- Informacje o czasopiśmie
- Pierwsze wydanie
- 01 Jan 1992
- Częstotliwość wydawania
- 4 razy w roku
- Otwarty dostęp
Lethal and Sterile Effects of X-ray Irradiation on Cigarette Beetle, Lasiodermaserricorne (F.) (Coleoptera: Anobiidae)
Zakres stron: 1 - 5
The effects of X-ray irradiation on mortality and sterility of the cigarette beetle,
- Otwarty dostęp
Zakres stron: 6 - 12
The method of measurement of the pressure drop (PD) of cigarette filter rods and the draw resistance of cigarettes is defined in ISO 6565-2002 (1). This standard defines the calibration and use of a transfer standard to calibrate the measuring instrument and also defines the measurement procedure for cigarette and filter samples. The procedure described in the standard assumes that the measurement conditions are constant and that the sample is in equilibrium with the measurement environment.
In 2001, the Cooperation Center for Scientific Research Relative to Tobacco (CORESTA) formed a Task Force to investigate the problems associated with the calibration of PD transfer standards that are caused, primarily, by environmental effects. The work of this task force has lead to the harmonisation of the calibration methods between supplier laboratories and to a method for compensation for the effects of atmospheric conditions. These together have considerably reduced the inter-laboratory differences and will eventually lead to a revision of the CORESTA Recommended Method and ISO 6565 Standard.
During the work of this Task Force, it has become evident that further work will be necessary to deal with similar errors encountered during the calibration of PD measurement instruments and during the PD measurement of cigarette and filter rod samples. These errors occur in real measurement situations due to the problems in meeting the ISO 6565 conditions and other necessary requirements. This can give rise to errors in the indicated PD and can considerably degrade the confidence that can be placed in the results.
This paper examines many of the practical problems in the measurement of PD and attempts to estimate the type and magnitude of the errors that might be experienced.
- Otwarty dostęp
Zakres stron: 13 - 69
Classified as toxicants in many of the substances to which humans are exposed are the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Such exposures include air pollutants from a variety of sources, foodstuffs and beverages, and tobacco smoke. Since the early 1950s, the composition of the latter has been more completely defined than that of any other consumer product. Nearly 4800 components have been identified in tobacco smoke and among these are over 500 PAHs either completely or partially identified. Because of the tumorigenicity of many PAHs, much research has been conducted in attempts to define the relationship between the PAH structures and their specific tumorigenicities in laboratory animals. None of the theories to date completely answers all the questions.
As a prelude to an attempt to develop a more reasonable PAH structure-tumorigenicity relationship, the PAHs completely or partially identified in cigarette smoke have been catalogued. In the catalogue, they are categorized as bicyclic, tricyclic, tetracyclic, etc. with each group subdivided into all-benzenoid PAHs and cyclopentanoid-benzenoid PAHs. Another tabulation includes the PAHs considered in several previous studies on structure-tumorigenicity relationships, studies that dealt primarily with all-benzenoid PAHs.