Zeszyty czasopisma

Tom 31 (2022): Zeszyt 2 (July 2022)

Tom 31 (2022): Zeszyt 1 (March 2022)

Tom 30 (2021): Zeszyt 4 (November 2021)

Tom 30 (2021): Zeszyt 3 (July 2021)

Tom 30 (2021): Zeszyt 2 (May 2021)

Tom 30 (2021): Zeszyt 1 (March 2021)

Tom 29 (2020): Zeszyt 3 (December 2020)

Tom 29 (2020): Zeszyt 2 (August 2020)

Tom 29 (2020): Zeszyt 1 (April 2020)

Tom 28 (2019): Zeszyt 7 (December 2019)

Tom 28 (2019): Zeszyt 6 (August 2019)

Tom 28 (2019): Zeszyt 5 (May 2019)

Tom 28 (2018): Zeszyt 4 (December 2018)

Tom 28 (2018): Zeszyt 3 (October 2018)

Tom 28 (2018): Zeszyt 2 (August 2018)

Tom 28 (2018): Zeszyt 1 (April 2018)

Tom 27 (2017): Zeszyt 8 (December 2017)

Tom 27 (2017): Zeszyt 7 (September 2017)

Tom 27 (2017): Zeszyt 6 (April 2017)

Tom 27 (2017): Zeszyt 5 (January 2017)

Tom 27 (2016): Zeszyt 4 (October 2016)

Tom 27 (2016): Zeszyt 3 (July 2016)

Tom 27 (2016): Zeszyt 2 (April 2016)

Tom 27 (2016): Zeszyt 1 (January 2016)

Tom 26 (2015): Zeszyt 7 (September 2015)

Tom 26 (2015): Zeszyt 6 (June 2015)

Tom 26 (2015): Zeszyt 5 (March 2015)

Tom 26 (2014): Zeszyt 4 (December 2014)

Tom 26 (2014): Zeszyt 3 (September 2014)

Tom 26 (2014): Zeszyt 2 (July 2014)

Tom 26 (2014): Zeszyt 1 (April 2014)

Tom 25 (2013): Zeszyt 8 (December 2013)

Tom 25 (2013): Zeszyt 7 (September 2013)

Tom 25 (2013): Zeszyt 6 (June 2013)

Tom 25 (2013): Zeszyt 5 (March 2013)

Tom 25 (2012): Zeszyt 4 (December 2012)

Tom 25 (2012): Zeszyt 3 (August 2012)

Tom 25 (2012): Zeszyt 2 (June 2012)

Tom 25 (2012): Zeszyt 1 (February 2012)

Tom 24 (2011): Zeszyt 6 (November 2011)

Tom 24 (2011): Zeszyt 5 (May 2011)

Tom 24 (2011): Zeszyt 4 (January 2011)

Tom 24 (2010): Zeszyt 3 (November 2010)

Tom 24 (2010): Zeszyt 2 (July 2010)

Tom 24 (2010): Zeszyt 1 (April 2010)

Tom 23 (2009): Zeszyt 6 (December 2009)

Tom 23 (2009): Zeszyt 5 (September 2009)

Tom 23 (2009): Zeszyt 4 (May 2009)

Tom 23 (2008): Zeszyt 3 (December 2008)

Tom 23 (2008): Zeszyt 2 (August 2008)

Tom 23 (2008): Zeszyt 1 (April 2008)

Tom 22 (2007): Zeszyt 5 (June 2007)

Tom 22 (2007): Zeszyt 4 (January 2007)

Tom 22 (2006): Zeszyt 3 (October 2006)

Tom 22 (2006): Zeszyt 2 (July 2006)

Tom 22 (2006): Zeszyt 1 (April 2006)

Tom 21 (2005): Zeszyt 8 (December 2005)

Tom 21 (2005): Zeszyt 7 (October 2005)

Tom 21 (2005): Zeszyt 6 (July 2005)

Tom 21 (2005): Zeszyt 5 (April 2005)

Tom 21 (2004): Zeszyt 4 (December 2004)

Tom 21 (2004): Zeszyt 3 (October 2004)

Tom 21 (2004): Zeszyt 2 (July 2004)

Tom 21 (2004): Zeszyt 1 (March 2004)

Tom 20 (2003): Zeszyt 8 (December 2003)

Tom 20 (2003): Zeszyt 7 (November 2003)

Tom 20 (2003): Zeszyt 6 (July 2003)

Tom 20 (2003): Zeszyt 5 (March 2003)

Tom 20 (2002): Zeszyt 4 (December 2002)

Tom 20 (2002): Zeszyt 3 (August 2002)

Tom 20 (2002): Zeszyt 2 (June 2002)

Tom 20 (2002): Zeszyt 1 (February 2002)

Tom 19 (2001): Zeszyt 7 (October 2001)

Tom 19 (2001): Zeszyt 6 (July 2001)

Tom 19 (2001): Zeszyt 5 (April 2001)

Tom 19 (2001): Zeszyt 4 (January 2001)

Tom 19 (2000): Zeszyt 3 (October 2000)

Tom 19 (2000): Zeszyt 2 (July 2000)

Tom 19 (2000): Zeszyt 1 (April 2000)

Tom 18 (1999): Zeszyt 6 (December 1999)

Tom 18 (1999): Zeszyt 5 (July 1999)

Tom 18 (1999): Zeszyt 4 (April 1999)

Tom 18 (1998): Zeszyt 3 (December 1998)

Tom 18 (1998): Zeszyt 2 (August 1998)

Tom 18 (1998): Zeszyt 1 (April 1998)

Tom 17 (1997): Zeszyt 3 (December 1997)

Tom 17 (1997): Zeszyt 2 (September 1997)

Tom 17 (1996): Zeszyt 1 (December 1996)

Tom 16 (1995): Zeszyt 4 (November 1995)

Tom 16 (1995): Zeszyt 3 (July 1995)

Tom 16 (1994): Zeszyt 2 (June 1994)

Tom 16 (1994): Zeszyt 1 (May 1994)

Tom 15 (1992): Zeszyt 3 (November 1992)

Tom 15 (1992): Zeszyt 2 (April 1992)

Tom 15 (1991): Zeszyt 1 (August 1991)

Tom 14 (1990): Zeszyt 6 (June 1990)

Tom 14 (1989): Zeszyt 5 (October 1989)

Tom 14 (1989): Zeszyt 4 (February 1989)

Tom 14 (1989): Zeszyt 3 (January 1989)

Tom 14 (1988): Zeszyt 2 (October 1988)

Tom 14 (1987): Zeszyt 1 (December 1987)

Tom 13 (1986): Zeszyt 5 (December 1986)

Tom 13 (1986): Zeszyt 4 (August 1986)

Tom 13 (1986): Zeszyt 3 (July 1986)

Tom 13 (1985): Zeszyt 2 (December 1985)

Tom 13 (1985): Zeszyt 1 (January 1985)

Tom 12 (1984): Zeszyt 5 (November 1984)

Tom 12 (1984): Zeszyt 4 (July 1984)

Tom 12 (1984): Zeszyt 3 (February 1984)

Tom 12 (1983): Zeszyt 2 (June 1983)

Tom 12 (1983): Zeszyt 1 (February 1983)

Tom 11 (1982): Zeszyt 5 (November 1982)

Tom 11 (1982): Zeszyt 4 (August 1982)

Tom 11 (1982): Zeszyt 3 (January 1982)

Tom 11 (1981): Zeszyt 2 (September 1981)

Tom 11 (1981): Zeszyt 1 (March 1981)

Tom 10 (1980): Zeszyt 3 (October 1980)

Tom 10 (1980): Zeszyt 2 (July 1980)

Tom 10 (1979): Zeszyt 1 (December 1979)

Tom 9 (1978): Zeszyt 5 (December 1978)

Tom 9 (1978): Zeszyt 4 (July 1978)

Tom 9 (1977): Zeszyt 3 (October 1977)

Tom 9 (1977): Zeszyt 2 (June 1977)

Tom 9 (1977): Zeszyt 1 (April 1977)

Tom 8 (1976): Zeszyt 7 (October 1976)

Tom 8 (1976): Zeszyt 6 (June 1976)

Tom 8 (1976): Zeszyt 5 (March 1976)

Tom 8 (1975): Zeszyt 4 (December 1975)

Tom 8 (1975): Zeszyt 3 (August 1975)

Tom 8 (1975): Zeszyt 2 (May 1975)

Tom 8 (1975): Zeszyt 1 (January 1975)

Tom 7 (1974): Zeszyt 5 (September 1974)

Tom 7 (1974): Zeszyt 4 (April 1974)

Tom 7 (1973): Zeszyt 3 (November 1973)

Tom 7 (1973): Zeszyt 2 (June 1973)

Tom 7 (1973): Zeszyt 1 (January 1973)

Tom 6 (1972): Zeszyt 5 (October 1972)

Tom 6 (1972): Zeszyt 4 (August 1972)

Tom 6 (1972): Zeszyt 3 (March 1972)

Tom 6 (1971): Zeszyt 2 (September 1971)

Tom 6 (1971): Zeszyt 1 (July 1971)

Tom 5 (1970): Zeszyt 6 (December 1970)

Tom 5 (1970): Zeszyt 5 (November 1970)

Tom 5 (1970): Zeszyt 4 (August 1970)

Tom 5 (1969): Zeszyt 3 (December 1969)

Tom 5 (1969): Zeszyt 2 (August 1969)

Tom 5 (1969): Zeszyt 1 (June 1969)

Tom 4 (1968): Zeszyt 7 (December 1968)

Tom 4 (1968): Zeszyt 6 (November 1968)

Tom 4 (1968): Zeszyt 5 (July 1968)

Tom 4 (1968): Zeszyt 4 (May 1968)

Tom 4 (1968): Zeszyt 3 (February 1968)

Tom 4 (1967): Zeszyt 2 (October 1967)

Tom 4 (1967): Zeszyt 1 (August 1967)

Tom 3 (1966): Zeszyt 9 (December 1966)

Tom 3 (1966): Zeszyt 8 (December 1966)

Tom 3 (1966): Zeszyt 7 (November 1966)

Tom 3 (1966): Zeszyt 6 (September 1966)

Tom 3 (1966): Zeszyt 5 (May 1966)

Tom 3 (1965): Zeszyt 4 (October 1965)

Tom 3 (1965): Zeszyt 3 (August 1965)

Tom 3 (1965): Zeszyt 2 (May 1965)

Tom 3 (1965): Zeszyt 1 (April 1965)

Tom 2 (1964): Zeszyt 7 (November 1964)

Tom 2 (1964): Zeszyt 6 (October 1964)

Tom 2 (1964): Zeszyt 5 (May 1964)

Tom 2 (1964): Zeszyt 4 (February 1964)

Tom 2 (1963): Zeszyt 3 (October 1963)

Tom 2 (1963): Zeszyt 2 (June 1963)

Tom 2 (1963): Zeszyt 1 (March 1963)

Tom 1 (1962): Zeszyt 10 (December 1962)

Tom 1 (1962): Zeszyt 9 (December 1962)

Tom 1 (1962): Zeszyt 8 (November 1962)

Tom 1 (1962): Zeszyt 7 (November 1962)

Tom 1 (1962): Zeszyt 6 (July 1962)

Tom 1 (1962): Zeszyt 5 (February 1962)

Tom 1 (1961): Zeszyt 4 (November 1961)

Tom 1 (1961): Zeszyt 3 (August 1961)

Tom 1 (1961): Zeszyt 2 (May 1961)

Tom 1 (1961): Zeszyt 1 (January 1961)

Informacje o czasopiśmie
Format
Czasopismo
eISSN
2719-9509
Pierwsze wydanie
01 Jan 1992
Częstotliwość wydawania
4 razy w roku
Języki
Angielski

Wyszukiwanie

Tom 14 (1987): Zeszyt 1 (December 1987)

Informacje o czasopiśmie
Format
Czasopismo
eISSN
2719-9509
Pierwsze wydanie
01 Jan 1992
Częstotliwość wydawania
4 razy w roku
Języki
Angielski

Wyszukiwanie

8 Artykułów
Otwarty dostęp

Die Züchtung von TabakimHinblick auf verschieden hohe Alkaloidgehalte - Tobacco Breeding in View of Different Levels of Alcaloid Contents

Data publikacji: 06 Jan 2015
Zakres stron: 1 - 9

Abstrakt

Abstract

Two systems of genetic control are involved in the quality and level of total alkaloids in tobacco (Nicotianatabacum L.). A single locus controls the conversion of nicotine to nornicotine and two loci control total alkaloid levels. These levels may be further modified by minor genes or quantitative factors. Breeding lines and cultivars of flue-cured tobacco have been developed with varying levels of total alkaloids (nicotine). Levels of nicotine in tobacco range from near zero in cigar strains up to 4.5 % in Burley varieties. Within the collection of N. tabacumgermplasm and Nicotiana species maintained by the Agricultural Research Service of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, total alkaloid levels range from 0.20 % to 7.87 %. Flue-cured lines of tobacco with varying levels of total alkaloids have been developed and characterized. In general the high alkaloid lines had the highest grade indexes. All of the extremely low alkaloid lines were also lower in grade index indicating that total alkaloids do have some relationship with the grade index. The high total alkaloid lines were lower in yield. However, it is believed that the levels of total alkaloids reported do not result from yield variation. N. rustica generally has considerably higher total alkaloid levels, based on percent dry weight, than N. tabacum. With the stabilizing of a low total alkaloid line of N. tabacum (0.20 %) it was feasible to introgress the gene(s) for alkaloid production from N. rustica into N. tabacum. Indications are that more than one gene is responsible for total alkaloid production in this material. Also preliminary indications are that the genes for total alkaloid production in N. rustica may be the same as those in N. tabacum.

Otwarty dostęp

Flow Rate Dependence of Ventilation

Data publikacji: 06 Jan 2015
Zakres stron: 11 - 19

Abstrakt

Abstract

A quantitative model describing the effects of puffing conditions on the level of filter ventilation was developed and evaluated. The development of the model was based on a quadratic flow-pressure drop relationship which was validated with experimental measurements for numerous plug wraps, tipping papers, and combinations of the two. This relationship was used to derive an equation describing the level of filter ventilation as a function of the flow rate of air exiting the filter. This equation was shown to accurately predict the measured ventilations of six brands of commercial cigarettes over a range of continuous flow rates. The instantaneous ventilation values predicted by the equation were utilized to model ventilation during a puff by integrating the equation with respect to flow rate over the duration of the puff. This method for predicting the effects of specific puffing conditions on ventilation was demonstrated for sinusoidally shaped puffs spanning a wide range of volume and duration. Finally, the effects on the flow dependence of ventilation of different combinations of plug wrap and tipping papers were described qualitatively based on experimental measurements of paper flow-pressure drop linearity.

Otwarty dostęp

Observations of Density Variations in Tobacco Rods by Neutron Radiography

Data publikacji: 06 Jan 2015
Zakres stron: 21 - 28

Abstrakt

Abstract

Neutron radiography was used to study the density of tobacco rods. Density variations in individual rods caused by local packing variations and the presence of more dense materials in the blend were easily discernible in both static and real-time radiographs. A density resolution of 0.35 mm was observed in the real-time system. By averaging center line density scans for several rods with the aid of an image processor, large scale variations in the density such as the increased packing at the rod ends could be measured. Comparison of the results from neutron radiography with those obtained by cutting rods into sections and weighing the sections showed good agreement. Both methods indicated the lighting end was approximately 9 % more dense than the middle of the rod. This work has demonstrated that neutron radiography can be used to provide accurate density information about cigarette rods with considerably greater resolution and in much less time than sectioning and the commercial beta ray gauging technique.

Otwarty dostęp

Tobacco-specific N-Nitrosamines [TSNA] in Green Mature and Processed Tobacco Leaves from India

Data publikacji: 06 Jan 2015
Zakres stron: 29 - 32

Abstrakt

Abstract

Tobacco-specific N-nitrosamines [TSNA] and tobacco alkaloids were determined in green mature tobacco leaves, sun-dried leaves and processed tobacco from the species N. rustica and N. tabacum cultivated in two different locations. Analyses showed the presence of TSNA in green mature tobacco leaves and the levels of TSNA increased further upon sun-drying and processing. N. rustica showed relatively higher amounts of nornicotine as well as of N’-nitrosonornicotine [NNN]. A clear correlation between the amount of nicotine and nornicotine and the use of fertilizers was not found.

Otwarty dostęp

Tolerance of Tobacco (Nicotianatabacum and N. rustica) to High Rates of Lead Application to the Soil

Data publikacji: 06 Jan 2015
Zakres stron: 33 - 39

Abstrakt

Abstract

Eight genetically diverse tobacco types (Tsebelia of Agrinion, Samsun, Basma, Kabakulak, Burley, Virginia and Havana, belonging to Nicotianatabacum, and Brasilia belonging to N. rustica) were grown in pots in the greenhouse where lead acetate had been added to the soil at the rates of 0, 0.1, 1.0 and 10.0 g Pb/kg soil. In the field, 20 g Pb/m2 in two forms (nitrate and acetate) were applied to Burley and Kabakulak types. The greenhouse experiment showed that only the highest rate of lead addition to the soil reduced the leaf yield significantly. The higher yielding types (Havana and Samsun) were found to be the least tolerant, while Brasilia was the most tolerant. At all levels of lead addition to the soil the lead concentration in leaf was found to be highest in the first of the three harvests which were made. The relationship between log (lead level in the soil) and log (leaf lead concentration) seemed exponential. Although control treatments in the field and the greenhouse experiment showed comparable leaf lead concentrations, leaf lead concentrations at 20 g Pb/m2 in the field experiment were found to be higher than those at 1.0 g/kg soil in the greenhouse experiment.

Otwarty dostęp

The Efficacy of Kabat¯ as a Surface Spray on Oriental Tobacco Bales for Control of the Cigarette Beetle Lasiodermaserricorne (F.) (Coleoptera: Anobiidae)

Data publikacji: 06 Jan 2015
Zakres stron: 41 - 44

Abstrakt

Abstract

Methoprene, a synthetic juvenile hormone analogue, was shown to have the capability of preventing the cigarette beetle Lasiodermaserricorne (F.) from propagating when applied to the outside of packaged Oriental tobacco bales. Control was achieved for a 33-month’ storage period when methoprene was applied at 40 mg/m2 and 80 mg/m2 to either the burlap sheathing or to the outer surface of the tobacco following removal of the burlap sheath.

Otwarty dostęp

A Multi-purpose, Programmable Smoking Machine

Data publikacji: 06 Jan 2015
Zakres stron: 45 - 51

Abstrakt

Abstract

Commercially available cigarette smoking machines are designed to operate at a standard set of smoking parameters and offer little scope for changing the smoking pattern. This paper describes a Programmable Smoking Machine (PSM) which operates in a way that no current commercial machine can. It can smoke cigarettes in a non-standard manner and obtain information useful for the examination of the influence of smoke generation patterns on the smoke yields as an aid to the design of cigarettes. The PSM consists of a stepper motor driven glass syringe and three-way valve controlled by microcomputer. Suitable programs create the desired smoking patterns and control the operation of the smoking machine via a microcomputer port. Precautions must be taken to prevent stepper motor pulses affecting the puff profiles. Smoking can be performed in a restricted or open mode with calibrated clearing puffs, and the vapour phase collected is directed on a puff-by-puff basis to a gas analyser or trapping medium at a controlled rate. It is also possible to generate whole smoke should this be a requirement.

Otwarty dostęp

Sensory Evaluation of Sidestream Odor using Transfer Testing Methodology

Data publikacji: 06 Jan 2015
Zakres stron: 53 - 59

Abstrakt

Abstract

Cigarettes with closely matched physical characteristics were subjected to static burns inside a modified bell-jar apparatus in order to investigate the effects of variations in cigarette construction and composition on the odor of sidestream smoke. Cambridge filter pads moistened with mineral oil and suspended inside the bell-jars were highly effective transfer materials which captured the sidestream smoke odors. Triangle-test odor evaluations of the exposed Cambridge pads established significant differences at the 95 % confidence level between sidestream odors from cigarettes made with 100 % Burley, flue-cured, or Oriental tabacco. Differences were also found between sidestream odors from tobacco grades within a single tobacco type and between equal blends of two tobacco types. Consistent with studies of sidestream menthol delivery and menthol levels needed to detect a just noticeable difference, no significant sidestream odor differences were found between menthol and non-menthol versions of the same cigarette.

8 Artykułów
Otwarty dostęp

Die Züchtung von TabakimHinblick auf verschieden hohe Alkaloidgehalte - Tobacco Breeding in View of Different Levels of Alcaloid Contents

Data publikacji: 06 Jan 2015
Zakres stron: 1 - 9

Abstrakt

Abstract

Two systems of genetic control are involved in the quality and level of total alkaloids in tobacco (Nicotianatabacum L.). A single locus controls the conversion of nicotine to nornicotine and two loci control total alkaloid levels. These levels may be further modified by minor genes or quantitative factors. Breeding lines and cultivars of flue-cured tobacco have been developed with varying levels of total alkaloids (nicotine). Levels of nicotine in tobacco range from near zero in cigar strains up to 4.5 % in Burley varieties. Within the collection of N. tabacumgermplasm and Nicotiana species maintained by the Agricultural Research Service of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, total alkaloid levels range from 0.20 % to 7.87 %. Flue-cured lines of tobacco with varying levels of total alkaloids have been developed and characterized. In general the high alkaloid lines had the highest grade indexes. All of the extremely low alkaloid lines were also lower in grade index indicating that total alkaloids do have some relationship with the grade index. The high total alkaloid lines were lower in yield. However, it is believed that the levels of total alkaloids reported do not result from yield variation. N. rustica generally has considerably higher total alkaloid levels, based on percent dry weight, than N. tabacum. With the stabilizing of a low total alkaloid line of N. tabacum (0.20 %) it was feasible to introgress the gene(s) for alkaloid production from N. rustica into N. tabacum. Indications are that more than one gene is responsible for total alkaloid production in this material. Also preliminary indications are that the genes for total alkaloid production in N. rustica may be the same as those in N. tabacum.

Otwarty dostęp

Flow Rate Dependence of Ventilation

Data publikacji: 06 Jan 2015
Zakres stron: 11 - 19

Abstrakt

Abstract

A quantitative model describing the effects of puffing conditions on the level of filter ventilation was developed and evaluated. The development of the model was based on a quadratic flow-pressure drop relationship which was validated with experimental measurements for numerous plug wraps, tipping papers, and combinations of the two. This relationship was used to derive an equation describing the level of filter ventilation as a function of the flow rate of air exiting the filter. This equation was shown to accurately predict the measured ventilations of six brands of commercial cigarettes over a range of continuous flow rates. The instantaneous ventilation values predicted by the equation were utilized to model ventilation during a puff by integrating the equation with respect to flow rate over the duration of the puff. This method for predicting the effects of specific puffing conditions on ventilation was demonstrated for sinusoidally shaped puffs spanning a wide range of volume and duration. Finally, the effects on the flow dependence of ventilation of different combinations of plug wrap and tipping papers were described qualitatively based on experimental measurements of paper flow-pressure drop linearity.

Otwarty dostęp

Observations of Density Variations in Tobacco Rods by Neutron Radiography

Data publikacji: 06 Jan 2015
Zakres stron: 21 - 28

Abstrakt

Abstract

Neutron radiography was used to study the density of tobacco rods. Density variations in individual rods caused by local packing variations and the presence of more dense materials in the blend were easily discernible in both static and real-time radiographs. A density resolution of 0.35 mm was observed in the real-time system. By averaging center line density scans for several rods with the aid of an image processor, large scale variations in the density such as the increased packing at the rod ends could be measured. Comparison of the results from neutron radiography with those obtained by cutting rods into sections and weighing the sections showed good agreement. Both methods indicated the lighting end was approximately 9 % more dense than the middle of the rod. This work has demonstrated that neutron radiography can be used to provide accurate density information about cigarette rods with considerably greater resolution and in much less time than sectioning and the commercial beta ray gauging technique.

Otwarty dostęp

Tobacco-specific N-Nitrosamines [TSNA] in Green Mature and Processed Tobacco Leaves from India

Data publikacji: 06 Jan 2015
Zakres stron: 29 - 32

Abstrakt

Abstract

Tobacco-specific N-nitrosamines [TSNA] and tobacco alkaloids were determined in green mature tobacco leaves, sun-dried leaves and processed tobacco from the species N. rustica and N. tabacum cultivated in two different locations. Analyses showed the presence of TSNA in green mature tobacco leaves and the levels of TSNA increased further upon sun-drying and processing. N. rustica showed relatively higher amounts of nornicotine as well as of N’-nitrosonornicotine [NNN]. A clear correlation between the amount of nicotine and nornicotine and the use of fertilizers was not found.

Otwarty dostęp

Tolerance of Tobacco (Nicotianatabacum and N. rustica) to High Rates of Lead Application to the Soil

Data publikacji: 06 Jan 2015
Zakres stron: 33 - 39

Abstrakt

Abstract

Eight genetically diverse tobacco types (Tsebelia of Agrinion, Samsun, Basma, Kabakulak, Burley, Virginia and Havana, belonging to Nicotianatabacum, and Brasilia belonging to N. rustica) were grown in pots in the greenhouse where lead acetate had been added to the soil at the rates of 0, 0.1, 1.0 and 10.0 g Pb/kg soil. In the field, 20 g Pb/m2 in two forms (nitrate and acetate) were applied to Burley and Kabakulak types. The greenhouse experiment showed that only the highest rate of lead addition to the soil reduced the leaf yield significantly. The higher yielding types (Havana and Samsun) were found to be the least tolerant, while Brasilia was the most tolerant. At all levels of lead addition to the soil the lead concentration in leaf was found to be highest in the first of the three harvests which were made. The relationship between log (lead level in the soil) and log (leaf lead concentration) seemed exponential. Although control treatments in the field and the greenhouse experiment showed comparable leaf lead concentrations, leaf lead concentrations at 20 g Pb/m2 in the field experiment were found to be higher than those at 1.0 g/kg soil in the greenhouse experiment.

Otwarty dostęp

The Efficacy of Kabat¯ as a Surface Spray on Oriental Tobacco Bales for Control of the Cigarette Beetle Lasiodermaserricorne (F.) (Coleoptera: Anobiidae)

Data publikacji: 06 Jan 2015
Zakres stron: 41 - 44

Abstrakt

Abstract

Methoprene, a synthetic juvenile hormone analogue, was shown to have the capability of preventing the cigarette beetle Lasiodermaserricorne (F.) from propagating when applied to the outside of packaged Oriental tobacco bales. Control was achieved for a 33-month’ storage period when methoprene was applied at 40 mg/m2 and 80 mg/m2 to either the burlap sheathing or to the outer surface of the tobacco following removal of the burlap sheath.

Otwarty dostęp

A Multi-purpose, Programmable Smoking Machine

Data publikacji: 06 Jan 2015
Zakres stron: 45 - 51

Abstrakt

Abstract

Commercially available cigarette smoking machines are designed to operate at a standard set of smoking parameters and offer little scope for changing the smoking pattern. This paper describes a Programmable Smoking Machine (PSM) which operates in a way that no current commercial machine can. It can smoke cigarettes in a non-standard manner and obtain information useful for the examination of the influence of smoke generation patterns on the smoke yields as an aid to the design of cigarettes. The PSM consists of a stepper motor driven glass syringe and three-way valve controlled by microcomputer. Suitable programs create the desired smoking patterns and control the operation of the smoking machine via a microcomputer port. Precautions must be taken to prevent stepper motor pulses affecting the puff profiles. Smoking can be performed in a restricted or open mode with calibrated clearing puffs, and the vapour phase collected is directed on a puff-by-puff basis to a gas analyser or trapping medium at a controlled rate. It is also possible to generate whole smoke should this be a requirement.

Otwarty dostęp

Sensory Evaluation of Sidestream Odor using Transfer Testing Methodology

Data publikacji: 06 Jan 2015
Zakres stron: 53 - 59

Abstrakt

Abstract

Cigarettes with closely matched physical characteristics were subjected to static burns inside a modified bell-jar apparatus in order to investigate the effects of variations in cigarette construction and composition on the odor of sidestream smoke. Cambridge filter pads moistened with mineral oil and suspended inside the bell-jars were highly effective transfer materials which captured the sidestream smoke odors. Triangle-test odor evaluations of the exposed Cambridge pads established significant differences at the 95 % confidence level between sidestream odors from cigarettes made with 100 % Burley, flue-cured, or Oriental tabacco. Differences were also found between sidestream odors from tobacco grades within a single tobacco type and between equal blends of two tobacco types. Consistent with studies of sidestream menthol delivery and menthol levels needed to detect a just noticeable difference, no significant sidestream odor differences were found between menthol and non-menthol versions of the same cigarette.

Zaplanuj zdalną konferencję ze Sciendo