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Informacje o czasopiśmie
Format
Czasopismo
eISSN
2719-9509
Pierwsze wydanie
01 Jan 1992
Częstotliwość wydawania
4 razy w roku
Języki
Angielski

Wyszukiwanie

Tom 4 (1968): Zeszyt 7 (December 1968)

Informacje o czasopiśmie
Format
Czasopismo
eISSN
2719-9509
Pierwsze wydanie
01 Jan 1992
Częstotliwość wydawania
4 razy w roku
Języki
Angielski

Wyszukiwanie

9 Artykułów
Otwarty dostęp

The Effect of Additives on the Combustion Temperature of Cigarettes

Data publikacji: 03 Jul 2014
Zakres stron: 269 - 274

Abstrakt

Abstract

A large number of cigarette additives was tested for the effect on the combustion temperature, including free radical initiators and inhibitors, salts of organic acids, inorganic salts and other inorganic compounds, lead-borate glasses, oxidizing agents, petroleum refining and oxidative catalysts, flame retardants, fire-proofing salts and other compounds and mixtures. Most of the additives showed no dramatic increase or decrease of temperature even at high concentrations but some indications of small alterations were obtained in a few cases.

Otwarty dostęp

A Simple Method Designed for the Collection of Gaseous Tobacco Smoke Components and its Application for the Determination of Carbon Monoxide in Cigarette Smoke - Eine einfache Methode zur Gewinnung gasförmiger Tabakrauchbestandteile: Ihre Anwendung zur Bestimmung des Kohlenmonoxids im Rauch

Data publikacji: 03 Jul 2014
Zakres stron: 275 - 277

Abstrakt

Abstract

The present paper describes a simple device designed for the analytical smoking of single cigarettes and capable of collecting the gaseous constituents of tobacco smoke. The trap has been used to determine the carbon monoxide content of the smoke of cigarettes made from reconstituted tobacco by gas chromatography

Otwarty dostęp

Examination of the Gas-Vapour Phase of Cigarette Smoke. 2nd Report: The Determination of the Carbon Monoxide Content of the Gas Phase of Cigarette Smoke - Zur Untersuchung der Gas-Dampf-Phase des Cigarettenrauches: 2. Mitteilung: Zur Bestimmung des Stickstoffmonoxids (NO) aus der Gasphase des Cigarettenrauches

Data publikacji: 03 Jul 2014
Zakres stron: 278 - 282

Abstrakt

Abstract

The NO content of the gas-vapour phase of cigarette smoke is determined by a simple colourimetric procedure: NO is absorbed by a solution of FeSO4 in diluted H2SO4 up to an equilibrium with the formation of the addition compound Fe•NO•SO4. The spectrophotometric investigation of the resulting solution shows two maxima (580 and 445 mµ). The maximum at 445 mµ is chosen for the colourimetric determination of NO. The formation of Fe•NO•SO4 takes place via a reversible stoichiometric reaction, the absorption of NO is proportional to the partial pressure of NO in the gas mixture. The concentration of NO in the mainstream smoke of commercial cigarettes with different tobacco types and blends has been shown to be in the range between 250-1500 ppm, i.e. 110-660 µg NO/ cigarette. Contrary to other methods, the new procedure enables the differentiated determination of NO besides NO2. In the fresh smoke from Straight Virginia cigarettes, i.e. 2-5 sec. after generation, no NO2 was detectable. Under the same conditions, blended cigarettes showed a content of about 5 µg NO2/cigarette. 60 seconds after smoke generation, about 200 µg NO2/cigarette have been determined. These results show that of the nitrogen oxides only NO is present in fresh cigarette smoke. The autoxidation to NO2 occurs to a considerable extent within 60 seconds

Otwarty dostęp

The Evaluation of Total Nitrogen in Cigarette Smoke - Über die Bilanz des Stickstoffes im Cigarettenrauch

Data publikacji: 03 Jul 2014
Zakres stron: 283 - 286

Abstrakt

Abstract

Total nitrogen and nicotine contained in cigarette smoke condensate and condensate fractions have quantitatively been estimated. The results show that only 5 to 36 % of total nitrogen can be related to nicotine. It is tried to determine the balance of nitrogen in smoke condensate. The calculations made suggest that, for example within the group of nitrogenous compounds, there might be smoke constituents which are still unknown and which occur at relatively high concentrations.

Otwarty dostęp

Determination of the Balance of Carbon-14 Activity Added to Cigarettes

Data publikacji: 03 Jul 2014
Zakres stron: 287 - 292

Abstrakt

Abstract

A simple method for the determination of the balance of carbon-14 activity added to cigarettes is described. The total recovery of activity is 80 % or greater, and the method can be used to obtain information on the transfer and pyrolysis reactions occurring when cigarettes are smoked.

Otwarty dostęp

Examinations with an Improved Densimeter for Measuring the Filling Capacity of Cut Tobacco and the Hardness of Cigarettes - Untersuchungen mit einem verbesserten Densimeter zum Prüfen der Füllfähigkeit von Schnittabak und der Härte von Cigaretten

Data publikacji: 03 Jul 2014
Zakres stron: 293 - 300

Abstrakt

Abstract

Maintaining the approved principle of determining the filling capacity of tobacco and the hardness of cigarettes by measuring the change in volume under constant pressure within a constant time, the instruments "Densimeter" and "Kompressimeter" have been combined, automatisized and supplied with improved indicator devices. Moreover for measuring the hardness of cigarettes the shape of the loading platforms has been changed. The influence of different parameters on the filling power of tobacco and the hardness of cigarettes for several types of blends has been investigated with this combined set of apparatuses. The results hitherto obtained confirm the usefulness of the new instrument for measuring the hardness of cigarettes and of filter rods as well as for determining the filling capacity of cut tobacco for quality control, routine checks and basic investigations.

Otwarty dostęp

Determination of the Binding Heat of Water in Tobacco - Bestimmung der Bindungswärme des Wassers im Tabak

Data publikacji: 03 Jul 2014
Zakres stron: 301 - 307

Abstrakt

Abstract

The evolution of the desorption curves of a Greek cigarette brand at temperatures of 15° to 30°C is presented by means of the formula established by Brunauer, Emmet and Teller, and used to determine the heat of binding of water at 40 % to 70 % relative humidity of air. The mechanical linkage force of water is shown to be confirmed by the calculated heat values.

Otwarty dostęp

Studies on the Water Binding Conditions of Lignin. A Model Study on the Water Binding Conditions of Tobacco - Untersuchungen über die Wasserbindungsverhältnisse des Lignins: Eine Modellstudie als Beitrag zur Klärung der WasserbindungsverhäItnisse des Tabaks

Data publikacji: 03 Jul 2014
Zakres stron: 309 - 312

Abstrakt

Abstract

Water is bound by lignin similar to a hydratate binding, by adsorption, by capillarity, and as crude moisture. This can be concluded from the evaluation of the sorption isothermes of lignin. Investigations by x-rays demonstrate that there was no intracrystalline integration of water molecules.

Otwarty dostęp

The Determination of By-Passing Air in Cigarettes - Über die Messung der Nebenluft bei Cigaretten

Data publikacji: 03 Jul 2014
Zakres stron: 313 - 314

Abstrakt

Abstract

The authors describe a method to determine the rate of by-passing air in cigarettes.

9 Artykułów
Otwarty dostęp

The Effect of Additives on the Combustion Temperature of Cigarettes

Data publikacji: 03 Jul 2014
Zakres stron: 269 - 274

Abstrakt

Abstract

A large number of cigarette additives was tested for the effect on the combustion temperature, including free radical initiators and inhibitors, salts of organic acids, inorganic salts and other inorganic compounds, lead-borate glasses, oxidizing agents, petroleum refining and oxidative catalysts, flame retardants, fire-proofing salts and other compounds and mixtures. Most of the additives showed no dramatic increase or decrease of temperature even at high concentrations but some indications of small alterations were obtained in a few cases.

Otwarty dostęp

A Simple Method Designed for the Collection of Gaseous Tobacco Smoke Components and its Application for the Determination of Carbon Monoxide in Cigarette Smoke - Eine einfache Methode zur Gewinnung gasförmiger Tabakrauchbestandteile: Ihre Anwendung zur Bestimmung des Kohlenmonoxids im Rauch

Data publikacji: 03 Jul 2014
Zakres stron: 275 - 277

Abstrakt

Abstract

The present paper describes a simple device designed for the analytical smoking of single cigarettes and capable of collecting the gaseous constituents of tobacco smoke. The trap has been used to determine the carbon monoxide content of the smoke of cigarettes made from reconstituted tobacco by gas chromatography

Otwarty dostęp

Examination of the Gas-Vapour Phase of Cigarette Smoke. 2nd Report: The Determination of the Carbon Monoxide Content of the Gas Phase of Cigarette Smoke - Zur Untersuchung der Gas-Dampf-Phase des Cigarettenrauches: 2. Mitteilung: Zur Bestimmung des Stickstoffmonoxids (NO) aus der Gasphase des Cigarettenrauches

Data publikacji: 03 Jul 2014
Zakres stron: 278 - 282

Abstrakt

Abstract

The NO content of the gas-vapour phase of cigarette smoke is determined by a simple colourimetric procedure: NO is absorbed by a solution of FeSO4 in diluted H2SO4 up to an equilibrium with the formation of the addition compound Fe•NO•SO4. The spectrophotometric investigation of the resulting solution shows two maxima (580 and 445 mµ). The maximum at 445 mµ is chosen for the colourimetric determination of NO. The formation of Fe•NO•SO4 takes place via a reversible stoichiometric reaction, the absorption of NO is proportional to the partial pressure of NO in the gas mixture. The concentration of NO in the mainstream smoke of commercial cigarettes with different tobacco types and blends has been shown to be in the range between 250-1500 ppm, i.e. 110-660 µg NO/ cigarette. Contrary to other methods, the new procedure enables the differentiated determination of NO besides NO2. In the fresh smoke from Straight Virginia cigarettes, i.e. 2-5 sec. after generation, no NO2 was detectable. Under the same conditions, blended cigarettes showed a content of about 5 µg NO2/cigarette. 60 seconds after smoke generation, about 200 µg NO2/cigarette have been determined. These results show that of the nitrogen oxides only NO is present in fresh cigarette smoke. The autoxidation to NO2 occurs to a considerable extent within 60 seconds

Otwarty dostęp

The Evaluation of Total Nitrogen in Cigarette Smoke - Über die Bilanz des Stickstoffes im Cigarettenrauch

Data publikacji: 03 Jul 2014
Zakres stron: 283 - 286

Abstrakt

Abstract

Total nitrogen and nicotine contained in cigarette smoke condensate and condensate fractions have quantitatively been estimated. The results show that only 5 to 36 % of total nitrogen can be related to nicotine. It is tried to determine the balance of nitrogen in smoke condensate. The calculations made suggest that, for example within the group of nitrogenous compounds, there might be smoke constituents which are still unknown and which occur at relatively high concentrations.

Otwarty dostęp

Determination of the Balance of Carbon-14 Activity Added to Cigarettes

Data publikacji: 03 Jul 2014
Zakres stron: 287 - 292

Abstrakt

Abstract

A simple method for the determination of the balance of carbon-14 activity added to cigarettes is described. The total recovery of activity is 80 % or greater, and the method can be used to obtain information on the transfer and pyrolysis reactions occurring when cigarettes are smoked.

Otwarty dostęp

Examinations with an Improved Densimeter for Measuring the Filling Capacity of Cut Tobacco and the Hardness of Cigarettes - Untersuchungen mit einem verbesserten Densimeter zum Prüfen der Füllfähigkeit von Schnittabak und der Härte von Cigaretten

Data publikacji: 03 Jul 2014
Zakres stron: 293 - 300

Abstrakt

Abstract

Maintaining the approved principle of determining the filling capacity of tobacco and the hardness of cigarettes by measuring the change in volume under constant pressure within a constant time, the instruments "Densimeter" and "Kompressimeter" have been combined, automatisized and supplied with improved indicator devices. Moreover for measuring the hardness of cigarettes the shape of the loading platforms has been changed. The influence of different parameters on the filling power of tobacco and the hardness of cigarettes for several types of blends has been investigated with this combined set of apparatuses. The results hitherto obtained confirm the usefulness of the new instrument for measuring the hardness of cigarettes and of filter rods as well as for determining the filling capacity of cut tobacco for quality control, routine checks and basic investigations.

Otwarty dostęp

Determination of the Binding Heat of Water in Tobacco - Bestimmung der Bindungswärme des Wassers im Tabak

Data publikacji: 03 Jul 2014
Zakres stron: 301 - 307

Abstrakt

Abstract

The evolution of the desorption curves of a Greek cigarette brand at temperatures of 15° to 30°C is presented by means of the formula established by Brunauer, Emmet and Teller, and used to determine the heat of binding of water at 40 % to 70 % relative humidity of air. The mechanical linkage force of water is shown to be confirmed by the calculated heat values.

Otwarty dostęp

Studies on the Water Binding Conditions of Lignin. A Model Study on the Water Binding Conditions of Tobacco - Untersuchungen über die Wasserbindungsverhältnisse des Lignins: Eine Modellstudie als Beitrag zur Klärung der WasserbindungsverhäItnisse des Tabaks

Data publikacji: 03 Jul 2014
Zakres stron: 309 - 312

Abstrakt

Abstract

Water is bound by lignin similar to a hydratate binding, by adsorption, by capillarity, and as crude moisture. This can be concluded from the evaluation of the sorption isothermes of lignin. Investigations by x-rays demonstrate that there was no intracrystalline integration of water molecules.

Otwarty dostęp

The Determination of By-Passing Air in Cigarettes - Über die Messung der Nebenluft bei Cigaretten

Data publikacji: 03 Jul 2014
Zakres stron: 313 - 314

Abstrakt

Abstract

The authors describe a method to determine the rate of by-passing air in cigarettes.

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