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Informacje o czasopiśmie
Format
Czasopismo
eISSN
2719-9509
Pierwsze wydanie
01 Jan 1992
Częstotliwość wydawania
4 razy w roku
Języki
Angielski

Wyszukiwanie

Tom 26 (2014): Zeszyt 4 (December 2014)

Informacje o czasopiśmie
Format
Czasopismo
eISSN
2719-9509
Pierwsze wydanie
01 Jan 1992
Częstotliwość wydawania
4 razy w roku
Języki
Angielski

Wyszukiwanie

7 Artykułów
Otwarty dostęp

Editors’ Note

Data publikacji: 31 Jan 2015
Zakres stron: 133 - 133

Abstrakt

Otwarty dostęp

Dr. DeWitt T. Gooden III, Recipient of the 2013 Tobacco Science Research Conference Lifetime Achievement Award

Data publikacji: 31 Jan 2015
Zakres stron: 134 - 135

Abstrakt

Otwarty dostęp

Dr. Michael W. Ogden, Recipient of the 2014 Tobacco Science Research Conference Lifetime Achievement Award

Data publikacji: 31 Jan 2015
Zakres stron: 136 - 137

Abstrakt

Otwarty dostęp

Influence of Machine-Derived Smoke Yields on Biomarker of Exposure (BOE) Levels in Cigarette Smokers*

Data publikacji: 31 Jan 2015
Zakres stron: 138 - 175

Abstrakt

Abstract

Individual uptake of tobacco smoke constituents by smoking is highly variable in cigarette smokers and cannot be predicted by smoking behaviour variables and machine-derived smoke yields. It is well established that uptake of smoke constituents is best described by a series of bio-markers of exposure (BOEs) such as metabolites of nico-tine, tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNAs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), aromatic amines, benzene, 1,3-butadiene, acrolein, hydrogen cyanide, 2,5-dimethyl-furan and other smoke constituents.

The purpose of this review is to investigate the relationship between BOE levels and machine-derived smoking yields on the basis of published data. The influence of other smoking behaviour variables, in particular the number of cigarettes smoked per day (CPD) and smoking topography (puffing and inhalation patterns) is also considered, pro-vided suitable data are available.

Twenty eight (28) published studies, which report data on machine-derived smoke yields and biomarker concentrations in body fluids of smokers of these products were identified. In total, 33 different BOEs were applied in these studies. Important properties of the BOEs used in the further evaluation were described and discussed. In almost all studies selected, data for CPD were reported. In only a few studies, puffing and inhalation profiles have been determined so that no systematic evaluation of the association between smoking topography and BOE levels was possible. In the studies evaluated, no statistically significant association between daily cigarette consumption (CPD) and smoke yields was observed. This clearly indicates that low machine-derived yields were not com-pensated by increasing the daily cigarette consumption. As expected, positive and statistically significant relationships were found between CPD and BOE levels for most of the biomarkers investigated.

Bi- and multivariate linear regressions were calculated for the relationships between BOE levels (dependent variable) and machine-derived yields as well as CPD (independent variables). Whenever possible, results from various studies were combined (this was only possible, when identical biomarkers and yield types were available). Aggregation of the results from all studies independent of BOE and yield type used is feasible on the basis of relative BOE and yield levels. The multivariate linear regression models obtained reveal that both CPD and machine-derived yields are significant predictors of the measured BOE levels. The models predict that, on average, a 50% reduction in CPD or yield are accompanied by a 33 or 15% reduction, respectively, in smoke uptake, as measured by various BOEs. Taken together, the evaluated data from the literature show that lower machine-derived yields lead to a reduced uptake of smoke constituents. The reduction is statistically significant, but substantially lower than the decrease in machine-derived yields. [Beitr. Tabakforsch. Int. 26 (2014) 138-175]

Otwarty dostęp

Application of Triethyl Citrate to Filters in Virginia Type Cigarettes*

Data publikacji: 31 Jan 2015
Zakres stron: 176 - 182

Abstrakt

Abstract

Triethyl citrate (TEC) was applied in the preparation of cigarette filter rods by two approaches. One was to utilize TEC as a plasticizer sprayed onto the surface of cellulose acetate (CA) fibers. The other was to apply TEC as an additive coated onto the cellulosic paper of acetate-paper dual filters. Three types of cigarette filter rods, namely, triethyl citrate-cellulose acetate (TEC-CA) filter rods, triethyl citrate-cellulose acetate-paper (TEC-CA-paper) dual filter rods and cellulose acetate-paper-triethyl citrate (CA-paper-TEC) dual filter rods, were manufactured. In order to promote the curing of CA rods, high-frequency radiation was introduced into the procedure of filter manufacture. Then Virginia type cigarettes, combined with the three kinds of prepared filter rods were manufactured and the removal efficiency of phenols from the cigarette mainstream smoke was investigated. The results revealed that no matter where the triethyl citrate was applied as plasticizer or coating additive, the content of phenol, o-, m-and p-cresol in cigarette mainstream smoke could be greatly reduced. The optimal removal efficiency for phenol was 50% compared with the control. [Beitr. Tabakforsch. Int. 26 (2014) 176-182]

Key words:

  • Triethyl citrate
  • cellulose acetate filter rod
  • plasticizer
  • acetate-paper dual filter rod
  • Virginia type cigarette
Otwarty dostęp

Particle Size Distribution of E-Cigarette Aerosols and the Relationship to Cambridge Filter Pad Collection Efficiency

Data publikacji: 31 Jan 2015
Zakres stron: 183 - 190

Abstrakt

Abstract

The relatively volatile nature of the particulate matter fraction of e-cigarette aerosols presents an experimental challenge with regard to particle size distribution measure-ments. This is particularly true for instruments requiring a high degree of aerosol dilution. This was illustrated in a previous study, where average particle diameters in the 10-50 nm range were determined by a high-dilution, electrical mobility method. Total particulate matter (TPM) masses calculated based on those diameters were orders of magnitude smaller than gravimetrically determined TPM. This discrepancy was believed to result from almost complete particle evaporation at the dilution levels of the electrical mobility analysis. The same study described a spectral transmission measurement of e-cigarette particle size in an undiluted state, and reported particles from 210-380 nm count median diameter. Observed particle number concentrations were in the 109 particles/cm3 range. Additional particle size measurements described here also found e-cigarette particle size to be in the 260-320 nm count median diameter range. Cambridge filter pads have been used for decades to determine TPM yields of tobacco burning cigarettes, and collection of e-cigarette TPM by fibrous filters is predicted to be a highly efficient process over a wide range of filtration flow rates. The results presented in this work provide support for this hypothesis.

Described here is a study in which e-cigarette aerosols were collected on Cambridge filters with adsorbent traps placed downstream in an effort to capture any material passing through the filter. Amounts of glycerin, propylene glycol, nicotine, and water were quantified on the filter and downstream trap. Glycerin, propylene glycol, and nicotine were effciently captured (> 98%) by the upstream Cambridge filter, and a correlation was observed between filtration efficiency and the partial vapor pressure of each component. The present analysis was largely inconclusive with regard to filter efficiency and particle-vapor partitioning of water. [Beitr. Tabakforsch. Int. 26 (2014) 183-190]

Key words:

  • Electronic cigarette
  • aerosol
  • particle size
  • filtration efficiency
Otwarty dostęp

Effect of Machine Smoking Intensity and Filter Ventilation Level on Gas-Phase Temperature Distribution Inside a Burning Cigarette

Data publikacji: 31 Jan 2015
Zakres stron: 191 - 203

Abstrakt

Abstract

Accurate measurements of cigarette coal temperature are essential to understand the thermophysical and thermo-chemical processes in a burning cigarette. The last system-atic studies of cigarette burning temperature measurements were conducted in the mid-1970s. Contemporary cigarettes have evolved in design features and multiple standard machine-smoking regimes have also become available, hence there is a need to re-examine cigarette combustion. In this work, we performed systematic measurements on gas-phase temperature of burning cigarettes using an improved fine thermocouple technique. The effects of machine-smoking parameters (puff volume and puff duration) and filter ventilation levels were studied with high spatial and time resolutions during single puffs. The experimental results were presented in a number of differ-ent ways to highlight the dynamic and complex thermal processes inside a burning coal. A mathematical distribution equation was used to fit the experimental temperature data. Extracting and plotting the distribution parameters against puffing time revealed complex temperature profiles under different coal volume as a function of puffing intensities or filter ventilation levels. By dividing the coal volume prior to puffing into three temperature ranges (low-temperature from 200 to 400 °C, medium-temperature from 400 to 600 °C, and high-temperature volume above 600 °C) by following their development at different smoking regimes, useful mechanistic details were obtained. Finally, direct visualisation of the gas-phase temperature through detailed temperature and temperature gradient contour maps provided further insights into the complex thermo-physics of the burning coal. [Beitr. Tabakforsch. Int. 26 (2014) 191-203]

Key words:

  • Cigarette
  • coal temperature
  • filter ventilation
  • machine smoking
7 Artykułów
Otwarty dostęp

Editors’ Note

Data publikacji: 31 Jan 2015
Zakres stron: 133 - 133

Abstrakt

Otwarty dostęp

Dr. DeWitt T. Gooden III, Recipient of the 2013 Tobacco Science Research Conference Lifetime Achievement Award

Data publikacji: 31 Jan 2015
Zakres stron: 134 - 135

Abstrakt

Otwarty dostęp

Dr. Michael W. Ogden, Recipient of the 2014 Tobacco Science Research Conference Lifetime Achievement Award

Data publikacji: 31 Jan 2015
Zakres stron: 136 - 137

Abstrakt

Otwarty dostęp

Influence of Machine-Derived Smoke Yields on Biomarker of Exposure (BOE) Levels in Cigarette Smokers*

Data publikacji: 31 Jan 2015
Zakres stron: 138 - 175

Abstrakt

Abstract

Individual uptake of tobacco smoke constituents by smoking is highly variable in cigarette smokers and cannot be predicted by smoking behaviour variables and machine-derived smoke yields. It is well established that uptake of smoke constituents is best described by a series of bio-markers of exposure (BOEs) such as metabolites of nico-tine, tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNAs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), aromatic amines, benzene, 1,3-butadiene, acrolein, hydrogen cyanide, 2,5-dimethyl-furan and other smoke constituents.

The purpose of this review is to investigate the relationship between BOE levels and machine-derived smoking yields on the basis of published data. The influence of other smoking behaviour variables, in particular the number of cigarettes smoked per day (CPD) and smoking topography (puffing and inhalation patterns) is also considered, pro-vided suitable data are available.

Twenty eight (28) published studies, which report data on machine-derived smoke yields and biomarker concentrations in body fluids of smokers of these products were identified. In total, 33 different BOEs were applied in these studies. Important properties of the BOEs used in the further evaluation were described and discussed. In almost all studies selected, data for CPD were reported. In only a few studies, puffing and inhalation profiles have been determined so that no systematic evaluation of the association between smoking topography and BOE levels was possible. In the studies evaluated, no statistically significant association between daily cigarette consumption (CPD) and smoke yields was observed. This clearly indicates that low machine-derived yields were not com-pensated by increasing the daily cigarette consumption. As expected, positive and statistically significant relationships were found between CPD and BOE levels for most of the biomarkers investigated.

Bi- and multivariate linear regressions were calculated for the relationships between BOE levels (dependent variable) and machine-derived yields as well as CPD (independent variables). Whenever possible, results from various studies were combined (this was only possible, when identical biomarkers and yield types were available). Aggregation of the results from all studies independent of BOE and yield type used is feasible on the basis of relative BOE and yield levels. The multivariate linear regression models obtained reveal that both CPD and machine-derived yields are significant predictors of the measured BOE levels. The models predict that, on average, a 50% reduction in CPD or yield are accompanied by a 33 or 15% reduction, respectively, in smoke uptake, as measured by various BOEs. Taken together, the evaluated data from the literature show that lower machine-derived yields lead to a reduced uptake of smoke constituents. The reduction is statistically significant, but substantially lower than the decrease in machine-derived yields. [Beitr. Tabakforsch. Int. 26 (2014) 138-175]

Otwarty dostęp

Application of Triethyl Citrate to Filters in Virginia Type Cigarettes*

Data publikacji: 31 Jan 2015
Zakres stron: 176 - 182

Abstrakt

Abstract

Triethyl citrate (TEC) was applied in the preparation of cigarette filter rods by two approaches. One was to utilize TEC as a plasticizer sprayed onto the surface of cellulose acetate (CA) fibers. The other was to apply TEC as an additive coated onto the cellulosic paper of acetate-paper dual filters. Three types of cigarette filter rods, namely, triethyl citrate-cellulose acetate (TEC-CA) filter rods, triethyl citrate-cellulose acetate-paper (TEC-CA-paper) dual filter rods and cellulose acetate-paper-triethyl citrate (CA-paper-TEC) dual filter rods, were manufactured. In order to promote the curing of CA rods, high-frequency radiation was introduced into the procedure of filter manufacture. Then Virginia type cigarettes, combined with the three kinds of prepared filter rods were manufactured and the removal efficiency of phenols from the cigarette mainstream smoke was investigated. The results revealed that no matter where the triethyl citrate was applied as plasticizer or coating additive, the content of phenol, o-, m-and p-cresol in cigarette mainstream smoke could be greatly reduced. The optimal removal efficiency for phenol was 50% compared with the control. [Beitr. Tabakforsch. Int. 26 (2014) 176-182]

Key words:

  • Triethyl citrate
  • cellulose acetate filter rod
  • plasticizer
  • acetate-paper dual filter rod
  • Virginia type cigarette
Otwarty dostęp

Particle Size Distribution of E-Cigarette Aerosols and the Relationship to Cambridge Filter Pad Collection Efficiency

Data publikacji: 31 Jan 2015
Zakres stron: 183 - 190

Abstrakt

Abstract

The relatively volatile nature of the particulate matter fraction of e-cigarette aerosols presents an experimental challenge with regard to particle size distribution measure-ments. This is particularly true for instruments requiring a high degree of aerosol dilution. This was illustrated in a previous study, where average particle diameters in the 10-50 nm range were determined by a high-dilution, electrical mobility method. Total particulate matter (TPM) masses calculated based on those diameters were orders of magnitude smaller than gravimetrically determined TPM. This discrepancy was believed to result from almost complete particle evaporation at the dilution levels of the electrical mobility analysis. The same study described a spectral transmission measurement of e-cigarette particle size in an undiluted state, and reported particles from 210-380 nm count median diameter. Observed particle number concentrations were in the 109 particles/cm3 range. Additional particle size measurements described here also found e-cigarette particle size to be in the 260-320 nm count median diameter range. Cambridge filter pads have been used for decades to determine TPM yields of tobacco burning cigarettes, and collection of e-cigarette TPM by fibrous filters is predicted to be a highly efficient process over a wide range of filtration flow rates. The results presented in this work provide support for this hypothesis.

Described here is a study in which e-cigarette aerosols were collected on Cambridge filters with adsorbent traps placed downstream in an effort to capture any material passing through the filter. Amounts of glycerin, propylene glycol, nicotine, and water were quantified on the filter and downstream trap. Glycerin, propylene glycol, and nicotine were effciently captured (> 98%) by the upstream Cambridge filter, and a correlation was observed between filtration efficiency and the partial vapor pressure of each component. The present analysis was largely inconclusive with regard to filter efficiency and particle-vapor partitioning of water. [Beitr. Tabakforsch. Int. 26 (2014) 183-190]

Key words:

  • Electronic cigarette
  • aerosol
  • particle size
  • filtration efficiency
Otwarty dostęp

Effect of Machine Smoking Intensity and Filter Ventilation Level on Gas-Phase Temperature Distribution Inside a Burning Cigarette

Data publikacji: 31 Jan 2015
Zakres stron: 191 - 203

Abstrakt

Abstract

Accurate measurements of cigarette coal temperature are essential to understand the thermophysical and thermo-chemical processes in a burning cigarette. The last system-atic studies of cigarette burning temperature measurements were conducted in the mid-1970s. Contemporary cigarettes have evolved in design features and multiple standard machine-smoking regimes have also become available, hence there is a need to re-examine cigarette combustion. In this work, we performed systematic measurements on gas-phase temperature of burning cigarettes using an improved fine thermocouple technique. The effects of machine-smoking parameters (puff volume and puff duration) and filter ventilation levels were studied with high spatial and time resolutions during single puffs. The experimental results were presented in a number of differ-ent ways to highlight the dynamic and complex thermal processes inside a burning coal. A mathematical distribution equation was used to fit the experimental temperature data. Extracting and plotting the distribution parameters against puffing time revealed complex temperature profiles under different coal volume as a function of puffing intensities or filter ventilation levels. By dividing the coal volume prior to puffing into three temperature ranges (low-temperature from 200 to 400 °C, medium-temperature from 400 to 600 °C, and high-temperature volume above 600 °C) by following their development at different smoking regimes, useful mechanistic details were obtained. Finally, direct visualisation of the gas-phase temperature through detailed temperature and temperature gradient contour maps provided further insights into the complex thermo-physics of the burning coal. [Beitr. Tabakforsch. Int. 26 (2014) 191-203]

Key words:

  • Cigarette
  • coal temperature
  • filter ventilation
  • machine smoking

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