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Informacje o czasopiśmie
Format
Czasopismo
eISSN
2719-9509
Pierwsze wydanie
01 Jan 1992
Częstotliwość wydawania
4 razy w roku
Języki
Angielski

Wyszukiwanie

Tom 8 (1976): Zeszyt 5 (March 1976)

Informacje o czasopiśmie
Format
Czasopismo
eISSN
2719-9509
Pierwsze wydanie
01 Jan 1992
Częstotliwość wydawania
4 razy w roku
Języki
Angielski

Wyszukiwanie

12 Artykułów
Otwarty dostęp

Determination of 16 Elements in Tobacco by Neutron Activation Analysis

Data publikacji: 14 Aug 2014
Zakres stron: 247 - 249

Abstrakt

Abstract

The determination of 16 elements in raw tobacco by neutron activation analysis is discussed. The 8 elements Al, Ca, Mg, Cl, Mn, K, Na and Br can be determined by purely instrumental means; this leads to a high sample capacity per working day and to a fast availability of analyticaI results. Contrary to this, the determination of the heavy metals Hg, Cu, Mo, Cd, Zn, Co, As and Sb has to be preceded by chemicaI separation which is accomplished by extractions with different metal-diethyldithiocarbamates as reagents. The variation coefficient is typically ± 4 %. The Iowest and highest values of the concentrations which were found in the analysis of 20 different raw tobaccos are given.

Otwarty dostęp

Polynuclear Aromatic Hydrocarbons of Tobacco Smoke: Isolation and Identification

Data publikacji: 14 Aug 2014
Zakres stron: 250 - 272

Abstrakt

Abstract

A neutral fraction of cigarette smoke condensate, which had shown biological activity and was known to contain polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), was fractionated by analytical gel filtration chromatography. These gel fractions were subjected to gas chromatographic separation and their components were identified by relative GC retention times, UV spectra, and mass spectral data. More than 300 PAH, ranging from indene to the dimethylbenzopyrenes, were characterized. This method of isolation has yielded fractions which were more amenable to definitive identifications. The criteria used for identification are tabulated for all the identified PAH compounds.

Otwarty dostęp

A Chromatographic Analysis for Polynuclear Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Small Quantities of Cigarette Smoke Condensate

Data publikacji: 14 Aug 2014
Zakres stron: 273 - 282

Abstrakt

Abstract

A four-step method has been described for the quantitative analysis of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in smoke condensate from 90 or more cigarettes. It involves the extraction of condensate solution with water, silicic acid and gel filtration chromatography, then separation and quantitation by gas chromatography. Individual PAH or totaI PAH profiles of condensates from different cigarettes can now be compared. The method was applied to reference, commercial nonfilter, and commercial filter cigarettes. The details and advantages of the method are elaborated.

Otwarty dostęp

The Thermal Emittance of Cigarette Coal

Data publikacji: 14 Aug 2014
Zakres stron: 283 - 285

Abstrakt

Abstract

The radiation intensity emitted by the surface of an extinguished cigarette coal in a heated environment was compared with the radiation intensity of an artificial blackbody at the same temperature. The experiments were carried out at several temperature levels between 50°C and 125°C. The results indicate that the emittance of the cigarette coal is close to unity. The calculated values based on data obtained within the limits of the experiments varied between 0.997 and 0.91 (average 0.97).

Otwarty dostęp

Nicotine Workshop

Data publikacji: 14 Aug 2014
Zakres stron: 286 - 292

Abstrakt

Abstract

A workshop on problems related to the analysis of nicotine and nicotine metabolites in body fluids at levels pertinent to the human situation was held in November 1974 in Stockholm. It was organized by C. Enzell, B. Holmstedt and A. Pilotti at the request of the Medical Advisory Board of the Swedish Tobacco Company. The goal of the workshop was to summarize the present state of art in the area outlined by the organizers and to discuss critically the advantages and limitations of the different analytical methods available today. EIeven experts in the field of metabolism, detection and biosynthesis of nicotine and related compounds were therefore invited to present papers on these topics and to participate in the discussions. AIl speakers invited were able to attend and the papers were arranged in the following groups:

Each speaker had one hour and a half at his disposal which included the discussion which, due to the informal atmosphere and the smaII number of participants, was very lively and fruitful. The papers read at this workshop comprise a very valuable coverage of recent research in the fields of metabolism of nicotine and minor tobacco alkaloids, and of the various methods available for detection of these alkaloids. The abstracts are given below, while full papers, now edited by A. Pilotti, can be obtained on request from C. Enzell of the Swedish Tobacco Company

Otwarty dostęp

A Structural Model of Reconstituted Tobacco Substantiated by Ultrasonic Interrogation

Data publikacji: 14 Aug 2014
Zakres stron: 293 - 301

Abstrakt

Abstract

The theoretical model and experimental results, as tabulated in Table 1, lead to the following conclusions concerning the elastic and structural properties of the examined reconstituted tobaccos:

The vehicle of ultrasonic interrogation of reconstituted materials proved to be efficacious. In total, the authors observed the advantages of this mode of experimentation to be:

Otwarty dostęp

Identification of Cellulose Fibers Isolated from Reconstituted Tobacco

Data publikacji: 14 Aug 2014
Zakres stron: 302 - 313

Abstrakt

Abstract

It is well known that the physicaI characteristics of natural fibers, particularly those of vegetable or cellulosic origin, can be controlled within well-defined limits by the chemicaI pulping methods and by the degree of refining to which they are subjected. It has been found that when such materials are subjected to a mild chemical treatment for the isolation of the cellulose, the isolated cellulose fiber, under microscopic analysis, has retained its physicaI identity despite the chemicaI exposures. This technique has been successfully applied to reconstituted tobacco as a means of identifying the source of the cellulose used in its manufacture. Not only can the source of the cellulose be determined as being from tobacco or wood, but the degree of refining to which these constituents were subjected prior to conversion into the reconstituted product can be easily ascertained. Photomicrographic proof for the validity of these statements is presented

Otwarty dostęp

Wool Cigarette Filters Part II: Modifications to Promote the Selective Removal of Biologically Active Vapour Phase Components

Data publikacji: 14 Aug 2014
Zakres stron: 314 - 320

Abstrakt

Abstract

Modified-wool cigarette filters have been evaluated for their efficiency in selectively retaining specific biologically active volatile and semivolatile smoke components. Filters containing chemically modified wools or wool treated with low-molecular-weight additives were ineffective. Polymeric additives reduced the cytotoxic level of cigarette smoke by varying degrees. Polyethylenimines were particularly effective additives and selectively removed portions of formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acrolein, hydrogen cyanide, phenols and other weakly acidic compounds. Increasing the moisture content of the treated filters markedly improved their performance. The effectiveness of polyethyleniminetreated filters in removing volatile aldehydes was strongly dependent on the pH of the filter, most efficient removaI occurring at pH 6.0-6.2.

Otwarty dostęp

Wool Cigarette Filters Part Ill: Selective Removal of Volatile Components with Polyethylenlmlne-Quaternary Ammonium Mixtures

Data publikacji: 14 Aug 2014
Zakres stron: 321 - 325

Abstrakt

Abstract

Chemical and biological assays showed that wool filters containing mixtures of commercially available polyethylenimines (PEI) and quaternary ammonium compounds (QUAT) selectively removed proportions of the biologically active volatile constituents of cigarette smoke. The action of the QUAT was synergistic in that it enhanced the performance of PEI filters but, alone, was ineffective in retaining volatile components. Only water-soluble QUATs with one long hydrocarbon chain (> 10 C-atoms) attached to nitrogen were effective. The best removal efficiencies were obtained with a PEI/QUAT ratio in the range 0.8-1.0 and 5-10 % by weight of each additive on the filter material. Analyses of puffs at stages along the tobacco column indicated that the treated filters retained their effectiveness from the first to the last puffs. The treated filters significantly increased the pH of the mainstream smoke.

Otwarty dostęp

A Method for Measuring the Burn Characteristics of Cigars

Data publikacji: 14 Aug 2014
Zakres stron: 326 - 329

Abstrakt

Abstract

For cigarettes, the weight of tobacco consumed in a puff can be determined by measuring the weight of tobacco consumed in a puff cycle (both the puff and free burn period) and correcting this weight for that consumed in free burn. The latter is determined independently. This methodology cannot be readily applied to cigars as in general, cigars do not burn for any extended period under free burn conditions. In this communication, a method has been described whereby the weights of tobacco consumed in the puff and in the free burn period between puffs can be determined. This information is obtained by examining the weights of tobacco burned at different puff frequencies or different puff volumes. Under both conditions of test, the weight of tobacco consumed during free burn is obtained by extrapolation of the data to zero puff frequency or volume. For data at different puff frequencies, the weight of tobacco burned in a puff is obtained directly from the slope of the curve. The method provides a means of describing the burning characteristics of a cigar.

Otwarty dostęp

Environmental Contamination of Flue-Cured Tobacco with Chlorinated Hydrocarbon Insecticides

Data publikacji: 14 Aug 2014
Zakres stron: 330 - 333

Abstrakt

Abstract

Indirect contamination of tobacco by DDT, TDE, endrin, dieldrin, and toxaphene was investigated under field conditions. Levels of DDT + TDE in soil ranged from << 0.01 to 0.18 ppm, and those in cured leaves ranged from 0.11 to 1.69 ppm. The lower stalk position at the major test location generally had greater concentrations of DDT + TDE than the middle and upper positions, but distribution of these insecticides among leaf positions was variable for other locations. Residues of DDT in the bottom stalk position were positively correlated with those in the soil. Plant-bed soils did not appear to be a major source of DDT + TDE residues in cured tobacco. Residues of endrin and dieldrin were near or below the limit of detection (0.01 ppm) in soil and cured leaf. Residues of toxaphene ranged from << 0.1 to 4.7 ppm in soil and << 0.3 to 7.7 ppm on tobacco. Toxaphene residues in the bottom and top stalk positions were positively correlated with residues in soil. Contamination by toxaphene appeared to be attributable to uptake from soil and to movement of the insecticide as drift or vapour through the air.

Otwarty dostęp

Determination of Chlorpyrifos (Diethyl-3,5,6-trichloropyridyl phosphorothioate) in Cured Tobacco

Data publikacji: 14 Aug 2014
Zakres stron: 334 - 338

Abstrakt

Abstract

A method for determining chlorpyrifos in cured tobacco by gas-Iiquid chromatography, using electron capture and thermionic detection, is described. Ground, cured tobacco, mixed with Florisil, is Soxhlet extracted with acetone for eight hours. The extract is evaporated to dryness, redissolved in a small amount of petroleum ether, and eluted through a silica gel column using first petroleum ether and then 5 % ether in petroleum ether. The volumes of the eluates are adjusted and their chlorpyrifos content determined by gas-liquid chromatography, using an electron capture detector and, for confirmation, a thermionic detector. Recoveries from spiked samples are good, and results are reproducible

12 Artykułów
Otwarty dostęp

Determination of 16 Elements in Tobacco by Neutron Activation Analysis

Data publikacji: 14 Aug 2014
Zakres stron: 247 - 249

Abstrakt

Abstract

The determination of 16 elements in raw tobacco by neutron activation analysis is discussed. The 8 elements Al, Ca, Mg, Cl, Mn, K, Na and Br can be determined by purely instrumental means; this leads to a high sample capacity per working day and to a fast availability of analyticaI results. Contrary to this, the determination of the heavy metals Hg, Cu, Mo, Cd, Zn, Co, As and Sb has to be preceded by chemicaI separation which is accomplished by extractions with different metal-diethyldithiocarbamates as reagents. The variation coefficient is typically ± 4 %. The Iowest and highest values of the concentrations which were found in the analysis of 20 different raw tobaccos are given.

Otwarty dostęp

Polynuclear Aromatic Hydrocarbons of Tobacco Smoke: Isolation and Identification

Data publikacji: 14 Aug 2014
Zakres stron: 250 - 272

Abstrakt

Abstract

A neutral fraction of cigarette smoke condensate, which had shown biological activity and was known to contain polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), was fractionated by analytical gel filtration chromatography. These gel fractions were subjected to gas chromatographic separation and their components were identified by relative GC retention times, UV spectra, and mass spectral data. More than 300 PAH, ranging from indene to the dimethylbenzopyrenes, were characterized. This method of isolation has yielded fractions which were more amenable to definitive identifications. The criteria used for identification are tabulated for all the identified PAH compounds.

Otwarty dostęp

A Chromatographic Analysis for Polynuclear Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Small Quantities of Cigarette Smoke Condensate

Data publikacji: 14 Aug 2014
Zakres stron: 273 - 282

Abstrakt

Abstract

A four-step method has been described for the quantitative analysis of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in smoke condensate from 90 or more cigarettes. It involves the extraction of condensate solution with water, silicic acid and gel filtration chromatography, then separation and quantitation by gas chromatography. Individual PAH or totaI PAH profiles of condensates from different cigarettes can now be compared. The method was applied to reference, commercial nonfilter, and commercial filter cigarettes. The details and advantages of the method are elaborated.

Otwarty dostęp

The Thermal Emittance of Cigarette Coal

Data publikacji: 14 Aug 2014
Zakres stron: 283 - 285

Abstrakt

Abstract

The radiation intensity emitted by the surface of an extinguished cigarette coal in a heated environment was compared with the radiation intensity of an artificial blackbody at the same temperature. The experiments were carried out at several temperature levels between 50°C and 125°C. The results indicate that the emittance of the cigarette coal is close to unity. The calculated values based on data obtained within the limits of the experiments varied between 0.997 and 0.91 (average 0.97).

Otwarty dostęp

Nicotine Workshop

Data publikacji: 14 Aug 2014
Zakres stron: 286 - 292

Abstrakt

Abstract

A workshop on problems related to the analysis of nicotine and nicotine metabolites in body fluids at levels pertinent to the human situation was held in November 1974 in Stockholm. It was organized by C. Enzell, B. Holmstedt and A. Pilotti at the request of the Medical Advisory Board of the Swedish Tobacco Company. The goal of the workshop was to summarize the present state of art in the area outlined by the organizers and to discuss critically the advantages and limitations of the different analytical methods available today. EIeven experts in the field of metabolism, detection and biosynthesis of nicotine and related compounds were therefore invited to present papers on these topics and to participate in the discussions. AIl speakers invited were able to attend and the papers were arranged in the following groups:

Each speaker had one hour and a half at his disposal which included the discussion which, due to the informal atmosphere and the smaII number of participants, was very lively and fruitful. The papers read at this workshop comprise a very valuable coverage of recent research in the fields of metabolism of nicotine and minor tobacco alkaloids, and of the various methods available for detection of these alkaloids. The abstracts are given below, while full papers, now edited by A. Pilotti, can be obtained on request from C. Enzell of the Swedish Tobacco Company

Otwarty dostęp

A Structural Model of Reconstituted Tobacco Substantiated by Ultrasonic Interrogation

Data publikacji: 14 Aug 2014
Zakres stron: 293 - 301

Abstrakt

Abstract

The theoretical model and experimental results, as tabulated in Table 1, lead to the following conclusions concerning the elastic and structural properties of the examined reconstituted tobaccos:

The vehicle of ultrasonic interrogation of reconstituted materials proved to be efficacious. In total, the authors observed the advantages of this mode of experimentation to be:

Otwarty dostęp

Identification of Cellulose Fibers Isolated from Reconstituted Tobacco

Data publikacji: 14 Aug 2014
Zakres stron: 302 - 313

Abstrakt

Abstract

It is well known that the physicaI characteristics of natural fibers, particularly those of vegetable or cellulosic origin, can be controlled within well-defined limits by the chemicaI pulping methods and by the degree of refining to which they are subjected. It has been found that when such materials are subjected to a mild chemical treatment for the isolation of the cellulose, the isolated cellulose fiber, under microscopic analysis, has retained its physicaI identity despite the chemicaI exposures. This technique has been successfully applied to reconstituted tobacco as a means of identifying the source of the cellulose used in its manufacture. Not only can the source of the cellulose be determined as being from tobacco or wood, but the degree of refining to which these constituents were subjected prior to conversion into the reconstituted product can be easily ascertained. Photomicrographic proof for the validity of these statements is presented

Otwarty dostęp

Wool Cigarette Filters Part II: Modifications to Promote the Selective Removal of Biologically Active Vapour Phase Components

Data publikacji: 14 Aug 2014
Zakres stron: 314 - 320

Abstrakt

Abstract

Modified-wool cigarette filters have been evaluated for their efficiency in selectively retaining specific biologically active volatile and semivolatile smoke components. Filters containing chemically modified wools or wool treated with low-molecular-weight additives were ineffective. Polymeric additives reduced the cytotoxic level of cigarette smoke by varying degrees. Polyethylenimines were particularly effective additives and selectively removed portions of formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acrolein, hydrogen cyanide, phenols and other weakly acidic compounds. Increasing the moisture content of the treated filters markedly improved their performance. The effectiveness of polyethyleniminetreated filters in removing volatile aldehydes was strongly dependent on the pH of the filter, most efficient removaI occurring at pH 6.0-6.2.

Otwarty dostęp

Wool Cigarette Filters Part Ill: Selective Removal of Volatile Components with Polyethylenlmlne-Quaternary Ammonium Mixtures

Data publikacji: 14 Aug 2014
Zakres stron: 321 - 325

Abstrakt

Abstract

Chemical and biological assays showed that wool filters containing mixtures of commercially available polyethylenimines (PEI) and quaternary ammonium compounds (QUAT) selectively removed proportions of the biologically active volatile constituents of cigarette smoke. The action of the QUAT was synergistic in that it enhanced the performance of PEI filters but, alone, was ineffective in retaining volatile components. Only water-soluble QUATs with one long hydrocarbon chain (> 10 C-atoms) attached to nitrogen were effective. The best removal efficiencies were obtained with a PEI/QUAT ratio in the range 0.8-1.0 and 5-10 % by weight of each additive on the filter material. Analyses of puffs at stages along the tobacco column indicated that the treated filters retained their effectiveness from the first to the last puffs. The treated filters significantly increased the pH of the mainstream smoke.

Otwarty dostęp

A Method for Measuring the Burn Characteristics of Cigars

Data publikacji: 14 Aug 2014
Zakres stron: 326 - 329

Abstrakt

Abstract

For cigarettes, the weight of tobacco consumed in a puff can be determined by measuring the weight of tobacco consumed in a puff cycle (both the puff and free burn period) and correcting this weight for that consumed in free burn. The latter is determined independently. This methodology cannot be readily applied to cigars as in general, cigars do not burn for any extended period under free burn conditions. In this communication, a method has been described whereby the weights of tobacco consumed in the puff and in the free burn period between puffs can be determined. This information is obtained by examining the weights of tobacco burned at different puff frequencies or different puff volumes. Under both conditions of test, the weight of tobacco consumed during free burn is obtained by extrapolation of the data to zero puff frequency or volume. For data at different puff frequencies, the weight of tobacco burned in a puff is obtained directly from the slope of the curve. The method provides a means of describing the burning characteristics of a cigar.

Otwarty dostęp

Environmental Contamination of Flue-Cured Tobacco with Chlorinated Hydrocarbon Insecticides

Data publikacji: 14 Aug 2014
Zakres stron: 330 - 333

Abstrakt

Abstract

Indirect contamination of tobacco by DDT, TDE, endrin, dieldrin, and toxaphene was investigated under field conditions. Levels of DDT + TDE in soil ranged from << 0.01 to 0.18 ppm, and those in cured leaves ranged from 0.11 to 1.69 ppm. The lower stalk position at the major test location generally had greater concentrations of DDT + TDE than the middle and upper positions, but distribution of these insecticides among leaf positions was variable for other locations. Residues of DDT in the bottom stalk position were positively correlated with those in the soil. Plant-bed soils did not appear to be a major source of DDT + TDE residues in cured tobacco. Residues of endrin and dieldrin were near or below the limit of detection (0.01 ppm) in soil and cured leaf. Residues of toxaphene ranged from << 0.1 to 4.7 ppm in soil and << 0.3 to 7.7 ppm on tobacco. Toxaphene residues in the bottom and top stalk positions were positively correlated with residues in soil. Contamination by toxaphene appeared to be attributable to uptake from soil and to movement of the insecticide as drift or vapour through the air.

Otwarty dostęp

Determination of Chlorpyrifos (Diethyl-3,5,6-trichloropyridyl phosphorothioate) in Cured Tobacco

Data publikacji: 14 Aug 2014
Zakres stron: 334 - 338

Abstrakt

Abstract

A method for determining chlorpyrifos in cured tobacco by gas-Iiquid chromatography, using electron capture and thermionic detection, is described. Ground, cured tobacco, mixed with Florisil, is Soxhlet extracted with acetone for eight hours. The extract is evaporated to dryness, redissolved in a small amount of petroleum ether, and eluted through a silica gel column using first petroleum ether and then 5 % ether in petroleum ether. The volumes of the eluates are adjusted and their chlorpyrifos content determined by gas-liquid chromatography, using an electron capture detector and, for confirmation, a thermionic detector. Recoveries from spiked samples are good, and results are reproducible

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