21 days duration. The treatments were free access to water (FAW ), 2h water deprivation (2hWD), and 3h water deprivation (3hWD) following feeding. Daily water intake decreased linearly as water deprivation time following feeding increased. Feed intake and fecal excretion were not different among the treatment groups. Urine weight and volume were higher in FAW than water deprived groups. Nitrogen balance including urinary N, retained N, urinary N/intake N, and retained N/intake N were lower in FAW group than other treatment groups, whereas no differences were observed in intake N, fecal N, digestible N, and fecal N/intake N among the treatment groups. Allantoin concentration tended to be higher in FAW group than 2hWD and 3hWD groups while no differences were observed in uric acid, xanthine+hypoxanthine and creatinine concentrations. Microbial N production per DOMR was higher in 2hWD and 3hWD groups than FAW group whereas no differences were observed between 2hWD and 3hWD groups. Index of PDC decreased linearly with water deprivation. It is concluded that water deprivation following feeding, especially 2 h water deprivation in ewes improved microbial N production.

Parole chiave

  • ewes
  • microbial nitrogen production
  • purine derivatives
  • water deprivation
Accesso libero

Comparative study of behavioural and milking traits in cows milked with a conventional or individual quarter milking system (Multilactor®) and with different milking persons

Pubblicato online: 28 Apr 2017
Pagine: 529 - 544

Astratto

Abstract

The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of a new type of milking system on the behaviour of cows during milking by comparing a conventional milking system (CON) with an individual quarter milking system (MUL), MultiLactor®. Sixty-eight dairy cows were observed during their milking times (32 cows in CON, 36 cows in MUL) using video recordings to analyse their behavioural traits. The udder preparation duration, milking duration and milk yield were also evaluated. No significant differences were found between the CON and the MUL regarding cows’ head posture (P=0.38), body posture (P=0.85), number of steps (P=0.08) and number of kicks (P=0.56). However, the milk yield was lower (P=0.02), just as the udder preparation duration (P<0.01) and milking duration (P=0.01) were shorter in the CON compared to the MUL. In addition, in regard to the milking person, differences were displayed in the head posture of the milked cows, kick-off or loss of teat cup or milking cluster, and frequency of udder preparation. In conclusion, the investigated milking systems did not markedly influence the behaviour of dairy cows; however, udder preparation duration, milking duration and milk yield were significantly greater for the MUL than for the CON. However, the milking person appears to have a greater impact on the behaviour of the cows than the milking system.

Parole chiave

  • behaviour
  • dairy cow
  • individual quarter milking
  • udder preparation
Accesso libero

Effect of light emitting diodes with different color temperatures on immune responses and growth performance of male broiler

Pubblicato online: 28 Apr 2017
Pagine: 545 - 553

Astratto

Abstract

The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of the different color temperatures (Kelvin; K) of the light emitting diodes (LEDs) on broiler chicken health and growth performance compared to incandescent (ICD) light bulbs. Three hundred and sixty one-day-old Ross 308 male chicks were tested for 42 days. The chicks were randomly distributed into three treatment groups [neutral-white (4,286 K), warm-white (2,990 K), and ICD (2,790 K) light bulbs] of 120 chicks/treatment with six replicates each by adopting complete randomized design. The diets were similar for all treatment groups. The live body weight and feed intake were recorded weekly and feed conversion ratio (FCR) was calculated (weekly and whole period). Indices of humoral immunity [antisheep red blood cell (SRBC) titer, IgG, and IgM at 26 and 34 days of age], Newcastle disease (ND) virus and avian influenza (AI) virus antibody at 40 days of age, cell-mediated immunity [cutaneous basophilic hyper-sensitivity (CBH) response at 41 days of age)] as well as total and differential leukocyte numbers at 42 days of age) were measured. Effects of different color temperatures of the LEDs and ICD light bulbs on body weight, feed consumption, and FCR were not statistically significant (P>0.05). Also, the effect of color temperatures of light on secondary titers of SRBC, AI antibody response, CBH response, the total number of leukocytes and percentage of lymphocytes were not significant. However, the different color temperatures of LEDs have a significant effect on primary SRBC and ND antibody titers (P≤0.05). The highest primary SRBC (P≤0.05) and ND (P≤0.05) antibody titers were observed in warm-white light. It was concluded that based on the 3 color temperatures examined, it seems that the most suitable to provide the optimum level of immunity and energy-saving in commercial broiler houses is warm-white light.

Parole chiave

  • artificial light
  • broiler
  • different color temperatures
  • immune responses
  • feed conversion ratio

Quality and safety of animal origin products

Accesso libero

Prevalence and some virulence genes of Escherichia coli O157 isolated from chicken meats and giblets

Pubblicato online: 28 Apr 2017
Pagine: 555 - 563

Astratto

Abstract

Escherichia coli O157 related foodborne illnesses continue to be one of the most important global public health problems in the world. This study aims to determine E. coli O157 prevalence in 375 chicken meat parts and giblets. The samples were collected randomly from several supermarkets and butchers in Diyarbakir, a city in southeast Turkey. They were analyzed and confirmed using the immunomagnetic separation (IMS), Vitek® 2 microbial identification system and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method. This study also aims to detect the presence of fliCH7, eaeA, stx1, stx2 and hlyA genes by using PCR. The overall E. coli O157 prevalence in chicken meat parts and giblets was 1.3%. All of the E. coli O157 isolates carried rfbEO157 and eaeA genes; but not any fliCH7 and hlyA genes. The E. coli O157 isolates obtained from drumstick and breast meat carried either stx1 or stx2 genes, which were related to important virulence factors of the disease.

Parole chiave

  • E. coli O157
  • chicken meat
  • stx1
  • stx2
  • eaeA
  • hlyA
Accesso libero

Effect of sous-vide technique on fatty acid and mineral compositions of beef and liver from Bonsmara and non-descript cattle

Pubblicato online: 28 Apr 2017
Pagine: 565 - 580

Astratto

Abstract

This study examined the fatty acid and mineral compositions of raw and cooked beef and liver from Bonsmara (BD) and non-descript (ND) cattle, raised on natural pasture. Samples were collected from 80 cows and thermal-processed at 65°C for 120 minutes and 85°C for 60 minutes using sous-vide techniques, and then analysed for fatty acid and mineral compositions. The results did not show differences in individual fatty acid composition of meat samples between the breed (P>0.05). However, the raw beef sample had higher content of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA , 40.22% ± 3.79 ND, 42.53% ± 2.39 BD) and lower content of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA , 11.02% ± 5.47 ND, 10.13% ± 6.73 BD) than liver (MUFA , 20.11% ± 4.76 ND, 21.08% ± 2.46 BD; PUFA , 30.73% ± 5.20 ND, 31.11% ± 2.37 BD) (P<0.05). The PUFA /MUFA and n-6/n-3 ratios, atherogenicity and desaturase indices were comparable between breeds, but higher in beef than liver. The total percentage of saturated fatty acid, MUFA and PUFA retained after cooking were numerically higher in liver than in beef (P>0.05). The results further revealed higher contents of Na, Mg, and Zn in raw beef than liver. However, the content of Na, Mg, and Zn in the beef and liver were not significantly (P>0.05) affected after cooking. Based on the PUFA proportion of the total lipids in beef (11.02%) and liver (31.11%) and n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio in beef (2.54) and liver (1.34), consumption of liver and beef from cattle raised on pasture could be beneficial to human health. Additionally, application of sous-vide technique can be used to minimize the nutritional losses in beef and liver.

Parole chiave

  • cattle
  • fatty acids
  • minerals
  • thermal treatment
20 Articoli

Review

Accesso libero

Feed additives regulating calcium homeostasis in the bones of poultry – a review

Pubblicato online: 28 Apr 2017
Pagine: 303 - 316

Astratto

Abstract

The strength of leg bones is not only genetically determined but it also depends on the gender, age, health condition and nutrition of slaughter birds. Calcium ions deficit in bones results in the deterioration of skeleton structure and reduction of bone strength. The presented work compiles the results of studies concerning the effect of feed additives on the level of calcium in the bones of broiler chickens, published during the past 10 years. From the analysis of available literature it follows that some additives had a positive effect on the accumulation of calcium (e.g. vitamin D, probiotics, prebiotics and synbiotics), some were not very explicit (e.g. ascorbic acid and phytase), while others did not have a significant effect on the accumulation of calcium in bones (e.g. herbs and chelates). It is concluded from our collected information that the use of probiotics, prebiotics and synbiotics offers the best advantages for poultry. These additives, apart from stimulating the accumulation of calcium in bones, also benefit animal health.

Parole chiave

  • feed additives
  • calcium
  • accumulation
  • bones
  • broilers
Accesso libero

Use of essential oils in broiler chicken production – a review

Pubblicato online: 28 Apr 2017
Pagine: 317 - 335

Astratto

Abstract

Biological activity of volatile plant metabolites is the property that can potentially find application in animal nutrition. Nowadays, the use of bioactive compounds is encouraged in many areas of industry and agriculture, since these substances have similar properties as withdrawn antibiotic growth promoters. Meat poultry production is focused on the maximization of performance parameters, namely rapid chicken growth with low feed consumption, and with the optimum health status of the flock. Essential oils can stimulate the growth and functioning of the body, which translates into both chicken’s health and enhanced production parameters. The substances are characterized by a range of effects, are easily biodegradable, and do not usually require a waiting period - hence they can be used in breeding broiler chickens. Given the increasing restrictions imposed on poultry production in terms of food safety and ethical aspects of husbandry, it seems appropriate to look for the use of new, natural substances to be applied in animal production. The article presents the characteristics of essential oils in this context, with a particular focus on their antimicrobial and immunostimulatory properties. The paper also describes production applications of essential oils tested in experiments on hybrid Ross 308 and Cobb 500 chickens.

Parole chiave

  • essential oils
  • biological activity
  • natural alternatives
  • performance
Accesso libero

Cross-talk between leptin, ghrelin and orexins in the central nervous system of seasonal animals – a review

Pubblicato online: 28 Apr 2017
Pagine: 337 - 350

Astratto

Abstract

The maintenance of energy homeostasis is achieved with ‘detectors’ that receive signals from the external and internal environment and with multidirectional ‘communication routes’ including neuronal networks and body fluids, such as blood and cerebrospinal fluid. Changes in the energy demands of organisms are caused by current physiological status and environmental conditions, including season and food availability. Little is known about the interactions between the metabolic indicators involved in the maintenance of energy homeostasis, e.g., leptin, orexins and ghrelin. Sheep and other seasonal animals are highly adaptable to their environments because of the plasticity of their neural and endocrine systems. Sheep exhibit leptin resistance and are thus an extremely interesting model for research on the relationship between hormonal indicators of energy metabolism. The paper is focused mainly on the anatomical and functional communication between leptin, ghrelin and orexins, which play principal roles in the adaptation of energetic demands to environmental fluctuations.

Parole chiave

  • leptin
  • ghrelin
  • orexins
  • energy homeostasis
  • sheep
  • seasonality
Accesso libero

Rye non-starch polysaccharides: their impact on poultry intestinal physiology, nutrients digestibility and performance indices – a review

Pubblicato online: 28 Apr 2017
Pagine: 351 - 369

Astratto

Abstract

A high content of non-starch polysaccharides (NSP), namely arabinoxylans (AX), in rye is a reason for the potential adverse effect of this grain on intestinal functions, gut microflora, absorption of nutrients and performance indices. As such, the use of rye grain in intensively produced poultry diets is limited. However, recently developed new types of hybrid rye are characterised not only by increased yield potential, resistance to fungus and pests and low production costs, but also the content of antinutritive substances may be reduced in these varieties. The aim of this paper is to discuss the mechanisms of NSP effects in the digestive tract, as well as to review the results of recent studies on the use of rye in poultry nutrition. Based on the literature data, it can be concluded that the use of new hybrid rye varieties with decreased NSP concentration and NSP-hydrolising enzymes may be a way of increasing the share of rye grain in poultry diets.

Parole chiave

  • poultry
  • intestinal physiology
  • feed enzymes
  • rye
  • non-starch polysaccharides

Animal genetics and breeding

Accesso libero

Effect of β-lactoglobulin gene polymorphism, lactation stage and breed on milk traits in Chios and Karagouniko sheep breeds

Pubblicato online: 28 Apr 2017
Pagine: 371 - 384

Astratto

Abstract

The animal selection with favourable phenotypes of the past has been, currently, replaced by the genotype selection on quantitative traits, assisted by the expanding molecular techniques in the context of livestock improvement. In this study, the c.112T>C polymorphism in exon II of β-lactoglobulin (β-LG) gene was investigated in Karagouniko and Chios sheep breeds by using polymerase chain reaction - restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP), and possible associations with milk traits were examined. In total, 125 blood DNA samples were isolated for PCR-RFLP analysis and the respective 217 milk samples′ composition profile was obtained. The goodness of fit test to Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) for β-LG genotypes was estimated and associations found between β-LG genotypes and raw milk composition. Two alleles and three genotypes were observed (AA, AB and BB) in both breeds, and Chios breed significantly deviated (P≤0.05) from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE). Conclusively, linear mixed model analysis on samples, from both breeds collectively, showed significant effects of β-LG genotype on lactose percentage and somatic cell count (SCC), lactation stage on daily milk yield and protein, while the breed effect was significant only on daily milk yield.

Parole chiave

  • sheep
  • β-lactoglobulin
  • polymorphism
  • lactation
  • breed
Accesso libero

Distribution of non-allelic histone H1 subtypes in five avian species

Pubblicato online: 28 Apr 2017
Pagine: 385 - 398

Astratto

Abstract

The arrays of histone H1 subtypes from five avian species (chicken, grey partridge, pheasant, quail and duck) were compared to evaluate their intra- and inter-species variability. The electrophoretic patterns of linker histone preparations revealed the presence of subtypes that occur in all species (H1.a, H1.b, H1.c, H1.c′, H1.d and H5) and those which are confined to some species only (H1.a′, H1.b′, H1.z). In the densitometric profiles of histone H1 bands resolved in one-dimension acetic acid-urea polyacrylamide gel, the quantitative differences were observed both within a species (the ratio of H1.b to H1.d = 8.13 in quail) and between species (the ratio of H1.d in grey partridge and quail = 8.37). The comparable levels of abundant histone H5 that constitute from 53.62% (quail) to 60.86% (duck) of whole linker histone complement were detected in all species. Likewise, the quantification of H1 protein spots separated in a two-dimension SDS-polyacrylamide gel indicated that their intensity ratios could vary up to about 17-fold within a species (the ratio of H1.d to H1.a′ in grey partridge) and up to 10-fold between species (the ratio of pheasant H1.d to quail H1.d). Differences (P<0.05) in the histone H1 subtype levels were found both within and between avian species. A low to moderate range for the coefficients of H1 spot variation (from 0.13 to 0.72) was obtained for several independent histone H1 preparations.

Parole chiave

  • avian
  • histone H1
  • non-allelic subtypes
  • quantification
  • variability
Accesso libero

Associations of six SNPs of POU1F1-PROP1-PITX1-SIX3 pathway genes with growth traits in two Chinese indigenous goat breeds

Pubblicato online: 28 Apr 2017
Pagine: 399 - 411

Astratto

Abstract

In the process of anterior pituitary gland development and maturation, numerous transcription factors were involved in the pituitary organogenesis. To date, the lack of knowledge on POU1F1-PROP1-PITX1-SIX3 pathway genes affecting growth traits was reported in Chinese goat breeds. The objective of this work was to identify genetic variants of the POU1F1, PROP1, PITX1 and SIX3 genes, as well as to evaluate their associations with growth traits in goats. The results showed that one novel and five reported single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) were confirmed in above four genes. The novel SNP (NC_019460.2:g.1100T>A) was located in intron 1 of SIX3 gene. Among these loci, DQ826397.1:g.102T>G (SNP1), DQ826397.1:g.279T>C (SNP2) and NC_019460.2:g.1100T>A (SNP6) were associated with growth traits. In details, the SNP1 locus had significant association with hucklebone width (P<0.05) and hucklebone width index (P<0.05) in the Guanzhong dairy goat. The SNP2 locus was associated with body weight (P<0.05), chest circumference (P<0.01), chest width (P<0.05), hucklebone width (P<0.05), cannon circumference (P<0.01) and trunk index (P<0.01) in the Hainan black goat. The SNP6 locus was significantly associated with hucklebone width index (P<0.05) and chest width (P<0.05) in the Guanzhong dairy goat and Hainan black goat, respectively. These findings indicated that goat POU1F1-PROP1-PITX1-SIX3 pathway genes were important genetic factors, which could affect growth traits. Three SNPs detected in this study may be useful for potential marker-assisted selection programs in goat breeding and production.

Parole chiave

  • goat
  • POU1F1 gene
  • PROP1 gene
  • PITX1 gene
  • SIX3 gene
  • polymorphism
  • growth traits
Accesso libero

Production, carcass characteristics and valuable cuts of purebred Simmental and Simmental × beef breed crossbred bulls in Finnish beef cattle population

Pubblicato online: 28 Apr 2017
Pagine: 413 - 422

Astratto

Abstract

The objective of the present research was to study the potential for improvement of growth and carcass traits through Simmental (Si) × beef breed crossbreeding compared to purebred Si bulls in Finnish beef cattle population. The data collected from Finnish slaughterhouses included observations of 6 224 purebred Si bulls plus Si × beef breed crosses. For estimating valuable cuttings, a separate dataset including in total 314 bulls was also collected. The estimated average daily carcass gain of the purebred Si bulls was 686 g/d and it improved by 3 and 6% with Si×Blonde d’Aquitaine and Si×Charolais crossbreds, respectively. Carcass conformation improved by using Blonde d’Aquitaine, Limousin and Charolais crossbreeding compared to the pure Si bulls. Si×British breed crossbreds (Angus and Hereford) had poorer carcass gain and produced poorer conformed carcasses compared to purebred Si bulls. Furthermore, the yield of subcutaneous fat was higher in the Si×Angus and Si×Hereford bulls than in the purebred Si bulls.

Parole chiave

  • beef production
  • breeds
  • bulls
  • carcass characteristics
  • crossbreeding

The biology, physiology, reproduction, and health

Accesso libero

Changes in the expression of selected antioxidative proteins in roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) epididymis in different periods of the rutting season

Pubblicato online: 28 Apr 2017
Pagine: 423 - 431

Astratto

Abstract

One of the factors determining the homeostasis of biological systems is the balance between the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the activity of the antioxidative defence system. Regarding seasonal variations in secretory activity in different parts of roe buck’s (Capreolus capreolus) epididymis, the aim of present study was to compare the expression of selected antioxidative proteins in three periods of the rutting season. Using proteomics methods (2D PAGE , tandem mass spectrometry MS/MS) 5 antioxidative enzymes were identified for the first time in different segments of the epididymis of the roe buck. The highest expression of these enzymes was found in the rutting season. Findings indicated that the antioxidative function of the buck’s epididymis, regardless of the period of the rutting season, but particularly in the rutting season, is maintained mainly because of the presence of three conservative polypeptides: glutathione S-transferase (GST), protein disulfide isomerase A3 (PDIA3), and PDIA3 precursor. Moreover, a protective role against the harmful products of redox reactions is played during the discussed periods by peroxiredoxin-2 (PRDX2), identified in the cauda of the epididymis. In the tissue of the corpus and caput of the epididymis its expression was only found in the rutting season. The expression of biliverdin reductase A (BRVA ) in the epididymis was only observed in the rutting season.

Parole chiave

  • roe deer (Capreolus capreolus)
  • epididymis
  • antioxidant system
  • proteomics
Accesso libero

Inflammation-related oxidative stress in white adipose tissues of an inbred obese pig

Pubblicato online: 28 Apr 2017
Pagine: 433 - 446

Astratto

Abstract

The uneven development of adipose tissues reflects a differential occurrence of biological events in vivo while the underlying molecular mechanism remains largely unknown. In the present study, the in vivo inflammatory status of an inbred obese porcine model, Lantang pig, was assessed, aiming to provide evidence for obesity biology. Compared with genetically lean pigs (crossbred, Duroc × Landrace × Large White), Lantang pigs exhibited a larger amount of ultra large adipocytes in subcutaneous adipose tissue accompanied with higher expression of macrophage/monocytes markers and pro-inflammatory genes (TLR4, CD14, CD11β, MCP1, TNFα, IL1β and IL6) and lower expression of cellular antioxidant enzymes (SOD1, 2 and 3). Plasma concentrations of LPS and TNF-α were also higher in Lantang pigs than in lean pigs. Among adipose tissues of Lantang pigs, the subcutaneous tissue had the most abundant expression of inflammation related genes (TLR4, CD14, TNFα and IL6) and the lowest level of cellular antioxidant genes (SOD 1 and 2), while the perirenal adipose tissue had opposite profile. Significant activation of p38 MAPK pathway was indicated by increased phosphorylation of p38 in the subcutaneous adipose tissue of Lantang pigs. Collectively, the bacteria-derived LPS induced inflammation-associated oxidative stress indeed exists in adipose tissues of Lantang pig, and the differential expressions of inflammatory and antioxidant genes, to some extent, account for the uneven development of the adipose tissue within bodies.

Parole chiave

  • obese pig
  • adipose tissue
  • oxidative stress
  • LPS
  • inflammation
Accesso libero

Effect of hen age and storage time on egg weight loss and hatchability results in turkeys

Pubblicato online: 28 Apr 2017
Pagine: 447 - 462

Astratto

Abstract

The aim of this study was to determine the effect of egg water loss during storage and incubation on hatch rates in heavy-type broad-breasted white BUT Big 6 turkeys. Turkey hens started laying eggs at 30 weeks of age. In weeks 2, 8, 16 and 21 of the laying season, 1512 eggs were selected randomly and divided into 4 groups of 378 eggs each. The groups of eggs were stored for 7, 10, 13 or 17 days before incubation. At the beginning and end of the storage period and on days 9, 15, 21 and 24 of incubation, eggs were weighed to determine the percent water loss relative to the egg’s weight. Four incubation cycles of 378 eggs each were performed for each storage period. A total of 16 incubation cycles were carried out (4 weeks of the laying season × 4 egg storage periods) and the following parameters were determined (%): egg fertilization, dead embryos, unhatched eggs and hatchability results from fertilized eggs. The percentages of dead embryos and unhatched poults with physical defects and abnormal position were determined in hatchery waste from each incubation cycle. Egg water loss varied throughout storage and reached 0.57% of total egg weight after 7 days, 0.79% after 10 days, 0.87% after 13 days and 1.28% after 17 days (P≤0.05). After 7 days of storage, egg water loss during a 15-day and 21-day incubation period reached 5.76% and 8.72%, and lower values were noted after 17 days of storage (P≤0.05). Egg water loss of 1.28% during storage resulted in a high rate of early embryonic mortality (14.81%) and a low hatch rate (72.12%) (P≤0.05). High water loss in stored eggs contributed to a higher percentage of congested embryos. During storage, egg water loss reached 0.72% in week 2 of the laying season, 0.78% in week 8 and ≥1% in weeks 16 and 21 of the laying season (P≤0.05). Egg water loss during a 21-day incubation period was similar in weeks 2, 8 and 16 of the laying season, and lower in week 21 (P≤0.05). The hatchability of turkey eggs was lowest in weeks 16 and 21 of the laying season (P≤0.05). Low water loss during incubation contributed to a high rate of late embryonic mortality (13.2%). High water loss during egg storage is accompanied by lower water loss during incubation. Water loss should be monitored after storage and on days 15 and 21 of incubation to evaluate water metabolism in hatching eggs.

Parole chiave

  • turkey
  • egg storage
  • breeder age
  • water loss
  • hatchability

Animal nutrition, and feedstuffs

Accesso libero

Effects of dietary supplementation of inorganic, organic or nano zinc forms on performance, eggshell quality, and bone characteristics in laying hens

Pubblicato online: 28 Apr 2017
Pagine: 463 - 476

Astratto

Abstract

This study was conducted to evaluate the efficiency of dietary zinc forms and dosages on egg production performance, egg quality, and bone characteristics in laying hens. Forty-two-week-old, 144 Lohmann LSL-Lite laying hens were allocated to 12 experimental groups in a 4 (forms) × 3 (dosages) factorial arrangement. Four zinc forms including zinc-sulphate and zinc-oxide as inorganic forms, zinc-glycine as organic form and nano zinc-oxide powder as nano form at different dosages (50, 75 and 100 mg per kg diet) were tested. Compared to the inorganic (zinc-sulphate) form, the zinc-glycine supplementation significantly depressed the egg weight, egg mass and feed conversion ratio. The eggshell thickness was significantly decreased by supplementation with nano zinc-oxide. The shear force of tibia was significantly decreased by zinc-glycine or nano zinc-oxide supplemented in the diet when compared to inorganic forms of zinc. On the other hand, the dietary 50 mg/kg dosage of zinc was sufficient for optimum performance and the dietary 75 mg/kg dosage of zinc significantly improved shear force of tibia in laying hens. Tibia zinc content increased with the dietary 100 mg/kg dosage of zinc. The interactions between zinc forms and dosages had a significant effect on egg weight, feed intake, feed conversion ratio, eggshell thickness, shear force and shear stress of bone, and tibia calcium concentration. The highest egg weight and the lowest eggshell thickness were observed for the group fed with nano Zn-oxide at 100 mg/kg in the diet. These results showed that nano zinc form supplementation negatively affects the eggshell thickness and bone mechanical properties. The zinc in nano form may not be suggested for feeding laying hens, but other forms of zinc could be used safely in layer diets.

Parole chiave

  • zinc
  • nano
  • eggshell
  • bone
  • laying hens
Accesso libero

Alterations in intestinal and liver histomorphology and basal hematological and biochemical parameters in relation to different sources of dietary copper in adult rats

Pubblicato online: 28 Apr 2017
Pagine: 477 - 490

Astratto

Abstract

Copper (Cu) is required for all basic biochemical and physiological processes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of different sources of dietary Cu on the histomorphometry of liver and jejunal epithelium in adult rats. Male 12-week-old rats were used in a 12-week experiment. The control diet provided the required Cu level from sulfate, and other two diets were supplemented with Cu as a glycine complex at 75% and 100% of daily requirement. Basal hematological and plasma biochemical analyses were also performed. There was no effect of Cu supplementation on the liver weight and the plasma and liver Cu concentration. Histomorphometric analysis of liver tissue showed an increase in the collagen amount and intracellular space in the group supplemented with Cu amino acid. Cu given in the organic form at 100% of daily requirement decreased the muscular and submucosa layer and the crypt depth. In turn, organic copper given at 75% of daily requirement did not influence the intestinal morphology. Dietary Cu given to adult rats as copper sulfate or a glycine complex meeting 100% of the daily requirement appears to be less harmful with regard to intestinal epithelium than when given as a glycine complex at 100% of daily requirement.

Parole chiave

  • copper
  • Cu-Gly
  • liver histomorphometry
  • jejunum
  • biochemical parameter
  • adult rat
Accesso libero

An in vitro study on the ability of tannic acid to inhibit methanogenesis and biohydrogenation of C18 PUFA in the rumen of goats

Pubblicato online: 28 Apr 2017
Pagine: 491 - 502

Astratto

Abstract

An in vitro gas production technique, using rumen fluid from four Kacang × Boer crossbred adult goats was used to study the effects of commercial tannic acid (TA, a hydrolysable tannin) on methanogenesis, fatty acid composition and biohydrogenation (BH) of C18 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in the rumen. Treatments were control (CON, 50% alfalfa hay (AH) + 50% concentrate), 25 mg TA/250 mgDM (LTA, low TA) and 50 mg TA/250 mgDM (HTA, High TA), which were mixed with 30 mL of buffered rumen fluid and incubated for 24 h. The study revealed that TA supplementation had no negative effect on rumen fermentation parameters such as pH, NH3N, acetic/propionic ratio and total volatile fatty acid (tVFA). Methane (CH4) production (mL/250 mg DM) decreased (P<0.05) with increasing levels of TA. Greatest CH4 reduction (%) was recorded for MTA (20.30%) and LTA (13.00%) compared with CON. Supplementation of the diet with TA did not affect the rate of rumen BH (%) of C18:1n-9 (oleic acid; OA), C18:2n-6 (linoleic acid; LA), C18:3n-3 (linolenic acid; LNA) and the concentration of fatty acids after 24 h of in vitro incubation. Based on this study, the addition of TA in vitro reduced rumen methanogenesis without negative effect of rumen fermentation characteristics, but in vivo studies need to be performed to determine if concentrations that inhibit methane are below toxic levels.

Parole chiave

  • biohydrogenation
  • gas production
  • goat
  • methanogenesis
  • rumen
  • tannic acid
Accesso libero

Dietary organic trace minerals level influences eggshell quality and minerals retention in hens

Pubblicato online: 28 Apr 2017
Pagine: 503 - 515

Astratto

Abstract

The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of reduced levels of Cu, Zn, Mn in combination from organic mineral source on eggshell quality and mineral retention in hens. After feeding the basal diet (8.82 mg/kg Cu, 24.94 mg/kg Zn, and 16.38 mg/kg Mn) without Cu, Zn, and Mn addition for 4 weeks, hens (39-week-old) were assigned to 5 treatments according to the equal body weight and egg production for 12-week experimental trial. The 5 treatments included the basal diet without Cu, Zn, and Mn (NCON), and NCON added with 16-80-60 mg/kg Cu-Zn-Mn from sulfates (ITM100%), or 4-20-15, 8-40-30 or 16-80-60 mg/kg Cu-Zn-Mn from 2-hydroxy-4-(methylthio)butanoic acid (HMTBA) mineral chelates (OTM25%, OTM50% or OTM100%). Supplementation of Cu, Zn, and Mn had no significant influences on the performance of hens. After 12 weeks feeding, eggshell breaking strength (EBS) decreased in the following order: OTM25% and ITM100% > OTM50% > NCON and OTM100%. The eggshell weight and thickness in OTM25% were greater than that in NCON, while not differing from that in ITM100%. The EBS and eggshell weight linearly decreased with increasing level of OTM. After 12 weeks feeding, supplementation of Cu, Zn, and Mn increased the concentrations of liver Zn, tibia Zn and Mn, and Zn and Mn retention in eggs as compared with NCON. No significant difference was observed in the concentrations of Cu, Zn, and Mn in liver and plasma, and Zn and Mn in eggs between any OTM treatment and ITM100% groups. Addition of OTM at increasing level had quadratic effect on tibia Cu, Zn, Mn concentrations, with the greater retention of Cu, Zn, and Mn in OTM50%. In conclusion, the OTM25% from HMT BA mineral chelates can substitute for ITM100% evaluated by the eggshell quality in the diet of laying hens.

Parole chiave

  • copper
  • manganese
  • zinc
  • 2-hydroxy-4-(methylthio)butanoic acid mineral chelates
  • eggs

Behavior, well-being, production technology, and environment

Accesso libero

Microbial nitrogen production, nitrogen balance and excretion of urinary purine derivatives in Corriedale ewes under water deprivation

Pubblicato online: 28 Apr 2017
Pagine: 517 - 527

Astratto

Abstract

The objective of this study was to determine microbial N production, and urinary excretion of PDs in Corriedale ewes under water deprivation. Nine Corriedale ewes (average BW=45±4.5 kg) were individually fed diets based on maintenance requirements in metabolic crates. Ewes were assigned to three treatment groups according to a 3×3 Latin square design for 3 periods of 21 days duration. The treatments were free access to water (FAW ), 2h water deprivation (2hWD), and 3h water deprivation (3hWD) following feeding. Daily water intake decreased linearly as water deprivation time following feeding increased. Feed intake and fecal excretion were not different among the treatment groups. Urine weight and volume were higher in FAW than water deprived groups. Nitrogen balance including urinary N, retained N, urinary N/intake N, and retained N/intake N were lower in FAW group than other treatment groups, whereas no differences were observed in intake N, fecal N, digestible N, and fecal N/intake N among the treatment groups. Allantoin concentration tended to be higher in FAW group than 2hWD and 3hWD groups while no differences were observed in uric acid, xanthine+hypoxanthine and creatinine concentrations. Microbial N production per DOMR was higher in 2hWD and 3hWD groups than FAW group whereas no differences were observed between 2hWD and 3hWD groups. Index of PDC decreased linearly with water deprivation. It is concluded that water deprivation following feeding, especially 2 h water deprivation in ewes improved microbial N production.

Parole chiave

  • ewes
  • microbial nitrogen production
  • purine derivatives
  • water deprivation
Accesso libero

Comparative study of behavioural and milking traits in cows milked with a conventional or individual quarter milking system (Multilactor®) and with different milking persons

Pubblicato online: 28 Apr 2017
Pagine: 529 - 544

Astratto

Abstract

The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of a new type of milking system on the behaviour of cows during milking by comparing a conventional milking system (CON) with an individual quarter milking system (MUL), MultiLactor®. Sixty-eight dairy cows were observed during their milking times (32 cows in CON, 36 cows in MUL) using video recordings to analyse their behavioural traits. The udder preparation duration, milking duration and milk yield were also evaluated. No significant differences were found between the CON and the MUL regarding cows’ head posture (P=0.38), body posture (P=0.85), number of steps (P=0.08) and number of kicks (P=0.56). However, the milk yield was lower (P=0.02), just as the udder preparation duration (P<0.01) and milking duration (P=0.01) were shorter in the CON compared to the MUL. In addition, in regard to the milking person, differences were displayed in the head posture of the milked cows, kick-off or loss of teat cup or milking cluster, and frequency of udder preparation. In conclusion, the investigated milking systems did not markedly influence the behaviour of dairy cows; however, udder preparation duration, milking duration and milk yield were significantly greater for the MUL than for the CON. However, the milking person appears to have a greater impact on the behaviour of the cows than the milking system.

Parole chiave

  • behaviour
  • dairy cow
  • individual quarter milking
  • udder preparation
Accesso libero

Effect of light emitting diodes with different color temperatures on immune responses and growth performance of male broiler

Pubblicato online: 28 Apr 2017
Pagine: 545 - 553

Astratto

Abstract

The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of the different color temperatures (Kelvin; K) of the light emitting diodes (LEDs) on broiler chicken health and growth performance compared to incandescent (ICD) light bulbs. Three hundred and sixty one-day-old Ross 308 male chicks were tested for 42 days. The chicks were randomly distributed into three treatment groups [neutral-white (4,286 K), warm-white (2,990 K), and ICD (2,790 K) light bulbs] of 120 chicks/treatment with six replicates each by adopting complete randomized design. The diets were similar for all treatment groups. The live body weight and feed intake were recorded weekly and feed conversion ratio (FCR) was calculated (weekly and whole period). Indices of humoral immunity [antisheep red blood cell (SRBC) titer, IgG, and IgM at 26 and 34 days of age], Newcastle disease (ND) virus and avian influenza (AI) virus antibody at 40 days of age, cell-mediated immunity [cutaneous basophilic hyper-sensitivity (CBH) response at 41 days of age)] as well as total and differential leukocyte numbers at 42 days of age) were measured. Effects of different color temperatures of the LEDs and ICD light bulbs on body weight, feed consumption, and FCR were not statistically significant (P>0.05). Also, the effect of color temperatures of light on secondary titers of SRBC, AI antibody response, CBH response, the total number of leukocytes and percentage of lymphocytes were not significant. However, the different color temperatures of LEDs have a significant effect on primary SRBC and ND antibody titers (P≤0.05). The highest primary SRBC (P≤0.05) and ND (P≤0.05) antibody titers were observed in warm-white light. It was concluded that based on the 3 color temperatures examined, it seems that the most suitable to provide the optimum level of immunity and energy-saving in commercial broiler houses is warm-white light.

Parole chiave

  • artificial light
  • broiler
  • different color temperatures
  • immune responses
  • feed conversion ratio

Quality and safety of animal origin products

Accesso libero

Prevalence and some virulence genes of Escherichia coli O157 isolated from chicken meats and giblets

Pubblicato online: 28 Apr 2017
Pagine: 555 - 563

Astratto

Abstract

Escherichia coli O157 related foodborne illnesses continue to be one of the most important global public health problems in the world. This study aims to determine E. coli O157 prevalence in 375 chicken meat parts and giblets. The samples were collected randomly from several supermarkets and butchers in Diyarbakir, a city in southeast Turkey. They were analyzed and confirmed using the immunomagnetic separation (IMS), Vitek® 2 microbial identification system and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method. This study also aims to detect the presence of fliCH7, eaeA, stx1, stx2 and hlyA genes by using PCR. The overall E. coli O157 prevalence in chicken meat parts and giblets was 1.3%. All of the E. coli O157 isolates carried rfbEO157 and eaeA genes; but not any fliCH7 and hlyA genes. The E. coli O157 isolates obtained from drumstick and breast meat carried either stx1 or stx2 genes, which were related to important virulence factors of the disease.

Parole chiave

  • E. coli O157
  • chicken meat
  • stx1
  • stx2
  • eaeA
  • hlyA
Accesso libero

Effect of sous-vide technique on fatty acid and mineral compositions of beef and liver from Bonsmara and non-descript cattle

Pubblicato online: 28 Apr 2017
Pagine: 565 - 580

Astratto

Abstract

This study examined the fatty acid and mineral compositions of raw and cooked beef and liver from Bonsmara (BD) and non-descript (ND) cattle, raised on natural pasture. Samples were collected from 80 cows and thermal-processed at 65°C for 120 minutes and 85°C for 60 minutes using sous-vide techniques, and then analysed for fatty acid and mineral compositions. The results did not show differences in individual fatty acid composition of meat samples between the breed (P>0.05). However, the raw beef sample had higher content of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA , 40.22% ± 3.79 ND, 42.53% ± 2.39 BD) and lower content of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA , 11.02% ± 5.47 ND, 10.13% ± 6.73 BD) than liver (MUFA , 20.11% ± 4.76 ND, 21.08% ± 2.46 BD; PUFA , 30.73% ± 5.20 ND, 31.11% ± 2.37 BD) (P<0.05). The PUFA /MUFA and n-6/n-3 ratios, atherogenicity and desaturase indices were comparable between breeds, but higher in beef than liver. The total percentage of saturated fatty acid, MUFA and PUFA retained after cooking were numerically higher in liver than in beef (P>0.05). The results further revealed higher contents of Na, Mg, and Zn in raw beef than liver. However, the content of Na, Mg, and Zn in the beef and liver were not significantly (P>0.05) affected after cooking. Based on the PUFA proportion of the total lipids in beef (11.02%) and liver (31.11%) and n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio in beef (2.54) and liver (1.34), consumption of liver and beef from cattle raised on pasture could be beneficial to human health. Additionally, application of sous-vide technique can be used to minimize the nutritional losses in beef and liver.

Parole chiave

  • cattle
  • fatty acids
  • minerals
  • thermal treatment

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