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Informacje o czasopiśmie
Format
Czasopismo
eISSN
2719-9509
Pierwsze wydanie
01 Jan 1992
Częstotliwość wydawania
4 razy w roku
Języki
Angielski

Wyszukiwanie

Tom 19 (2000): Zeszyt 3 (October 2000)

Informacje o czasopiśmie
Format
Czasopismo
eISSN
2719-9509
Pierwsze wydanie
01 Jan 1992
Częstotliwość wydawania
4 razy w roku
Języki
Angielski

Wyszukiwanie

4 Artykułów
Otwarty dostęp

“Smoke pH”: A Review

Data publikacji: 30 Dec 2014
Zakres stron: 117 - 139

Abstrakt

Abstract

The analytical methods developed since the 1950s to determine the “smoke pH” of cigarette mainstream smoke (MSS) are reviewed. Most of the methods involve averaging the values obtained with all the puffs from a cigarette or averaging values from the total number of puffs from several cigarettes plus solution of the MSS in various quantities of water prior to pH determination. “Smoke pH” values thus obtained have little relevance to the situation involving a smoker who smokes a cigarette one puff at a time. In the human biological situation, the smoke components must traverse a layer of buffered fluid separating the smoke-filled respiratory tract cavity and the underlying tissue. Seldom is the effect of either the volume or the pH of the buffered fluid taken into account in determining the “smoke pH” of cigarette MSS taken one puff at a time. While numerous recent discussions have dealt with the effect of pH on the nature (degree of protonation) of nicotine in cigarette MSS and its rate of absorption by the smoker, seldom is the volume and/or pH of oral cavity saliva or of the fluid coating the lung surface considered in the assessment of either the nature or absorption of nicotine by the smoker. If the degree of protonation of nicotine be pH dependent, then the degree of protonation of nicotine as it traverses the film of fluid separating the respiratory tract cavity and the underlying tissue must be dependent on the pH of the buffered fluid and not on the “smoke pH” per se. Statements that adjustment of the “smoke pH” by ammoniation of one or more tobacco blend components increases both the level of MSS nicotine and its rate of absorption, thus resulting in greater consumer acceptance and continuation of smoking, fail to take into account the other changes that occur in the MSS composition to enhance its consumer acceptability. Inclusion of modest percentages of ammoniated tobacco in the blend increases the “smoke pH” of the MSS but does not necessarily increase MSS nicotine level. Not only are the MSS levels of several low molecular acids, aldehydes, and ketones known to be respiratory tract irritants substantially reduced but also the MSS levels of several highly flavorful pyrazines are substantially increased. These MSS composition changes yield an MSS classified as milder and more flavorful and whose consumer acceptability is considerably enhanced. Until the pH of MSS is determined on a per puff basis in a system simulating that in the oral cavity or the lung of the smoker, the nature of specific smoke components at the time of contact and their reactivity with respiratory tract tissue remain highly speculative. “Smoke pH” value for MSS, like the “tar” value for MSS, provides little, if any, useful information about the chemical composition of the source of the MSS or about its chemical and biological properties.

Otwarty dostęp

The Transfer of Nicotine from Nicotine Salts to Mainstream Smoke

Data publikacji: 30 Dec 2014
Zakres stron: 141 - 158

Abstrakt

Abstract

Transfer of nicotine to mainstream smoke was measured for Reference cigarettes made with the addition of 20 -40 mg of seven different nicotine salts, d- and l-nicotine and N’-formylnornicotine. Regression analysis of the nicotine yields from these cigarettes as a function of the nicotine content of the tobacco rods indicated an average nicotine transfer efficiency (17.5%), similar to that found for a separate series of cigarettes made with single-grade tobacco materials (16.2%). Analysis of the enantiomeric purity of the smoke nicotine from the cigarettes made with added nicotine salts and neat nicotine showed no evidence of conversion between l- and d-nicotine during the smoking process. The cigarette made with added N’-formylnornicotine showed no evidence of additional nicotine transfer attributable to reduction of this compound to nicotine. A third series of cigarettes were made with varying levels of d- and l-nicotine added to a tobacco blend and to reconstituted tobacco to further investigate transfer efficiency of the enantiomers. Regression analysis indicated no statistically significant difference between transfer efficiencies of d- and l-nicotine. These results suggest that nicotine salts and d- and l-nicotine transfer to smoke at the same efficiency. However, transfer efficiency of either compound was lower when applied to reconstituted tobacco (9.7%) than when applied to the Reference tobacco blend (15.3%). The thermal stabilities of nicotine salts have little bearing on efficiency of transfer to smoke or on racemization between d- and l-nicotine. Formation of d-nicotine in mainstream smoke via reduction of N’-formylnornicotine does not appear to occur.

Otwarty dostęp

On the Hybrid F1 Characteristics of Physiology, Biochemistry, Product Quality and Resistance to Black Shank in Oriental Tobacco

Data publikacji: 30 Dec 2014
Zakres stron: 159 - 165

Abstrakt

Abstract

Experiments were conducted from 1996 to 1998 at the Hefei Institute of Economics and Technology and at the Oriental Experimental Station of the Zhejiang Province (China). Seven F1 hybrids and three parental varieties of Oriental tobaccos were evaluated for the characteristics of photosynthetic and transpiration rates, esterase isozymes, resistance to black shank, quality and product potential from the 1996-1998 growing seasons. Tobacco leaves had higher photosynthetic rates and many differences among genotypes in the early stage of plant vigorous growth compared with more mature leaves. However, transpiration rates were lower in the younger leaves and greater in the more mature leaves. All the entries had four common bands (B1, B3, B4 and B6) of the esterase isoenzymes. Differences between entries resulted from in having or not having the B2 and B5 bands and color intensity differences of all the bands. These differences could be used to identify individual entries. The F1hybrids Samsun X Toy and Samsun X Argjiro, compared with the CK Samsun control, had obvious heterotic vigor in the characteristics of product, for yield, quality and resistance to black shank. The F1 hybrid Samsun X Toy maintained higher photosynthetic and transpiration rates in the two growth stages compared to other entries. However, the F1hybrid Samsun X Argjiro had higher photosynthetic rates and lower transpiration rates in the early growth stage and the two rates were lower in the later stage, but it maintained higher photosynthetic rates for the whole growth stage. Net photosynthetic rates had a significant positive correlation with yield product, quality and resistance to black shank of the Oriental tobacco F1hybrids.

Otwarty dostęp

Aflatoxin B1 and Tobacco Products

Data publikacji: 30 Dec 2014
Zakres stron: 167 - 168

Abstrakt

Abstract

The potential for aflatoxin B1 contamination of tobaccos and its subsequent transfer to smoke has been raised. This paper examines published work relevant to this issue and concludes that aflatoxin B1 is not a contamination issue on tobaccos and, even if present, would decompose in the burning cigarette and would not transfer to smoke.

4 Artykułów
Otwarty dostęp

“Smoke pH”: A Review

Data publikacji: 30 Dec 2014
Zakres stron: 117 - 139

Abstrakt

Abstract

The analytical methods developed since the 1950s to determine the “smoke pH” of cigarette mainstream smoke (MSS) are reviewed. Most of the methods involve averaging the values obtained with all the puffs from a cigarette or averaging values from the total number of puffs from several cigarettes plus solution of the MSS in various quantities of water prior to pH determination. “Smoke pH” values thus obtained have little relevance to the situation involving a smoker who smokes a cigarette one puff at a time. In the human biological situation, the smoke components must traverse a layer of buffered fluid separating the smoke-filled respiratory tract cavity and the underlying tissue. Seldom is the effect of either the volume or the pH of the buffered fluid taken into account in determining the “smoke pH” of cigarette MSS taken one puff at a time. While numerous recent discussions have dealt with the effect of pH on the nature (degree of protonation) of nicotine in cigarette MSS and its rate of absorption by the smoker, seldom is the volume and/or pH of oral cavity saliva or of the fluid coating the lung surface considered in the assessment of either the nature or absorption of nicotine by the smoker. If the degree of protonation of nicotine be pH dependent, then the degree of protonation of nicotine as it traverses the film of fluid separating the respiratory tract cavity and the underlying tissue must be dependent on the pH of the buffered fluid and not on the “smoke pH” per se. Statements that adjustment of the “smoke pH” by ammoniation of one or more tobacco blend components increases both the level of MSS nicotine and its rate of absorption, thus resulting in greater consumer acceptance and continuation of smoking, fail to take into account the other changes that occur in the MSS composition to enhance its consumer acceptability. Inclusion of modest percentages of ammoniated tobacco in the blend increases the “smoke pH” of the MSS but does not necessarily increase MSS nicotine level. Not only are the MSS levels of several low molecular acids, aldehydes, and ketones known to be respiratory tract irritants substantially reduced but also the MSS levels of several highly flavorful pyrazines are substantially increased. These MSS composition changes yield an MSS classified as milder and more flavorful and whose consumer acceptability is considerably enhanced. Until the pH of MSS is determined on a per puff basis in a system simulating that in the oral cavity or the lung of the smoker, the nature of specific smoke components at the time of contact and their reactivity with respiratory tract tissue remain highly speculative. “Smoke pH” value for MSS, like the “tar” value for MSS, provides little, if any, useful information about the chemical composition of the source of the MSS or about its chemical and biological properties.

Otwarty dostęp

The Transfer of Nicotine from Nicotine Salts to Mainstream Smoke

Data publikacji: 30 Dec 2014
Zakres stron: 141 - 158

Abstrakt

Abstract

Transfer of nicotine to mainstream smoke was measured for Reference cigarettes made with the addition of 20 -40 mg of seven different nicotine salts, d- and l-nicotine and N’-formylnornicotine. Regression analysis of the nicotine yields from these cigarettes as a function of the nicotine content of the tobacco rods indicated an average nicotine transfer efficiency (17.5%), similar to that found for a separate series of cigarettes made with single-grade tobacco materials (16.2%). Analysis of the enantiomeric purity of the smoke nicotine from the cigarettes made with added nicotine salts and neat nicotine showed no evidence of conversion between l- and d-nicotine during the smoking process. The cigarette made with added N’-formylnornicotine showed no evidence of additional nicotine transfer attributable to reduction of this compound to nicotine. A third series of cigarettes were made with varying levels of d- and l-nicotine added to a tobacco blend and to reconstituted tobacco to further investigate transfer efficiency of the enantiomers. Regression analysis indicated no statistically significant difference between transfer efficiencies of d- and l-nicotine. These results suggest that nicotine salts and d- and l-nicotine transfer to smoke at the same efficiency. However, transfer efficiency of either compound was lower when applied to reconstituted tobacco (9.7%) than when applied to the Reference tobacco blend (15.3%). The thermal stabilities of nicotine salts have little bearing on efficiency of transfer to smoke or on racemization between d- and l-nicotine. Formation of d-nicotine in mainstream smoke via reduction of N’-formylnornicotine does not appear to occur.

Otwarty dostęp

On the Hybrid F1 Characteristics of Physiology, Biochemistry, Product Quality and Resistance to Black Shank in Oriental Tobacco

Data publikacji: 30 Dec 2014
Zakres stron: 159 - 165

Abstrakt

Abstract

Experiments were conducted from 1996 to 1998 at the Hefei Institute of Economics and Technology and at the Oriental Experimental Station of the Zhejiang Province (China). Seven F1 hybrids and three parental varieties of Oriental tobaccos were evaluated for the characteristics of photosynthetic and transpiration rates, esterase isozymes, resistance to black shank, quality and product potential from the 1996-1998 growing seasons. Tobacco leaves had higher photosynthetic rates and many differences among genotypes in the early stage of plant vigorous growth compared with more mature leaves. However, transpiration rates were lower in the younger leaves and greater in the more mature leaves. All the entries had four common bands (B1, B3, B4 and B6) of the esterase isoenzymes. Differences between entries resulted from in having or not having the B2 and B5 bands and color intensity differences of all the bands. These differences could be used to identify individual entries. The F1hybrids Samsun X Toy and Samsun X Argjiro, compared with the CK Samsun control, had obvious heterotic vigor in the characteristics of product, for yield, quality and resistance to black shank. The F1 hybrid Samsun X Toy maintained higher photosynthetic and transpiration rates in the two growth stages compared to other entries. However, the F1hybrid Samsun X Argjiro had higher photosynthetic rates and lower transpiration rates in the early growth stage and the two rates were lower in the later stage, but it maintained higher photosynthetic rates for the whole growth stage. Net photosynthetic rates had a significant positive correlation with yield product, quality and resistance to black shank of the Oriental tobacco F1hybrids.

Otwarty dostęp

Aflatoxin B1 and Tobacco Products

Data publikacji: 30 Dec 2014
Zakres stron: 167 - 168

Abstrakt

Abstract

The potential for aflatoxin B1 contamination of tobaccos and its subsequent transfer to smoke has been raised. This paper examines published work relevant to this issue and concludes that aflatoxin B1 is not a contamination issue on tobaccos and, even if present, would decompose in the burning cigarette and would not transfer to smoke.

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