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Informacje o czasopiśmie
Format
Czasopismo
eISSN
2719-9509
Pierwsze wydanie
01 Jan 1992
Częstotliwość wydawania
4 razy w roku
Języki
Angielski

Wyszukiwanie

Tom 11 (1982): Zeszyt 4 (August 1982)

Informacje o czasopiśmie
Format
Czasopismo
eISSN
2719-9509
Pierwsze wydanie
01 Jan 1992
Częstotliwość wydawania
4 razy w roku
Języki
Angielski

Wyszukiwanie

5 Artykułów
Otwarty dostęp

Variation of Sidestream Gas Formation during the Smoking Cycle

Data publikacji: 14 Aug 2014
Zakres stron: 181 - 193

Abstrakt

Abstract

External contour distributions for gas temperatures and for the concentrations of carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, hydrogen and oxygen are reported at successive times in the smoking cycle. The sidestream gases leave the coal in a vertical column centering at about 3 mm in front of the paper burn line. The levels of oxygen and the carbon oxides outside the coal are not primarily determined by any diffusion gradient originating in the inner coal. Rather, the external levels are determined partly by a convective current set up by the hot coal, and influenced by buoyancy effects. The oxygen in the convection stream forms the oxides of carbon on the hot surface of the coal, and the convected air is transported around the coal in an upwards direction. On the other hand, the hydrogen levels outside the coal result from diffusion from the inner coal, although much of this outward diffusing hydrogen is oxidised to water on the surface of the coal. The visible sidestream smoke column is about 3 mm in diameter and its centre is about 5 mm behind the sidestream gas column, becoming visible when the temperatures in the gas column are below about 150°C. The vapour which eventually condenses to form mainstream and sidestream smoke is released in the general pyrolysis / distillation region of the cigarette, just behind the paper burn line. Some of this vapour diffuses to the outside of the cigarette, through the partially degraded paper, and it condenses to form the sidestream smoke particles once outside the coal.

Otwarty dostęp

Neutron Activation Analysis in Tobacco and Cigarette Smoke Studies: The Halogens

Data publikacji: 14 Aug 2014
Zakres stron: 195 - 202

Abstrakt

Abstract

The mass balance for chlorine and bromine in the burning 1R1 Kentucky reference cigarette has been determined using neutron activation analyses. Gas radiochromatography has been used to measure dynamically the amounts of gamma-emitting isotopes as they elute from a gas chromatograph. The sidestream and mainstream gas phases which elute from a gas chromatograph appear to be qualitatively identical in their organohalogens, differing only in their quantitative values. The results show that a substantial conversion of ionic halides to organohalogens takes place during smoke formation and this transformation has a threshold temperature below that established during either the puffing or static burn modes of the cigarette. The chemical nature of the halogens present in the mainstream particulate smoke was 10.8 % organochlorine, 88.6 % ionic chloride, 13.3 % organobromine and 86.0 % ionic bromide

Otwarty dostęp

Cigarette Smoke Formation Studies: Vll. The Fate of (5-14C)-Methoprene in Cigarette Smoke

Data publikacji: 14 Aug 2014
Zakres stron: 203 - 208

Abstrakt

Abstract

An insect growth regulator, (5-14C)-methoprene [5-14C-isopropyl (2E,4E)-11methoxy-3,7,11-trimethyl-2,4-dodecadienoate], has been applied to tobacco filler from which cigarettes were made. The Kentucky 1R1 reference cigarette was employed in this study to determine the distribution of the (5-14C)-methoprene and its combustion and pyrolytic products in cigarette smoke. The distribution of smoke activity as determined using a total smoke recovery device showed 38.2 percent of the 14C-activity to be in mainstream smoke with 52.4 percent in sidestream and 8.1 percent filtered by the tobacco butt (23 mm). Analyses of mainstream particulate matter and gas phase by gas radiochromatography indicated the major portion of the activity found in mainstream smoke to be unchanged (5-14C)-methoprene (96.8 percent). Limited sidestream particulate matter analyses were also conducted. Analysis of the mainstream gas phase (1.3 percent of total activity) for carbon-14 distribution showed that carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide accounted for 86 percent of the gas phase activity. The remaining 14 percent was distributed among ten additional gas phase components.

Otwarty dostęp

Mathematical Treatment of Ventilation Parameters - Mathematische Behandlung von Ventilationsparametern

Data publikacji: 14 Aug 2014
Zakres stron: 209 - 218

Abstrakt

Abstract

The equality of the two main methods employed to measure ventilation - measuring volume or measuring draw resistance - was demonstrated by various collaborative experiments. In the present paper, on the strength of the draw resistance method formulae were derived to estimate the influence which changes of various parameters have on the degree of ventilation. As cigarette papers with the same permeability can have a very varied effect on the degree of ventilation of the finished product (for this also depends on the draw resistance of the tobacco rod), an attempt was also made to derive formulae which define the contribution every component makes to the degree of ventilation of the finished product. After that, a correlation with the permeability measured was also established. With the help of the formulae, it is also possible to estimate the variations of the results of measurements that occur when ventilation is measured by the volume method with apparatus with high internal resistance. Distribution of the diluting air along the tobacco rod is discussed, both for the unlit and lit cigarette. The increase in the number of draws dependent on ventilation is calculated. The results provide a possibility of explaining the varying reduction of smoke components by ventilation.

Otwarty dostęp

Rapid Spectrophotometric Analysis of the Chemical Composition of Tobacco: Part 3: Polyphenols

Data publikacji: 14 Aug 2014
Zakres stron: 219 - 227

Abstrakt

Abstract

Two hundred thirty-eight ground samples of tobacco were scanned with a computerized near-infra-red (NIR) spectrophotometer to study the relationship of NIR spectra to the polyphenol content of the samples. A multiple linear regression model was used to select the most appropriate wavelengths for making the measurements. The equation is a valid equation for predicting polyphenols in tobacco. If the coefficients are validated on the same kind of tobacco and in the same year, the standard error of prediction of the NIR method (± 0.747 %) approaches that of the wet chemistry method (± 0.70 %) with coefficients of variation of 21.75 % and 23.0 %, respectively. The largest standard error of prediction across years was ± 1.353 %.

P = polyphenols in %

D12 = 2nd derivative parameter

i = wavelength in micrometers at which the parameter is measured.

5 Artykułów
Otwarty dostęp

Variation of Sidestream Gas Formation during the Smoking Cycle

Data publikacji: 14 Aug 2014
Zakres stron: 181 - 193

Abstrakt

Abstract

External contour distributions for gas temperatures and for the concentrations of carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, hydrogen and oxygen are reported at successive times in the smoking cycle. The sidestream gases leave the coal in a vertical column centering at about 3 mm in front of the paper burn line. The levels of oxygen and the carbon oxides outside the coal are not primarily determined by any diffusion gradient originating in the inner coal. Rather, the external levels are determined partly by a convective current set up by the hot coal, and influenced by buoyancy effects. The oxygen in the convection stream forms the oxides of carbon on the hot surface of the coal, and the convected air is transported around the coal in an upwards direction. On the other hand, the hydrogen levels outside the coal result from diffusion from the inner coal, although much of this outward diffusing hydrogen is oxidised to water on the surface of the coal. The visible sidestream smoke column is about 3 mm in diameter and its centre is about 5 mm behind the sidestream gas column, becoming visible when the temperatures in the gas column are below about 150°C. The vapour which eventually condenses to form mainstream and sidestream smoke is released in the general pyrolysis / distillation region of the cigarette, just behind the paper burn line. Some of this vapour diffuses to the outside of the cigarette, through the partially degraded paper, and it condenses to form the sidestream smoke particles once outside the coal.

Otwarty dostęp

Neutron Activation Analysis in Tobacco and Cigarette Smoke Studies: The Halogens

Data publikacji: 14 Aug 2014
Zakres stron: 195 - 202

Abstrakt

Abstract

The mass balance for chlorine and bromine in the burning 1R1 Kentucky reference cigarette has been determined using neutron activation analyses. Gas radiochromatography has been used to measure dynamically the amounts of gamma-emitting isotopes as they elute from a gas chromatograph. The sidestream and mainstream gas phases which elute from a gas chromatograph appear to be qualitatively identical in their organohalogens, differing only in their quantitative values. The results show that a substantial conversion of ionic halides to organohalogens takes place during smoke formation and this transformation has a threshold temperature below that established during either the puffing or static burn modes of the cigarette. The chemical nature of the halogens present in the mainstream particulate smoke was 10.8 % organochlorine, 88.6 % ionic chloride, 13.3 % organobromine and 86.0 % ionic bromide

Otwarty dostęp

Cigarette Smoke Formation Studies: Vll. The Fate of (5-14C)-Methoprene in Cigarette Smoke

Data publikacji: 14 Aug 2014
Zakres stron: 203 - 208

Abstrakt

Abstract

An insect growth regulator, (5-14C)-methoprene [5-14C-isopropyl (2E,4E)-11methoxy-3,7,11-trimethyl-2,4-dodecadienoate], has been applied to tobacco filler from which cigarettes were made. The Kentucky 1R1 reference cigarette was employed in this study to determine the distribution of the (5-14C)-methoprene and its combustion and pyrolytic products in cigarette smoke. The distribution of smoke activity as determined using a total smoke recovery device showed 38.2 percent of the 14C-activity to be in mainstream smoke with 52.4 percent in sidestream and 8.1 percent filtered by the tobacco butt (23 mm). Analyses of mainstream particulate matter and gas phase by gas radiochromatography indicated the major portion of the activity found in mainstream smoke to be unchanged (5-14C)-methoprene (96.8 percent). Limited sidestream particulate matter analyses were also conducted. Analysis of the mainstream gas phase (1.3 percent of total activity) for carbon-14 distribution showed that carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide accounted for 86 percent of the gas phase activity. The remaining 14 percent was distributed among ten additional gas phase components.

Otwarty dostęp

Mathematical Treatment of Ventilation Parameters - Mathematische Behandlung von Ventilationsparametern

Data publikacji: 14 Aug 2014
Zakres stron: 209 - 218

Abstrakt

Abstract

The equality of the two main methods employed to measure ventilation - measuring volume or measuring draw resistance - was demonstrated by various collaborative experiments. In the present paper, on the strength of the draw resistance method formulae were derived to estimate the influence which changes of various parameters have on the degree of ventilation. As cigarette papers with the same permeability can have a very varied effect on the degree of ventilation of the finished product (for this also depends on the draw resistance of the tobacco rod), an attempt was also made to derive formulae which define the contribution every component makes to the degree of ventilation of the finished product. After that, a correlation with the permeability measured was also established. With the help of the formulae, it is also possible to estimate the variations of the results of measurements that occur when ventilation is measured by the volume method with apparatus with high internal resistance. Distribution of the diluting air along the tobacco rod is discussed, both for the unlit and lit cigarette. The increase in the number of draws dependent on ventilation is calculated. The results provide a possibility of explaining the varying reduction of smoke components by ventilation.

Otwarty dostęp

Rapid Spectrophotometric Analysis of the Chemical Composition of Tobacco: Part 3: Polyphenols

Data publikacji: 14 Aug 2014
Zakres stron: 219 - 227

Abstrakt

Abstract

Two hundred thirty-eight ground samples of tobacco were scanned with a computerized near-infra-red (NIR) spectrophotometer to study the relationship of NIR spectra to the polyphenol content of the samples. A multiple linear regression model was used to select the most appropriate wavelengths for making the measurements. The equation is a valid equation for predicting polyphenols in tobacco. If the coefficients are validated on the same kind of tobacco and in the same year, the standard error of prediction of the NIR method (± 0.747 %) approaches that of the wet chemistry method (± 0.70 %) with coefficients of variation of 21.75 % and 23.0 %, respectively. The largest standard error of prediction across years was ± 1.353 %.

P = polyphenols in %

D12 = 2nd derivative parameter

i = wavelength in micrometers at which the parameter is measured.

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