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Edizione Editors: Magdalena Bielska, Jerzy Pilawski, Katarzyna Skupniewicz

Volume 13 (2013): Edizione 3 (July 2013)

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Dettagli della rivista
Formato
Rivista
eISSN
2300-8733
Pubblicato per la prima volta
25 Nov 2011
Periodo di pubblicazione
4 volte all'anno
Lingue
Inglese

Cerca

Volume 22 (2022): Edizione 2 (April 2022)

Dettagli della rivista
Formato
Rivista
eISSN
2300-8733
Pubblicato per la prima volta
25 Nov 2011
Periodo di pubblicazione
4 volte all'anno
Lingue
Inglese

Cerca

28 Articoli

REVIEW

Accesso libero

Genome-wise engineering of ruminant nutrition – nutrigenomics: applications, challenges, and future perspectives – A review

Pubblicato online: 12 May 2022
Pagine: 511 - 521

Astratto

Abstract

Use of genomic information in ruminant production systems can help alleviating concerns related to food security and sustainability of production. Nutritional genomics (i.e., nutrigenomics) is the field of research that is interested in all types of reciprocal interactions between nutrients and the genomes of organisms, i.e., variable patterns of gene expression and effect of genetic variations on the nutritional environment. Devising a revolutionary analytical approach to the traditional ruminant nutrition research, the relatively novel area of ruminant nutrigenomics has several studies concerning different aspects of animal production systems. This paper aims to review the current nutrigenomics research in the frame of how nutrition of ruminants can be modified accounting for individual genetic backgrounds and gene/diet relationships behind productivity, quality, efficiency, disease resistance, fertility, and greenhouse gas emissions. Furthermore, current challenges facing ruminant nutrigenomics are evaluated and future directions for the novel area are strongly argued by this review.

Parole chiave

  • nutrigenomics
  • ruminants
  • diet-gene interactions
  • traits
  • nutrigenetics
Accesso libero

Dietary strategies to enrich milk with healthy fatty acids – A review

Pubblicato online: 12 May 2022
Pagine: 523 - 536

Astratto

Abstract

Feed is the main factor impacting the composition and quality of milk of dairy animals. Therefore, the present review explores the effects of feed and nutrition on milk fat content and levels of healthy fatty acids (FA) in milk consumed by humans. Milk and dairy products are two main sources of healthy and unhealthy FA in human nutrition. The concentrations of FA in milk depend mainly on diets; therefore, milk FA concentrations and ratios can be greatly altered by some feeding strategies. Dietary supplementation of the diets of dairy livestock with vegetable seeds or oils, microalgae and phytogenic feed additives, and feeding of some grasses can enhance the contents of healthy FA, including n-3 FA, α-linolenic acid, conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and, generally, unsaturated FA in milk and dairy products. Enrichment of milk with healthy FA may make milk a source of anticarcinogens (CLA and polyphenols) for human health. This review, therefore, focusses on the current research findings on enrichment of milk with healthy FA and summarizes some effective supplementation strategies to alter milk FA profile.

Parole chiave

  • fatty acids
  • feed additives
  • feed supplement
  • health
  • milk
Accesso libero

Fiber digestibility in growing pigs fed common fiber-rich ingredients – A systematic review

Pubblicato online: 12 May 2022
Pagine: 537 - 550

Astratto

Abstract

The application of high-fiber ingredients in the swine feed industry has some limitations considering that high amounts of fiber are resistant to endogenous enzymatic degradation in the pig’s gut. However, there is growing interest in fiber fermentation in the intestine of pigs due to their functional properties and potential health benefits. Many strategies have been applied in feed formulations to improve utilization efficiency of fiber-rich ingredients and stimulate their prebiotic effects in pigs. This manuscript reviews chemical compositions, physical properties, and digestibility of fiber-rich diets formulated with fibrous ingredients for growing pigs. Evidences presented in this review indicate there is a great variation in chemical compositions and physical properties of fibrous ingredients, resulting in the discrepancy of energy and fiber digestibility in pig intestine. In practice, fermentation capacity of fiber components in the pig’s intestine can be improved using strategies, such as biological enzymes supplementation and feed processing technologies. Soluble dietary fiber (SDF) and insoluble dietary fiber (IDF), rather than neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and acid detergent fiber (ADF), are recommended in application of pig production to achieve precise feeding. Limitations of current scientific research on determining fiber digestibility and short chain fatty acids (SCFA) production are discussed. Endogenous losses of fiber components from non-dietary materials that result in underestimation of fiber digestibility and SCFA production are discussed in this review. Overall, the purpose of our review is to provide a reference for feeding the pig by choosing the diets formulated with different high-fiber ingredients.

Parole chiave

  • digestibility
  • fiber fermentation
  • microbiota
  • pig
  • short chain fatty acid
Accesso libero

Breast muscle myopathies in broiler: mechanism, status and their impact on meat quality – A review

Pubblicato online: 12 May 2022
Pagine: 551 - 560

Astratto

Abstract

Almost a decade ago, the sudden rise of breast muscle defects in fast-growing commercial broiler breeds challenged the broiler production industry and meat scientists to address the issue of these novel muscle abnormalities. After that, a widespread hypothesis showing a correlation between high muscle yield and incidence of these muscle myopathies received much acceptance from the research community. Increased muscle hypertrophy and unbalanced growth of connective tissues lead to an inadequate blood supply that ultimately causes hypoxia in muscle fibers. Reduced blood vascular density in muscle fibers induces oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction, leading to muscle fibrosis, lipidosis and myodegeneration. Along with physical changes, the myopathic muscles exhibit poor sensory properties, abnormal texture properties and a low nutritional profile. As these myopathies alter meat’s physical appearance, they have a negative impact on customer’s behavior and preference. A better production environment with proper dietary supplementation with balanced breeding strategies can minimize the incidence of muscle myopathies in broiler chicken. This review aims to address the underlying mechanism behind these myopathies and their impact on poultry meat quality, including nutritional value and consumer behavior. It describes the link between genetic and non-genetic elements influencing myopathies, along with the strategies to minimize the occurrence of breast muscle myopathies.

Parole chiave

  • breast muscle myopathies
  • oxidative stress
  • broiler production
  • meat quality
  • consumer behavior

ANIMAL GENETICS AND BREEDING

Accesso libero

Do the differences in egg contamination, penetration, and resistance against microorganisms among the hen genotypes exist?

Pubblicato online: 12 May 2022
Pagine: 561 - 574

Astratto

Abstract

The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the impact of genotype and storage conditions (temperature and time) on microbiological contamination and eggshell quality. There were four genotypes of laying hens used, Czech Golden Spotted (CGS), Greenleg Partridge (GP), White Leghorn (WL) and commercial hybrid (CH) hens were included. After collection, the eggs were divided equally into five groups according to the storage time (0, 14, 28 days) and temperature (5 and 20°C). The microbiological analysis included counting of colonies forming units (CFU) of Escherichia coli (EC), Enterococcus (ENT) and total number of microorganisms (TNM) on eggshell surface, eggshell membranes and in thin albumen. The analysis of eggshell quality included the determination of eggshell proportion (SP), thickness (ST), strength (SST), index (SI) and surface (SS). Moreover, egg weight (EW) and egg weight loss (EWL) were determined. The significant effect of genotype was found in contamination of eggshell by EC, ENT and TNM, eggshell membranes by TNM and albumen by EC (all P≤0.05). The significantly lowest contamination of eggshell from EC was in eggs from the WL hens (4.42 log CFU/eggshell), while from ENT was in eggs from the CGS hens (1.22 log CFU/eggshell) and from the WL hens (1.40 log CFU/eggshell). The lowest incidence of TNM was also detected in eggs from the WL hens (5.03 log CFU/eggshell). Statistically the lowest contamination of eggshell membranes by TNM was found in eggs from the WL (0.12 log CFU/eggshell membranes) and CH hens (0.15 log CFU/eggshell membranes). Regarding the effect of genotype, the GP (not detected) and WL (not detected) hens had eggs with statistically the lowest occurrence of EC bacteria in albumen. Regarding the EW and eggshell quality, all the parameters were significantly affected by the genotype (P≤0.0001). Also EWL was significantly (P≤0.05) affected by genotype (after 14, 21 and 28 days of storage). There were found to be significant differences of microbial contamination of egg surface among observed hen genotypes. The penetration of selected microorganisms was also significant in contamination of eggshell membranes by TNM and in contamination of albumen by EC.

Parole chiave

  • egg
  • genotype
  • microorganisms
  • storage temperature
  • storage time
Accesso libero

Epigenetic states of genes controlling immune responsiveness in bovine chronic mastitis

Pubblicato online: 12 May 2022
Pagine: 575 - 581

Astratto

Abstract

Mastitis is a common disease in dairy cows, causing substantial economic losses. The leading cause of elevated milk somatic cell count (SC), which is the best indicator for detecting mastitis, is the invasion of pathogens. A major pathogen responsible for bovine mastitis is Staphylococcus aureus, a member of the coagulase-positive staphylococci. Some strains of coagulase-negative staphylococci can also be a cause of clinical or subclinical mastitis. Our study used bisulfite sequencing PCR (BSP) to detect the methylation status of nine candidate genes (CCL2, HCK, F11R, CD8A, PDIA3, LGMN, HSPA1A, IL18 and NFKBIA). We investigated the mechanisms associated with overexpression of these genes, in the mammary gland secretory tissue of cows diagnosed with mastitis and infected with coagulase-positive or coagulase-negative staphylococci. The results showed no changes at the DNA methylation level between the mastitis (CoPS and CoNS) and control groups (H), except for in the HCK region, where the observed differences between the CoPS and H groups were statistically significant. The low methylation level of the CpG sequence seems not to correspond to the previously observed increased activity of these genes, suggesting that mechanisms other than DNA methylation may control mRNA expression at the analyzed loci.

Parole chiave

  • BSP
  • cattle
  • DNA methylation
  • mastitis
Accesso libero

Mining for the association of bovine mastitis linked genes to pathological signatures and pathways

Pubblicato online: 12 May 2022
Pagine: 583 - 591

Astratto

Abstract

Background: Bovine mastitis is a common infectious disease with a serious threat to the dairy industry and public health. Mastitis is a polygenetic trait under the control of many genes. In the current study, our research attempted to address the role of mastitis-associated genes in various signalings including parasitic, viral, cancer and fungal diseases by using online bioinformatics software. Methods: We selected mastitis-associated genes from already published data and using online bioinformatics tools including DAVID and String classified the pathological role of relevant genes. A Venn diagram was used to show the status of overlapping genes among different biological function processes. Result: This study revealed that the genes gathered in published resources of mastitis were significantly correlated with influenza A, chagas disease, leishmaniasis, toxoplasmosis, tuberculosis, cancer signaling, hepatitis B, type I & II diabetes mellitus and prion diseases biological pathways. Based on our findings, we concluded that mastitis-linked genes could be used as markers for many other diseases. Moreover, the bioinformatics tools applied in the current study might be helpful in screening the genes involved in one disease and their association with other diseases as well.

Parole chiave

  • bovine mastitis
  • bioinformatics tools
  • biological signaling
  • genetic markers
Accesso libero

Relationship between polymorphism within Peptidoglycan Recognition Protein 1 gene (PGLYRP1) and somatic cell counts in milk of Holstein cows

Pubblicato online: 12 May 2022
Pagine: 593 - 599

Astratto

Abstract

Bovine peptidoglycan recognition protein 1 (PGLY RP1) is an important receptor that binds to murein peptidoglycans (PGN) of Grampositive and Gram-negative bacteria and is, therefore, involved in innate immunity. The SNP T>C rs68268284 located in the 1st exon of the PGLYRP1 gene was identified by the PCR-RFLP method in a population of 319 Holstein cows. Somatic cell count (SC) was measured 7–10 times in each of three completed lactations to investigate whether the PGLYRP1 polymorphism is associated with SC. Using the GLM model, it was found that cows with the TT genotype showed significantly lower somatic cell counts than those with the CC genotype during the first lactation (P = 0.023). Moreover, during lactations 1–2 and 1–3, cows with the TT genotype reveal significantly lower SCC than CT heterozygotes, at P = 0.025 and P = 0.006, respectively. Computer-aided analysis showed that rs68268284 polymorphism could modify the PGLY RP1 functions because the mutated residue is located in a domain that is important for the binding of other molecules.

Parole chiave

  • gene
  • polymorphism
  • mastitis
  • Holstein cattle

THE BIOLOGY, PHYSIOLOGY, REPRODUCTION, AND HEALTH

Accesso libero

Selected metabolic, epigenetic, nitration and redox parameters in turkeys fed diets with different levels of arginine and methionine

Pubblicato online: 12 May 2022
Pagine: 601 - 612

Astratto

Abstract

The amino acid guidelines formulated by British United Turkeys postulate higher levels of lysine (Lys) in turkey diets than those recommended by the National Research Council. However, any modifications in the Lys content of turkey diets should be accompanied by changes in the inclusion rates of other amino acids, including methionine (Met) and arginine (Arg). The research hypothesis postulates that the appropriate inclusion levels and ratios of arginine and methionine in turkey diets with high lysine content can improve the antioxidant status of turkeys without compromising their metabolism. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of different Arg and Met ratios in Lys-rich diets on biochemical indicators, redox status and epigenetic changes in turkeys. The turkeys were assigned to six groups with eight replicates per group and 18 birds per replicate. Six feeding programs, with three dietary Arg levels (90%, 100% and 110%) and two dietary Met levels (30% and 45%) relative to dietary Lys content were compared. During each of the four feeding phases, birds were fed ad libitum isocaloric diets with high Lys content. Our results show that in growing turkeys fed diets with high Lys content, the inclusion rate of Arg can be set at 90% of Lys content with no negative effects on their antioxidant status, metabolism or performance. Diets with high Arg content (110% Lys) are not recommended due to the risk of lipid and protein damage, and an undesirable increase in insulin and T4 levels. Regardless of dietary Arg levels, an increase in the Met inclusion rate from 30% to 45% of Lys content minimizes the oxidation of lipids, proteins and DNA, and increases the antioxidant defense potential of turkeys.

Parole chiave

  • turkey
  • amino acid
  • biochemical parameter
  • hormone
  • blood
Accesso libero

Prenatal programming of the small intestine in piglets: the effect of supplementation with 3-hydroxy-3-methylbutyric acid (HMB) in pregnant sows on the structure of jejunum of their offspring

Pubblicato online: 12 May 2022
Pagine: 613 - 623

Astratto

Abstract

When discussing the scale of the occurrence of diseases of the digestive system in farm animals, particularly pigs in the weaning period, it may be beneficial to study physiological and nutritional factors that could potentially affect the growth, development, and modelling of the structure and function of the digestive tract. Taking into account the reports on the beneficial effects of ß-hydroxy-ß-methylbutyrate (HMB) administration in the prenatal period on the development of various systems it was assumed that the HMB supplementation to pregnant sows can influence intestinal development in the offspring during weaning. Thus, the present experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of HMB treatment of pregnant sows on jejunum development in offspring at weaning. From 70th day until the 90th day of gestation, sows received either a basal diet (n = 12) or the same diet supplemented with HMB (n = 12) at the dose of 0.2 g/kg of body weight/day. HMB given during prenatal time reduced the thickness of the longitudinal muscle; the apoptotic cell index in epithelium also significantly decreased after the HMB supplementation. Vasoactive intestinal (poly)peptide (VIP) expression in submucosal ganglia significantly increases in prenatally HMB treated piglets. The same strong reaction was observed with the expression of occludin, claudin-3, E-cadherin, and leptin in the jejunal epithelium. The obtained results indicate that the administration of HMB to pregnant sows significantly influenced the expression of VIP, leptin and some proteins of the intestinal barrier of their offspring less influencing the basal morphology.

Parole chiave

  • offspring
  • pigs
  • pregnancy
  • weaning
  • HMB
Accesso libero

The effect of ruminal fluid pH on milk fatty acids composition in cattle

Pubblicato online: 12 May 2022
Pagine: 625 - 631

Astratto

Abstract

The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of ruminal fluid pH on the fatty acids (FA) profile of bovine milk. The experiment was performed on 250 Polish Holstein-Friesian cows reared in 11 commercial high-yielding dairy farms. Ruminal fluid samples were collected by rumenocentesis, and fat and FA concentrations in milk were analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. According to ruminal fluid pH, cows were categorized into three pH groups: high pH (pH > 5.8), moderate pH (pH 5.8–5.6), and low pH (pH < 5.6). Milk produced by low-rumen pH cows had a decreased fat content as compared to milk from moderate- and high-rumen pH cows (P≤0.05). Moreover, milk from low-rumen pH cows was characterized by the lowest level of short-chain FA (SCFA; P≤0.05), and consequently, the highest medium-chain FA to SCFA ratio (P≤0.01). The regression analysis showed that these traits explained a small proportion of rumen pH variance, which makes them unreliable indicators of subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA) in dairy cows. However, despite the extensive variability in milk fat composition observed in this study, the effect of ruminal pH on SCFA in all the analyzed herds showed the same trend. Future research aimed to identify SARA biomarkers should therefore be conducted using techniques that allow detection of more individual FA in milk, including SCFA.

Parole chiave

  • dairy cows
  • Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy
  • milk fatty acids composition
  • ruminal acidosis
  • short-chain fatty acids
Accesso libero

The protective role of vitamins (E + C) on Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) exposed to ZnO NPs and Zn ions: Bioaccumulation and proximate chemical composition

Pubblicato online: 12 May 2022
Pagine: 633 - 642

Astratto

Abstract

The accumulation potency of zinc nanoparticles in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) was previously studied but their impacts on proximate chemical composition in muscle tissue by describing the dose-dependent accumulation and the protective role of vitamins (E + C), have not been investigated. Therefore, this study was carried out to assess the protective role of vitamins (E + C) on Zn accumulation in muscle and gill tissues of O. niloticus exposed to three sub-lethal concentrations (1/8 LC50, 1/4 LC50, and 1/2 LC50) of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) compared to zinc oxide bulk particles (ZnO BPs) as well as their effects on the induced chemical composition alterations for different experimental periods (7, 14, 21, and 28 days). The data displayed that fish exposed to the different sub-lethal concentrations of ZnO NPs or ZnO BPs have a significant increase (P<0.05) in Zn ions accumulation in muscle and gill tissues compared to control group but Zn was accumulated in gill tissue higher than muscle tissue at all exposure periods. Also, Zn accumulation was higher in fish tissues exposed to ZnO NPs than ZnO BPs. On the other hand, groups supplemented with vitamins (E + C) showed a significant decreasing (P<0.05) in accumulated Zn levels compared to groups without supplementation. The values of these supplemented groups returned to similar levels established in the control at low concentrations but still higher than control at the high concentrations. Furthermore, the results showed that moisture and ash content slightly increased while protein and fat decreased in fish exposed to ZnO NPs or ZnO BPs compared to control group. In conclusion, the findings supported that a combination of vitamins (E + C) reduced Zn accumulation and ameliorated chemical composition alterations in O. niloticus fish.

Parole chiave

  • accumulation
  • chemical composition
  • ZnO NPs
  • vitamins (E + C)
Accesso libero

Influence of brief immersion in an aqueous solution of sodium chloride and/or copper sulphate on pikeperch (Sander lucioperca (L.)) blood parameters

Pubblicato online: 12 May 2022
Pagine: 643 - 651

Astratto

Abstract

Research focusing on the effects of chemotherapeutics on the physiological state of fish determines their application in aquaculture. The aim of the study was to determine the impact of sodium chloride (NaCl) and/or copper sulphate (CuSO4) on the hematological and biochemical parameters of the blood plasma of pikeperch, Sander lucioperca (body weight – 346.42 ± 44.82 g; body length – 29.8 ± 1.3 cm) during rearing in recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS). Three groups of fish were subjected to treatment with NaCl (5 g/L), CuSO4 (1.5 mg/L), and NaCl+CuSO4 (5 g/L + 1.5 mg/L). Blood was drawn 0, 24 and 48 h following immersion. Significant differences were noted immediately following the conclusion of immersion: mean corpuscular volume (MCV; elevated values in the NaCl+CuSO4 group) and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC; elevated values in the NaCl group). Immediately following fish exposure in all three experimental groups (0 h), significantly elevated glucose and lactic acid levels were recorded as were lowered levels of chloride ions (Cl-). After 24 and 48 h, significant differences were observed in Cl-. In the NaCl group lowered levels of this parameter were sustained after 48 h, while in the other two groups this was sustained for 24 h. It was confirmed that the physiological impact on the pikeperch of the prophylactic bath in sodium chloride and/or copper sulphate was short and that the treatments did not have a significant impact on the health condition of pikeperch.

Parole chiave

  • pikeperch
  • copper sulphate
  • sodium chloride
  • blood biochemistry
  • hematological indicators

ANIMAL NUTRITION, AND FEEDSTUFFS

Accesso libero

Effect of encapsulated Cosmos caudatus leaf extract on the physiological conditions, immune competency, and antioxidative status of broilers at high stocking density

Pubblicato online: 12 May 2022
Pagine: 653 - 662

Astratto

Abstract

The present study aimed to investigate the effect of encapsulated Cosmos caudatus leaf extract on the physiological conditions, immune competency, and antioxidative status of broiler chickens raised at a high stocking density. After 15 days of rearing, 370 Lohmann broiler chicks were assigned to five treatment groups, including T0 (chicks were raised at a density of 10 birds/m2 and received no additive), T1 (chicks were raised at a density of 16 birds/m2 and received no additive), T2 (chicks were raised at a density of 16 birds/m2 and received 0.5 g/kg encapsulated C. caudatus leaf extract), T3 (chicks were raised at a density of 16 birds/m2 and received 1.0 g/kg additive), and T4 (chicks were raised at a density of 16 birds/m2 and received 1.5 g/kg additive). On days 28 and 42, blood samples from two chicks per pen were collected. On day 42, the chicks that had been blood-sampled were sacrificed, and blood samples and lymphoid organs (i.e., bursa of Fabricius, spleen, and thymus) were collected. The daily weight gain and feed efficiency of broilers (P<0.01) in groups T2 and T3 were higher than those of broilers in groups T0, T1, and T4. Daily feed intake was greater (P<0.01) in groups T0 and T1 than in groups T2 and T3. The erythrocyte content and hematocrit value of groups T1, T2, T3, and T4 were greater (P<0.05) than those of group T0. The mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration in group T4 was lower (P<0.05) than that in groups T0, T1, and T2. Leukocyte and lymphocyte levels were higher in group T1 (P<0.05) than in other groups. Serum albumin was higher in chicks reared at a high density (P<0.05) than in chicks reared at a normal density. Lesion scores were higher in group T1 (P<0.05) than in other groups. Chicks in groups T1 and T2 showed more severe pathological changes in their bursa of Fabricius compared with those in groups T0, T3, and T4. Serum superoxide dismutase was higher in groups T2, T3, and T4 (P<0.05) than in groups T0 and T1. Chicks in group T4 had higher (P<0.05) malondialdehyde levels than chicks in other groups. In conclusion, a high stocking density influences the metabolic rate and physiological conditions of broiler chicks, as reflected by alterations in the blood profiles of the animals. Stress due to a high stocking density could damage the bursa of Fabricius, but feeding with encapsulated C. caudatus leaf extract, especially at a rate of 1.5 g/kg, could alleviate the cortical and lymphocyte cell depletion of broilers. Regardless of the stocking density effect, dietary supplementation with encapsulated C. caudatus leaf extract at doses of 0.5 and 1.0 g/kg could improve the daily weight gain of broilers.

Parole chiave

  • broiler
  • extract
  • encapsulation
  • high stocking density
Accesso libero

Hermetia illucens fat affects the gastrointestinal tract selected microbial populations, their activity, and the immune status of broiler chickens

Pubblicato online: 12 May 2022
Pagine: 663 - 675

Astratto

Abstract

The present study investigated the effect of Hermetia illucens larvae (BSFL) fat, derived using supercritical CO2 extraction and added to broiler chickens’ diets as a partial (50%) or total replacement for commonly used soybean oil, on the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) microbial population, its activity, and selected physiological and immune traits. A total of 576 one-day-old female Ross 308 chicks were randomly assigned to 3 dietary treatments with 16 replicates each. The following treatments were applied: SO – 100% soybean oil, BSFL50 – a mixture of BSFL and soybean oils in a 50:50 ratio, and BSFL100 – 100% BSFL fat. Digesta samples from the crop, jejunum and caeca were collected for further analyses, i.e., pH measurements, fluorescent in situ hybridization, and short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) concentrations. Additionally, the selected plasma biochemical parameters and immunological traits were assessed. In general, the implementation of BSFL fat in broilers’ diets resulted in increased proliferation of potentially pathogenic bacterial populations in the crop, such as Enterobacteriaceae, Bacteroides–Prevotella cluster, and Clostridium perfringens. Furthermore, BSFL100 enhanced microbial activity via total SCFA production and lowered the pH in this segment. However, no detrimental effects were observed in terms of other GIT segments, i.e., the jejunal and cecal microecosystems. The strongest impact on reduction of select components of the microbial population in the cecum was observed with the BSFL50 treatment for potentially pathogenic bacteria such as Enterobacteriaceae, Bacteroides–Prevotella cluster, while commensal populations were also limited, i.e., Bacillus spp., C. leptum subgroup, and C. coccoides–Eubacterium rectale cluster. Additionally, BSFL100 reduced the cholesterol concentration in the blood, while both experimental treatments decreased the ALT level. In conclusion, due to the insufficient release of lauric acid from the BSFL fat in the crop, an adverse shift in the microbiota can be noted. However, a positive suppressive effect on the select components of the cecal microbiota, as well as improvement of liver health suggests implying the BSFL fat in broiler nutrition.

Parole chiave

  • black soldier fly
  • alternative dietary energy fat
  • microbiota
  • microbial activity
  • immune status
Accesso libero

Effect of graded dietary inclusion levels of hybrid rye grain on productive performance, the cost-effectiveness of nutrition and egg quality in laying hens

Pubblicato online: 12 May 2022
Pagine: 677 - 685

Astratto

Abstract

The study was designed to investigate productivity parameters, egg quality and the cost effectiveness of feeding laying hens with diets where ground wheat was replaced with varying levels of whole hybrid rye grain cv. Brasetto. A total of 396 Hy-Line Brown hens at 34 weeks of age were allocated to three treatment groups with 66 replicates (cages) of two hens each, and were fed isocaloric and isonitrogenous pelleted diets for 12 weeks. The diet for control group hens (R0) did not contain rye grain. In diets for hens from groups R100 and R200, ground wheat grain was partially replaced with whole rye grain at 100 g/kg and 200 g/kg, respectively. Whole intact rye grains were included in the diets. The cost of diets containing 10% and 20% of whole rye grain was by approximately 1.0% and 1.9% lower, respectively, compared with the control diet that contained no rye grain. During the entire 12-week feeding period, dietary treatments had no effect on laying rate (95.64% to 97.07%), egg weight (62.51 g to 62.74 g) or egg mass output (5.04 kg to 5.12 kg per hen). The inclusion of whole rye grain in layer diets caused a linear increase in feed intake (P<0.047) and tended to linearly increase the feed conversion ratio (FCR, P = 0.078). Both groups of hens fed diets containing whole rye grain were characterized by a linear decrease in the dry matter (DM) content of excreta (P = 0.001). Increased excreta moisture was accompanied by a tendency towards a higher incidence of dirty eggshells in R200 hens (P = 0.068). The inclusion of 100 g/kg of whole rye grain in layer diets decreased the cost of feed per kg of eggs by 1.9%. Dietary treatments had no significant effect on eggshell thickness (0.330 mm–0.345 mm), albumen quality (Haugh units, 83.46–85.84) or yolk color (3.8–4.0). The results of this experiment indicate that pre-pellet inclusion of whole rye (at up to 200 g/kg) in diets with supplemental NSP-degrading enzymes and phytase can be an effective and economically viable alternative to ground wheat in pelleted layer diets.

Parole chiave

  • whole hybrid rye
  • laying hens
  • productivity and profitability
  • egg quality
Accesso libero

The effect of different medium-chain fatty acids, calcium butyrate, and salinomycin on performance, nutrient utilization and gastrointestinal tract of chicken of Polish Green-Legged Partridge hen

Pubblicato online: 12 May 2022
Pagine: 687 - 699

Astratto

Abstract

The present study aimed to determine the effect of diets supplemented by feed additives, on the growth performance and digestive tract functioning in chicken of Green-Legged Partridge hen (GLPH). Two types of diets were used. Both the “low-digestible” (LD) diet characterized by high level of crude fiber and lard, and the “high-digestible” (HD) diet characterized by low content of crude fiber and soybean oil were supplemented by different additives such as 0.34% DM (dry matter) salinomycin, 0.30% DM medium-chain triglycerides (MCT), 1.00% DM calcium butyrate (CB), or 0.85% DM medium-chain fatty acids (MCFA). The experiment was conducted on 960 one-day-old male chickens of GLPH, randomly divided into 10 treatment groups. One group consisted of 12 replications (each with 8 birds). Chickens fed HD diet presented significantly higher body weight gain (BWG) in 15–56 days and also 0–56 days of experiment and lower feed conversion ratio (FCR) during whole time (0–56 days) of experiment (P<0.05). Addition of CB and MCFA did not affect the differences in BWG (15–56; 0–56 days) and FCR (15–56 days) in comparison with the control diet. Significant interaction between the type of diet and additives (P<0.05) was observed for feed intake (FI) throughout the experiment. The highest FI was found on LD diet with CB. On LD diet, all additives resulted in significantly worse nitrogen retention, however, on HD diet, it was observed only for salinomycin. The additives had no impact on fat digestibility when chickens were fed HD diet. There was significant (P<0.05) lower-fat digestibility when LD diet with MCT, CB, and MCFA was used. The greatest value of nitrogen-corrected apparent metabolizable energy (AMEN) was found on HD diet (P<0.05). The addition of MCT, CB, and MCFA increased the percentage share of ileum, and MCT also significantly increased the percentage share of the liver. The lactic acid bacteria and C. perfringens counts were lower on HD diet (P<0.05). The addition of MCT and CB increased the count of lactic acid bacteria in caeca (P<0.05). Many interactions between experimental factors in this experiment showed that the efficacy of using different feed additives depends on the type of diet. The results suggest that MCFA may be the most beneficial feed additive for GLPH chicken as an alternative for antibiotic growth promoters (AGP).

Parole chiave

  • chicken
  • Green-Legged Partridge hen
  • medium-chain fatty acids
  • calcium butyrate
Accesso libero

Influence of raw pea (Pisum sativum) or blue lupin seeds (Lupinus angustifolius) on the level of selected bioactive substances in pork meat

Pubblicato online: 12 May 2022
Pagine: 701 - 709

Astratto

Abstract

The study objective was to evaluate the impact of different contributions of pea (Pisum sativum) cultivar Hubal and blue lupin (Lupinus angustifolius) cultivar Regent on the level of selected bioactive substances in pork meat. One hundred three cross-breed piglets: ♀ (Landrace × Yorkshire) × ♂ Duroc were used. Two experiments were performed, in which pea seeds (experiment I: E1 – 5.0% pea seeds; E2 – 10.0% pea seeds; E3 – 15.0% pea seeds; E4 – 17.5% pea seeds) and blue lupin seeds (experiment II; D1 – 5.0% blue lupin seeds; D2 – 10.0% blue lupin seeds; D3 – 15.0% blue lupin seeds D4 – 17.5% blue lupin seeds) were used instead of genetically modified soybean meal (SBM-GM). In each of the experiments 50 animals were divided into 5 groups (control – C, and four experimentals), placed in group pens, each for 10 individuals (sex ratio barrows : gilts – 1:1). The animals were weighed and tagged before the experiments. The initial body weight of the pigs at experiment I and II commencement was: 26.7 and 33.5 kg, and at the end of the experiments: 122.0 and 124.0, respectively. In the first experiment (progressive pea “seeds” contribution) the concentration of carnosine was shown to be higher in E4 than E3 and C by 47.3% and 94.2%, respectively. In comparison with group C, the Q10 coenzyme content in groups E1, E2, E3 and E4 was lower by 40.9%, 56.8%, 40.9% and 65.9% respectively. In the experiment II (progressive lupin “seeds” contribution) increased content of all of the investigated bioactive substances was recorded in groups D1-D3 vs C. Significant differences between groups C, D2, D4 for taurine (P≤0.05; P≤0.01) and creatine (P≤0.05) have been recorded. The content of bioactive substances in the longissimus lumborum muscle was significantly influenced by legumes, which increased the level of bioactive components of protein fraction. Therefore, it can be concluded that pea (Pisum sativum) cultivar Hubal and blue lupin (Lupinus angustifolius) cultivar Regent are an alternative to SBM-GM, increasing the nutritional value of pork meat.

Parole chiave

  • fattening pigs
  • nutrition
  • pea seeds
  • lupin seeds
  • meat
  • peptides
Accesso libero

Nitrate supplementation at two forage levels in dairy cows feeding: milk production and composition, fatty acid profiles, blood metabolites, ruminal fermentation, and hydrogen sink

Pubblicato online: 12 May 2022
Pagine: 711 - 722

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Abstract

Nitrate may reduce the ruminal methane emission by competing methanogenesis to achieve more hydrogen. For this purpose, twenty Holstein lactating cows were examined using a 2×2 factorial design in 4 groups for 60 days with two forage levels (40% and 60%) and supplemental nitrate 0% (F40 and F60) and 3.5% (F40N and F60N) of diet dry matter (DM). Then, the effect of nitrate and forage levels on cow performance, ruminal fermentation, methane emission, and metabolic hydrogen sink were evaluated. The nitrate supplementation did not significantly affect milk yield and ECM/DMI, while milk urea nitrogen was increased. Lowest quantity of milk vitamins (A and E) was observed in nitrate groups. The nitrate supplementation increased c9-C18:1, unsaturated fatty acids, and n-6/n-3 contents of the milk. Blood parameters were affected by nitrate supplementation. Blood met-Hb concentration was increased, while blood glucose was decreased in nitrate groups. High forage and nitrate fed animals (F60N) had higher ruminal acetate and lower propionate concentration, and higher acetate+butyrate to propionate ratio than other groups. Nitrite and NH3-N concentrations were higher in the rumen of nitrate fed animals. Nitrate supplementation inhibited gas volume and methane emission without affecting volatile fatty acids at 12 and 24 h of incubation. The H2 balance, H2 production and consumption, and recovery percentage were significantly lower in F60N group. In conclusion, nitrate supplementation can be employed as an alternative strategy for improving ruminal fermentation, milk quality and methane inhibition.

Parole chiave

  • blood parameters
  • methane emission
  • milk composition
  • milk fatty acids
  • nitrate
Accesso libero

Slow-release urea partially replacing soybean in the diet of Holstein dairy cows: intake, blood parameters, nutrients digestibility, energy utilization, and milk production

Pubblicato online: 12 May 2022
Pagine: 723 - 730

Astratto

Abstract

The present experiment aimed to evaluate the partial replacement of soybean with slow-release urea (Optigen 1200™) in the diet of lactating cows for 84 d. Three-hundred multiparous lactating Holstein (635 ± 25 kg of body weight, BW) cows were stratified by live body weight; parity and previous milk production were randomly assigned into two experimental groups with 150 cows per each treatment. In the control treatment, 25 g soybean meal was replaced by 5.7 g slow-release urea for 84 d. Optigen treatment did not affect feed intake, daily milk production, milk composition, or milk (feed) efficiency; however, it increased (P<0.01) total BW gain and daily BW gain. Optigen treatment increased (P<0.01) the digestibility of crude protein and neutral detergent fiber. Optigen treatment increased (P<0.01) estimated N balance, milk urea-N, and net energy (NE) for gain. Without affecting blood total protein, creatinine, urea-N, triglycerides, glucose, β-hydroxybutyrate, or non-esterified free fatty acids, Optigen treatment increased the concentrations of blood albumin and cholesterol compared to the control (P<0.05). In conclusion, slow-release urea could replace soybean meal in ruminant diets with no adverse effects on feed intake, nitrogen utilization, or digestibility; however, it improved the total tract digestibility of fiber and crude protein in cows.

Parole chiave

  • milk production and composition
  • nitrogen metabolism
  • nitrogen balance
  • nitrogen excretion
  • slow-release urea
Accesso libero

Effects of pepper extract in suckling lamb feed: growth performance, metabolism, and oxidative responses

Pubblicato online: 12 May 2022
Pagine: 731 - 739

Astratto

Abstract

Our objective was to determine whether the inclusion of pepper extract would improve health in suckling lambs, stimulating antioxidant activity, and improving performance. We used Lacaune lambs distributed in four treatments, with four repetitions per treatment and three lambs per repetition: control group (T0) and treatments T1, T2, and T3 that received 200, 400, and 800 mg/kg of pepper extract, respectively. Groups T1 and T2 consumed more significant amounts of silage than group T0, and animals from group T1 consumed more concentrate and, consequently, consumed more solids. The addition of pepper extract enhanced growth performance, with the lowest dose (T1) giving rise to the most significant weight gain, average daily gain, and body weight, compared to T0. Regression analysis showed that the optimum point for pepper extract supplementation was 301.5 mg/kg. The levels of total protein and globulins were significantly higher for animals supplemented with pepper extract (day 28) than the control; the concentrations of albumin and urea increased over time but did not differ significantly among treatments. Serum glucose levels decreased significantly over time; however, the groups supplemented with pepper extract showed higher concentrations than group T0. The hematocrit was significantly higher in groups fed pepper extract; hemoglobin concentrations were also more significant, increasing over time in both groups. The groups that consumed the pepper extract had higher leukocyte counts due to greater lymphocytes and neutrophils. Levels of non-protein thiols increased significantly over time, while lipid peroxidation levels decreased significantly in all groups. The concentrations of reactive oxygen species significantly decreased in the serum of group T3 animals, those fed with pepper extract (day 28), compared to the control. In general, the addition of pepper extract in lamb feed can enhance weight gain, increase antioxidant levels, and stimulate the production of leukocytes and globulins in lambs.

Parole chiave

  • supplementation
  • weight gain
  • antioxidants
Accesso libero

Dietary silymarin, Silybum marianum extract ameliorates cadmium chloride toxicity in common carp, Cyprinus carpio

Pubblicato online: 12 May 2022
Pagine: 741 - 750

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Abstract

The present study evaluated the protective effects of silymarin extract (SIE) on cadmium chloride toxicity in common carp, Cyprinus carpio. Four experimental groups were considered for the experiment including: SIE0 (control): non-SIE-supplemented fish, SIE1: fish supplemented with 400 mg SIE/kg diet, SIE2: fish supplemented with 1400 mg SIE/kg diet, SIE3: fish supplemented with 2400 mg SIE/kg diet. Fish were fed experimental diet for 60 days and then exposed to cadmium chloride (1.5 mg/l or 25% of LC50-96 h) and antioxidant defense components and the survival rate assayed. After 60 days feeding trial, total antioxidant capacity (TAC) levels significantly increased (P<0.01) in 1400–2400 mg SIE/kg diet treatments compared to those in control and 400 mg SIE/kg diet treatment. Malondialdehyde (MDA) (P>0.01) and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) levels (P>0.01) remained unchanged during the feeding period in all treatments. Hepatic catalase (CAT) in all SIE supplemented groups and superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) in 1400–2400 mg SIE/kg diet treatments significantly elevated (P<0.01) in response to SIE. Plasma levels of hepatic metabolic enzymes [alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), creatine kinase (CK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH)] remained unchanged (P>0.01) in all experimental groups over feeding period. After exposure to cadmium chloride, TAC levels were significantly elevated (P<0.01) in all experimental groups. In control and 400 mg SIE/kg diet treatment, TAC showed lower levels (P<0.01) compared to other groups. MDA levels were significantly increased (P<0.01) in control and fish supplemented with 400 and 1400 mg SIE/kg diet. TAC in the fish of 2400 mg SIE/kg diet treatment remained unchanged (P>0.01), following the exposure. CAT (P<0.01), SOD (P<0.01) and GPx (P<0.01) were significantly elevated in response to cadmium chloride in all groups. However, the treatments, 1400 and 2400 mg SIE/kg diet, showed lower increases (P<0.01) of enzymes. AChE activity (P<0.01) in the liver were significantly decreased in control and fish fed 400 and 1400 mg SIE/kg diet. Exposure to cadmium significantly increased (P<0.01) the plasma levels of ALT, AST, ALP and LDH in control and those fed 400 and 1400 mg SIE/kg diet. The findings of the current study indicated that SIE at a rate of 1400–2400mg/kg diet might enhance antioxidant defense and protect hepatocytes against toxic effects of cadmium.

Parole chiave

  • heavy metal
  • liver
  • blood
  • herbal extract
  • fish
Accesso libero

A blend of herbal essential oils enhanced the growth performance, blood bio-immunology traits, and intestinal health of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)

Pubblicato online: 12 May 2022
Pagine: 751 - 761

Astratto

Abstract

Nile tilapia were fed four levels (0, 0.25, 0.5, and 1 ml/kg) of a liquid blend of herbal essential oils (EOs) containing carvacrol, oregano, 1,8 cineol, thymol, pinene, pinene β, limonene, and propylene glycol for 60 days. The results showed higher final weight, weight gain, and specific growth rate (P<0.05) in fish delivered 0.25 and 0.5 ml EOs/kg than the control. However, the feed conversion ratio was markedly reduced in fish fed 0.5 and 1 ml EOs/kg (P<0.05). Lipase showed enhanced activity in fish subjected to a blend of EOs, while fish fed 0.5 ml/kg of EOs blend had higher amylase activity (P<0.05) than the other levels. Lysozyme activity and superoxide dismutase showed a higher value in fish that received 0.5 ml EOs/kg. Additionally, phagocytic and catalase activities were enhanced in fish that received 0.5 and 1 ml/kg while phagocytic index was enhanced in fish fed 1 ml/kg (P<0.05). Interestingly, the total immunoglobulin level was markedly higher, while malondialdehyde was lower in EOs-subjected fish (P<0.05) than in control. The histomorphology appearance of the intestine, liver, and spleen was enriched in EOs-treated fish compared to the control fish. In conclusion, the growth performance, feed efficiency, and blood bio-immunological indices were best in fish fed 0.5–1 ml of EOs blend per kg.

Parole chiave

  • phytogenics
  • blue aquaculture
  • tilapia
  • health condition
  • production
Accesso libero

Evaluation of oregano (Origanum vulgare) essential oil supplementation on growth performance, digestive enzymes, intestinal histomorphology and gut microbiota of Black Sea salmon, Salmo labrax

Pubblicato online: 12 May 2022
Pagine: 763 - 772

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Abstract

This study aimed to determine the effect of dietary oregano (Origanum vulgare) essential oil (EO) on the growth performance, digestive enzyme activity, intestinal histomorphology, and intestinal microbiota of the Black Sea salmon juvenile (Salmo labrax). Fish were fed diets different levels of oregano EO such as 50, 100, 200, and 400 mg kg−1. For this purpose, a total of 675 fish were distributed randomly in triplicate into 5 experiment groups in 15 experiment tanks. Fish with average initial weights of 3.52±0.01 g were fed by hand at 3% of live weight for 90 days. At the end of the study, feeding with oregano EO supplementation did not significantly affect the growth performance of fish. Except for pepsin, there were no significant differences in the activity of digestive enzymes among the control and oregano EO groups. Besides, oregano EO at the doses of 50 or 400 mg kg−1 may have the potential to increase the surface area required for digestion by increasing intestinal villi length. Moreover, all doses of oregano EO showed antimicrobial properties by decreasing the count of lactic acid bacteria in the intestine. Supplementation with 100 and 200 mg kg−1 oregano EO in diets decreased the total coliform, Escherichia coli and lactic acid bacteria counts when compared to the control group. The results showed that oregano EO may positively affect digestion and absorption without adverse effects on the growth performance of Black Sea salmon juvenile.

Parole chiave

  • aquaculture
  • phytobiotic
  • villi
  • enzyme
  • bacteria
Accesso libero

Effects of a single-phase fasting period and subsequent re-feeding on compensatory growth, digestive enzyme activities, and antioxidant capacity of sobaity (Sparidentex hasta) and yellowfin seabream (Acanthopagrus latus)

Pubblicato online: 12 May 2022
Pagine: 773 - 784

Astratto

Abstract

An eight-week research was carried out to examine the influence of fasting (FA) and refeeding (RF) episodes on the compensatory growth responses (CGR) in sobaity (Sparidentex hasta, 10 g) and yellowfin seabreams (Acanthopagrus latus, 4.3 g) juveniles. Fish were fed with a commercial feed (contained 500 g kg−1 crude protein and 150 g kg−1 crude lipid) as following regimes: control (C, fish were fed three times every day), T1 (two weeks of feeding, one week of FA, and five weeks of RF), T2 (one week of feeding, two weeks of FA and five weeks of RF) and T3 (three weeks of FA and five weeks of RF). Two hundred and forty S. hasta juveniles were stocked into twelve 300-L tanks (20 fish tank−1), and 360 A. latus juveniles were allocated into other 12 tanks (30 fish tank−1). Each treatment was carried out in triplicates for each species, and each tank held only one of the species. The experiment was carried out for both species simultaneously. The weight and length of fish from the four groups were measured individually after the third week (after FA episode) and after eight weeks (after RF episode). After finishing the RF episode (eighth week), six fish of each tank were sacrificed with an overdose of 2-phenoxyethanol (1000 mg L–1), and the liver and the whole gut of the sacrificed fish were sampled, dissected, and then kept in a freezer (−80°C) until further analyses. Survival rate was decreased in S. hasta juveniles with increasing the FA period mainly due to their cannibalistic behavior, which was triggered by starvation, but it was not affected in A. latus. The fasted groups in both species significantly lost their weight after FA episodes. After five weeks of RF, S. hasta showed full compensatory growth response; meanwhile A. latus had a partial compensatory response (P<0.05). Hepatosomatic index value decreased after the FA period in both species, but it was restored to the normal level after RF phase. The activities of liver catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione-S-transferase, and glutathione peroxidase were increased in T2 group in S. hasta, but liver antioxidant enzymes were not affected in A. latus. In both species, the amount of the lipid peroxidation was significantly increased in the liver of fish groups subjected to T2 or T3 compared to T1 and control groups (P<0.05). Liver alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) in S. hasta fasted for two weeks were higher than the other groups. The activities of trypsin, chymotrypsin, α-amylase, and lipase in S. hasta fasted for a week (T1) were higher than control. In addition, the activities of trypsin and chymotrypsin in A. latus fasted for two or three weeks were lower than C and T1 groups. The activity of ALP was increased with increasing FA period in both species. The findings of the present study showed that single-phase FA episodes reduce survival and induce oxidative stress in S. hasta juveniles; meanwhile A. latus juveniles did not show complete compensatory growth after RF episode.

Parole chiave

  • compensatory growth response
  • feeding regime
  • growth metrics
  • hepatic antioxidant system
  • Sparidae

BEHAVIOR, WELL-BEING, PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY, AND ENVIRONMENT

Accesso libero

Comparison of raw cow milk microbiota in two milking systems: A field study

Pubblicato online: 12 May 2022
Pagine: 785 - 794

Astratto

Abstract

This study investigated the effect of different milking systems on the milk composition and microbial community of raw milk in a commercial dairy farm. Raw milk samples from conventional milking system (CMS) and automatic milking system (AMS) were collected and the microbiota on each was assessed by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Results showed that the acetone (P = 0.031) and β-hydroxybutyrate (P≤0.001) levels in the raw milk of the AMS group were increased compared with the CMS group. Principal component analysis, unweighted and weighted principal coordinates analysis, and heat map of microbial community composition in the raw milk showed a clear separation between two groups. AMS increased the abundance of the genera Acinetobacter (FDR = 0.004) and Staphylococcus (FDR = 0.004) in the raw milk compared with the CMS group. In contrast, the abundance of the genera Pseudomonas (FDR = 0.028), Lactococcus (FDR = 0.015), Sphingobacterium (FDR = 0.004), Brevundimonas (FDR = 0.005), and Chryseobacterium (FDR = 0.042) in the raw milk was reduced in the AMS group compared with the CMS group. The abundance of the genera Acinetobacter and Staphylococcus in the raw milk was positively correlated with the β-hydroxybutyrate, acetone, free fatty acid, citric acid, and urea nitrogen levels. Furthermore, the abundance of the genus Acinetobacter in the raw milk was negatively correlated with the somatic cell counts. The study demonstrates that the introduction of AMS in the dairy farm can regulate microbiota composition in the raw milk and this modification may exert an effect on reducing the somatic cell counts in the raw milk.

Parole chiave

  • automatic milking system
  • microbiota
  • raw milk
  • conventional milking system
Accesso libero

The effect of light/dark cycles on performance and welfare in broiler

Pubblicato online: 12 May 2022
Pagine: 795 - 802

Astratto

Abstract

The purpose of this study was to compare a continuous lighting programme (23 hours of lighting (L)/1 hour of darkness (D)) with intermittent lighting programmes (16L: 8D) and also to investigate the effects of the length of the dark cycle in the intermittent programme on the performance, carcass characteristics, water consumption, uniformity, metabolic parameters, and ammonia burns of chickens. Thus, five hundred Ross 308 male chicks were used. The 23L:1D programme was applied to the chicks for 7 days. On day 7, they were divided into four groups by balancing their live weight; group I: continuous 23L:1D; group II: intermittent 4x (4L:2D); group II: intermittent 2x (8L:4D); group IV: continuous 16L:8D. The study took place between days 7 and 42. At the end of the study, 10 chickens from each group were slaughtered, their carcass, blood, and bone properties were analysed. Body temperatures and ammonia burns were assessed for all broiler chickens. The mean live weight of group IV was the lowest. The difference among the groups in terms of live weight gains, feed intakes, feed conversion ratios, and survival rates was non-significant. Long-term darkness in group IV significantly dropped the water consumption. On day 21, group III’s best uniformity was calculated; but on day 42, the difference was non-significant. The highest breast ratio and the lowest wing ratio belonged to chicks in group I. Their free T4, glucose, and uric acid levels were lower; whilst their testosterone levels were higher. Body temperature and tibia ash levels were similar across all of the groups. The intermittent lighting programmes increased the number of ammonia burns. Consequently, the long-term darkness negatively affected both the chickens’ performance and well-being.

Parole chiave

  • broiler
  • lighting programme
  • production
  • hormone
  • ammonia burns

QUALITY AND SAFETY OF ANIMAL ORIGIN PRODUCTS

Accesso libero

Correlations between first order echotextural characteristics and chemical composition of pectoralis major muscles in broiler chickens receiving different dietary fat supplements

Pubblicato online: 12 May 2022
Pagine: 803 - 813

Astratto

Abstract

This study examined the quantitative relationships among ultrasonographic image attributes and chemical composition of the pectoralis major muscles in broiler chickens that received four different dietary fat supplements (Group SO: soybean oil; Group FO: flaxseed oil; Group SO+FO: soybean oil+flaxseed oil; and Group BT: beef tallow; n=10 birds/group). Ultrasonograms of birds’ pectoral muscles, in a transverse (T) and longitudinal (L) plane, were obtained just before slaughter at 6 weeks of age and were subjected to digital image analyses to determine mean pixel intensity (MPI) and pixel heterogeneity values (standard deviation of numerical pixel values; MPH; a.k.a first order echotextural characteristics). Thirty-eight chemical characteristics of the muscles were determined post-mortem (crude fat, protein, and dry matter as well as fatty acid profiles) and were analyzed for correlations with the echotextural variables. A total of 12 (L-MPI: 7; L-MPH: 4; and T-MPH: 1 correlation), 5 (L-MPI: 2; L-MPH: 2; and T-MPI: 1 correlation), 15 (L-MPI: 10; T-MPI: 4; and T-MPH: 1 correlation) and 8 (L-MPI: 2; L-MPH: 1; and T-MPH: 5 correlations) significant correlations were recorded in Groups SO, FO, SO+FO and BT, respectively. When the data were pooled for all 40 birds studied, significant correlations with echotextural attributes were recorded for eighteen different chemical constituents, with the strongest overall correlation found between crude fat content and T-MPI (r=0.52, P=0.0005). In conclusion, there exists a potential application for ultrasonographic imaging in situ combined with computerized image analysis to estimate certain chemical constituents of pectoralis major muscles in broiler chickens. However, the existence and strength of correlations among ultrasonographic image attributes and muscle composition are affected by the source of dietary fat and relative abundance (“threshold concentrations”) of individual chemical components.

Parole chiave

  • broiler chicken
  • pectoral muscle
  • ultrasonography
  • echotexture
  • chemical composition
28 Articoli

REVIEW

Accesso libero

Genome-wise engineering of ruminant nutrition – nutrigenomics: applications, challenges, and future perspectives – A review

Pubblicato online: 12 May 2022
Pagine: 511 - 521

Astratto

Abstract

Use of genomic information in ruminant production systems can help alleviating concerns related to food security and sustainability of production. Nutritional genomics (i.e., nutrigenomics) is the field of research that is interested in all types of reciprocal interactions between nutrients and the genomes of organisms, i.e., variable patterns of gene expression and effect of genetic variations on the nutritional environment. Devising a revolutionary analytical approach to the traditional ruminant nutrition research, the relatively novel area of ruminant nutrigenomics has several studies concerning different aspects of animal production systems. This paper aims to review the current nutrigenomics research in the frame of how nutrition of ruminants can be modified accounting for individual genetic backgrounds and gene/diet relationships behind productivity, quality, efficiency, disease resistance, fertility, and greenhouse gas emissions. Furthermore, current challenges facing ruminant nutrigenomics are evaluated and future directions for the novel area are strongly argued by this review.

Parole chiave

  • nutrigenomics
  • ruminants
  • diet-gene interactions
  • traits
  • nutrigenetics
Accesso libero

Dietary strategies to enrich milk with healthy fatty acids – A review

Pubblicato online: 12 May 2022
Pagine: 523 - 536

Astratto

Abstract

Feed is the main factor impacting the composition and quality of milk of dairy animals. Therefore, the present review explores the effects of feed and nutrition on milk fat content and levels of healthy fatty acids (FA) in milk consumed by humans. Milk and dairy products are two main sources of healthy and unhealthy FA in human nutrition. The concentrations of FA in milk depend mainly on diets; therefore, milk FA concentrations and ratios can be greatly altered by some feeding strategies. Dietary supplementation of the diets of dairy livestock with vegetable seeds or oils, microalgae and phytogenic feed additives, and feeding of some grasses can enhance the contents of healthy FA, including n-3 FA, α-linolenic acid, conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and, generally, unsaturated FA in milk and dairy products. Enrichment of milk with healthy FA may make milk a source of anticarcinogens (CLA and polyphenols) for human health. This review, therefore, focusses on the current research findings on enrichment of milk with healthy FA and summarizes some effective supplementation strategies to alter milk FA profile.

Parole chiave

  • fatty acids
  • feed additives
  • feed supplement
  • health
  • milk
Accesso libero

Fiber digestibility in growing pigs fed common fiber-rich ingredients – A systematic review

Pubblicato online: 12 May 2022
Pagine: 537 - 550

Astratto

Abstract

The application of high-fiber ingredients in the swine feed industry has some limitations considering that high amounts of fiber are resistant to endogenous enzymatic degradation in the pig’s gut. However, there is growing interest in fiber fermentation in the intestine of pigs due to their functional properties and potential health benefits. Many strategies have been applied in feed formulations to improve utilization efficiency of fiber-rich ingredients and stimulate their prebiotic effects in pigs. This manuscript reviews chemical compositions, physical properties, and digestibility of fiber-rich diets formulated with fibrous ingredients for growing pigs. Evidences presented in this review indicate there is a great variation in chemical compositions and physical properties of fibrous ingredients, resulting in the discrepancy of energy and fiber digestibility in pig intestine. In practice, fermentation capacity of fiber components in the pig’s intestine can be improved using strategies, such as biological enzymes supplementation and feed processing technologies. Soluble dietary fiber (SDF) and insoluble dietary fiber (IDF), rather than neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and acid detergent fiber (ADF), are recommended in application of pig production to achieve precise feeding. Limitations of current scientific research on determining fiber digestibility and short chain fatty acids (SCFA) production are discussed. Endogenous losses of fiber components from non-dietary materials that result in underestimation of fiber digestibility and SCFA production are discussed in this review. Overall, the purpose of our review is to provide a reference for feeding the pig by choosing the diets formulated with different high-fiber ingredients.

Parole chiave

  • digestibility
  • fiber fermentation
  • microbiota
  • pig
  • short chain fatty acid
Accesso libero

Breast muscle myopathies in broiler: mechanism, status and their impact on meat quality – A review

Pubblicato online: 12 May 2022
Pagine: 551 - 560

Astratto

Abstract

Almost a decade ago, the sudden rise of breast muscle defects in fast-growing commercial broiler breeds challenged the broiler production industry and meat scientists to address the issue of these novel muscle abnormalities. After that, a widespread hypothesis showing a correlation between high muscle yield and incidence of these muscle myopathies received much acceptance from the research community. Increased muscle hypertrophy and unbalanced growth of connective tissues lead to an inadequate blood supply that ultimately causes hypoxia in muscle fibers. Reduced blood vascular density in muscle fibers induces oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction, leading to muscle fibrosis, lipidosis and myodegeneration. Along with physical changes, the myopathic muscles exhibit poor sensory properties, abnormal texture properties and a low nutritional profile. As these myopathies alter meat’s physical appearance, they have a negative impact on customer’s behavior and preference. A better production environment with proper dietary supplementation with balanced breeding strategies can minimize the incidence of muscle myopathies in broiler chicken. This review aims to address the underlying mechanism behind these myopathies and their impact on poultry meat quality, including nutritional value and consumer behavior. It describes the link between genetic and non-genetic elements influencing myopathies, along with the strategies to minimize the occurrence of breast muscle myopathies.

Parole chiave

  • breast muscle myopathies
  • oxidative stress
  • broiler production
  • meat quality
  • consumer behavior

ANIMAL GENETICS AND BREEDING

Accesso libero

Do the differences in egg contamination, penetration, and resistance against microorganisms among the hen genotypes exist?

Pubblicato online: 12 May 2022
Pagine: 561 - 574

Astratto

Abstract

The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the impact of genotype and storage conditions (temperature and time) on microbiological contamination and eggshell quality. There were four genotypes of laying hens used, Czech Golden Spotted (CGS), Greenleg Partridge (GP), White Leghorn (WL) and commercial hybrid (CH) hens were included. After collection, the eggs were divided equally into five groups according to the storage time (0, 14, 28 days) and temperature (5 and 20°C). The microbiological analysis included counting of colonies forming units (CFU) of Escherichia coli (EC), Enterococcus (ENT) and total number of microorganisms (TNM) on eggshell surface, eggshell membranes and in thin albumen. The analysis of eggshell quality included the determination of eggshell proportion (SP), thickness (ST), strength (SST), index (SI) and surface (SS). Moreover, egg weight (EW) and egg weight loss (EWL) were determined. The significant effect of genotype was found in contamination of eggshell by EC, ENT and TNM, eggshell membranes by TNM and albumen by EC (all P≤0.05). The significantly lowest contamination of eggshell from EC was in eggs from the WL hens (4.42 log CFU/eggshell), while from ENT was in eggs from the CGS hens (1.22 log CFU/eggshell) and from the WL hens (1.40 log CFU/eggshell). The lowest incidence of TNM was also detected in eggs from the WL hens (5.03 log CFU/eggshell). Statistically the lowest contamination of eggshell membranes by TNM was found in eggs from the WL (0.12 log CFU/eggshell membranes) and CH hens (0.15 log CFU/eggshell membranes). Regarding the effect of genotype, the GP (not detected) and WL (not detected) hens had eggs with statistically the lowest occurrence of EC bacteria in albumen. Regarding the EW and eggshell quality, all the parameters were significantly affected by the genotype (P≤0.0001). Also EWL was significantly (P≤0.05) affected by genotype (after 14, 21 and 28 days of storage). There were found to be significant differences of microbial contamination of egg surface among observed hen genotypes. The penetration of selected microorganisms was also significant in contamination of eggshell membranes by TNM and in contamination of albumen by EC.

Parole chiave

  • egg
  • genotype
  • microorganisms
  • storage temperature
  • storage time
Accesso libero

Epigenetic states of genes controlling immune responsiveness in bovine chronic mastitis

Pubblicato online: 12 May 2022
Pagine: 575 - 581

Astratto

Abstract

Mastitis is a common disease in dairy cows, causing substantial economic losses. The leading cause of elevated milk somatic cell count (SC), which is the best indicator for detecting mastitis, is the invasion of pathogens. A major pathogen responsible for bovine mastitis is Staphylococcus aureus, a member of the coagulase-positive staphylococci. Some strains of coagulase-negative staphylococci can also be a cause of clinical or subclinical mastitis. Our study used bisulfite sequencing PCR (BSP) to detect the methylation status of nine candidate genes (CCL2, HCK, F11R, CD8A, PDIA3, LGMN, HSPA1A, IL18 and NFKBIA). We investigated the mechanisms associated with overexpression of these genes, in the mammary gland secretory tissue of cows diagnosed with mastitis and infected with coagulase-positive or coagulase-negative staphylococci. The results showed no changes at the DNA methylation level between the mastitis (CoPS and CoNS) and control groups (H), except for in the HCK region, where the observed differences between the CoPS and H groups were statistically significant. The low methylation level of the CpG sequence seems not to correspond to the previously observed increased activity of these genes, suggesting that mechanisms other than DNA methylation may control mRNA expression at the analyzed loci.

Parole chiave

  • BSP
  • cattle
  • DNA methylation
  • mastitis
Accesso libero

Mining for the association of bovine mastitis linked genes to pathological signatures and pathways

Pubblicato online: 12 May 2022
Pagine: 583 - 591

Astratto

Abstract

Background: Bovine mastitis is a common infectious disease with a serious threat to the dairy industry and public health. Mastitis is a polygenetic trait under the control of many genes. In the current study, our research attempted to address the role of mastitis-associated genes in various signalings including parasitic, viral, cancer and fungal diseases by using online bioinformatics software. Methods: We selected mastitis-associated genes from already published data and using online bioinformatics tools including DAVID and String classified the pathological role of relevant genes. A Venn diagram was used to show the status of overlapping genes among different biological function processes. Result: This study revealed that the genes gathered in published resources of mastitis were significantly correlated with influenza A, chagas disease, leishmaniasis, toxoplasmosis, tuberculosis, cancer signaling, hepatitis B, type I & II diabetes mellitus and prion diseases biological pathways. Based on our findings, we concluded that mastitis-linked genes could be used as markers for many other diseases. Moreover, the bioinformatics tools applied in the current study might be helpful in screening the genes involved in one disease and their association with other diseases as well.

Parole chiave

  • bovine mastitis
  • bioinformatics tools
  • biological signaling
  • genetic markers
Accesso libero

Relationship between polymorphism within Peptidoglycan Recognition Protein 1 gene (PGLYRP1) and somatic cell counts in milk of Holstein cows

Pubblicato online: 12 May 2022
Pagine: 593 - 599

Astratto

Abstract

Bovine peptidoglycan recognition protein 1 (PGLY RP1) is an important receptor that binds to murein peptidoglycans (PGN) of Grampositive and Gram-negative bacteria and is, therefore, involved in innate immunity. The SNP T>C rs68268284 located in the 1st exon of the PGLYRP1 gene was identified by the PCR-RFLP method in a population of 319 Holstein cows. Somatic cell count (SC) was measured 7–10 times in each of three completed lactations to investigate whether the PGLYRP1 polymorphism is associated with SC. Using the GLM model, it was found that cows with the TT genotype showed significantly lower somatic cell counts than those with the CC genotype during the first lactation (P = 0.023). Moreover, during lactations 1–2 and 1–3, cows with the TT genotype reveal significantly lower SCC than CT heterozygotes, at P = 0.025 and P = 0.006, respectively. Computer-aided analysis showed that rs68268284 polymorphism could modify the PGLY RP1 functions because the mutated residue is located in a domain that is important for the binding of other molecules.

Parole chiave

  • gene
  • polymorphism
  • mastitis
  • Holstein cattle

THE BIOLOGY, PHYSIOLOGY, REPRODUCTION, AND HEALTH

Accesso libero

Selected metabolic, epigenetic, nitration and redox parameters in turkeys fed diets with different levels of arginine and methionine

Pubblicato online: 12 May 2022
Pagine: 601 - 612

Astratto

Abstract

The amino acid guidelines formulated by British United Turkeys postulate higher levels of lysine (Lys) in turkey diets than those recommended by the National Research Council. However, any modifications in the Lys content of turkey diets should be accompanied by changes in the inclusion rates of other amino acids, including methionine (Met) and arginine (Arg). The research hypothesis postulates that the appropriate inclusion levels and ratios of arginine and methionine in turkey diets with high lysine content can improve the antioxidant status of turkeys without compromising their metabolism. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of different Arg and Met ratios in Lys-rich diets on biochemical indicators, redox status and epigenetic changes in turkeys. The turkeys were assigned to six groups with eight replicates per group and 18 birds per replicate. Six feeding programs, with three dietary Arg levels (90%, 100% and 110%) and two dietary Met levels (30% and 45%) relative to dietary Lys content were compared. During each of the four feeding phases, birds were fed ad libitum isocaloric diets with high Lys content. Our results show that in growing turkeys fed diets with high Lys content, the inclusion rate of Arg can be set at 90% of Lys content with no negative effects on their antioxidant status, metabolism or performance. Diets with high Arg content (110% Lys) are not recommended due to the risk of lipid and protein damage, and an undesirable increase in insulin and T4 levels. Regardless of dietary Arg levels, an increase in the Met inclusion rate from 30% to 45% of Lys content minimizes the oxidation of lipids, proteins and DNA, and increases the antioxidant defense potential of turkeys.

Parole chiave

  • turkey
  • amino acid
  • biochemical parameter
  • hormone
  • blood
Accesso libero

Prenatal programming of the small intestine in piglets: the effect of supplementation with 3-hydroxy-3-methylbutyric acid (HMB) in pregnant sows on the structure of jejunum of their offspring

Pubblicato online: 12 May 2022
Pagine: 613 - 623

Astratto

Abstract

When discussing the scale of the occurrence of diseases of the digestive system in farm animals, particularly pigs in the weaning period, it may be beneficial to study physiological and nutritional factors that could potentially affect the growth, development, and modelling of the structure and function of the digestive tract. Taking into account the reports on the beneficial effects of ß-hydroxy-ß-methylbutyrate (HMB) administration in the prenatal period on the development of various systems it was assumed that the HMB supplementation to pregnant sows can influence intestinal development in the offspring during weaning. Thus, the present experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of HMB treatment of pregnant sows on jejunum development in offspring at weaning. From 70th day until the 90th day of gestation, sows received either a basal diet (n = 12) or the same diet supplemented with HMB (n = 12) at the dose of 0.2 g/kg of body weight/day. HMB given during prenatal time reduced the thickness of the longitudinal muscle; the apoptotic cell index in epithelium also significantly decreased after the HMB supplementation. Vasoactive intestinal (poly)peptide (VIP) expression in submucosal ganglia significantly increases in prenatally HMB treated piglets. The same strong reaction was observed with the expression of occludin, claudin-3, E-cadherin, and leptin in the jejunal epithelium. The obtained results indicate that the administration of HMB to pregnant sows significantly influenced the expression of VIP, leptin and some proteins of the intestinal barrier of their offspring less influencing the basal morphology.

Parole chiave

  • offspring
  • pigs
  • pregnancy
  • weaning
  • HMB
Accesso libero

The effect of ruminal fluid pH on milk fatty acids composition in cattle

Pubblicato online: 12 May 2022
Pagine: 625 - 631

Astratto

Abstract

The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of ruminal fluid pH on the fatty acids (FA) profile of bovine milk. The experiment was performed on 250 Polish Holstein-Friesian cows reared in 11 commercial high-yielding dairy farms. Ruminal fluid samples were collected by rumenocentesis, and fat and FA concentrations in milk were analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. According to ruminal fluid pH, cows were categorized into three pH groups: high pH (pH > 5.8), moderate pH (pH 5.8–5.6), and low pH (pH < 5.6). Milk produced by low-rumen pH cows had a decreased fat content as compared to milk from moderate- and high-rumen pH cows (P≤0.05). Moreover, milk from low-rumen pH cows was characterized by the lowest level of short-chain FA (SCFA; P≤0.05), and consequently, the highest medium-chain FA to SCFA ratio (P≤0.01). The regression analysis showed that these traits explained a small proportion of rumen pH variance, which makes them unreliable indicators of subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA) in dairy cows. However, despite the extensive variability in milk fat composition observed in this study, the effect of ruminal pH on SCFA in all the analyzed herds showed the same trend. Future research aimed to identify SARA biomarkers should therefore be conducted using techniques that allow detection of more individual FA in milk, including SCFA.

Parole chiave

  • dairy cows
  • Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy
  • milk fatty acids composition
  • ruminal acidosis
  • short-chain fatty acids
Accesso libero

The protective role of vitamins (E + C) on Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) exposed to ZnO NPs and Zn ions: Bioaccumulation and proximate chemical composition

Pubblicato online: 12 May 2022
Pagine: 633 - 642

Astratto

Abstract

The accumulation potency of zinc nanoparticles in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) was previously studied but their impacts on proximate chemical composition in muscle tissue by describing the dose-dependent accumulation and the protective role of vitamins (E + C), have not been investigated. Therefore, this study was carried out to assess the protective role of vitamins (E + C) on Zn accumulation in muscle and gill tissues of O. niloticus exposed to three sub-lethal concentrations (1/8 LC50, 1/4 LC50, and 1/2 LC50) of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) compared to zinc oxide bulk particles (ZnO BPs) as well as their effects on the induced chemical composition alterations for different experimental periods (7, 14, 21, and 28 days). The data displayed that fish exposed to the different sub-lethal concentrations of ZnO NPs or ZnO BPs have a significant increase (P<0.05) in Zn ions accumulation in muscle and gill tissues compared to control group but Zn was accumulated in gill tissue higher than muscle tissue at all exposure periods. Also, Zn accumulation was higher in fish tissues exposed to ZnO NPs than ZnO BPs. On the other hand, groups supplemented with vitamins (E + C) showed a significant decreasing (P<0.05) in accumulated Zn levels compared to groups without supplementation. The values of these supplemented groups returned to similar levels established in the control at low concentrations but still higher than control at the high concentrations. Furthermore, the results showed that moisture and ash content slightly increased while protein and fat decreased in fish exposed to ZnO NPs or ZnO BPs compared to control group. In conclusion, the findings supported that a combination of vitamins (E + C) reduced Zn accumulation and ameliorated chemical composition alterations in O. niloticus fish.

Parole chiave

  • accumulation
  • chemical composition
  • ZnO NPs
  • vitamins (E + C)
Accesso libero

Influence of brief immersion in an aqueous solution of sodium chloride and/or copper sulphate on pikeperch (Sander lucioperca (L.)) blood parameters

Pubblicato online: 12 May 2022
Pagine: 643 - 651

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Abstract

Research focusing on the effects of chemotherapeutics on the physiological state of fish determines their application in aquaculture. The aim of the study was to determine the impact of sodium chloride (NaCl) and/or copper sulphate (CuSO4) on the hematological and biochemical parameters of the blood plasma of pikeperch, Sander lucioperca (body weight – 346.42 ± 44.82 g; body length – 29.8 ± 1.3 cm) during rearing in recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS). Three groups of fish were subjected to treatment with NaCl (5 g/L), CuSO4 (1.5 mg/L), and NaCl+CuSO4 (5 g/L + 1.5 mg/L). Blood was drawn 0, 24 and 48 h following immersion. Significant differences were noted immediately following the conclusion of immersion: mean corpuscular volume (MCV; elevated values in the NaCl+CuSO4 group) and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC; elevated values in the NaCl group). Immediately following fish exposure in all three experimental groups (0 h), significantly elevated glucose and lactic acid levels were recorded as were lowered levels of chloride ions (Cl-). After 24 and 48 h, significant differences were observed in Cl-. In the NaCl group lowered levels of this parameter were sustained after 48 h, while in the other two groups this was sustained for 24 h. It was confirmed that the physiological impact on the pikeperch of the prophylactic bath in sodium chloride and/or copper sulphate was short and that the treatments did not have a significant impact on the health condition of pikeperch.

Parole chiave

  • pikeperch
  • copper sulphate
  • sodium chloride
  • blood biochemistry
  • hematological indicators

ANIMAL NUTRITION, AND FEEDSTUFFS

Accesso libero

Effect of encapsulated Cosmos caudatus leaf extract on the physiological conditions, immune competency, and antioxidative status of broilers at high stocking density

Pubblicato online: 12 May 2022
Pagine: 653 - 662

Astratto

Abstract

The present study aimed to investigate the effect of encapsulated Cosmos caudatus leaf extract on the physiological conditions, immune competency, and antioxidative status of broiler chickens raised at a high stocking density. After 15 days of rearing, 370 Lohmann broiler chicks were assigned to five treatment groups, including T0 (chicks were raised at a density of 10 birds/m2 and received no additive), T1 (chicks were raised at a density of 16 birds/m2 and received no additive), T2 (chicks were raised at a density of 16 birds/m2 and received 0.5 g/kg encapsulated C. caudatus leaf extract), T3 (chicks were raised at a density of 16 birds/m2 and received 1.0 g/kg additive), and T4 (chicks were raised at a density of 16 birds/m2 and received 1.5 g/kg additive). On days 28 and 42, blood samples from two chicks per pen were collected. On day 42, the chicks that had been blood-sampled were sacrificed, and blood samples and lymphoid organs (i.e., bursa of Fabricius, spleen, and thymus) were collected. The daily weight gain and feed efficiency of broilers (P<0.01) in groups T2 and T3 were higher than those of broilers in groups T0, T1, and T4. Daily feed intake was greater (P<0.01) in groups T0 and T1 than in groups T2 and T3. The erythrocyte content and hematocrit value of groups T1, T2, T3, and T4 were greater (P<0.05) than those of group T0. The mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration in group T4 was lower (P<0.05) than that in groups T0, T1, and T2. Leukocyte and lymphocyte levels were higher in group T1 (P<0.05) than in other groups. Serum albumin was higher in chicks reared at a high density (P<0.05) than in chicks reared at a normal density. Lesion scores were higher in group T1 (P<0.05) than in other groups. Chicks in groups T1 and T2 showed more severe pathological changes in their bursa of Fabricius compared with those in groups T0, T3, and T4. Serum superoxide dismutase was higher in groups T2, T3, and T4 (P<0.05) than in groups T0 and T1. Chicks in group T4 had higher (P<0.05) malondialdehyde levels than chicks in other groups. In conclusion, a high stocking density influences the metabolic rate and physiological conditions of broiler chicks, as reflected by alterations in the blood profiles of the animals. Stress due to a high stocking density could damage the bursa of Fabricius, but feeding with encapsulated C. caudatus leaf extract, especially at a rate of 1.5 g/kg, could alleviate the cortical and lymphocyte cell depletion of broilers. Regardless of the stocking density effect, dietary supplementation with encapsulated C. caudatus leaf extract at doses of 0.5 and 1.0 g/kg could improve the daily weight gain of broilers.

Parole chiave

  • broiler
  • extract
  • encapsulation
  • high stocking density
Accesso libero

Hermetia illucens fat affects the gastrointestinal tract selected microbial populations, their activity, and the immune status of broiler chickens

Pubblicato online: 12 May 2022
Pagine: 663 - 675

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Abstract

The present study investigated the effect of Hermetia illucens larvae (BSFL) fat, derived using supercritical CO2 extraction and added to broiler chickens’ diets as a partial (50%) or total replacement for commonly used soybean oil, on the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) microbial population, its activity, and selected physiological and immune traits. A total of 576 one-day-old female Ross 308 chicks were randomly assigned to 3 dietary treatments with 16 replicates each. The following treatments were applied: SO – 100% soybean oil, BSFL50 – a mixture of BSFL and soybean oils in a 50:50 ratio, and BSFL100 – 100% BSFL fat. Digesta samples from the crop, jejunum and caeca were collected for further analyses, i.e., pH measurements, fluorescent in situ hybridization, and short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) concentrations. Additionally, the selected plasma biochemical parameters and immunological traits were assessed. In general, the implementation of BSFL fat in broilers’ diets resulted in increased proliferation of potentially pathogenic bacterial populations in the crop, such as Enterobacteriaceae, Bacteroides–Prevotella cluster, and Clostridium perfringens. Furthermore, BSFL100 enhanced microbial activity via total SCFA production and lowered the pH in this segment. However, no detrimental effects were observed in terms of other GIT segments, i.e., the jejunal and cecal microecosystems. The strongest impact on reduction of select components of the microbial population in the cecum was observed with the BSFL50 treatment for potentially pathogenic bacteria such as Enterobacteriaceae, Bacteroides–Prevotella cluster, while commensal populations were also limited, i.e., Bacillus spp., C. leptum subgroup, and C. coccoides–Eubacterium rectale cluster. Additionally, BSFL100 reduced the cholesterol concentration in the blood, while both experimental treatments decreased the ALT level. In conclusion, due to the insufficient release of lauric acid from the BSFL fat in the crop, an adverse shift in the microbiota can be noted. However, a positive suppressive effect on the select components of the cecal microbiota, as well as improvement of liver health suggests implying the BSFL fat in broiler nutrition.

Parole chiave

  • black soldier fly
  • alternative dietary energy fat
  • microbiota
  • microbial activity
  • immune status
Accesso libero

Effect of graded dietary inclusion levels of hybrid rye grain on productive performance, the cost-effectiveness of nutrition and egg quality in laying hens

Pubblicato online: 12 May 2022
Pagine: 677 - 685

Astratto

Abstract

The study was designed to investigate productivity parameters, egg quality and the cost effectiveness of feeding laying hens with diets where ground wheat was replaced with varying levels of whole hybrid rye grain cv. Brasetto. A total of 396 Hy-Line Brown hens at 34 weeks of age were allocated to three treatment groups with 66 replicates (cages) of two hens each, and were fed isocaloric and isonitrogenous pelleted diets for 12 weeks. The diet for control group hens (R0) did not contain rye grain. In diets for hens from groups R100 and R200, ground wheat grain was partially replaced with whole rye grain at 100 g/kg and 200 g/kg, respectively. Whole intact rye grains were included in the diets. The cost of diets containing 10% and 20% of whole rye grain was by approximately 1.0% and 1.9% lower, respectively, compared with the control diet that contained no rye grain. During the entire 12-week feeding period, dietary treatments had no effect on laying rate (95.64% to 97.07%), egg weight (62.51 g to 62.74 g) or egg mass output (5.04 kg to 5.12 kg per hen). The inclusion of whole rye grain in layer diets caused a linear increase in feed intake (P<0.047) and tended to linearly increase the feed conversion ratio (FCR, P = 0.078). Both groups of hens fed diets containing whole rye grain were characterized by a linear decrease in the dry matter (DM) content of excreta (P = 0.001). Increased excreta moisture was accompanied by a tendency towards a higher incidence of dirty eggshells in R200 hens (P = 0.068). The inclusion of 100 g/kg of whole rye grain in layer diets decreased the cost of feed per kg of eggs by 1.9%. Dietary treatments had no significant effect on eggshell thickness (0.330 mm–0.345 mm), albumen quality (Haugh units, 83.46–85.84) or yolk color (3.8–4.0). The results of this experiment indicate that pre-pellet inclusion of whole rye (at up to 200 g/kg) in diets with supplemental NSP-degrading enzymes and phytase can be an effective and economically viable alternative to ground wheat in pelleted layer diets.

Parole chiave

  • whole hybrid rye
  • laying hens
  • productivity and profitability
  • egg quality
Accesso libero

The effect of different medium-chain fatty acids, calcium butyrate, and salinomycin on performance, nutrient utilization and gastrointestinal tract of chicken of Polish Green-Legged Partridge hen

Pubblicato online: 12 May 2022
Pagine: 687 - 699

Astratto

Abstract

The present study aimed to determine the effect of diets supplemented by feed additives, on the growth performance and digestive tract functioning in chicken of Green-Legged Partridge hen (GLPH). Two types of diets were used. Both the “low-digestible” (LD) diet characterized by high level of crude fiber and lard, and the “high-digestible” (HD) diet characterized by low content of crude fiber and soybean oil were supplemented by different additives such as 0.34% DM (dry matter) salinomycin, 0.30% DM medium-chain triglycerides (MCT), 1.00% DM calcium butyrate (CB), or 0.85% DM medium-chain fatty acids (MCFA). The experiment was conducted on 960 one-day-old male chickens of GLPH, randomly divided into 10 treatment groups. One group consisted of 12 replications (each with 8 birds). Chickens fed HD diet presented significantly higher body weight gain (BWG) in 15–56 days and also 0–56 days of experiment and lower feed conversion ratio (FCR) during whole time (0–56 days) of experiment (P<0.05). Addition of CB and MCFA did not affect the differences in BWG (15–56; 0–56 days) and FCR (15–56 days) in comparison with the control diet. Significant interaction between the type of diet and additives (P<0.05) was observed for feed intake (FI) throughout the experiment. The highest FI was found on LD diet with CB. On LD diet, all additives resulted in significantly worse nitrogen retention, however, on HD diet, it was observed only for salinomycin. The additives had no impact on fat digestibility when chickens were fed HD diet. There was significant (P<0.05) lower-fat digestibility when LD diet with MCT, CB, and MCFA was used. The greatest value of nitrogen-corrected apparent metabolizable energy (AMEN) was found on HD diet (P<0.05). The addition of MCT, CB, and MCFA increased the percentage share of ileum, and MCT also significantly increased the percentage share of the liver. The lactic acid bacteria and C. perfringens counts were lower on HD diet (P<0.05). The addition of MCT and CB increased the count of lactic acid bacteria in caeca (P<0.05). Many interactions between experimental factors in this experiment showed that the efficacy of using different feed additives depends on the type of diet. The results suggest that MCFA may be the most beneficial feed additive for GLPH chicken as an alternative for antibiotic growth promoters (AGP).

Parole chiave

  • chicken
  • Green-Legged Partridge hen
  • medium-chain fatty acids
  • calcium butyrate
Accesso libero

Influence of raw pea (Pisum sativum) or blue lupin seeds (Lupinus angustifolius) on the level of selected bioactive substances in pork meat

Pubblicato online: 12 May 2022
Pagine: 701 - 709

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Abstract

The study objective was to evaluate the impact of different contributions of pea (Pisum sativum) cultivar Hubal and blue lupin (Lupinus angustifolius) cultivar Regent on the level of selected bioactive substances in pork meat. One hundred three cross-breed piglets: ♀ (Landrace × Yorkshire) × ♂ Duroc were used. Two experiments were performed, in which pea seeds (experiment I: E1 – 5.0% pea seeds; E2 – 10.0% pea seeds; E3 – 15.0% pea seeds; E4 – 17.5% pea seeds) and blue lupin seeds (experiment II; D1 – 5.0% blue lupin seeds; D2 – 10.0% blue lupin seeds; D3 – 15.0% blue lupin seeds D4 – 17.5% blue lupin seeds) were used instead of genetically modified soybean meal (SBM-GM). In each of the experiments 50 animals were divided into 5 groups (control – C, and four experimentals), placed in group pens, each for 10 individuals (sex ratio barrows : gilts – 1:1). The animals were weighed and tagged before the experiments. The initial body weight of the pigs at experiment I and II commencement was: 26.7 and 33.5 kg, and at the end of the experiments: 122.0 and 124.0, respectively. In the first experiment (progressive pea “seeds” contribution) the concentration of carnosine was shown to be higher in E4 than E3 and C by 47.3% and 94.2%, respectively. In comparison with group C, the Q10 coenzyme content in groups E1, E2, E3 and E4 was lower by 40.9%, 56.8%, 40.9% and 65.9% respectively. In the experiment II (progressive lupin “seeds” contribution) increased content of all of the investigated bioactive substances was recorded in groups D1-D3 vs C. Significant differences between groups C, D2, D4 for taurine (P≤0.05; P≤0.01) and creatine (P≤0.05) have been recorded. The content of bioactive substances in the longissimus lumborum muscle was significantly influenced by legumes, which increased the level of bioactive components of protein fraction. Therefore, it can be concluded that pea (Pisum sativum) cultivar Hubal and blue lupin (Lupinus angustifolius) cultivar Regent are an alternative to SBM-GM, increasing the nutritional value of pork meat.

Parole chiave

  • fattening pigs
  • nutrition
  • pea seeds
  • lupin seeds
  • meat
  • peptides
Accesso libero

Nitrate supplementation at two forage levels in dairy cows feeding: milk production and composition, fatty acid profiles, blood metabolites, ruminal fermentation, and hydrogen sink

Pubblicato online: 12 May 2022
Pagine: 711 - 722

Astratto

Abstract

Nitrate may reduce the ruminal methane emission by competing methanogenesis to achieve more hydrogen. For this purpose, twenty Holstein lactating cows were examined using a 2×2 factorial design in 4 groups for 60 days with two forage levels (40% and 60%) and supplemental nitrate 0% (F40 and F60) and 3.5% (F40N and F60N) of diet dry matter (DM). Then, the effect of nitrate and forage levels on cow performance, ruminal fermentation, methane emission, and metabolic hydrogen sink were evaluated. The nitrate supplementation did not significantly affect milk yield and ECM/DMI, while milk urea nitrogen was increased. Lowest quantity of milk vitamins (A and E) was observed in nitrate groups. The nitrate supplementation increased c9-C18:1, unsaturated fatty acids, and n-6/n-3 contents of the milk. Blood parameters were affected by nitrate supplementation. Blood met-Hb concentration was increased, while blood glucose was decreased in nitrate groups. High forage and nitrate fed animals (F60N) had higher ruminal acetate and lower propionate concentration, and higher acetate+butyrate to propionate ratio than other groups. Nitrite and NH3-N concentrations were higher in the rumen of nitrate fed animals. Nitrate supplementation inhibited gas volume and methane emission without affecting volatile fatty acids at 12 and 24 h of incubation. The H2 balance, H2 production and consumption, and recovery percentage were significantly lower in F60N group. In conclusion, nitrate supplementation can be employed as an alternative strategy for improving ruminal fermentation, milk quality and methane inhibition.

Parole chiave

  • blood parameters
  • methane emission
  • milk composition
  • milk fatty acids
  • nitrate
Accesso libero

Slow-release urea partially replacing soybean in the diet of Holstein dairy cows: intake, blood parameters, nutrients digestibility, energy utilization, and milk production

Pubblicato online: 12 May 2022
Pagine: 723 - 730

Astratto

Abstract

The present experiment aimed to evaluate the partial replacement of soybean with slow-release urea (Optigen 1200™) in the diet of lactating cows for 84 d. Three-hundred multiparous lactating Holstein (635 ± 25 kg of body weight, BW) cows were stratified by live body weight; parity and previous milk production were randomly assigned into two experimental groups with 150 cows per each treatment. In the control treatment, 25 g soybean meal was replaced by 5.7 g slow-release urea for 84 d. Optigen treatment did not affect feed intake, daily milk production, milk composition, or milk (feed) efficiency; however, it increased (P<0.01) total BW gain and daily BW gain. Optigen treatment increased (P<0.01) the digestibility of crude protein and neutral detergent fiber. Optigen treatment increased (P<0.01) estimated N balance, milk urea-N, and net energy (NE) for gain. Without affecting blood total protein, creatinine, urea-N, triglycerides, glucose, β-hydroxybutyrate, or non-esterified free fatty acids, Optigen treatment increased the concentrations of blood albumin and cholesterol compared to the control (P<0.05). In conclusion, slow-release urea could replace soybean meal in ruminant diets with no adverse effects on feed intake, nitrogen utilization, or digestibility; however, it improved the total tract digestibility of fiber and crude protein in cows.

Parole chiave

  • milk production and composition
  • nitrogen metabolism
  • nitrogen balance
  • nitrogen excretion
  • slow-release urea
Accesso libero

Effects of pepper extract in suckling lamb feed: growth performance, metabolism, and oxidative responses

Pubblicato online: 12 May 2022
Pagine: 731 - 739

Astratto

Abstract

Our objective was to determine whether the inclusion of pepper extract would improve health in suckling lambs, stimulating antioxidant activity, and improving performance. We used Lacaune lambs distributed in four treatments, with four repetitions per treatment and three lambs per repetition: control group (T0) and treatments T1, T2, and T3 that received 200, 400, and 800 mg/kg of pepper extract, respectively. Groups T1 and T2 consumed more significant amounts of silage than group T0, and animals from group T1 consumed more concentrate and, consequently, consumed more solids. The addition of pepper extract enhanced growth performance, with the lowest dose (T1) giving rise to the most significant weight gain, average daily gain, and body weight, compared to T0. Regression analysis showed that the optimum point for pepper extract supplementation was 301.5 mg/kg. The levels of total protein and globulins were significantly higher for animals supplemented with pepper extract (day 28) than the control; the concentrations of albumin and urea increased over time but did not differ significantly among treatments. Serum glucose levels decreased significantly over time; however, the groups supplemented with pepper extract showed higher concentrations than group T0. The hematocrit was significantly higher in groups fed pepper extract; hemoglobin concentrations were also more significant, increasing over time in both groups. The groups that consumed the pepper extract had higher leukocyte counts due to greater lymphocytes and neutrophils. Levels of non-protein thiols increased significantly over time, while lipid peroxidation levels decreased significantly in all groups. The concentrations of reactive oxygen species significantly decreased in the serum of group T3 animals, those fed with pepper extract (day 28), compared to the control. In general, the addition of pepper extract in lamb feed can enhance weight gain, increase antioxidant levels, and stimulate the production of leukocytes and globulins in lambs.

Parole chiave

  • supplementation
  • weight gain
  • antioxidants
Accesso libero

Dietary silymarin, Silybum marianum extract ameliorates cadmium chloride toxicity in common carp, Cyprinus carpio

Pubblicato online: 12 May 2022
Pagine: 741 - 750

Astratto

Abstract

The present study evaluated the protective effects of silymarin extract (SIE) on cadmium chloride toxicity in common carp, Cyprinus carpio. Four experimental groups were considered for the experiment including: SIE0 (control): non-SIE-supplemented fish, SIE1: fish supplemented with 400 mg SIE/kg diet, SIE2: fish supplemented with 1400 mg SIE/kg diet, SIE3: fish supplemented with 2400 mg SIE/kg diet. Fish were fed experimental diet for 60 days and then exposed to cadmium chloride (1.5 mg/l or 25% of LC50-96 h) and antioxidant defense components and the survival rate assayed. After 60 days feeding trial, total antioxidant capacity (TAC) levels significantly increased (P<0.01) in 1400–2400 mg SIE/kg diet treatments compared to those in control and 400 mg SIE/kg diet treatment. Malondialdehyde (MDA) (P>0.01) and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) levels (P>0.01) remained unchanged during the feeding period in all treatments. Hepatic catalase (CAT) in all SIE supplemented groups and superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) in 1400–2400 mg SIE/kg diet treatments significantly elevated (P<0.01) in response to SIE. Plasma levels of hepatic metabolic enzymes [alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), creatine kinase (CK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH)] remained unchanged (P>0.01) in all experimental groups over feeding period. After exposure to cadmium chloride, TAC levels were significantly elevated (P<0.01) in all experimental groups. In control and 400 mg SIE/kg diet treatment, TAC showed lower levels (P<0.01) compared to other groups. MDA levels were significantly increased (P<0.01) in control and fish supplemented with 400 and 1400 mg SIE/kg diet. TAC in the fish of 2400 mg SIE/kg diet treatment remained unchanged (P>0.01), following the exposure. CAT (P<0.01), SOD (P<0.01) and GPx (P<0.01) were significantly elevated in response to cadmium chloride in all groups. However, the treatments, 1400 and 2400 mg SIE/kg diet, showed lower increases (P<0.01) of enzymes. AChE activity (P<0.01) in the liver were significantly decreased in control and fish fed 400 and 1400 mg SIE/kg diet. Exposure to cadmium significantly increased (P<0.01) the plasma levels of ALT, AST, ALP and LDH in control and those fed 400 and 1400 mg SIE/kg diet. The findings of the current study indicated that SIE at a rate of 1400–2400mg/kg diet might enhance antioxidant defense and protect hepatocytes against toxic effects of cadmium.

Parole chiave

  • heavy metal
  • liver
  • blood
  • herbal extract
  • fish
Accesso libero

A blend of herbal essential oils enhanced the growth performance, blood bio-immunology traits, and intestinal health of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)

Pubblicato online: 12 May 2022
Pagine: 751 - 761

Astratto

Abstract

Nile tilapia were fed four levels (0, 0.25, 0.5, and 1 ml/kg) of a liquid blend of herbal essential oils (EOs) containing carvacrol, oregano, 1,8 cineol, thymol, pinene, pinene β, limonene, and propylene glycol for 60 days. The results showed higher final weight, weight gain, and specific growth rate (P<0.05) in fish delivered 0.25 and 0.5 ml EOs/kg than the control. However, the feed conversion ratio was markedly reduced in fish fed 0.5 and 1 ml EOs/kg (P<0.05). Lipase showed enhanced activity in fish subjected to a blend of EOs, while fish fed 0.5 ml/kg of EOs blend had higher amylase activity (P<0.05) than the other levels. Lysozyme activity and superoxide dismutase showed a higher value in fish that received 0.5 ml EOs/kg. Additionally, phagocytic and catalase activities were enhanced in fish that received 0.5 and 1 ml/kg while phagocytic index was enhanced in fish fed 1 ml/kg (P<0.05). Interestingly, the total immunoglobulin level was markedly higher, while malondialdehyde was lower in EOs-subjected fish (P<0.05) than in control. The histomorphology appearance of the intestine, liver, and spleen was enriched in EOs-treated fish compared to the control fish. In conclusion, the growth performance, feed efficiency, and blood bio-immunological indices were best in fish fed 0.5–1 ml of EOs blend per kg.

Parole chiave

  • phytogenics
  • blue aquaculture
  • tilapia
  • health condition
  • production
Accesso libero

Evaluation of oregano (Origanum vulgare) essential oil supplementation on growth performance, digestive enzymes, intestinal histomorphology and gut microbiota of Black Sea salmon, Salmo labrax

Pubblicato online: 12 May 2022
Pagine: 763 - 772

Astratto

Abstract

This study aimed to determine the effect of dietary oregano (Origanum vulgare) essential oil (EO) on the growth performance, digestive enzyme activity, intestinal histomorphology, and intestinal microbiota of the Black Sea salmon juvenile (Salmo labrax). Fish were fed diets different levels of oregano EO such as 50, 100, 200, and 400 mg kg−1. For this purpose, a total of 675 fish were distributed randomly in triplicate into 5 experiment groups in 15 experiment tanks. Fish with average initial weights of 3.52±0.01 g were fed by hand at 3% of live weight for 90 days. At the end of the study, feeding with oregano EO supplementation did not significantly affect the growth performance of fish. Except for pepsin, there were no significant differences in the activity of digestive enzymes among the control and oregano EO groups. Besides, oregano EO at the doses of 50 or 400 mg kg−1 may have the potential to increase the surface area required for digestion by increasing intestinal villi length. Moreover, all doses of oregano EO showed antimicrobial properties by decreasing the count of lactic acid bacteria in the intestine. Supplementation with 100 and 200 mg kg−1 oregano EO in diets decreased the total coliform, Escherichia coli and lactic acid bacteria counts when compared to the control group. The results showed that oregano EO may positively affect digestion and absorption without adverse effects on the growth performance of Black Sea salmon juvenile.

Parole chiave

  • aquaculture
  • phytobiotic
  • villi
  • enzyme
  • bacteria
Accesso libero

Effects of a single-phase fasting period and subsequent re-feeding on compensatory growth, digestive enzyme activities, and antioxidant capacity of sobaity (Sparidentex hasta) and yellowfin seabream (Acanthopagrus latus)

Pubblicato online: 12 May 2022
Pagine: 773 - 784

Astratto

Abstract

An eight-week research was carried out to examine the influence of fasting (FA) and refeeding (RF) episodes on the compensatory growth responses (CGR) in sobaity (Sparidentex hasta, 10 g) and yellowfin seabreams (Acanthopagrus latus, 4.3 g) juveniles. Fish were fed with a commercial feed (contained 500 g kg−1 crude protein and 150 g kg−1 crude lipid) as following regimes: control (C, fish were fed three times every day), T1 (two weeks of feeding, one week of FA, and five weeks of RF), T2 (one week of feeding, two weeks of FA and five weeks of RF) and T3 (three weeks of FA and five weeks of RF). Two hundred and forty S. hasta juveniles were stocked into twelve 300-L tanks (20 fish tank−1), and 360 A. latus juveniles were allocated into other 12 tanks (30 fish tank−1). Each treatment was carried out in triplicates for each species, and each tank held only one of the species. The experiment was carried out for both species simultaneously. The weight and length of fish from the four groups were measured individually after the third week (after FA episode) and after eight weeks (after RF episode). After finishing the RF episode (eighth week), six fish of each tank were sacrificed with an overdose of 2-phenoxyethanol (1000 mg L–1), and the liver and the whole gut of the sacrificed fish were sampled, dissected, and then kept in a freezer (−80°C) until further analyses. Survival rate was decreased in S. hasta juveniles with increasing the FA period mainly due to their cannibalistic behavior, which was triggered by starvation, but it was not affected in A. latus. The fasted groups in both species significantly lost their weight after FA episodes. After five weeks of RF, S. hasta showed full compensatory growth response; meanwhile A. latus had a partial compensatory response (P<0.05). Hepatosomatic index value decreased after the FA period in both species, but it was restored to the normal level after RF phase. The activities of liver catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione-S-transferase, and glutathione peroxidase were increased in T2 group in S. hasta, but liver antioxidant enzymes were not affected in A. latus. In both species, the amount of the lipid peroxidation was significantly increased in the liver of fish groups subjected to T2 or T3 compared to T1 and control groups (P<0.05). Liver alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) in S. hasta fasted for two weeks were higher than the other groups. The activities of trypsin, chymotrypsin, α-amylase, and lipase in S. hasta fasted for a week (T1) were higher than control. In addition, the activities of trypsin and chymotrypsin in A. latus fasted for two or three weeks were lower than C and T1 groups. The activity of ALP was increased with increasing FA period in both species. The findings of the present study showed that single-phase FA episodes reduce survival and induce oxidative stress in S. hasta juveniles; meanwhile A. latus juveniles did not show complete compensatory growth after RF episode.

Parole chiave

  • compensatory growth response
  • feeding regime
  • growth metrics
  • hepatic antioxidant system
  • Sparidae

BEHAVIOR, WELL-BEING, PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY, AND ENVIRONMENT

Accesso libero

Comparison of raw cow milk microbiota in two milking systems: A field study

Pubblicato online: 12 May 2022
Pagine: 785 - 794

Astratto

Abstract

This study investigated the effect of different milking systems on the milk composition and microbial community of raw milk in a commercial dairy farm. Raw milk samples from conventional milking system (CMS) and automatic milking system (AMS) were collected and the microbiota on each was assessed by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Results showed that the acetone (P = 0.031) and β-hydroxybutyrate (P≤0.001) levels in the raw milk of the AMS group were increased compared with the CMS group. Principal component analysis, unweighted and weighted principal coordinates analysis, and heat map of microbial community composition in the raw milk showed a clear separation between two groups. AMS increased the abundance of the genera Acinetobacter (FDR = 0.004) and Staphylococcus (FDR = 0.004) in the raw milk compared with the CMS group. In contrast, the abundance of the genera Pseudomonas (FDR = 0.028), Lactococcus (FDR = 0.015), Sphingobacterium (FDR = 0.004), Brevundimonas (FDR = 0.005), and Chryseobacterium (FDR = 0.042) in the raw milk was reduced in the AMS group compared with the CMS group. The abundance of the genera Acinetobacter and Staphylococcus in the raw milk was positively correlated with the β-hydroxybutyrate, acetone, free fatty acid, citric acid, and urea nitrogen levels. Furthermore, the abundance of the genus Acinetobacter in the raw milk was negatively correlated with the somatic cell counts. The study demonstrates that the introduction of AMS in the dairy farm can regulate microbiota composition in the raw milk and this modification may exert an effect on reducing the somatic cell counts in the raw milk.

Parole chiave

  • automatic milking system
  • microbiota
  • raw milk
  • conventional milking system
Accesso libero

The effect of light/dark cycles on performance and welfare in broiler

Pubblicato online: 12 May 2022
Pagine: 795 - 802

Astratto

Abstract

The purpose of this study was to compare a continuous lighting programme (23 hours of lighting (L)/1 hour of darkness (D)) with intermittent lighting programmes (16L: 8D) and also to investigate the effects of the length of the dark cycle in the intermittent programme on the performance, carcass characteristics, water consumption, uniformity, metabolic parameters, and ammonia burns of chickens. Thus, five hundred Ross 308 male chicks were used. The 23L:1D programme was applied to the chicks for 7 days. On day 7, they were divided into four groups by balancing their live weight; group I: continuous 23L:1D; group II: intermittent 4x (4L:2D); group II: intermittent 2x (8L:4D); group IV: continuous 16L:8D. The study took place between days 7 and 42. At the end of the study, 10 chickens from each group were slaughtered, their carcass, blood, and bone properties were analysed. Body temperatures and ammonia burns were assessed for all broiler chickens. The mean live weight of group IV was the lowest. The difference among the groups in terms of live weight gains, feed intakes, feed conversion ratios, and survival rates was non-significant. Long-term darkness in group IV significantly dropped the water consumption. On day 21, group III’s best uniformity was calculated; but on day 42, the difference was non-significant. The highest breast ratio and the lowest wing ratio belonged to chicks in group I. Their free T4, glucose, and uric acid levels were lower; whilst their testosterone levels were higher. Body temperature and tibia ash levels were similar across all of the groups. The intermittent lighting programmes increased the number of ammonia burns. Consequently, the long-term darkness negatively affected both the chickens’ performance and well-being.

Parole chiave

  • broiler
  • lighting programme
  • production
  • hormone
  • ammonia burns

QUALITY AND SAFETY OF ANIMAL ORIGIN PRODUCTS

Accesso libero

Correlations between first order echotextural characteristics and chemical composition of pectoralis major muscles in broiler chickens receiving different dietary fat supplements

Pubblicato online: 12 May 2022
Pagine: 803 - 813

Astratto

Abstract

This study examined the quantitative relationships among ultrasonographic image attributes and chemical composition of the pectoralis major muscles in broiler chickens that received four different dietary fat supplements (Group SO: soybean oil; Group FO: flaxseed oil; Group SO+FO: soybean oil+flaxseed oil; and Group BT: beef tallow; n=10 birds/group). Ultrasonograms of birds’ pectoral muscles, in a transverse (T) and longitudinal (L) plane, were obtained just before slaughter at 6 weeks of age and were subjected to digital image analyses to determine mean pixel intensity (MPI) and pixel heterogeneity values (standard deviation of numerical pixel values; MPH; a.k.a first order echotextural characteristics). Thirty-eight chemical characteristics of the muscles were determined post-mortem (crude fat, protein, and dry matter as well as fatty acid profiles) and were analyzed for correlations with the echotextural variables. A total of 12 (L-MPI: 7; L-MPH: 4; and T-MPH: 1 correlation), 5 (L-MPI: 2; L-MPH: 2; and T-MPI: 1 correlation), 15 (L-MPI: 10; T-MPI: 4; and T-MPH: 1 correlation) and 8 (L-MPI: 2; L-MPH: 1; and T-MPH: 5 correlations) significant correlations were recorded in Groups SO, FO, SO+FO and BT, respectively. When the data were pooled for all 40 birds studied, significant correlations with echotextural attributes were recorded for eighteen different chemical constituents, with the strongest overall correlation found between crude fat content and T-MPI (r=0.52, P=0.0005). In conclusion, there exists a potential application for ultrasonographic imaging in situ combined with computerized image analysis to estimate certain chemical constituents of pectoralis major muscles in broiler chickens. However, the existence and strength of correlations among ultrasonographic image attributes and muscle composition are affected by the source of dietary fat and relative abundance (“threshold concentrations”) of individual chemical components.

Parole chiave

  • broiler chicken
  • pectoral muscle
  • ultrasonography
  • echotexture
  • chemical composition

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