Rivista e Edizione

AHEAD OF PRINT

Volume 22 (2022): Edizione 4 (October 2022)

Volume 22 (2022): Edizione 3 (July 2022)

Volume 22 (2022): Edizione 2 (April 2022)

Volume 22 (2022): Edizione 1 (January 2022)

Volume 21 (2021): Edizione 4 (October 2021)

Volume 21 (2021): Edizione 3 (July 2021)

Volume 21 (2021): Edizione 2 (April 2021)

Volume 21 (2021): Edizione 1 (January 2021)

Volume 20 (2020): Edizione 4 (October 2020)

Volume 20 (2020): Edizione 3 (July 2020)

Volume 20 (2020): Edizione 2 (April 2020)

Volume 20 (2020): Edizione 1 (January 2020)

Volume 19 (2019): Edizione 4 (October 2019)

Volume 19 (2019): Edizione 3 (July 2019)

Volume 19 (2019): Edizione 2 (April 2019)

Volume 19 (2019): Edizione 1 (January 2019)

Volume 18 (2018): Edizione 4 (October 2018)

Volume 18 (2018): Edizione 3 (July 2018)

Volume 18 (2018): Edizione 2 (May 2018)

Volume 18 (2018): Edizione 1 (January 2018)

Volume 17 (2017): Edizione 4 (October 2017)

Volume 17 (2017): Edizione 3 (July 2017)

Volume 17 (2017): Edizione 2 (May 2017)

Volume 17 (2017): Edizione 1 (January 2017)

Volume 16 (2016): Edizione 4 (October 2016)

Volume 16 (2016): Edizione 3 (July 2016)

Volume 16 (2016): Edizione 2 (April 2016)

Volume 16 (2016): Edizione 1 (January 2016)

Volume 15 (2015): Edizione 4 (October 2015)

Volume 15 (2015): Edizione 3 (July 2015)

Volume 15 (2015): Edizione 2 (April 2015)

Volume 15 (2015): Edizione 1 (January 2015)

Volume 14 (2014): Edizione 4 (October 2014)

Volume 14 (2014): Edizione 3 (July 2014)

Volume 14 (2014): Edizione 2 (April 2014)

Volume 14 (2014): Edizione 1 (January 2014)

Volume 13 (2013): Edizione 4 (October 2013)
Edizione Editors: Magdalena Bielska, Jerzy Pilawski, Katarzyna Skupniewicz

Volume 13 (2013): Edizione 3 (July 2013)

Volume 13 (2013): Edizione 2 (April 2013)

Volume 13 (2013): Edizione 1 (January 2013)

Volume 12 (2012): Edizione 4 (October 2012)

Volume 12 (2012): Edizione 3 (July 2012)

Volume 12 (2012): Edizione 2 (April 2012)

Volume 12 (2012): Edizione 1 (January 2012)

Volume 11 (2011): Edizione 4 (August 2011)

Dettagli della rivista
Formato
Rivista
eISSN
2300-8733
Pubblicato per la prima volta
25 Nov 2011
Periodo di pubblicazione
4 volte all'anno
Lingue
Inglese

Cerca

Volume 21 (2021): Edizione 4 (October 2021)

Dettagli della rivista
Formato
Rivista
eISSN
2300-8733
Pubblicato per la prima volta
25 Nov 2011
Periodo di pubblicazione
4 volte all'anno
Lingue
Inglese

Cerca

23 Articoli

Review

Accesso libero

Effects of Addition of Exogenous Fibrolytic Enzymes on Digestibility and Milk and Meat Production – A Systematic Review

Pubblicato online: 28 Oct 2021
Pagine: 1159 - 1192

Astratto

Abstract

Exogenous fibrolytic enzymes (EFE) added to the ruminant diet can increase fiber digestibility and production efficiency. A systematic review was conducted to understand the interactions between EFE and diet on digestibility and animal performance. The database included variables from 384 experiments with EFE and 264 controls from 85 papers published since 2000 (classification criteria: 1) type of study (in vitro, in situ, in vivo), 2) type of ruminants (sheep, buffaloes, goats, beef and dairy cattle), 3) primary EFE activity (cellulases (Cel) or xylanases (Xyl)), 4) forage proportion (FP), 5) type of plant (TP: legumes or grasses), 6) number of ingredients in diets, and 7) application time (AT)). In over 52.85% of cases, EFE improved the degradability of dry matter (DMD), neutral and acid detergent fiber (NDFD and ADFD), in vitro gas production (GP), volatile fatty acids (VFA), the acetate: propionate ratio (A:P ratio), protein and fat milk, milk yield and average daily gain (ADG) (by 7.78–21.85%). Cel improved organic matter degradability (OMD), GP, VFA, milk yield, and milk protein and fat content. EFE in FP≥40% diets enhanced the ADG, and in grassbased diets increased the dry matter intake (DMI). The AT of EFE affected the DMD, NDFD, and ADFD. Significant correlations were found between the improvements of NDFD or ADFD with DMD (r>0.59), milk yield (r=0.64), and ADG (r=0.59). In conclusion, many factors interact with EFE supplementation effects, but EFE consistently enhanced the DMD, NDFD, and ADFD of ruminant diets, which are related to improvements in productive performance.

Parole chiave

  • exogenous enzymes
  • forage proportion
  • ruminal dynamics
  • animal performance
  • systematic review
Accesso libero

Ex Situ Conservation and Genetic Rescue of Endangered Polish Cattle and Pig Breeds with the Aid of Modern Reproductive Biotechnology – A Review

Pubblicato online: 28 Oct 2021
Pagine: 1193 - 1207

Astratto

Abstract

The development and optimization of reproductive biotechnology – specifically semen cryopreservation, spermatological diagnostics, and intraspecies cloning by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) – have become essential techniques to conserve the genetic resources and establish genetic reserves of endangered or vanishing native Polish livestock breeds. Moreover, this biotechnology is necessary for perpetuating biological diversity and enhancing genetic variability as well as for restoring and reintroducing breeds into anthropogenic agricultural ecosystems. On the one hand, the purpose of our paper is to interpret recent efforts aimed at the ex situ conservation of native cattle and pig breeds. On the other, it emphasizes the prominent role played by the National Research Institute of Animal Production (NRIAP) in maintaining biodiversity in agricultural environmental niches. Furthermore, our paper provides an overview of the conventional and modern strategies of the banking and cryopreservation of germplasm-carrier biological materials and somatic cell lines, spermatological diagnostics, and semen-based and SCNT-mediated assisted reproductive technologies (ART s). These are the most reliable and powerful tools for ex situ protection of the genetic resources of endangered breeds of livestock, especially cattle and pigs.

Parole chiave

  • livestock species/breeds
  • conservation
  • germplasm-carrier biological materials
  • assisted reproductive technologies
  • somatic cell cloning
Accesso libero

Freeze Drying as a Method of Long-Term Conservation of Mammalian Semen – A Review

Pubblicato online: 28 Oct 2021
Pagine: 1209 - 1234

Astratto

Abstract

With the development of biotechnological methods that allow the manipulation and free exchange of genetic material, the methods for collecting and storing such material need to be improved. To date, freezing in liquid nitrogen has allowed the storage of cells and entire plant and animal tissues for practically unlimited times. However, alternatives are still being sought to eliminate the constant need to maintain samples at a low temperature. Lyophilization or freeze drying is an alternative to standard freezing procedures. The storage of samples (lyophilisates) does not require specialised equipment but only refines the preservation method itself. In the case of cells capable of movement e.g., sperm, they lose the ability to reach the oocyte in vivo and for in vitro fertilization (IVF) because of the lyophilization process. However, freeze-dried sperm may be used for in vitro fertilization by intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), based on the results obtained in cleavage, embryo development and the production of live born offspring after embryo transfer. Studies on the lyophilization of sperm have been performed on many animal species, both in the laboratory and in livestock. This conservation method is considered to create biobanks for genetically valuable and endangered species with the simultaneous application of ICSI. This review article aimed to present the issues of the freeze-drying process of mammalian semen and help find solutions that will improve this technique of the long-term preservation of biological material.

Parole chiave

  • lyophilization
  • sperm
  • ICSI
  • mammalian
Accesso libero

The Welfare Status of Hens in Different Housing Systems – A Review

Pubblicato online: 28 Oct 2021
Pagine: 1235 - 1255

Astratto

Abstract

The currently used poultry farming methods, which aim to maximise economic profit, are based on ever new technological solutions that improve flock management and increase bird performance. However, they do not always meet the natural needs of birds. Every housing method and technological solution currently in use is faced with some issues, such as social stress, adverse temperature/ humidity conditions, risk of zoonoses, and behavioural pathologies, which determine poultry performance and welfare. Disregard for animal welfare involves not only ethical but also practical aspects, because well-being and housing comfort translate into better weight gains, health and productivity of the birds. The studies reported here suggest that every production system, despite the many welfare-improving aspects, causes numerous behavioural, productivity and health abnormalities in laying hens. Therefore, further research is needed to identify various risk factors for the purpose of improving housing systems and increasing the welfare of hens.

Parole chiave

  • laying hens
  • housing systems
  • welfare
  • behaviour
Accesso libero

3D Cell Culture Technology – A New Insight Into in Vitro Research – A Review

Pubblicato online: 28 Oct 2021
Pagine: 1257 - 1273

Astratto

Abstract

Most in vitro cell-based research is based on two-dimensional (2D) systems where growth and development take place on a flat surface, which does not reflect the natural environment of the cells. The imperfection and limitations of culture in 2D systems eventually led to the creation of three-dimensional (3D) culture models that more closely reproduce the actual conditions of physiological cell growth. Since the inception of 3D culture technology, many culture models have been developed, such as technologies of multicellular spheroids, organoids, and organs on chips in the technology of scaffolding, hydrogels, bio-printing and liquid media. In this review we will focus on the advantages and disadvantages of the 2D vs. 3D cell cultures technologies. We will also try to sum up available 3D culture systems and materials for building 3D scaffolds.

Parole chiave

  • cell culture models
  • 3D culture technology
  • 3D cell culture vs. 2D cell culture
  • hydrogels
  • scaffolds
Accesso libero

Role of Polyphenols in the Metabolism of the Skeletal System in Humans and Animals – A Review

Pubblicato online: 28 Oct 2021
Pagine: 1275 - 1300

Astratto

Abstract

Polyphenols are a group of compounds arousing enormous interest due to their multiple effects on both human and animal health and omnipresence in plants. A number of in vitro and animal model studies have shown that all polyphenols exhibit anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities, and play a significant role against oxidative stress-related pathologies. They also exert gut promotory effects and prevent chronic degenerative diseases. However, less attention has been paid to the potential influence of polyphenols on bone properties and metabolism. It is well known that proper growth and functioning of the organism depend largely on bone growth and health. Therefore, understanding the action of substances (including polyphenols) that may improve the health and functioning of the skeletal system and bone metabolism is extremely important for the health of the present and future generations of both humans and farm animals. This review provides a comprehensive summary of literature related to causes of bone loss during ageing of the organism (in both humans and animals) and possible effects of dietary polyphenols preventing bone loss and diseases. In particular, the underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms that can modulate skeletal homeostasis and influence the bone modeling and remodeling processes are presented.

Parole chiave

  • polyphenols
  • bone metabolism
  • bone health

Animal genetics and breeding

Accesso libero

Association Between ATP Citrate Lyase (ACLY) Gene Polymorphism and Fattening, Slaughter and Pork Quality Traits in Polish Pigs

Pubblicato online: 28 Oct 2021
Pagine: 1301 - 1313

Astratto

Abstract

The primary aim of this study was to estimate the relationship between ATP citrate lyase (ACLY) gene polymorphism (c.*523 T>C) and fattening and pork quality traits. Investigations were carried out on 526 pigs represented by three breeds: Polish Landrace (n=269), Polish Large White (n=189) and Puławska (n=68). ACLY genotypes were determined by PCR–RFLP method. It was demonstrated that the analyzed polymorphism had significant influence (P<0.05 and P≤0.01) on several economically important traits in pigs, e.g. average daily gain, average backfat thickness, lean meat percentage. The results obtained allow for application of c.*523 T>C polymorphism in breeding programs to improve the pig population in terms of fattening and slaughter traits. However, this breeding program may have a slight negative effect on meat texture parameters.

Parole chiave

  • pigs
  • ATP citrate lyase gene
  • gene polymorphism
  • fattening and slaughter traits
  • meat quality
Accesso libero

Polymorphism of OPN and AREG Genes in Relation to Transcript Expression of a Panel of 12 Genes Controlling Reproduction Processes and Litter Size in Pigs

Pubblicato online: 28 Oct 2021
Pagine: 1315 - 1346

Astratto

Abstract

The aim of this study was to define the transcript expression of 12 genes, identify new polymorphisms in selected 2 genes and to estimate the association between the level of expression, gene polymorphism and litter size in sows. Two groups of sows were selected: 71 crossbred sows and 328 purebred sows. For transcript analysis endometrial tissue samples were collected, while blood was sampled for the purpose of DNA polymorphism analysis. For all animals data on litter size and weaned piglets were obtained. Transcript analysis of 12 genes was performed in the uterine endometrium of sows in the luteal and follicular phases. Eight out of 12 genes showed higher mRNA expression levels during the luteal phase (AREG, FABP3, IL1A, ITGAV, ITGB3, NMB, OPN, RBP4). In turn, higher expression levels in the follicular phase were observed for 4 genes (IL1B, PPARG, S100A8, SELL). Analysis of six new polymorphic sites within the OPN and AREG genes revealed the highest heterozygosity for OPNe6_Knoll, OPNp3_617 and AREGe2_317 polymorphisms and the lowest heterozygosity in the AREGe3_561 locus. Association analyses concerning transcript expression levels of the 12 genes and the OPN and AREG genotypes in the two groups of sows showed a significant relationship between the IL1A, ITGB3 transcript expression and the OPNe7_603 genotype also between OPNp3_617 genotype and ITGB3 transcript expression. With regard to the litter size and the number of weaned piglets a significant relation with the OPNp3_617, OPNe6_462 and AREGe2_317 genotypes was observed only in the purebred sows. Transcript expression of the genes encoding osteopontin and amphiregulin in the uterus of the sows affect reproductive traits by preparing the uterus for embryo reception.

Parole chiave

  • pigs
  • gene polymorphism
  • gene expression
  • reproduction
Accesso libero

Temporal Trends in Performance and Hatchability Traits of Eight Strains of Hens Covered by the Gene Pool Protection Programme in Poland

Pubblicato online: 28 Oct 2021
Pagine: 1347 - 1366

Astratto

Abstract

The aim of the study was to determine trends in performance and hatchability traits of eight strains of hens that have been covered by the gene pool protection programme in Poland over ten years/generations. The study involved conservation populations of laying hens: Greenleg Partridge (Z-11), Yellowleg Partridge (Ż-33), Sussex (S-66), Leghorn (H-22, G99), Rhode Island Red (R-11, K-22) and Rhode Island White (A-33), which were maintained at the Experimental Station of the National Research Institute of Animal Production in Chorzelów. The following productive traits were analysed for each population: body weight at 20 wk (g), egg weight at 33 and 53 wk, sexual maturity and number of eggs laid per hen up to 56 wk of age. Mortality and culling were also recorded during rearing and production periods. Furthermore, effective population size (Ne) and inbreeding coefficient in the population (Fx) were calculated for each strain. The analysis of the performance results of the eight strains of hens and their trends indicate that the methods of conservation breeding adopted for these populations enable effective implementation of the conservation programme. The strains were found to differ in all the performance traits subjected to evaluation. Over the 10 generations, the strains examined showed high survival and hatchability parameters during both rearing and production periods. The currently used random mating system proved effective to prevent the populations from an increase of inbreeding. However, a worrying downward trend in body weight was observed in some strains.

Parole chiave

  • laying hens
  • biodiversity
  • health
  • productivity

The biology, physiology, reproduction, and health

Accesso libero

Application of High Hydrostatic Pressure (HHP) to Improve Cryopreservation of Young Bull Semen

Pubblicato online: 28 Oct 2021
Pagine: 1367 - 1375

Astratto

Abstract

The objective of the study was to determine the effect of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) on quality of cryopreserved semen of young bulls. Semen for this study was collected from 8 bulls aged between 13 and 18 months at monthly intervals, from June to September. After collection, semen was diluted in a commercial Bioxcell® extender (one part at 1:1 and a second part to give a sperm concentration of 20 million/0.2 mL), filled into straws and treated with HHP at 30 MPa for 90 min. After HHP treatment, pre-diluted semen (1:1) was diluted to a sperm concentration 20 million/0.2 mL and filled into straws. In addition, part of the semen diluted to a concentration of 20 million/0.2 mL was not treated with HHP (control). All of it was held at +4°C and frozen in a freezer after 2.5-h equilibration. Semen was thawed in a water bath at 38°C and subjected to estimation of the percentage of motile sperm both subjectively and using a computer-assisted semen analyzer and cytometric assessment of sperm cell membrane integrity. Subjective motility and fast progressive motility were significantly higher with pre-diluted (1:1) and HHP treated semen compared to control (P<0.05). No significant differences were observed in percentage of membraneintact spermatozoa between control and experimental groups. Additionally, the influence of HHP on the sperm of individual bulls was assessed. In bull number 2, the HHP treatment after semen pre-dilution significantly improved progressive motility from 54.1 to 63.4 percent (P<0.05). In bull number 4, the HHP treatment after semen pre-dilution significantly improved subjective motility, rapid motility and progressive motility by 12.5, 16.8 and 16.3 percent, respectively (P<0.05). No effect was seen for 6 bulls. It is concluded that for some bulls, the application of HHP before semen freezing may improve the cryopreservation outcome. However, this requires further research in this area, also to determine the fertilizing capacity of bull semen exposed to high hydrostatic pressure.

Parole chiave

  • young bull
  • frozen semen
  • hydrostatic pressure
  • motility
  • membrane integrity
Accesso libero

Attenuative Role of Idebenone on Deltamethrin Mediated Peroxidative Toxicity of Ram Semen Stored at 4°C

Pubblicato online: 28 Oct 2021
Pagine: 1377 - 1392

Astratto

Abstract

The current study was conducted to evaluate the different concentrations of deltamethrin (DEL; Exp. 1) and the protective role of idebenone (IDB) supplemented with toxic dose of deltamethrin (Exp. 2) during chilled storage of ram semen. Collected samples were pooled and diluted at 500×106 spermatozoa per mL. In Exp. 1, effect of DEL at 1, 2.5, 5, 10, 20, 40, 80 μM levels was evaluated on different variables of spermatozoa motion characteristics. In Exp. 2, different amounts of IDB (2, 4, and 8 μM) concurrent with constant doses of DEL (10 μM) were examined on semen quality upon chilled preservation up to 72 h. Indices of spermatozoa kinematics, functionality of plasma membrane and viability were recorded. Biochemical metabolites were measured in spermatozoa and its medium (extender) at different time points. In Exp. 1, different parameters of spermatozoa kinematics were affected by exposure to DEL in a dose dependent manner. In Exp. 2, combination of IDB with DEL resulted in a significant (P<0.05) increase in total motility, forward progressive motility and curvilinear path velocity compared to DEL group at 24, 48 and 72 h. Simultaneous administration of IDB with DEL increased the percentage of spermatozoa with functional membrane and viability compared to DEL group at 72 h (P<0.05). The amounts of lipid peroxidation index were lower in medium of combination groups compared to DEL group at 48 h and 72 h (P<0.05). Antioxidant capacity was higher in spermatozoa and medium of IDB treated groups compared to DEL group at 72 h (P<0.05). Amounts of total nitrate-nitrite and superoxide dismutase activity of spermatozoa and medium were not affected by treatment (P>0.05). In conclusion, IDB could ameliorate oxidative and peroxidative damages induced by DEL mild toxicity upon cold preservation of ram semen.

Parole chiave

  • deltamethrin
  • idebenone
  • ram spermatozoa
  • lipid peroxidation
Accesso libero

Sex Dependent Action of Aroclor 1254 on Basal and sGnRHa-Stimulated Secretion of LH from the Pituitary Cells of Common Carp, Cyprinus carpio L.

Pubblicato online: 28 Oct 2021
Pagine: 1393 - 1402

Astratto

Abstract

Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) affect the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis in many vertebrates, changing the hormonal regulation of reproduction. To identify one of the possible sites of action of PCBs on gonadotropin release in common carp, the direct effects of Aroclor 1254 on luteinizing hormone (LH) secretion from dispersed pituitary cells were investigated. Pituitary cells were obtained from sexually mature male and female common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) at the time of natural spawning. The cells were incubated with different concentrations of Aroclor 1254 (5, 10, 50 and 100 ng mL–1 medium) and/or salmon gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogue (sGnRHa) at a concentration of 10−8 M. LH levels were measured in the cultured medium by the ELISA method after 10 hours of cell incubation. Incubation of male pituitary cells in the presence of tested concentrations of Aroclor did not change the basal LH secretion to the media. In the female pituitary cell incubations Aroclor (5, 10 and 100 ng mL–1 medium) caused a significant increase in LH concentrations in comparison to control incubations. In the case of sGnRHastimulated LH secretion in incubations of cells of both sexes, all the concentrations of Aroclor significantly stimulated LH release and potentiated stimulatory effects of sGnRH analogue. These results indicate that endocrine disrupters, such as Aroclor 1254, may affect reproduction in fish, acting also directly on gonadotrophs at the level of the pituitary gland, changing LH secretion.

Parole chiave

  • polychlorinated biphenyls
  • fish
  • cyprinids
  • gonadotropin releasing hormone
  • luteinizing hormone
Accesso libero

Effect of Chemically-Induced Diabetes Mellitus on Phenotypic Variability of the Enteric Neurons in the Descending Colon in the Pig

Pubblicato online: 28 Oct 2021
Pagine: 1403 - 1422

Astratto

Abstract

Gastrointestinal neuropathy in diabetes is one of numerous diseases resulting in abnormal functioning of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT), and it may affect any section of the GIT, including the descending colon. In the gastrointestinal system, the neurons are arranged in an interconnecting network defined as the enteric nervous system (ENS) which includes the myenteric plexus and the submucosal plexuses: inner and outer. Regular functioning of the ENS is determined by normal synthesis of the neurotransmitters and neuromodulators. This paper demonstrates the effect of hyperglycaemia on the number of enteric neurons which are immunoreactive to: neural isoform of nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), galanin (GAL), calcitonin generelated peptide (CGRP) and cocaine amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) in the porcine descending colon. It was demonstrated that there was a statistically significant increase in the number of neurons within the myenteric plexus immunoreactive to all investigated substances. In the outer submucosal plexus, the CART-positive neurons were the only ones not to change, whereas no changes were recorded for nNOS or CART in the inner submucosal plexus. This study is the first study to discuss quantitative changes in the neurons immunoreactive to nNOS, VIP, GAL, CGRP and CART in the descending colon in diabetic pigs.

Parole chiave

  • chemical encoding
  • neurotransmitters
  • diabetes
  • descending colon
  • pig

Animal nutrition, and feedstuffs

Accesso libero

Saccharomyces cerevisiae Enhanced the Growth, Immune and Antioxidative Responses of European Seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax)

Pubblicato online: 28 Oct 2021
Pagine: 1423 - 1433

Astratto

Abstract

The concept of probiotics is widely applied in the field of aquaculture for their beneficial and friendly influences. In this sense, the role of Saccharomyces cerevisiae on the growth, immune and antioxidative responses of European seabass was tested in this study. Fish were distributed in 3 groups (triplicates) with ten fish in each replicate and fed 0, 1, and 2 g/kg of S. cerevisiae (15×109 CFU/g) for 90 days. Fish fed S. cerevisiae showed higher final body, weight gain, and specific growth rate as well as lower FCR than fish fed the basal diet (P<0.05). The RBCs, WBCs, Hb, and PCV values were increased in fish fed dietary S. cerevisiae when compared to the control (P<0.05). The blood total protein, albumin, and globulin were higher in fish fed S. cerevisiae than the control (P<0.05). Fish fed dietary S. cerevisiae had enhanced phagocytic index, phagocytic, and lysozyme activity comparing the control. In a similar sense, the antioxidative enzymes (SOD, GPx, and CAT) were higher in fish fed S. cerevisiae than the control (P<0.05). However, the level of MDA was lowered (P<0.05) by S. cerevisiae in European seabass. Gene expression of IL-8, IL-1β, GH, and IGF-1 was upregulated and HSP70 was downregulated by S. cerevisiae (P<0.05). It can be concluded that European seabass fed S. cerevisiae at 1–2 g/kg (15×109 CFU/g) diet had markedly enhanced growth, haemato-biochemical, and immune performances.

Parole chiave

  • European seabass
  • probiotics
  • growth performance
  • immunity
  • stress resistance
Accesso libero

The Effect of Adding Molasses in Different Times on Performance of Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) Raised in a Low-Salinity Biofloc System

Pubblicato online: 28 Oct 2021
Pagine: 1435 - 1454

Astratto

Abstract

This study aimed to evaluate the effect of adding molasses in different times on water quality, growth performance, body biochemical composition, digestive and hepatic enzymes of Nile tilapia in the biofloc system. Tilapia fingerlings (1.53 ± 0.14 g) were distributed in five treatments including control, BFT24 (adding molasses to the tanks every 24 h), BFT48 (48 h), BFT72 (72 h), and BFT96 (96 h) and reared for 37 days in fiberglass tanks (130 L), with a stocking density of one fish per litre. The results showed that highest increases in biomass (740.12 g) and survival (98.97%) were obtained in BFT24 treatment (P<0.05). The body composition was affected by the experimental treatments so that the highest protein content was obtained in the BFT72 (P<0.05). Digestive enzymes activities were significantly (P<0.05) higher in BFT treatments than the control group. The current study showed higher biomass and survival ratio for Nile tilapia were observed in BFT24 treatment. The liver and digestive enzymes of Nile tilapia were affected by the different addition times of molasses to the rearing tanks.

Parole chiave

  • Nile tilapia
  • biofloc
  • molasses
  • growth performance
  • liver and digestive enzymes
Accesso libero

The Influence of a Diet Supplemented with 20% Rye and Xylanase in Different Housing Systems on the Occurrence of Pathogenic Bacteria in Broiler Chickens

Pubblicato online: 28 Oct 2021
Pagine: 1455 - 1473

Astratto

Abstract

Sanitary conditions and diet are important elements determining the occurrence of pathogens in animals. The aim of the research was to assess the effect of an experimental diet with rye and xylanase for broiler chickens in cages and in a free-range system on the intestinal microbiome. The study was carried out in two experimental stages, the first on 224 1-d-old male Ross 308 chickens with an initial weight of 41 g, and the second on 2000 1-d-old male chickens with an initial weight of 42 g. All birds were reared to 42 d of age and fed crumbled starter (1 to 21 d) and pelleted grower–finisher (22 to 42 d) isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets, supplemented with 20% rye and/or 200 mg/kg xylanase. Directly after slaughter, bacteria were isolated from the cloaca of birds and identified using classical microbiological methods and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. The antibiotic susceptibility of the bacteria was assessed by the disc diffusion method. The study showed the presence of abundant bacteria in the gut microbiome of chickens kept in both housing systems. The most frequently isolated bacteria were Escherichia coli, Enterococcus spp., Proteus spp., Campylobacter spp., and Staphylococcus spp. Antibiotic resistance was significantly higher in E. coli, Proteus spp., and Campylobacter spp. obtained from chickens from the free-range farm, but in the case of Enterococcus and Staphylococcus, resistance was higher in bacteria from caged birds. The high antibiotic resistance among pathogens of the gastrointestinal tract necessitates the search for means to control the microbiome in favour of beneficial bacteria. The significant influence of rye and xylanase on the bacterial content may be the basis for the introduction of this method to support the control of pathogens.

Parole chiave

  • microbiota
  • bacteria
  • feeding
  • broiler chickens
  • xylanase
  • rye
Accesso libero

Effect of Dietary Supplementation with Dried Tuber of Jerusalem Artichoke on Skatole Level in Backfat and CYP2E1 mRNA Expression in Liver of Boars

Pubblicato online: 28 Oct 2021
Pagine: 1475 - 1489

Astratto

Abstract

The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of diets containing different levels of dried tuber of Jerusalem artichoke, Helianthus tuberosus, on skatole levels in backfat and on the CYP2E1 mRNA expression in the liver of commercial crossbred pigs. A total of 23 uncastrated male pigs from 10 litters of a commercial crossbred population of Large White × (Landrace × Large White), were used in this study. Boars were randomly divided into four different dietary treatment groups – a control group (K1; 5 boars; without supplementation of Jerusalem artichoke) and three experimental groups (6 boars each) that were fed with the diet containing different levels of dried Jerusalem artichoke (K2 – 4.1%; K3 – 8.2%; K4 – 12.2%) for 14 days before slaughter. Significant effects of diet on skatole levels were observed between the control group and the experimental groups (P = 0.0078). The lowest level of skatole was in the K3 group with 8.2% of Jerusalem artichoke. As for CYP2E1, a negative correlation was observed between the levels of skatole and CYP2E1 mRNA expression. Significant effect (P = 0.0055) was found in all experimental groups compared to the K1 group, and most pronounced in the K2 and K3 groups. The supplementation with Jerusalem artichoke resulted in lower level of skatole and higher CYP2E1 mRNA expression. The results suggest that affecting the expression of CYP2E1 by feed supplements could be an option to effectively reduce the levels of skatole in adipose tissue of entire male pigs.

Parole chiave

  • pig
  • boar taint
  • nutrition
  • RT -qPCR
Accesso libero

Partial Replacement of Concentrate with Olive Cake in Different forms in the Diet of Lactating Barki Ewes Affects the Lactational Performance and Feed Utilization

Pubblicato online: 28 Oct 2021
Pagine: 1491 - 1509

Astratto

Abstract

The present experiment aimed to evaluate the inclusion of dried olive cake treated or untreated with fibrolytic enzyme, partially replacing concentrates in the diet of ewes. Forty lactating Barki ewes, weighing 37.1 ± 4.0 kg, were assigned into four treatments (n=10) in a complete randomized design for 9 weeks. Ewes were stratified according to parity (2 ± 1 parity) and previous milk production (615 ± 11 g/d). The control diet consisted of concentrates and corn fodder at 60:40, respectively. For the experimental diets, 30% of the concentrates was replaced with dried olive cake (DOC treatment), olive cake silage (SOC treatment) or olive cake silage treated with fibrolytic enzymes (ESOC treatment). Without affecting intake, DOC, SOC and ESOC diets enhanced (P<0.05) dry matter, organic matter and non-structural carbohydrate digestibility; however, ESOC diets increased (P<0.05) neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber digestibility. Additionally, DOC, SOC and ESOC diets increased (P<0.05) ruminal total volatile fatty acids, acetate and propionate without affecting ruminal pH and ammonia-N concentration. The ESOC diet increased serum glucose concentration (P=0.019). Both of SOC and ESOC diets increased (P<0.05) daily milk production and energy corrected milk as well as milk fat concentration (P=0.028). All of DOC, SOC and ESOC increased (P<0.05) feed (milk) efficiency compared with the control diet. It is concluded that 30% of concentrates can be replaced with olive cake without negative effects on performance but with better performance when olive cake was ensiled with or without fibrolytic enzymes.

Parole chiave

  • agricultural byproducts
  • digestibility
  • fibrolytic enzymes
  • lactational performance
  • olive cake
  • ruminal fermentation
Accesso libero

The Effect of Adding Herbal Extracts to Drinking Water on Body Temperature, Level of Thyroid Hormones and H:L Ratio in the Blood of Broiler Chickens Exposed to Elevated Ambient Temperature

Pubblicato online: 28 Oct 2021
Pagine: 1511 - 1522

Astratto

Abstract

The aim of the study was to determine the effect of supplementing drinking water with extracts from lemon balm, sage and nettle on body temperature, level of thyroid hormones and the heterophil to lymphocyte (H:L) ratio in the blood of broiler chickens exposed to elevated rearing temperature. One-day-old Ross 308 chicks were divided into four groups: group I (CON) and experimental groups II (LB), II (S) and IV (N), in which, from 22 to 42 days of rearing, drinkers were supplemented with lemon balm extract, sage extract or nettle extract (2 ml/l water), respectively. In addition, at 5 weeks of growth, all the groups were exposed to elevated ambient temperature (up to 30°C) for 5 days, after which the recommended thermal conditions were reinstated. During the study, mortality, rectal temperature and radiated temperature of the broilers were monitored. Blood was collected from 10 birds per group to determine the concentration of thyroid hormones (T3 and T4) and to make blood smears. The H:L ratio was determined based on the percentage of heterophils (H) and lymphocytes (L). The herbal extracts from lemon balm, sage and nettle, added to drinking water at 2 ml/l, reduced the blood level of the thyroid hormone (triiodothyronine) and rectal temperature in the experimental broilers during the initial period of thermal stress. Chickens receiving the nettle extract were also characterised by lower radiated temperature of the unfeathered body, a lower H:L ratio in the blood during the increase in ambient temperature, and the lowest mortality percentage. It can therefore be considered that the dietary supplementation of nettle, in the form and concentration used in this study, had the most favourable effect on the physiological status of the birds (body temperature, level of thyroid hormones and H:L ratio) exposed to elevated ambient temperatures (30°C), and thus on their welfare.

Parole chiave

  • herbal extracts
  • elevated ambient temperature
  • physiological indicators
  • broiler chickens
Accesso libero

Gradually Increasing Vitamin E Dose Allows Increasing Dietary Polyunsaturation Level While Maintaining the Oxidation Status of Lipids and Proteins in Chicken Breast Muscle

Pubblicato online: 28 Oct 2021
Pagine: 1523 - 1541

Astratto

Abstract

Feeding broilers diets high in n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) increases their incorporation into the meat but it may compromise meat quality due to oxidation of lipids and protein. Increased dietary vitamin E (vE) level downregulates this process, but its excessive level might exceed the physiological requirements for the maintenance of redox balance. This study investigated the sensory characteristics and oxidative status of meat from chickens fed diets supplemented with fish oil (FO) with or without gradually increasing doses of vE. The meat samples were obtained from a total of 27 female broilers of Ross 308 strain (9 birds per each of 3 dietary treatments), which were housed according to the standard management practice for commercial chicken houses over a period of 36 days. Chickens were fed diets containing 80 g/kg of supplemental fat, but the diets differed in fat composition; control diet (80 g/kg diet beef tallow as supplemental fat and a basal vE dose); 40 IU of dl-α-tocopheryl acetate; diet containing mixture of FO and beef tallow as supplemental fat (50:30 w/w g/kg diet) and a basal vE dose (E1), or diet (E2) as diet E1 but with gradually increasing vE dose (120/240 IU/kg diet fed between days 8–21 and days 22–36, respectively). The highest sensory quality and the lowest oxidative status of meat was found in the control chickens. FO decreased the sensory quality of the meat and increased lipid oxidation as well it had an impact on the lipid profile in muscle tissue (PUFA, n-3 ALA, EPA, DHA). Administration of a graded vE dose increased the sensory quality of the meat and did not limit lipid oxidation but maintained protein oxidation balance.

Parole chiave

  • vitamin E
  • n-3 fatty acid
  • lipid oxidation
  • protein oxidation
  • broiler chicken

Behavior, well-being, production technology, and environment

Accesso libero

Heat Load-Induced Changes in Lying Behavior and Lying Cubicle Occupancy of Lactating Dairy Cows in a Naturally Ventilated Barn

Pubblicato online: 28 Oct 2021
Pagine: 1543 - 1553

Astratto

Abstract

Dairy cows show a high sensitivity to changes in barn climate, which can result in physiological and ethological responses because of the homeostatic mechanisms to regulate the body temperature under heat load. The objective of this study was to analyze the lying behavior and occupancy of lying cubicles of lactating high-yielding Holstein-Friesian cows throughout the day during three summer months and three winter months. The study was conducted in summer 2016 and in winter 2016/17 in a naturally ventilated barn in Brandenburg, Germany. The determined temperaturehumidity index (THI) of the barn was calculated using the measured ambient temperature and relative humidity at eight locations inside the barn. The THI was used to define the heat load the cows were exposed to. The activity of the cows was measured with accelerometers, and a video recording was made to analyze the occupancy of the three rows of lying cubicles. The results indicated that increasing heat load led to a decrease in lying time; therefore, the daily lying time differed between summer and winter months. In addition, there were different patterns of lying behavior during the course of the day, depending on the season. A sharp decline in lying time could be observed especially in the afternoon hours during the summer. The occupancy of lying cubicles was also influenced by the heat load. The data could be helpful to enable evaluation with algorithms for early detection of heat load.

Parole chiave

  • dairy cow
  • temperature-humidity index
  • heat load
  • lying time
  • lying cubicle occupancy
Accesso libero

Behaviour, Hygiene, and Lameness of Dairy Cows in a Compost Barn During Cold Seasons in a Subtropical Climate

Pubblicato online: 28 Oct 2021
Pagine: 1555 - 1569

Astratto

Abstract

This study aimed to assess the thermal environment, behaviour, hygiene, and lameness in dairy cows with different numbers of lactations housed in a compost-bedded pack barn system in a humid subtropical climate during autumn and winter. Between April and July 2016, behavioural and microclimatic environment assessments were conducted in a compost barn system, and hygiene and lameness assessments were performed. Crossbred cows in lactation (n = 10) were divided into two groups according to the number of lactations: primiparous and multiparous. Air temperature, relative humidity, and air ventilation speed were measured at 09:00, 12:00, and 15:00. The cows’ hygiene and lameness were evaluated using subjective scores ranging from 1 to 4 and 1 to 5, respectively. The daytime behaviour assessment was performed as sampling 0/1, using the focal method. Primiparous cows showed a greater probability of walking (P<0.05) than multiparous cows between 09:20 and 11:20, and at 15:20, and increased the water intake at 14:00. Regarding the eating behaviour and the effect of time of day within each group (P<0.05), the cows ate more in the morning’s early hours. The cows’ hygiene scores were 1 or 2, and most cows presented scores of 1 or 2 for lameness. Our research has shown that microclimatic variables may influence the walking behaviour and water intake of primiparous cows during the hottest periods of the day, even during cold weather, in a humid subtropical climate. The dairy cows showed low hygiene and lameness scores, which indicates that the compost bar positively influenced cleanliness and locomotion comfort.

Parole chiave

  • confinement
  • crossbred cows
  • thermal environment
  • lameness and hygiene scores

Quality and safety of animal origin products

Accesso libero

The Effect of Catabolic Transformations of Proteins and Fats on the Quality and Nutritional Value of Raw Ripened Products from Zlotnicka Spotted and Zlotnicka White Meat

Pubblicato online: 28 Oct 2021
Pagine: 1571 - 1597

Astratto

Abstract

The aim of the study was to compare the advancement of the ripening as well as catabolic changes in proteins and fats of Zlotnicka Spotted (ZS) and Zlotnicka White (ZW) meat and their impact on the quality and nutritional value of ready-to-eat products. The meat of the breeds ZS and ZW differed not only in the basic chemical composition but also in the susceptibility to catabolic transformations of proteins and lipids, which translated into a separate technological and nutritional quality as well as the profile of volatile odor compounds. Loins due to their compact histological structure, low pH (5.4) and decreased water activity (0.92–0.93) were characterized by a lower number of coagulase-negative cocci (3.3 log cfu/g) compared to hams. The products of both breeds differed in the content of selected neutral glucogenic amino acids with a pI in the range of 5.6–6.1 mainly. The content of biogenic amines was therefore completely dependent on the metabolic potential of acidifying bacteria. Larger number of lactic acid bacilli (7.5–7.7 log cfu/g) and lactic acid cocci (7.9–8.3 log cfu/g), as well as a higher content of saturated (55.2–53.7%) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (6.4–7.0%) shaped the final pH of hams (5.3). Presence of aldehydes, ketones and alcohols indicated existing fat oxidation despite the small values of the TBA index of hams (1.1 mg/kg) and loins (0.4–0.6 mg/kg). The volatile compounds that differentiated products of ZS and ZW formed by the oxidation and microbial activity, were, primarily: octanal, 1-hydroxypropan- 2-one, 3-methylpentan-2-one, propane-1,2-diol, 2,5-dimethylfuran and 3-hydroxybutan- 2-one, butane-2,3-dione, butane-1,2-diol, respectively.

Parole chiave

  • Zlotnicka
  • meat
  • ripening
  • catabolism
  • chemical composition
23 Articoli

Review

Accesso libero

Effects of Addition of Exogenous Fibrolytic Enzymes on Digestibility and Milk and Meat Production – A Systematic Review

Pubblicato online: 28 Oct 2021
Pagine: 1159 - 1192

Astratto

Abstract

Exogenous fibrolytic enzymes (EFE) added to the ruminant diet can increase fiber digestibility and production efficiency. A systematic review was conducted to understand the interactions between EFE and diet on digestibility and animal performance. The database included variables from 384 experiments with EFE and 264 controls from 85 papers published since 2000 (classification criteria: 1) type of study (in vitro, in situ, in vivo), 2) type of ruminants (sheep, buffaloes, goats, beef and dairy cattle), 3) primary EFE activity (cellulases (Cel) or xylanases (Xyl)), 4) forage proportion (FP), 5) type of plant (TP: legumes or grasses), 6) number of ingredients in diets, and 7) application time (AT)). In over 52.85% of cases, EFE improved the degradability of dry matter (DMD), neutral and acid detergent fiber (NDFD and ADFD), in vitro gas production (GP), volatile fatty acids (VFA), the acetate: propionate ratio (A:P ratio), protein and fat milk, milk yield and average daily gain (ADG) (by 7.78–21.85%). Cel improved organic matter degradability (OMD), GP, VFA, milk yield, and milk protein and fat content. EFE in FP≥40% diets enhanced the ADG, and in grassbased diets increased the dry matter intake (DMI). The AT of EFE affected the DMD, NDFD, and ADFD. Significant correlations were found between the improvements of NDFD or ADFD with DMD (r>0.59), milk yield (r=0.64), and ADG (r=0.59). In conclusion, many factors interact with EFE supplementation effects, but EFE consistently enhanced the DMD, NDFD, and ADFD of ruminant diets, which are related to improvements in productive performance.

Parole chiave

  • exogenous enzymes
  • forage proportion
  • ruminal dynamics
  • animal performance
  • systematic review
Accesso libero

Ex Situ Conservation and Genetic Rescue of Endangered Polish Cattle and Pig Breeds with the Aid of Modern Reproductive Biotechnology – A Review

Pubblicato online: 28 Oct 2021
Pagine: 1193 - 1207

Astratto

Abstract

The development and optimization of reproductive biotechnology – specifically semen cryopreservation, spermatological diagnostics, and intraspecies cloning by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) – have become essential techniques to conserve the genetic resources and establish genetic reserves of endangered or vanishing native Polish livestock breeds. Moreover, this biotechnology is necessary for perpetuating biological diversity and enhancing genetic variability as well as for restoring and reintroducing breeds into anthropogenic agricultural ecosystems. On the one hand, the purpose of our paper is to interpret recent efforts aimed at the ex situ conservation of native cattle and pig breeds. On the other, it emphasizes the prominent role played by the National Research Institute of Animal Production (NRIAP) in maintaining biodiversity in agricultural environmental niches. Furthermore, our paper provides an overview of the conventional and modern strategies of the banking and cryopreservation of germplasm-carrier biological materials and somatic cell lines, spermatological diagnostics, and semen-based and SCNT-mediated assisted reproductive technologies (ART s). These are the most reliable and powerful tools for ex situ protection of the genetic resources of endangered breeds of livestock, especially cattle and pigs.

Parole chiave

  • livestock species/breeds
  • conservation
  • germplasm-carrier biological materials
  • assisted reproductive technologies
  • somatic cell cloning
Accesso libero

Freeze Drying as a Method of Long-Term Conservation of Mammalian Semen – A Review

Pubblicato online: 28 Oct 2021
Pagine: 1209 - 1234

Astratto

Abstract

With the development of biotechnological methods that allow the manipulation and free exchange of genetic material, the methods for collecting and storing such material need to be improved. To date, freezing in liquid nitrogen has allowed the storage of cells and entire plant and animal tissues for practically unlimited times. However, alternatives are still being sought to eliminate the constant need to maintain samples at a low temperature. Lyophilization or freeze drying is an alternative to standard freezing procedures. The storage of samples (lyophilisates) does not require specialised equipment but only refines the preservation method itself. In the case of cells capable of movement e.g., sperm, they lose the ability to reach the oocyte in vivo and for in vitro fertilization (IVF) because of the lyophilization process. However, freeze-dried sperm may be used for in vitro fertilization by intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), based on the results obtained in cleavage, embryo development and the production of live born offspring after embryo transfer. Studies on the lyophilization of sperm have been performed on many animal species, both in the laboratory and in livestock. This conservation method is considered to create biobanks for genetically valuable and endangered species with the simultaneous application of ICSI. This review article aimed to present the issues of the freeze-drying process of mammalian semen and help find solutions that will improve this technique of the long-term preservation of biological material.

Parole chiave

  • lyophilization
  • sperm
  • ICSI
  • mammalian
Accesso libero

The Welfare Status of Hens in Different Housing Systems – A Review

Pubblicato online: 28 Oct 2021
Pagine: 1235 - 1255

Astratto

Abstract

The currently used poultry farming methods, which aim to maximise economic profit, are based on ever new technological solutions that improve flock management and increase bird performance. However, they do not always meet the natural needs of birds. Every housing method and technological solution currently in use is faced with some issues, such as social stress, adverse temperature/ humidity conditions, risk of zoonoses, and behavioural pathologies, which determine poultry performance and welfare. Disregard for animal welfare involves not only ethical but also practical aspects, because well-being and housing comfort translate into better weight gains, health and productivity of the birds. The studies reported here suggest that every production system, despite the many welfare-improving aspects, causes numerous behavioural, productivity and health abnormalities in laying hens. Therefore, further research is needed to identify various risk factors for the purpose of improving housing systems and increasing the welfare of hens.

Parole chiave

  • laying hens
  • housing systems
  • welfare
  • behaviour
Accesso libero

3D Cell Culture Technology – A New Insight Into in Vitro Research – A Review

Pubblicato online: 28 Oct 2021
Pagine: 1257 - 1273

Astratto

Abstract

Most in vitro cell-based research is based on two-dimensional (2D) systems where growth and development take place on a flat surface, which does not reflect the natural environment of the cells. The imperfection and limitations of culture in 2D systems eventually led to the creation of three-dimensional (3D) culture models that more closely reproduce the actual conditions of physiological cell growth. Since the inception of 3D culture technology, many culture models have been developed, such as technologies of multicellular spheroids, organoids, and organs on chips in the technology of scaffolding, hydrogels, bio-printing and liquid media. In this review we will focus on the advantages and disadvantages of the 2D vs. 3D cell cultures technologies. We will also try to sum up available 3D culture systems and materials for building 3D scaffolds.

Parole chiave

  • cell culture models
  • 3D culture technology
  • 3D cell culture vs. 2D cell culture
  • hydrogels
  • scaffolds
Accesso libero

Role of Polyphenols in the Metabolism of the Skeletal System in Humans and Animals – A Review

Pubblicato online: 28 Oct 2021
Pagine: 1275 - 1300

Astratto

Abstract

Polyphenols are a group of compounds arousing enormous interest due to their multiple effects on both human and animal health and omnipresence in plants. A number of in vitro and animal model studies have shown that all polyphenols exhibit anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities, and play a significant role against oxidative stress-related pathologies. They also exert gut promotory effects and prevent chronic degenerative diseases. However, less attention has been paid to the potential influence of polyphenols on bone properties and metabolism. It is well known that proper growth and functioning of the organism depend largely on bone growth and health. Therefore, understanding the action of substances (including polyphenols) that may improve the health and functioning of the skeletal system and bone metabolism is extremely important for the health of the present and future generations of both humans and farm animals. This review provides a comprehensive summary of literature related to causes of bone loss during ageing of the organism (in both humans and animals) and possible effects of dietary polyphenols preventing bone loss and diseases. In particular, the underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms that can modulate skeletal homeostasis and influence the bone modeling and remodeling processes are presented.

Parole chiave

  • polyphenols
  • bone metabolism
  • bone health

Animal genetics and breeding

Accesso libero

Association Between ATP Citrate Lyase (ACLY) Gene Polymorphism and Fattening, Slaughter and Pork Quality Traits in Polish Pigs

Pubblicato online: 28 Oct 2021
Pagine: 1301 - 1313

Astratto

Abstract

The primary aim of this study was to estimate the relationship between ATP citrate lyase (ACLY) gene polymorphism (c.*523 T>C) and fattening and pork quality traits. Investigations were carried out on 526 pigs represented by three breeds: Polish Landrace (n=269), Polish Large White (n=189) and Puławska (n=68). ACLY genotypes were determined by PCR–RFLP method. It was demonstrated that the analyzed polymorphism had significant influence (P<0.05 and P≤0.01) on several economically important traits in pigs, e.g. average daily gain, average backfat thickness, lean meat percentage. The results obtained allow for application of c.*523 T>C polymorphism in breeding programs to improve the pig population in terms of fattening and slaughter traits. However, this breeding program may have a slight negative effect on meat texture parameters.

Parole chiave

  • pigs
  • ATP citrate lyase gene
  • gene polymorphism
  • fattening and slaughter traits
  • meat quality
Accesso libero

Polymorphism of OPN and AREG Genes in Relation to Transcript Expression of a Panel of 12 Genes Controlling Reproduction Processes and Litter Size in Pigs

Pubblicato online: 28 Oct 2021
Pagine: 1315 - 1346

Astratto

Abstract

The aim of this study was to define the transcript expression of 12 genes, identify new polymorphisms in selected 2 genes and to estimate the association between the level of expression, gene polymorphism and litter size in sows. Two groups of sows were selected: 71 crossbred sows and 328 purebred sows. For transcript analysis endometrial tissue samples were collected, while blood was sampled for the purpose of DNA polymorphism analysis. For all animals data on litter size and weaned piglets were obtained. Transcript analysis of 12 genes was performed in the uterine endometrium of sows in the luteal and follicular phases. Eight out of 12 genes showed higher mRNA expression levels during the luteal phase (AREG, FABP3, IL1A, ITGAV, ITGB3, NMB, OPN, RBP4). In turn, higher expression levels in the follicular phase were observed for 4 genes (IL1B, PPARG, S100A8, SELL). Analysis of six new polymorphic sites within the OPN and AREG genes revealed the highest heterozygosity for OPNe6_Knoll, OPNp3_617 and AREGe2_317 polymorphisms and the lowest heterozygosity in the AREGe3_561 locus. Association analyses concerning transcript expression levels of the 12 genes and the OPN and AREG genotypes in the two groups of sows showed a significant relationship between the IL1A, ITGB3 transcript expression and the OPNe7_603 genotype also between OPNp3_617 genotype and ITGB3 transcript expression. With regard to the litter size and the number of weaned piglets a significant relation with the OPNp3_617, OPNe6_462 and AREGe2_317 genotypes was observed only in the purebred sows. Transcript expression of the genes encoding osteopontin and amphiregulin in the uterus of the sows affect reproductive traits by preparing the uterus for embryo reception.

Parole chiave

  • pigs
  • gene polymorphism
  • gene expression
  • reproduction
Accesso libero

Temporal Trends in Performance and Hatchability Traits of Eight Strains of Hens Covered by the Gene Pool Protection Programme in Poland

Pubblicato online: 28 Oct 2021
Pagine: 1347 - 1366

Astratto

Abstract

The aim of the study was to determine trends in performance and hatchability traits of eight strains of hens that have been covered by the gene pool protection programme in Poland over ten years/generations. The study involved conservation populations of laying hens: Greenleg Partridge (Z-11), Yellowleg Partridge (Ż-33), Sussex (S-66), Leghorn (H-22, G99), Rhode Island Red (R-11, K-22) and Rhode Island White (A-33), which were maintained at the Experimental Station of the National Research Institute of Animal Production in Chorzelów. The following productive traits were analysed for each population: body weight at 20 wk (g), egg weight at 33 and 53 wk, sexual maturity and number of eggs laid per hen up to 56 wk of age. Mortality and culling were also recorded during rearing and production periods. Furthermore, effective population size (Ne) and inbreeding coefficient in the population (Fx) were calculated for each strain. The analysis of the performance results of the eight strains of hens and their trends indicate that the methods of conservation breeding adopted for these populations enable effective implementation of the conservation programme. The strains were found to differ in all the performance traits subjected to evaluation. Over the 10 generations, the strains examined showed high survival and hatchability parameters during both rearing and production periods. The currently used random mating system proved effective to prevent the populations from an increase of inbreeding. However, a worrying downward trend in body weight was observed in some strains.

Parole chiave

  • laying hens
  • biodiversity
  • health
  • productivity

The biology, physiology, reproduction, and health

Accesso libero

Application of High Hydrostatic Pressure (HHP) to Improve Cryopreservation of Young Bull Semen

Pubblicato online: 28 Oct 2021
Pagine: 1367 - 1375

Astratto

Abstract

The objective of the study was to determine the effect of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) on quality of cryopreserved semen of young bulls. Semen for this study was collected from 8 bulls aged between 13 and 18 months at monthly intervals, from June to September. After collection, semen was diluted in a commercial Bioxcell® extender (one part at 1:1 and a second part to give a sperm concentration of 20 million/0.2 mL), filled into straws and treated with HHP at 30 MPa for 90 min. After HHP treatment, pre-diluted semen (1:1) was diluted to a sperm concentration 20 million/0.2 mL and filled into straws. In addition, part of the semen diluted to a concentration of 20 million/0.2 mL was not treated with HHP (control). All of it was held at +4°C and frozen in a freezer after 2.5-h equilibration. Semen was thawed in a water bath at 38°C and subjected to estimation of the percentage of motile sperm both subjectively and using a computer-assisted semen analyzer and cytometric assessment of sperm cell membrane integrity. Subjective motility and fast progressive motility were significantly higher with pre-diluted (1:1) and HHP treated semen compared to control (P<0.05). No significant differences were observed in percentage of membraneintact spermatozoa between control and experimental groups. Additionally, the influence of HHP on the sperm of individual bulls was assessed. In bull number 2, the HHP treatment after semen pre-dilution significantly improved progressive motility from 54.1 to 63.4 percent (P<0.05). In bull number 4, the HHP treatment after semen pre-dilution significantly improved subjective motility, rapid motility and progressive motility by 12.5, 16.8 and 16.3 percent, respectively (P<0.05). No effect was seen for 6 bulls. It is concluded that for some bulls, the application of HHP before semen freezing may improve the cryopreservation outcome. However, this requires further research in this area, also to determine the fertilizing capacity of bull semen exposed to high hydrostatic pressure.

Parole chiave

  • young bull
  • frozen semen
  • hydrostatic pressure
  • motility
  • membrane integrity
Accesso libero

Attenuative Role of Idebenone on Deltamethrin Mediated Peroxidative Toxicity of Ram Semen Stored at 4°C

Pubblicato online: 28 Oct 2021
Pagine: 1377 - 1392

Astratto

Abstract

The current study was conducted to evaluate the different concentrations of deltamethrin (DEL; Exp. 1) and the protective role of idebenone (IDB) supplemented with toxic dose of deltamethrin (Exp. 2) during chilled storage of ram semen. Collected samples were pooled and diluted at 500×106 spermatozoa per mL. In Exp. 1, effect of DEL at 1, 2.5, 5, 10, 20, 40, 80 μM levels was evaluated on different variables of spermatozoa motion characteristics. In Exp. 2, different amounts of IDB (2, 4, and 8 μM) concurrent with constant doses of DEL (10 μM) were examined on semen quality upon chilled preservation up to 72 h. Indices of spermatozoa kinematics, functionality of plasma membrane and viability were recorded. Biochemical metabolites were measured in spermatozoa and its medium (extender) at different time points. In Exp. 1, different parameters of spermatozoa kinematics were affected by exposure to DEL in a dose dependent manner. In Exp. 2, combination of IDB with DEL resulted in a significant (P<0.05) increase in total motility, forward progressive motility and curvilinear path velocity compared to DEL group at 24, 48 and 72 h. Simultaneous administration of IDB with DEL increased the percentage of spermatozoa with functional membrane and viability compared to DEL group at 72 h (P<0.05). The amounts of lipid peroxidation index were lower in medium of combination groups compared to DEL group at 48 h and 72 h (P<0.05). Antioxidant capacity was higher in spermatozoa and medium of IDB treated groups compared to DEL group at 72 h (P<0.05). Amounts of total nitrate-nitrite and superoxide dismutase activity of spermatozoa and medium were not affected by treatment (P>0.05). In conclusion, IDB could ameliorate oxidative and peroxidative damages induced by DEL mild toxicity upon cold preservation of ram semen.

Parole chiave

  • deltamethrin
  • idebenone
  • ram spermatozoa
  • lipid peroxidation
Accesso libero

Sex Dependent Action of Aroclor 1254 on Basal and sGnRHa-Stimulated Secretion of LH from the Pituitary Cells of Common Carp, Cyprinus carpio L.

Pubblicato online: 28 Oct 2021
Pagine: 1393 - 1402

Astratto

Abstract

Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) affect the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis in many vertebrates, changing the hormonal regulation of reproduction. To identify one of the possible sites of action of PCBs on gonadotropin release in common carp, the direct effects of Aroclor 1254 on luteinizing hormone (LH) secretion from dispersed pituitary cells were investigated. Pituitary cells were obtained from sexually mature male and female common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) at the time of natural spawning. The cells were incubated with different concentrations of Aroclor 1254 (5, 10, 50 and 100 ng mL–1 medium) and/or salmon gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogue (sGnRHa) at a concentration of 10−8 M. LH levels were measured in the cultured medium by the ELISA method after 10 hours of cell incubation. Incubation of male pituitary cells in the presence of tested concentrations of Aroclor did not change the basal LH secretion to the media. In the female pituitary cell incubations Aroclor (5, 10 and 100 ng mL–1 medium) caused a significant increase in LH concentrations in comparison to control incubations. In the case of sGnRHastimulated LH secretion in incubations of cells of both sexes, all the concentrations of Aroclor significantly stimulated LH release and potentiated stimulatory effects of sGnRH analogue. These results indicate that endocrine disrupters, such as Aroclor 1254, may affect reproduction in fish, acting also directly on gonadotrophs at the level of the pituitary gland, changing LH secretion.

Parole chiave

  • polychlorinated biphenyls
  • fish
  • cyprinids
  • gonadotropin releasing hormone
  • luteinizing hormone
Accesso libero

Effect of Chemically-Induced Diabetes Mellitus on Phenotypic Variability of the Enteric Neurons in the Descending Colon in the Pig

Pubblicato online: 28 Oct 2021
Pagine: 1403 - 1422

Astratto

Abstract

Gastrointestinal neuropathy in diabetes is one of numerous diseases resulting in abnormal functioning of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT), and it may affect any section of the GIT, including the descending colon. In the gastrointestinal system, the neurons are arranged in an interconnecting network defined as the enteric nervous system (ENS) which includes the myenteric plexus and the submucosal plexuses: inner and outer. Regular functioning of the ENS is determined by normal synthesis of the neurotransmitters and neuromodulators. This paper demonstrates the effect of hyperglycaemia on the number of enteric neurons which are immunoreactive to: neural isoform of nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), galanin (GAL), calcitonin generelated peptide (CGRP) and cocaine amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) in the porcine descending colon. It was demonstrated that there was a statistically significant increase in the number of neurons within the myenteric plexus immunoreactive to all investigated substances. In the outer submucosal plexus, the CART-positive neurons were the only ones not to change, whereas no changes were recorded for nNOS or CART in the inner submucosal plexus. This study is the first study to discuss quantitative changes in the neurons immunoreactive to nNOS, VIP, GAL, CGRP and CART in the descending colon in diabetic pigs.

Parole chiave

  • chemical encoding
  • neurotransmitters
  • diabetes
  • descending colon
  • pig

Animal nutrition, and feedstuffs

Accesso libero

Saccharomyces cerevisiae Enhanced the Growth, Immune and Antioxidative Responses of European Seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax)

Pubblicato online: 28 Oct 2021
Pagine: 1423 - 1433

Astratto

Abstract

The concept of probiotics is widely applied in the field of aquaculture for their beneficial and friendly influences. In this sense, the role of Saccharomyces cerevisiae on the growth, immune and antioxidative responses of European seabass was tested in this study. Fish were distributed in 3 groups (triplicates) with ten fish in each replicate and fed 0, 1, and 2 g/kg of S. cerevisiae (15×109 CFU/g) for 90 days. Fish fed S. cerevisiae showed higher final body, weight gain, and specific growth rate as well as lower FCR than fish fed the basal diet (P<0.05). The RBCs, WBCs, Hb, and PCV values were increased in fish fed dietary S. cerevisiae when compared to the control (P<0.05). The blood total protein, albumin, and globulin were higher in fish fed S. cerevisiae than the control (P<0.05). Fish fed dietary S. cerevisiae had enhanced phagocytic index, phagocytic, and lysozyme activity comparing the control. In a similar sense, the antioxidative enzymes (SOD, GPx, and CAT) were higher in fish fed S. cerevisiae than the control (P<0.05). However, the level of MDA was lowered (P<0.05) by S. cerevisiae in European seabass. Gene expression of IL-8, IL-1β, GH, and IGF-1 was upregulated and HSP70 was downregulated by S. cerevisiae (P<0.05). It can be concluded that European seabass fed S. cerevisiae at 1–2 g/kg (15×109 CFU/g) diet had markedly enhanced growth, haemato-biochemical, and immune performances.

Parole chiave

  • European seabass
  • probiotics
  • growth performance
  • immunity
  • stress resistance
Accesso libero

The Effect of Adding Molasses in Different Times on Performance of Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) Raised in a Low-Salinity Biofloc System

Pubblicato online: 28 Oct 2021
Pagine: 1435 - 1454

Astratto

Abstract

This study aimed to evaluate the effect of adding molasses in different times on water quality, growth performance, body biochemical composition, digestive and hepatic enzymes of Nile tilapia in the biofloc system. Tilapia fingerlings (1.53 ± 0.14 g) were distributed in five treatments including control, BFT24 (adding molasses to the tanks every 24 h), BFT48 (48 h), BFT72 (72 h), and BFT96 (96 h) and reared for 37 days in fiberglass tanks (130 L), with a stocking density of one fish per litre. The results showed that highest increases in biomass (740.12 g) and survival (98.97%) were obtained in BFT24 treatment (P<0.05). The body composition was affected by the experimental treatments so that the highest protein content was obtained in the BFT72 (P<0.05). Digestive enzymes activities were significantly (P<0.05) higher in BFT treatments than the control group. The current study showed higher biomass and survival ratio for Nile tilapia were observed in BFT24 treatment. The liver and digestive enzymes of Nile tilapia were affected by the different addition times of molasses to the rearing tanks.

Parole chiave

  • Nile tilapia
  • biofloc
  • molasses
  • growth performance
  • liver and digestive enzymes
Accesso libero

The Influence of a Diet Supplemented with 20% Rye and Xylanase in Different Housing Systems on the Occurrence of Pathogenic Bacteria in Broiler Chickens

Pubblicato online: 28 Oct 2021
Pagine: 1455 - 1473

Astratto

Abstract

Sanitary conditions and diet are important elements determining the occurrence of pathogens in animals. The aim of the research was to assess the effect of an experimental diet with rye and xylanase for broiler chickens in cages and in a free-range system on the intestinal microbiome. The study was carried out in two experimental stages, the first on 224 1-d-old male Ross 308 chickens with an initial weight of 41 g, and the second on 2000 1-d-old male chickens with an initial weight of 42 g. All birds were reared to 42 d of age and fed crumbled starter (1 to 21 d) and pelleted grower–finisher (22 to 42 d) isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets, supplemented with 20% rye and/or 200 mg/kg xylanase. Directly after slaughter, bacteria were isolated from the cloaca of birds and identified using classical microbiological methods and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. The antibiotic susceptibility of the bacteria was assessed by the disc diffusion method. The study showed the presence of abundant bacteria in the gut microbiome of chickens kept in both housing systems. The most frequently isolated bacteria were Escherichia coli, Enterococcus spp., Proteus spp., Campylobacter spp., and Staphylococcus spp. Antibiotic resistance was significantly higher in E. coli, Proteus spp., and Campylobacter spp. obtained from chickens from the free-range farm, but in the case of Enterococcus and Staphylococcus, resistance was higher in bacteria from caged birds. The high antibiotic resistance among pathogens of the gastrointestinal tract necessitates the search for means to control the microbiome in favour of beneficial bacteria. The significant influence of rye and xylanase on the bacterial content may be the basis for the introduction of this method to support the control of pathogens.

Parole chiave

  • microbiota
  • bacteria
  • feeding
  • broiler chickens
  • xylanase
  • rye
Accesso libero

Effect of Dietary Supplementation with Dried Tuber of Jerusalem Artichoke on Skatole Level in Backfat and CYP2E1 mRNA Expression in Liver of Boars

Pubblicato online: 28 Oct 2021
Pagine: 1475 - 1489

Astratto

Abstract

The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of diets containing different levels of dried tuber of Jerusalem artichoke, Helianthus tuberosus, on skatole levels in backfat and on the CYP2E1 mRNA expression in the liver of commercial crossbred pigs. A total of 23 uncastrated male pigs from 10 litters of a commercial crossbred population of Large White × (Landrace × Large White), were used in this study. Boars were randomly divided into four different dietary treatment groups – a control group (K1; 5 boars; without supplementation of Jerusalem artichoke) and three experimental groups (6 boars each) that were fed with the diet containing different levels of dried Jerusalem artichoke (K2 – 4.1%; K3 – 8.2%; K4 – 12.2%) for 14 days before slaughter. Significant effects of diet on skatole levels were observed between the control group and the experimental groups (P = 0.0078). The lowest level of skatole was in the K3 group with 8.2% of Jerusalem artichoke. As for CYP2E1, a negative correlation was observed between the levels of skatole and CYP2E1 mRNA expression. Significant effect (P = 0.0055) was found in all experimental groups compared to the K1 group, and most pronounced in the K2 and K3 groups. The supplementation with Jerusalem artichoke resulted in lower level of skatole and higher CYP2E1 mRNA expression. The results suggest that affecting the expression of CYP2E1 by feed supplements could be an option to effectively reduce the levels of skatole in adipose tissue of entire male pigs.

Parole chiave

  • pig
  • boar taint
  • nutrition
  • RT -qPCR
Accesso libero

Partial Replacement of Concentrate with Olive Cake in Different forms in the Diet of Lactating Barki Ewes Affects the Lactational Performance and Feed Utilization

Pubblicato online: 28 Oct 2021
Pagine: 1491 - 1509

Astratto

Abstract

The present experiment aimed to evaluate the inclusion of dried olive cake treated or untreated with fibrolytic enzyme, partially replacing concentrates in the diet of ewes. Forty lactating Barki ewes, weighing 37.1 ± 4.0 kg, were assigned into four treatments (n=10) in a complete randomized design for 9 weeks. Ewes were stratified according to parity (2 ± 1 parity) and previous milk production (615 ± 11 g/d). The control diet consisted of concentrates and corn fodder at 60:40, respectively. For the experimental diets, 30% of the concentrates was replaced with dried olive cake (DOC treatment), olive cake silage (SOC treatment) or olive cake silage treated with fibrolytic enzymes (ESOC treatment). Without affecting intake, DOC, SOC and ESOC diets enhanced (P<0.05) dry matter, organic matter and non-structural carbohydrate digestibility; however, ESOC diets increased (P<0.05) neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber digestibility. Additionally, DOC, SOC and ESOC diets increased (P<0.05) ruminal total volatile fatty acids, acetate and propionate without affecting ruminal pH and ammonia-N concentration. The ESOC diet increased serum glucose concentration (P=0.019). Both of SOC and ESOC diets increased (P<0.05) daily milk production and energy corrected milk as well as milk fat concentration (P=0.028). All of DOC, SOC and ESOC increased (P<0.05) feed (milk) efficiency compared with the control diet. It is concluded that 30% of concentrates can be replaced with olive cake without negative effects on performance but with better performance when olive cake was ensiled with or without fibrolytic enzymes.

Parole chiave

  • agricultural byproducts
  • digestibility
  • fibrolytic enzymes
  • lactational performance
  • olive cake
  • ruminal fermentation
Accesso libero

The Effect of Adding Herbal Extracts to Drinking Water on Body Temperature, Level of Thyroid Hormones and H:L Ratio in the Blood of Broiler Chickens Exposed to Elevated Ambient Temperature

Pubblicato online: 28 Oct 2021
Pagine: 1511 - 1522

Astratto

Abstract

The aim of the study was to determine the effect of supplementing drinking water with extracts from lemon balm, sage and nettle on body temperature, level of thyroid hormones and the heterophil to lymphocyte (H:L) ratio in the blood of broiler chickens exposed to elevated rearing temperature. One-day-old Ross 308 chicks were divided into four groups: group I (CON) and experimental groups II (LB), II (S) and IV (N), in which, from 22 to 42 days of rearing, drinkers were supplemented with lemon balm extract, sage extract or nettle extract (2 ml/l water), respectively. In addition, at 5 weeks of growth, all the groups were exposed to elevated ambient temperature (up to 30°C) for 5 days, after which the recommended thermal conditions were reinstated. During the study, mortality, rectal temperature and radiated temperature of the broilers were monitored. Blood was collected from 10 birds per group to determine the concentration of thyroid hormones (T3 and T4) and to make blood smears. The H:L ratio was determined based on the percentage of heterophils (H) and lymphocytes (L). The herbal extracts from lemon balm, sage and nettle, added to drinking water at 2 ml/l, reduced the blood level of the thyroid hormone (triiodothyronine) and rectal temperature in the experimental broilers during the initial period of thermal stress. Chickens receiving the nettle extract were also characterised by lower radiated temperature of the unfeathered body, a lower H:L ratio in the blood during the increase in ambient temperature, and the lowest mortality percentage. It can therefore be considered that the dietary supplementation of nettle, in the form and concentration used in this study, had the most favourable effect on the physiological status of the birds (body temperature, level of thyroid hormones and H:L ratio) exposed to elevated ambient temperatures (30°C), and thus on their welfare.

Parole chiave

  • herbal extracts
  • elevated ambient temperature
  • physiological indicators
  • broiler chickens
Accesso libero

Gradually Increasing Vitamin E Dose Allows Increasing Dietary Polyunsaturation Level While Maintaining the Oxidation Status of Lipids and Proteins in Chicken Breast Muscle

Pubblicato online: 28 Oct 2021
Pagine: 1523 - 1541

Astratto

Abstract

Feeding broilers diets high in n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) increases their incorporation into the meat but it may compromise meat quality due to oxidation of lipids and protein. Increased dietary vitamin E (vE) level downregulates this process, but its excessive level might exceed the physiological requirements for the maintenance of redox balance. This study investigated the sensory characteristics and oxidative status of meat from chickens fed diets supplemented with fish oil (FO) with or without gradually increasing doses of vE. The meat samples were obtained from a total of 27 female broilers of Ross 308 strain (9 birds per each of 3 dietary treatments), which were housed according to the standard management practice for commercial chicken houses over a period of 36 days. Chickens were fed diets containing 80 g/kg of supplemental fat, but the diets differed in fat composition; control diet (80 g/kg diet beef tallow as supplemental fat and a basal vE dose); 40 IU of dl-α-tocopheryl acetate; diet containing mixture of FO and beef tallow as supplemental fat (50:30 w/w g/kg diet) and a basal vE dose (E1), or diet (E2) as diet E1 but with gradually increasing vE dose (120/240 IU/kg diet fed between days 8–21 and days 22–36, respectively). The highest sensory quality and the lowest oxidative status of meat was found in the control chickens. FO decreased the sensory quality of the meat and increased lipid oxidation as well it had an impact on the lipid profile in muscle tissue (PUFA, n-3 ALA, EPA, DHA). Administration of a graded vE dose increased the sensory quality of the meat and did not limit lipid oxidation but maintained protein oxidation balance.

Parole chiave

  • vitamin E
  • n-3 fatty acid
  • lipid oxidation
  • protein oxidation
  • broiler chicken

Behavior, well-being, production technology, and environment

Accesso libero

Heat Load-Induced Changes in Lying Behavior and Lying Cubicle Occupancy of Lactating Dairy Cows in a Naturally Ventilated Barn

Pubblicato online: 28 Oct 2021
Pagine: 1543 - 1553

Astratto

Abstract

Dairy cows show a high sensitivity to changes in barn climate, which can result in physiological and ethological responses because of the homeostatic mechanisms to regulate the body temperature under heat load. The objective of this study was to analyze the lying behavior and occupancy of lying cubicles of lactating high-yielding Holstein-Friesian cows throughout the day during three summer months and three winter months. The study was conducted in summer 2016 and in winter 2016/17 in a naturally ventilated barn in Brandenburg, Germany. The determined temperaturehumidity index (THI) of the barn was calculated using the measured ambient temperature and relative humidity at eight locations inside the barn. The THI was used to define the heat load the cows were exposed to. The activity of the cows was measured with accelerometers, and a video recording was made to analyze the occupancy of the three rows of lying cubicles. The results indicated that increasing heat load led to a decrease in lying time; therefore, the daily lying time differed between summer and winter months. In addition, there were different patterns of lying behavior during the course of the day, depending on the season. A sharp decline in lying time could be observed especially in the afternoon hours during the summer. The occupancy of lying cubicles was also influenced by the heat load. The data could be helpful to enable evaluation with algorithms for early detection of heat load.

Parole chiave

  • dairy cow
  • temperature-humidity index
  • heat load
  • lying time
  • lying cubicle occupancy
Accesso libero

Behaviour, Hygiene, and Lameness of Dairy Cows in a Compost Barn During Cold Seasons in a Subtropical Climate

Pubblicato online: 28 Oct 2021
Pagine: 1555 - 1569

Astratto

Abstract

This study aimed to assess the thermal environment, behaviour, hygiene, and lameness in dairy cows with different numbers of lactations housed in a compost-bedded pack barn system in a humid subtropical climate during autumn and winter. Between April and July 2016, behavioural and microclimatic environment assessments were conducted in a compost barn system, and hygiene and lameness assessments were performed. Crossbred cows in lactation (n = 10) were divided into two groups according to the number of lactations: primiparous and multiparous. Air temperature, relative humidity, and air ventilation speed were measured at 09:00, 12:00, and 15:00. The cows’ hygiene and lameness were evaluated using subjective scores ranging from 1 to 4 and 1 to 5, respectively. The daytime behaviour assessment was performed as sampling 0/1, using the focal method. Primiparous cows showed a greater probability of walking (P<0.05) than multiparous cows between 09:20 and 11:20, and at 15:20, and increased the water intake at 14:00. Regarding the eating behaviour and the effect of time of day within each group (P<0.05), the cows ate more in the morning’s early hours. The cows’ hygiene scores were 1 or 2, and most cows presented scores of 1 or 2 for lameness. Our research has shown that microclimatic variables may influence the walking behaviour and water intake of primiparous cows during the hottest periods of the day, even during cold weather, in a humid subtropical climate. The dairy cows showed low hygiene and lameness scores, which indicates that the compost bar positively influenced cleanliness and locomotion comfort.

Parole chiave

  • confinement
  • crossbred cows
  • thermal environment
  • lameness and hygiene scores

Quality and safety of animal origin products

Accesso libero

The Effect of Catabolic Transformations of Proteins and Fats on the Quality and Nutritional Value of Raw Ripened Products from Zlotnicka Spotted and Zlotnicka White Meat

Pubblicato online: 28 Oct 2021
Pagine: 1571 - 1597

Astratto

Abstract

The aim of the study was to compare the advancement of the ripening as well as catabolic changes in proteins and fats of Zlotnicka Spotted (ZS) and Zlotnicka White (ZW) meat and their impact on the quality and nutritional value of ready-to-eat products. The meat of the breeds ZS and ZW differed not only in the basic chemical composition but also in the susceptibility to catabolic transformations of proteins and lipids, which translated into a separate technological and nutritional quality as well as the profile of volatile odor compounds. Loins due to their compact histological structure, low pH (5.4) and decreased water activity (0.92–0.93) were characterized by a lower number of coagulase-negative cocci (3.3 log cfu/g) compared to hams. The products of both breeds differed in the content of selected neutral glucogenic amino acids with a pI in the range of 5.6–6.1 mainly. The content of biogenic amines was therefore completely dependent on the metabolic potential of acidifying bacteria. Larger number of lactic acid bacilli (7.5–7.7 log cfu/g) and lactic acid cocci (7.9–8.3 log cfu/g), as well as a higher content of saturated (55.2–53.7%) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (6.4–7.0%) shaped the final pH of hams (5.3). Presence of aldehydes, ketones and alcohols indicated existing fat oxidation despite the small values of the TBA index of hams (1.1 mg/kg) and loins (0.4–0.6 mg/kg). The volatile compounds that differentiated products of ZS and ZW formed by the oxidation and microbial activity, were, primarily: octanal, 1-hydroxypropan- 2-one, 3-methylpentan-2-one, propane-1,2-diol, 2,5-dimethylfuran and 3-hydroxybutan- 2-one, butane-2,3-dione, butane-1,2-diol, respectively.

Parole chiave

  • Zlotnicka
  • meat
  • ripening
  • catabolism
  • chemical composition

Pianifica la tua conferenza remota con Sciendo