1. bookTom 26 (2015): Zeszyt 4 (January 2015)
Informacje o czasopiśmie
Pierwsze wydanie
01 Jan 1992
Częstotliwość wydawania
4 razy w roku
Otwarty dostęp

Influence of Machine-Derived Smoke Yields on Biomarker of Exposure (BOE) Levels in Cigarette Smokers*

Data publikacji: 31 Jan 2015
Tom & Zeszyt: Tom 26 (2015) - Zeszyt 4 (January 2015)
Zakres stron: 138 - 175
Otrzymano: 15 Jul 2014
Przyjęty: 02 Nov 2014
Informacje o czasopiśmie
Pierwsze wydanie
01 Jan 1992
Częstotliwość wydawania
4 razy w roku

1. Doll, R. and R. Peto: Cigarette Smoking and Bron-chial Carcinoma: Dose and Time Relationships among Regular Smokers and Lifelong Non-Smokers; J. Epidemiol. Community Health 32 (1978) 303-313.Search in Google Scholar

2. International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC): Tobacco Smoke and Involuntary Smoking; IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, Vol 83, IARC, Lyon, France, 2004.Search in Google Scholar

3. U. S. Department of Health and Human Services: How Tobacco Smoke Causes Disease: The Biology and Behavioral Basis for Smoking-Attributable Disease: A Report of the Surgeon General; U. S. Dept. of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office on Smoking and Health, Atlanta, GA, USA, 2010, available at: http://www. surgeongeneral. gov/library (accessed Nov. 2014).Search in Google Scholar

4. Scherer, G.: Smoking Behaviour and Compensation: A Review of the Literature; Psychopharmacology (Berl.) 145 (1999) 1-20.Search in Google Scholar

5. Scherer, G.: Biomonitoring of Inhaled Complex Mixtures - Ambient Air, Diesel Exhaust and Cigarette Smoke; Exp. Toxicol. Pathol. 57 (2005) 75-110.Search in Google Scholar

6. Scherer, G. and P. N. Lee: Smoking Behaviour and Compensation: A Review of the Literature with Meta-Analysis; Regul. Toxicol. Pharmacol. (2014) in press, available at: http://www. sciencedirect. com/science/ article/pii/S027323001400213X (accessed Nov. 2014).Search in Google Scholar

7. Hammond, D., G. T. Fong, K. M. Cummings, and A. Hyland: Smoking Topography, Brand Switching, and Nicotine Delivery: Results from an In Vivo Study; Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev. 14 (2005) 1370-1375.Search in Google Scholar

8. Hammond, D., G. T. Fong, K. M. Cummings, RJ. O'Connor, G. A. Giovino, and A. McNeill: Cigarette Yields and Human Exposure: A Comparison of Alternative Testing Regimens; Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev. 15 (2006) 1495-1501.Search in Google Scholar

9. Muhammad-Kah, R., Q. Liang, K. Frost-Pineda, P. E. Mendes, H. J. Roethig, and M. Sarkar: Factors Affecting Exposure to Nicotine and Carbon Monoxide in Adult Cigarette Smokers; Regul. Toxicol. Pharmacol. 61 (2011) 129-136.Search in Google Scholar

10. Fidler, J. A., J. A. Stapleton, and R. West: Variation in Saliva Cotinine as a Function of Self-Reported At-tempts to Reduce Cigarette Consumption; Psychopharmacology (Berl.) 217 (2011) 587-593.Search in Google Scholar

11. Lewis, S. J., N. M. Cherry, R. McL. Niven, P. V. Bar-ber, K. Wilde, and A. C. Povey: Cotinine Levels and Self-Reported Smoking Status in Patients Attending a Bronchoscopy Clinic; Biomarkers 8 (2003) 218-239.Search in Google Scholar

12. Matsumoto, M, Y. Inaba, I. Yamaguchi, O. Endo, D. Hammond, S. Uchiyama, and G. Suzuki: Smoking Topography and Biomarkers of Exposure among Japanese Smokers: Associations with Cigarette Emissions Obtained Using Machine Smoking Proto-cols; Environ. Health Prev. Med. 18 (2013) 95-103.Search in Google Scholar

13. Hatsukami, D. K., R. W. Pickens, D. S. Svikis, and J. R. Hughes: Smoking Topography and Nicotine Blood Levels; Addict. Behav. 13 (1988) 91-95.Search in Google Scholar

14. Burling, T. A., M. L. Stitzer, G. E. Bigelow, and A. M. Mead: Smoking Topography and Carbon Monoxide Levels in Smokers; Addict. Behav. 10 (1985) 319-323.Search in Google Scholar

15. Burling, T. A., S. B. Lovett, W. T. Richter, and L. W. Frederiksen: Alveolar Carbon Monoxide: The Relative Contributions of Daily Cigarette Rate, Cigarette Brand, and Smoking Topography; Addict. Behav. 8 (1983) 23-26.Search in Google Scholar

16. Pickworth, W., P. Houlgate, M. Schorp, M. Dixon, M. Borgerding, and G. Zaatari: (2005) A Review of Human Smoking Behaviour Data and Recommendations for a New ISO Standard for the Machine Smoking of Cigarettes; available at: http://legacy. library. ucsf. edu/tid/bqa92g00/pdf, Bates-No. 3083747947-8050 (accessed Nov. 2014).Search in Google Scholar

17. Ossip-Klein, D. J., J. E. Martin, B. D. Lomax, D. M. Prue, and C. J. Davis: Assessment of Smoking Topography Generalization across Laboratory Clinical, and Naturalistic Settings; Addict. Behav. 8 (1983) 11-17.Search in Google Scholar

18. Mariner, D. C., M. Ashley, C. J. Shepperd, G. Mullard, and M. Dixon: Mouth Level Smoke Exposure Using Analysis of Filters from Smoked Cigarettes: A Study of Eight Countries; Regul. Toxicol. Pharmacol. 61 (Suppl 3) (2011) S39-S50.10.1016/j.yrtph.2010.05.00620510323Search in Google Scholar

19. Shepperd, C. J., F. K. St Charles, M. Lien, and M. Dixon: Validation of Methods for Determining Con-sumer Smoked Cigarette Yields from Cigarette Filter Analysis; Beitr. Tabakforsch. Int. 22 (2006) 176-184.Search in Google Scholar

20. St Charles, F. K., M. Ashley, C. J. Shepperd, P. Clay-ton, and G. Errington: A Robust Method for Estimating Human Smoked Cigarette Yields from Filter Analysis Data; Beitr. Tabakforsch. Int. 23 (2009) 232-243.Search in Google Scholar

21. Morin, A., C. J. Shepperd, A. C. Eldridge, N. Poirier, and R. Voisine: Estimation and Correlation of Cigarette Smoke Exposure in Canadian Smokers as Deter-mined by Filter Analysis and Biomarkers of Exposure; Regul. Toxicol. Pharmacol. 61 (Suppl 3) (2011) S3-S12.10.1016/j.yrtph.2010.09.02020937342Search in Google Scholar

22. Shepperd, C. J., A. C. Eldridge, D. C. Mariner, M. McEwan, and M. Dixon: A Study to Estimate and Correlate Cigarette Smoke Exposure in Smokers in Germany as Determined by Filter Analysis and Biomarkers of Exposure; Regul. Toxicol. Pharmacol. 55 (2009) 97-109.Search in Google Scholar

23. Scherer, G.: Tobacco Smoke: Methodology for As-sessing the Exposure; Cent. Eur. J. Occup. Environ Med. 11 (2005) 102-122.Search in Google Scholar

24. Scherer, G.: Application of Biomarkers for the Evaluation of Potential Reduced-Exposure Products (PREPs); Rec. Adv. Tob. Sci. 32 (2006) 85-122.Search in Google Scholar

25. Gregg, E. O., E. Minet, and M. McEwan: Urinary Biomarkers of Smokers’ Exposure to Tobacco Smoke Constituents in Tobacco Products Assessment: A Fit for Purpose Approach; Biomarkers 18 (2013) 467-486.Search in Google Scholar

26. Angerer, J., U. Ewers, and M. Wilhelm: Human Biomonitoring: State of the Art; Int. J. Hyg. Environ. Health 210 (2007) 201-228.Search in Google Scholar

27. International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC): Tobacco Smoking; IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of the Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Hu-mans, Vol. 38, IARC, Lyon, France, 1986.Search in Google Scholar

28. Institute of Medicine (IOM): Clearing the Smoke: Assessing the Science Base for Tobacco Harm Reduction; edited by K. Stratton, P. Shetty, R. Wallace, and S. Bondurant, National Academy Press, Washington, DC, USA, 2001.Search in Google Scholar

29. Benowitz, N. L.: Compensatory Smoking of Low-Yield Cigarettes; in: Risks Associated with Smoking Cigarettes with Low Machine-Measured Yields of Tar and Nicotine; Smoking and Tobacco Control Mono-graph 13, U. S. Dept. of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, National Institutes of Health, National Cancer Institute, NIH Publication, Bethesda, MD, USA, 2001, pp. 39-63.Search in Google Scholar

30. U. S. Dept. of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, National Institutes of Health, National Cancer Institute: Risks Associated with Smoking Cigarettes with Low Machine-Measured Yields of Tar and Nicotine; Smoking and Tobacco Control Mono-graph 13, NIH Publication, Bethesda, MD, USA, 2001.Search in Google Scholar

31. Castro, A. and N. Monji: Dietary Nicotine and its Significance in Studies on Tobacco Smoking; Bio-chem. Arch 2 (1986) 91-97.Search in Google Scholar

32. Davis, R. A., M. F. Stiles, J. D. deBethizy, and J. H. Reynolds: Dietary Nicotine: A Source of Urinary Cotinine; Food Chem. Toxicol. 29 (1991) 821-827.Search in Google Scholar

33. Sheen, S. J.: Detection of Nicotine in Foods and Plant Materials; J. Food Sci. 53 (1988) 1572-1573.Search in Google Scholar

34. Davis, R. A. and M. Curvall: Determination of Nicotine and its Metabolites in Biological Fluids: In Vivo Studies; in: Analytical Determination of Nicotine and Related Compounds and Their Metabolites, edited by J. W. Gorrod and P. Jacob III, Elsevier, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 1999, pp. 583-643.10.1016/B978-044450095-3/50015-2Search in Google Scholar

35. Jarczyk, L., H. Maier, I. A. Born, G. Scherer, and F. Adlkofer: Concentration of Nicotine in Serum and Saliva after Intravenous Infusion of the Alkaloid and after Smoking; in: Effects of Nicotine on Biological Systems, edited by F. Adlkofer and K. Thurau, Birk-häuser Verlag, Basel, Switzerland, 1991, pp 51-55.10.1007/978-3-0348-7457-1_7Search in Google Scholar

36. Lee, P. N.: Uses and Abuses of Cotinine as a Marker of Tobacco Smoke Exposure; in: Nicotine and Related Compounds and Their Metabolites, edited by J. W. Gorrod and P. Jacob III, Elsevier, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 1999, pp 669-719.10.1016/B978-044450095-3/50017-6Search in Google Scholar

37. Curvall, M., CE. Elwin, E. Kazemi-Vala, C. War-holm, and CR. Enzell: The Pharmacokinetics of Cotinine in Plasma and Saliva from Non-Smoking Healthy Volunteers; Eur. J. Clin. Pharmacol. 38 (1990) 281-287.Search in Google Scholar

38. Jarvis, M. J., P. Primatesta, B. Erens, C. Feyerabend, and A. Bryant: Measuring Nicotine Intake in Population Surveys: Comparability of Saliva Cotinine and Plasma Cotinine Estimates; Nicotine Tob. Res. 5 (2003) 349-355.Search in Google Scholar

39. Michalke, B., B. Rossbach, T. Göen, A. Schäfer-henrich, and G. Scherer: Saliva as a Matrix for Human Biomonitoring in Occupational and Environmental Medicine; Int. Arch. Occup. Environ. Health, epub ahead of print (2014), available at: http://link. springer. com/article/10. 1007%2Fs00420-014-0938-5 (accessed Nov. 2014).Search in Google Scholar

40. Benowitz, N. L., G. E. Swan, P. Jacob III, C. N. Lessov-Schlaggar, and R. F. Tyndale: CYP2A6 Genotype and the Metabolism and Disposition Kinetics of Nicotine; Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. 80 (2006) 457-467.Search in Google Scholar

41. Malaiyandi, V., S. D. Goodz, E. M. Sellers, and R. F. Tyndale: CYP2A6 Genotype, Phenotype, and the Use of Nicotine Metabolites as Biomarkers during Smoking; Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev. 15 (2006) 1812-1819.Search in Google Scholar

42. West, O., P. Hajek, and H. McRobbie: Systematic Review of the Relationship Between the 3-Hydroxy-cotinine/Cotinine Ratio and Cigarette Dependence; Psychopharmacology (Berl.) 218 (2011) 313-322.Search in Google Scholar

43. Curvall, M., E. Kazcemi Vala, C. R. Enzell, and J. Wahren: Simulation and Evaluation of Nicotine Intake During Passive Smoking: Cotinine Measurements in Body Fluids of Nonsmokers Given Intravenous Infusions of Nicotine; Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. 47 (1990) 42-49.Search in Google Scholar

44. Tricker, A. R.: Biomarkers Derived from Nicotine and its Metabolites: A Review; Beitr. Tabakforsch. Int. 22 (2006) 147-175.Search in Google Scholar

45. Zedler, B. K., R. Kinser, J. Oey, B. Nelson, H. J. Roethig, R. A. Walk, P. Kuhl, K. Rustemeier, G. Schepers, K. von Holt, and A. R. Tricker: Biomarkers of Exposure and Potential Harm in Adult Smokers of 3-7 mg Tar Yield (Federal Trade Commission) Cigarettes and in Adult Non-Smokers; Biomarkers 11 (2006) 201-220.Search in Google Scholar

46. Feng, S., S. Kapur, M. Sarkar, R. Muhammad, P. Mendes, K. Newland, and H. J. Roethig: Respiratory Retention of Nicotine and Urinary Excretion of Nicotine and its Five Major Metabolites in Adult Male Smokers; Toxicol. Lett. 173 (2007) 101-106.Search in Google Scholar

47. Scherer, G., J. Engl, M. Urban, G. Gilch, D. Janket, and K. Riedel: Relationship Between Machine-De-rived Smoke Yields and Biomarkers in Cigarette Smokers in Germany; Regul. Toxicol. Pharmacol. 47 (2007) 171-183.Search in Google Scholar

48. Roethig, H. J., S. Feng, Q. Liang, J. Liu, W. A. Rees, and B. K. Zedler: A 12-Month, Randomized, Con-trolled Study to Evaluate Exposure and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Adult Smokers Switching from Con-ventional Cigarettes to a Second-Generation Electri-cally Heated Cigarette Smoking System; J. Clin. Pharmacol. 48 (2008) 580-591.Search in Google Scholar

49. Mendes, P., Q. Liang, K. Frost-Pineda, S. Munjal, R. A. Walk, and H. J. Roethig: The Relationship Between Smoking Machine Derived Tar Yields and Biomarkers of Exposure in Adult Cigarette Smokers in the US; Regul. Toxicol. Pharmacol. 55 (2009) 17-27.Search in Google Scholar

50. Shepperd, C. J., A. C. Eldridge, G. Errington, and M. Dixon: A Study to Evaluate the Effect on Mouth Level Exposure and Biomarkers of Exposure Estimates of Cigarette Smoke Exposure Following a Forced Switch to a Lower ISO Tar Yield Cigarette; Regul. Toxicol. Pharmacol. 61 (2011) (Suppl. 3) S13-S24.Search in Google Scholar

51. Sarkar, M., R. Muhammad-Kah, Q. Liang, S. Kapur, S. Feng, and H. Roethig: Evaluation of Spot Urine as an Alternative to 24 h Urine Collection for Determination of Biomarkers of Exposure to Cigarette Smoke in Adult Smokers; Environ. Toxicol. Pharmacol. 36 (2013) 108-114.Search in Google Scholar

52. Byrd, G. D., R. A. Davis, W. S. Caldwell, J. H. Robinson, and J. D. deBethizy: A Further Study of FTC Yield and Nicotine Absorption in Smokers; Psycho-pharmacology (Berl.) 139 (1998) 291-299.Search in Google Scholar

53. Byrd, G. D., J. H. Robinson, W. S. Caldwell, and J. D. deBethizy: Comparison of Measured and FTC-Pre-dicted Nicotine Uptake in Smokers; Psychopharma-cology (Berl.) 122 (1995) 95-103.Search in Google Scholar

55. Meger, M, I. Meger-Kossien, A. Schuler-Metz, D. Janket, and G. Scherer: Simultaneous Determination of Nicotine and Eight Nicotine Metabolites in Urine of Smokers Using Liquid Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometry; J. Chromatogr. B 778 (2002) 251-261.Search in Google Scholar

56. Piller, M, G. Gilch, G. Scherer, and M. Scherer: Simple, Fast and Sensitive LC-MS/MS Analysis for the Simultaneous Quantification of Nicotine and 10 of its Major Metabolites; J. Chromatogr. B 951-952 (2014) 7-15.Search in Google Scholar

57. Jarvis, M., H. Tunstall-Pedoe, C. Feyerabend, C. Vesey, and Y. Salloojee: Biochemical Markers of Smoke Absorption and Self Reported Exposure to Passive Smoking; J. Epidemiol. Community Health 38 (1984) 335-339.Search in Google Scholar

58. Scherer, G., U. Krämer, I. Meger-Kossien, K. Riedel, W. D. Heller, E. Link, J. G. Gostomzyk, J. Ring, and H. Behrendt: Determinants of Children's Exposure to Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS): A Study in Southern Germany; J. Expo. Anal. Environ. Epidemiol. 14 (2004) 284-292.Search in Google Scholar

59. Larson, P. S., H. B. Haag, and H. Silvette: Tobacco: Experimental and Clinical Studies, The Williams & Wilkins Co., Baltimore, USA, 1961.10.1097/00000441-196109000-00023Search in Google Scholar

60. Baumeister, R. G. H., H. Schievelbein, and G. Zickgraf-Rüdel: Toxicological and Clinical Aspects of Cyanide Metabolism; Arzneimittel-Forschung (Drug Research) 25 (1975) 1056-1064.Search in Google Scholar

61. Toraño, J. S. and H. J. van Kan: Simultaneous Determination of the Tobacco Smoke Uptake Parameters Nicotine, Cotinine and Thiocyanate in Urine, Saliva and Hair, Using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spec-trometry for Characterisation of Smoking Status of Recently Exposed Subjects; Analyst 128 (2003) 838-843.Search in Google Scholar

62. Degiampietro, P., E. Peheim, D. Drew, H. Graf, and J. P. Colombo: Determination of Thiocyanate in Plasma and Saliva without Deproteinisation and its Validation as a Smoking Parameter; J. Clin. Chem. Clin. Biochem. 25 (1987) 711-717.Search in Google Scholar

63. Junge, B.: Changes in Serum Thiocyanate Concentration on Stopping Smoking; Br. Med. J. 291 (1985) 22.Search in Google Scholar

64. Bliss, R. E. and K. A. O'Connell: Problems with Thiocyanate as an Index of Smoking Status: A Critical Review with Suggestions for Improving the Useful-ness of Biochemical Measures in Smoking Cessation Research; Health Psychol. 3 (1984) 563-581.Search in Google Scholar

65. Scherer, G.: Carboxyhemoglobin and Thiocyanate as Biomarkers of Exposure to Carbon Monoxide and Hydrogen Cyanide in Tobacco Smoke; Exp. Toxicol. Pathol. 58 (2006) 101-124.Search in Google Scholar

66. Landaw, S. A., E. W. Callahan Jr, and R. Schmid: Cata-bolism of Heme In Vivo: Comparison of the Simultaneous Production of Bilirubin and Carbon Monoxide; J. Clin. Invest. 49 (1970) 914-925.Search in Google Scholar

67. Benowitz, N. L.: The Use of Biologic Fluid Samples in Assessing Tobacco Smoke Consumption; in: Mea-surement in the Analysis and Treatment of Smoking Behavior, edited by J. Grabowski and CS. Bell, NIDA Research Monograph 48, National Institute on Drug Abuse, Rockville, MD, USA, 1983, pp. 6-26.10.1037/e475382004-001Search in Google Scholar

68. Cohen, S. I., N. M. Perkins, H. K. Ury, and J. R. Gold-smith: Carbon Monoxide Uptake in Cigarette Smoking; Arch. Environ. Health 22 (1971) 55-60.Search in Google Scholar

68. Heinemann, G., H. Schievelbein, and F. Richter: Die analytische und diagnostische Validität der Bestim-mung von Carboxyhämoglobin im Blut und Kohlen-monoxid in der Atemluft von Rauchern und Nicht-rauchern [Analytic and Diagnostic Validity of the Determination of Carboxyhemoglobin in Blood and Carbon Monoxide in the Breath of Smokers and Non-smokers]; J. Clin. Chem. Clin. Biochem. 22 (1984) 229-235.Search in Google Scholar

69. Irving, J. M., E. C. Clark, I. K. Crombie, and W. C. S. Smith: Evaluation of a Portable Measure of Expired-Air Carbon Monoxide; Prev. Med. 17 (1988) 109-115.Search in Google Scholar

70. Jarvis, M. J., M. A. H. Russell, and Y. Saloojee: Expired Air Carbon Monoxide: A Simple Breath Test of Tobacco Smoke Intake; Br. Med. J. 281 (1980) 484-485.Search in Google Scholar

71. Goniewicz, M. L., CM. Havel, M. W. Peng, P. Jacob III, D. Dempsey, L. Yu, W. Zielinska-Danch, B. Kos-zowski, J. Czogala, A. Sobczak, and N. L. Benowitz: Elimination Kinetics of the Tobacco-Specific Bio-marker and Lung Carcinogen 4-(Methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol; Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev. 18 (2009) 3421-3425.Search in Google Scholar

72. Hecht, S. S., S. G. Carmella, M. Chen, J. F. Dor Koch, A. T. Miller, S. E. Murphy, J. A. Jensen, CL. Zimmer-man, and D. K. Hatsukami: Quantitation of Urinary Metabolites of a Tobacco-Specific Lung Carcinogen after Smoking Cessation; Cancer Res. 59 (1999) 590-596.Search in Google Scholar

73. Hecht, S. S.: Human Urinary Carcinogen Metabolites: Biomarkers for Investigating Tobacco and Cancer; Carcinogenesis 23 (2002) 907-922.Search in Google Scholar

74. Kavvadias, D., G. Scherer, F. Cheung, G. Errington, J. Shepperd, and M. McEwan: Determination of Tobacco-Specific N-Nitrosamines in Urine of Smokers and Non-Smokers; Biomarkers 14 (2009) 547-553.Search in Google Scholar

75. Kavvadias, D., G. Scherer, M. Urban, F. Cheung, G. Errington, J. Shepperd, and M. McEwan: Simultaneous Determination of Four Tobacco-Specific N-Nitrosamines (TSNA) in Human Urine; J. Chromatogr. B 877 (2009) 1185-1192.Search in Google Scholar

76. Stepanov, I. and S. S. Hecht: Tobacco-Specific Nitros-amines and Their Pyridine-N-glucuronides in the Urine of Smokers and Smokeless Tobacco Users; Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev. 14 (2005) 885-891.Search in Google Scholar

77. Atawodi, S. E., S. Lea, F. Nyberg, A. Mukeria, V. Constantinescu, W. Ahrens, I. Brueske-Hohlfeld, C. Fortes, P. Boffetta, and M. D. Friesen: 4-Hydroxy-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone-hemoglobin Adducts as Biomarkers of Exposure to Tobacco Smoke: Validation of a Method to Be Used in Multicenter Studies; Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev. 7 (1998) 817-821.Search in Google Scholar

78. Hecht, S. S., S. G. Carmella, P. G. Foiles, S. E. Murphy, and L. A. Peterson: Tobacco-Specific Nitrosamine Adducts: Studies in Laboratory Animals and Humans; Environ. Health Perspect. 99 (1993) 57-63.Search in Google Scholar

79. Hecht, S. S., S. G. Carmella, and S. E. Murphy: Hemoglobin Adducts as Biomarkers of Exposure to and Metabolic Activation of Carcinogenic Tobacco-Specific Nitrosamines; Biomed. Environ. Sci. 4 (1991) 93-103.Search in Google Scholar

80. Schlöbe, D., D. Hölzle, D. Hatz, L. von Meyer, A. R. Tricker, and E. Richter: 4-Hydroxy-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone-Releasing DNA Adducts in Lung, Lower Esophagus and Cardia of Sudden Death Victims; Toxicology 245 (2008) 154-161.Search in Google Scholar

81. Rodgman, A. and T. A. Perfetti: The Composition of Cigarette Smoke: A Catalogue of the Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons; Beitr. Tabakforsch. Int. 22 (2006) 13-69.Search in Google Scholar

82. Jongeneelen, F. and R. B. M. Anzion: 1-Hydroxy-pyrene; in: Analyses of Hazardous Substances in Biological Materials, Vol. 3, edited by J. Angerer and K. H. Schaller, VCH Verlagsgesellschaft mbH, Wein-heim, Germany, 1991, pp. 151-169,Search in Google Scholar

83. Hagedorn, H. W., G. Scherer, J. Engl, K. Riedel, F. Cheung, G. Errington, J. Shepperd, and M. McEwan: Urinary Excretion of Phenolic Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (OH-PAH) in Nonsmokers and in Smokers of Cigarettes with Different ISO Tar Yields; J. Anal. Toxicol. 33 (2009) 301-309.Search in Google Scholar

84. Ramsauer, B., K. Sterz, H. W. Hagedorn, J. Engl, G. Scherer, M. McEwan, G. Errington, J. Shepperd, and F. Cheung: A Liquid Chromatography/Tandem Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) Method for the Determi-nation of Phenolic Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (OH-PAH) in Urine of Non-Smokers and Smokers; Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 399 (2011) 877-889.Search in Google Scholar

85. St Helen, G., M. L. Goniewicz, D. Dempsey, M. Wilson, P. Jacob III, and N. L. Benowitz: Exposure and Kinetics of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Cigarette Smokers; Chem. Res. Toxicol. 25 (2012) 952-964.Search in Google Scholar

86. Sobus, J. R., M. D. McClean, R. F. Herrick, S. Waidya-natha, F. Onyemauwa, L. L. Kupper, and S. M. Rappa-port: Investigation of PAH Biomarkers in the Urine of Workers Exposed to Hot Asphalt; Ann. Occup. Hyg. 53 (2009) 551-560.Search in Google Scholar

87. Sarkar, M., J. Liu, T. Koval, J. Wang, S. Feng, R. Serafin, Y. Jin, Y. Xie, K. Newland, and H. J. Roethig: Evaluation of Biomarkers of Exposure in Adult Cigarette Smokers Using Marlboro Snus; Nicotine Tob. Res. 12 (2010) 105-116.Search in Google Scholar

88. Lafontaine, M., C. Champmartin, P. Simon, P. Del-saut, and C. Funck-Brentano: 3-Hydroxybenzo[a]-pyrene in Urine of Smokers and Non-Smokers; Toxicol. Lett. 162 (2006) 181-185.Search in Google Scholar

89. Hecht, S. S., S. G. Carmella, P. W. Villalta, and J. B. Hochalter: Analysis of Phenanthrene and Benzo[a]-pyrene Tetraol Enantiomers in Human Urine: Rele-vance to the Bay Region Diol Epoxide Hypothesis of Benzo[a]pyrene Carcinogenesis and to Biomarker Studies; Chem. Res. Toxicol. 23 (2010) 900-908.Search in Google Scholar

90. Zhong, Y., S. G. Carmella, J. B. Hochalter, S. Balbo, and S. S. Hecht: Analysis of r-7,t-8,9,c-10-Tetrahy-droxy-7,8,9,10-tetrahydrobenzo[a]pyrene in Human Urine: A Biomarker for Directly Assessing Carcino-genic Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Exposure Plus Metabolic Activation; Chem. Res. Toxicol. 24 (2011) 73-80.Search in Google Scholar

91. Hecht, S. S. and J. B. Hochalter: Quantitation of Enan-tiomers of r-7,t-8,9,c-10-Tetrahydroxy-7,8,9,10-tetra-hydrobenzo[a]pyrene in Human Urine: Evidence Supporting Metabolic Activation of Benzo[a]pyrene Via the Bay Region Diol Epoxide; Mutagenesis 29 (2014) 351-356.Search in Google Scholar

92. Scherer, G., S. Frank, K. Riedel, I. Meger-Kossien, and T. Renner: Biomonitoring of Exposure to Poly-cyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons of Nonoccupationally Exposed Persons; Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev. 9 (2000) 373-380.Search in Google Scholar

93. van Welie, R. T. H., R. G. J. M. van Dijck, N. P. E. Ver-meulen, and N. J. van Sittert: Mercapturic Acids, Protein Adducts, and DNA Adducts as Biomarkers of Electrophilic Chemicals; Crit. Rev. Toxicol. 22 (1992) 271-306.Search in Google Scholar

94. Urban, M, G. Gilch, G. Schepers, E. van Miert, and G. Scherer: Determination of the Major Mercapturic Acids of 1,3-Butadiene in Human and Rat Urine Using Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spec-trometry; J. Chromatogr. B 796 (2003) 131-140.Search in Google Scholar

95. Carmella, S. G., M. Chen, S. Han, A. Briggs, J. Jensen, D. K. Hatsukami, and S. S. Hecht: Effects of Smoking Cessation on Eight Urinary Tobacco Carcinogen and Toxicant Biomarkers; Chem. Res. Toxicol. 22 (2009) 734-741.Search in Google Scholar

96. Scherer, G., T. Renner, and M. Meger: Analysis and Evaluation of trans,trans-Muconic Acid as a Bio-marker for Benzene Exposure; J. Chromatogr. B 717 (1998) 179-199.Search in Google Scholar

97. van Doorn, R., R. P. Bos, CM. Leijdekkers, M. A. P. Wagenaas-Zegers, J. L. G. Theuws, and P. T. Henderson: Thioether Concentration and Mutagenicity of Urine from Cigarette Smokers; Int. Arch. Occup. Environ. Health 43 (1979) 159-166.10.1007/BF00381187457288Search in Google Scholar

98. Heinonen, T., V. Kytöniemi, M. Sorsa, and H. Vainio: Urinary Excretion of Thioethers among Low-Tar and Medium-Tar Cigarette Smokers; Int. Arch. Occup. Environ. Health 52 (1983) 11-16.Search in Google Scholar

99. Scherer, G., D. J. Doolittle, T. Ruppert, I. Meger-Kossien, K. Riedel, A. R. Tricker, and F. Adlkofer: Urinary Mutagenicity and Thioethers in Nonsmokers: Role of Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS) and Diet; Mutat. Res. 368 (1996) 195-204.Search in Google Scholar

100. Adlkofer, F., G. Scherer, C. Maltzan, L. Meyerinck, L. Jarczyk, F. Martin, and G. Grimmer: Dietary Influence on Urinary Excretion of OH-Phenanthrenes, Thioethers and Mutagenicity in Man; in: Complex Mixtures and Cancer Risk, edited by H. Vainio, M. Sorsa, and AJ. McMichael, International Agency for Research on Cancer, Lyon, France, 1990, pp. 415-420.Search in Google Scholar

101. Aringer, L. and V. Lidums: Influence of Diet and Other Factors on Urinary Levels of Thioethers; Int. Arch. Occup. Environ. Health 61 (1988) 123-130.Search in Google Scholar

102. Yamasaki, E. and B. N. Ames: Concentration of Muta-gens from Urine by Adsorption with the Nonpolar Resin XAD-2: Cigarette Smokers Have Mutagenic Urine; PNAS 74 (1977) 3555-3559.Search in Google Scholar

103. Kado, N. Y., C. Manson, E. Eisenstadt, and D. P. H. Hsieh: The Kinetics of Mutagen Excretion in the Urine of Cigarette Smokers; Mutat. Res. 157 (1985) 227-233.Search in Google Scholar

104. Kobayashi, H. and H. Hayatsu: A Time-Course Study on the Mutagenicity of Smokers’ Urine; Jap. J. Cancer Res. (Gann) 75 (1984) 489-493.Search in Google Scholar

105. Benowitz, N. L., P. Jacob III, L. T. Kozlowski, and L. Yu: Influence of Smoking Fewer Cigarettes on Expo-sure to Tar, Nicotine, and Carbon Monoxide; New Engl. J. Med. 315 (1986) 1310-1313.Search in Google Scholar

106. Connor, T. H., V. M. S. Ramanujam, J. B. Ward Jr, and M. S. Legator: The Identification and Characterization of a Urinary Mutagen Resulting from Cigarette Smoke; Mutat. Res. 113 (1983) 161-172.Search in Google Scholar

107. Peluso, M, M. Castegnaro, C. Malaveille, M. Friesen, L. Garren, A. Hantefenille, P. Vineis, F. Kadlubar, and H. Bartsch: 32P-Postlabelling Analysis of Urinary Mutagens from Smokers of Black Tobacco Implicates 2-Amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) as a Major DNA-Damaging Agent; Carcino-genesis 12 (1991) 713-717.Search in Google Scholar

108. Peluso, M, M. Castegnaro, C. Malaveille, G. Talaska, P. Vineis, F. Kadlubar, and H. Bartsch: 32P-Postlabel-ling Analysis of DNA Adducted with Urinary Mutagens from Smokers of Black Tobacco; Carcinogenesis 11 (1990) 1307-1311.Search in Google Scholar

109. Liu, S., L. T. Taylor, M. F. Borgerding, W. M. Coleman III, and B. R. Bombick: Trace Analysis of Mutagenic Heterocyclic Aromatic Amines in Cigarette Smoke Condensate and its Base Fractions Via Silylation-GC-MS; Beitr. Tabakforsch. Int. 25 (2013) 550-562.Search in Google Scholar

110. Peng, L. and RJ. Turesky: Mass Spectrometric Characterization of 2-Amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo-[4,5-b]pyridine N-Oxidized Metabolites Bound at Cys34 of Human Serum Albumin; Chem. Res. Toxicol. 24 (2011) 2004-2017.Search in Google Scholar

111. Rappaport, S. M., S. Waidyanatha, K. Yeowell-O'Connell, N. Rothman, M. T. Smith, L. Zhang, Q. Qu, R. Shore, G. Li, and S. Yin: Protein Adducts as Biomarkers of Human Benzene Metabolism; Chem. Biol. Interact. 153-154 (2005) 103-109.Search in Google Scholar

112. Sørensen, M., H. Autrup, P. Møller, O. Hertel, S. S. Jensen, P. Vinzents, L. E. Knudsen, and S. Loft: Linking Exposure to Environmental Pollutants with Biological Effects; Mutat. Res. 544 (2003) 255-271.Search in Google Scholar

113. Hatsukami, D. K., N. L. Benowitz, S. I. Rennard, C. Oncken, and S. S. Hecht: Biomarkers to Assess the Utility of Potential Reduced Exposure Tobacco Products; Nicotine Tob. Res. 8 (2006) 600-622.Search in Google Scholar

114. Andersson, G., E. K. Vala, and M. Curvall: The Influence of Cigarette Consumption and Smoking Machine Yields of Tar and Nicotine on the Nicotine Uptake and Oral Mucosal Lesions in Smokers; J. Oral Pathol. Med. 26 (1997) 117-123.Search in Google Scholar

115. Benowitz, N. L., S. M. Hall, R. I. Herning, P. Jacob III, R. T. Jones, and A. L. Osman: Smokers of Low-Yield Cigarettes Do Not Consume Less Nicotine; New Engl. J. Med. 309 (1983) 139-142.Search in Google Scholar

116. Bernert, J. T., R. B. Jain, J. L. Pirkle, L. Wang, B. B. Miller, and EJ. Sampson: Urinary Tobacco-Specific Nitrosamines and 4-Aminobiphenyl Hemoglobin Adducts Measured in Smokers of Either Regular or Light Cigarettes; Nicotine Tob. Res. 7 (2005) 729-738.Search in Google Scholar

117. Bridges, R. B., J. G. Combs, J. W. Humble, J. A. Turbek, S. R. Rehm, and N. J. Haley: Population Characteristics and Cigarette Yield as Determinants of Smoke Expo-sure; Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav. 37 (1990) 17-28.Search in Google Scholar

118. Coultas, D. B., CA. Stidley, and J. M. Samet: Cigarette Yields of Tar and Nicotine and Markers of Exposure to Tobacco Smoke; Am. Rev. Respir. Dis. 148 (1993) 435-440.Search in Google Scholar

119. Ebert, R. V., M. E. McNabb, K. T. McCusker, and S. L. Snow: Amount of Nicotine and Carbon Monoxide Inhaled by Smokers of Low-Tar, Low-Nicotine Cigarettes; JAMA 250 (1983) 2840-2842.Search in Google Scholar

120. Feng, S., H. J. Roethig, Q. Liang, R. Kinser, Y. Jin, G. Scherer, M. Urban, J. Engl, and K. Riedel: Evaluation of Urinary 1-Hydroxypyrene, S-Phenylmercapturic Acid, trans,trans-Muconic Acid, 3-Methyladenine, 3-ethyladenine, 8-Hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine and Thio-ethers as Biomarkers of Exposure to Cigarette Smoke; Biomarkers 11 (2006) 28-52.Search in Google Scholar

121. Folsom, A. R., T. F. Pechacek, R. de Gaudemaris, R. V. Luepker, D. R. Jacobs Jr, and R. F. Gillum: Consumption of ‘Low-Yield’ Cigarettes: Its Frequency and Relationship to Serum Thiocyanate; Am. J. Public Health 74 (1984) 564-568.Search in Google Scholar

122. Gori, G. B. and C. Lynch: Analytical Cigarette Yields as Predictors of Smoke Bioavailability; Regul. Toxi-col. Pharmacol. 5 (1985) 314-326.Search in Google Scholar

123. Hecht, S. S., S. E. Murphy, S. G. Carmella, S. Li, J. Jensen, C. Le, A. M. Joseph, and D. K. Hatsukami: Similar Uptake of Lung Carcinogens by Smokers of Regular, Light, and Ultralight Cigarettes; Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev. 14 (2005) 693-698.Search in Google Scholar

124. Hee, J., F. Callais, I. Momas, A. M. Laurent, S. Min, P. Molinier, M. Chastagnier, J. R. Claude, and B. Festy: Smokers’ Behaviour and Exposure According to Cigarette Yield and Smoking Experience; Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav. 52 (1995) 195-203.Search in Google Scholar

125. Jaffe, J. H., M. Kanzler, L. Friedman, AJ. Stunkard, and K. Verebey: Carbon Monoxide and Thiocyanate Levels in Low Tar/Nicotine Smokers; Addict. Behav. 6 (1981) 337-343.Search in Google Scholar

126. Jarvis, M. J., R. Boreham, P. Primatesta, C. Feyer-abend, and A. Bryant: Nicotine Yield from Machine-Smoked Cigarettes and Nicotine Intakes in Smokers: Evidence from a Representative Population Survey; J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 93 (2001) 134-138.Search in Google Scholar

127. Maron, D J. and S. P. Fortmann: Nicotine Yield and Measures of Cigarette Smoke Exposure in a Large Population: Are Lower-Yield Cigarettes Safer?; Am. J. Public Health 77 (1987) 546-549.Search in Google Scholar

128. Melikian, A. A., M. V. Djordjevic, S. Chen, J. Richie, Jr, and S. D. Stellman: Effect of Delivered Dosage of Cigarette Smoke Toxins on the Levels of Urinary Biomarkers of Exposure; Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev. 16 (2007) 1408-1415.Search in Google Scholar

129. Nakazawa, A., M. Shigeta, and K. Ozasa: Smoking Cigarettes of Low Nicotine Yield Does Not Reduce Nicotine Intake as Expected: A Study of Nicotine Dependency in Japanese Males; BMC Public Health 4 (2004) 28.Search in Google Scholar

130. Rickert, W. S. and J. C. Robinson: Estimating the Hazards of Less Hazardous Cigarettes. II. Study of Cigarette Yields of Nicotine, Carbon Monoxide, and Hydrogen Cyanide in Relation to Levels of Cotinine, Carboxyhemoglobin, and Thiocynate in Smokers; J. Toxicol. Environ. Health 7 (1981) 391-403.Search in Google Scholar

131. Rosa, M., R. Pacifici, I. Altieri, S. Pichini, G. Otta-viani, and P. Zuccaro: How the Steady-State Cotinine Concentration in Cigarette Smokers Is Directly Related to Nicotine Intake; Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. 52 (1992) 324-329.Search in Google Scholar

132. Russell, M. A. H., M. J. Jarvis, C. Feyerabend, and Y. Saloojee: Reduction of Tar, Nicotine and Carbon Monoxide Intake in Low Tar Smokers; J. Epidemiol. Community Health 40 (1986) 80-85.Search in Google Scholar

133. Ueda, K., I. Kawachi, M. Nakamura, H. Nogami, N. Shirokawa, S. Masui, A. Okayama, and A. Oshima: Cigarette Nicotine Yields and Nicotine Intake among Japanese Male Workers; Tob. Control 11 (2002) 55-60.Search in Google Scholar

134. Woodward, M. and H. Tunstall-Pedoe: Self-Titration of Nicotine: Evidence from the Scottish Heart Health Study; Addiction 88 (1993) 821-830.Search in Google Scholar

135. Joseph, A. M., S. S. Hecht, S. E. Murphy, S. G. Car-mella, C. T. Le, Y. Zhang, S. Han, and D. K. Hatsu-kami: Relationships Between Cigarette Consumption and Biomarkers of Tobacco Toxin Exposure; Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev. 14 (2005) 2963-2968.Search in Google Scholar

136. Minet, E., F. Cheung, G. Errington, K. Sterz, and G. Scherer: Urinary Excretion of the Acrylonitrile Meta-bolite 2-Cyanoethylmercapturic Acid is Correlated with a Variety of Biomarkers of Tobacco Smoke Exposure and Consumption; Biomarkers 16 (2011) 89-96.Search in Google Scholar

137. Roethig, H. J., S. Munjal, S. Feng, Q. Liang, M. Sarkar, R. A. Walk, and P. E. Mendes: Population Esti-mates for Biomarkers of Exposure to Cigarette Smoke in Adult U. S. Cigarette Smokers; Nicotine Tob. Res. 11 (2009) 1216-1225.Search in Google Scholar

138. Law, M. R., J. K. Morris, H. C. Watt, and N. J. Wald: The Dose-response Relationship Between Cigarette Consumption, Biochemical Markers and Risk of Lung Cancer; Br. J. Cancer 75 (1997) 1690-1693.Search in Google Scholar

139. Binnie, V., S. McHugh, L. MacPherson, B. Borland, K. Moir, and K. Malik: The Validation of Self-Re-ported Smoking Status by Analysing Cotinine Levels in Stimulated and Unstimulated Saliva, Serum and Urine; Oral Dis. 10 (2004) 287-293.Search in Google Scholar

140. Feyerabend, C., R. M. J. Ings, and M. A. H. Russell: Nicotine Pharmacokinetics and its Application to Intake from Smoking; Br. J. Clin. Pharmacol. 19 (1985) 239-247.Search in Google Scholar

141. Scherer, G., L. Jarczyk, W. D. Heller, A. Biber, G. B. Neurath, and F. Adlkofer: Pharmacokinetics of Nico-tine, Cotinine, and 3'-Hydroxycotinine in Cigarette Smokers; Klin. Wochenschr. 66, Suppl. 11 (1988) 5-11.Search in Google Scholar

142. Rosenberg, J., N. L. Benowitz, P. Jacob, and K. M. Wilson: Disposition Kinetics and Effects of Intrave-nous Nicotine; Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. 28 (1980) 517-522.Search in Google Scholar

143. St Charles, F. K., G. R. Krautter, M. Dixon, and D. C. Mariner: A Comparison of Nicotine Dose Estimates in Smokers Between Filter Analysis, Salivary Cotinine, and Urinary Excretion of Nicotine Metabolites; Psychopharmacology (Berl.) 189 (2006) 345-354.Search in Google Scholar

144. Urban, M., D. Kavvadias, K. Riedel, G. Scherer, and A. R. Tricker: Urinary Mercapturic Acids and a Hemoglobin Adduct for the Dosimetry of Acrylamide Exposure in Smokers and Non-Smokers; Inhal. Toxi-col. 18 (2006) 831-839.Search in Google Scholar

145. Jarvis, M. J., H. Tunstall-Pedoe, C. Feyerabend, C. Vesey, and Y. Saloojee: Comparison of Tests Used to Distinguish Smokers from Nonsmokers; Am. J. Public Health 77 (1987) 1435-1438.Search in Google Scholar

146. Benowitz, N. L. and P. Jacob III: trans-3'-Hydroxy-cotinine: Disposition Kinetics, Effects and Plasma Levels During Cigarette Smoking; Br. J. Clin. Pharmacol. 51 (2001) 53-59.Search in Google Scholar

147. Lowe, F. J., E. O. Gregg, and M. McEwan: Evaluation of Biomarkers of Exposure and Potential Harm in Smokers, Former Smokers and Never-Smokers; Clin. Chem. Lab. Med. 47 (2009) 311-320.Search in Google Scholar

148. Carmella, S. G., S. Akerkar, and S. S. Hecht: Metabo-lites of the Tobacco-Specific Nitrosamine 4-(Methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-Pyridyl)-1-Butanone in Smokers’ Urine; Cancer Res. 53 (1993) 721-724.Search in Google Scholar

149. Meger, M., I. Meger-Kossien, K. Riedel, and G. Scherer: Biomonitoring of Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS)-Related Exposure to 4-(Methylnitros-amino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK); Biomarkers 5 (2000) 33-45.Search in Google Scholar

150. Serdar, B., S. Waidyanatha, Y. Zheng, and S. M. Rappaport: Simultaneous Determination of Urinary 1-and 2-Naphthols, 3- and 9-Phenanthrols, and 1-Pyrenol in Coke Oven Workers; Biomarkers 8 (2003) 93-109.Search in Google Scholar

151. Gmeiner, G., P. Gärtner, C. Krassnig, and H. Tausch: Identification of Various Urinary Metabolites of Fluo-rene Using Derivatization Solid-Phase Microextraction; J. Chromatogr. B 766 (2002) 209-218.Search in Google Scholar

152. Boogaard, P. J. and N. J. van Sittert: Biological Monitoring of Exposure to Benzene: A Comparison Be-tween S-Phenylmercapturic Acid, trans,trans-Mucon-ic Acid, and Phenol; Occup. Environ. Med. 52 (1995) 611-620.Search in Google Scholar

153. Alwis, K. U., B. C. Blount, A. S. Britt, D. Patel, and D. L. Ashley: Simultaneous Analysis of 28 Urinary VOC Metabolites Using Ultra High Performance Liquid Chromatography Coupled with Electrospray Ionization Tandem Mass Spectrometry (UPLC-ESI/MSMS); Anal. Chim. Acta. 750 (2012) 152-160.Search in Google Scholar

154. Müller, G. and E. Jeske: S-Phenylmercapturic Acid; in: The MAK-Collection: Biomonitoring Methods, edited by DFG, Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH, Wein-heim, Germany, 1998, pp 143-162.Search in Google Scholar

155. Sterz, K., D. Köhler, T. Schettgen, and G. Scherer: Enrichment and Properties of Urinary Pre-S-Phenylmercapturic Acid (Pre-SPMA); J. Chromatogr. B 878 (2010) 2502-2505.Search in Google Scholar

156. Carmella, S. G., M. Chen, Y. Zhang, S. Zhang, D. K. Hatsukami, and S. S. Hecht: Quantitation of Acrolein-Derived (3-Hydroxypropyl)mercapturic Acid in Human Urine by Liquid Chromatography-Atmo-spheric Pressure Chemical Ionization Tandem Mass Spectrometry: Effects of Cigarette Smoking; Chem. Res. Toxicol. 20 (2007) 986-990.Search in Google Scholar

157. Mascher, D. G., H. J. Mascher, G. Scherer, and E. R. Schmid: High-Performance Liquid Chromatographic-Tandem Mass Spectrometric Determination of 3-Hydroxypropylmercapturic Acid in Human Urine; J. Chromatogr. B 750 (2001) 163-169.Search in Google Scholar

158. Sterz, K., G. Scherer, J. Krumsiek, FJ. Theis, and J. Ecker: Identification and Quantification of 1-Hydroxybutene-2-yl Mercapturic Acid in Human Urine by UPLC-HILIC-MS/MS as a Novel Biomarker for 1,3-Butadiene Exposure; Chem. Res. Toxicol. 25 (2012) 1565-1567.Search in Google Scholar

159. van Sittert, N. J.: N-2-Cyanoethyl-valin, N-2-Hydroxyethyl-valin, N-Methyl-valin (Zum Nachweis einer Belastung/Beanspruchung durch Acrylnitril, Ethylenoxid sowie methylierende Substanzen) [Biomonitoring Methods in German language, 1996]; in: The MAK Collection for Occupational Health and Safety, edited by DFG, VCH Verlagsgesellschaft mbH, Weinheim, Germany, 1996, 1-21.10.1002/3527600418.bi0nmvld0012Search in Google Scholar

160. Skipper, P. L., M. S. Bryant, S. R. Tannenbaum, and J. D. Groopman: Analytical Methods for Assessing Exposure to 4-Aminobiphenyl Based on Protein Adduct Formation; J. Occup. Med. 28 (1986) 643-646.Search in Google Scholar

Polecane artykuły z Trend MD