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Special Edizione: This issue is dedicated to the memory of Milan Ryboš, DVM, D.Sc.

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Dettagli della rivista
Formato
Rivista
eISSN
1336-9083
ISSN
0440-6605
Pubblicato per la prima volta
22 Apr 2006
Periodo di pubblicazione
4 volte all'anno
Lingue
Inglese

Cerca

Volume 52 (2015): Edizione 3 (September 2015)

Dettagli della rivista
Formato
Rivista
eISSN
1336-9083
ISSN
0440-6605
Pubblicato per la prima volta
22 Apr 2006
Periodo di pubblicazione
4 volte all'anno
Lingue
Inglese

Cerca

16 Articoli
Accesso libero

A review on the molecular characterization of digenean parasites using molecular markers with special reference to ITS region

Pubblicato online: 13 Aug 2015
Pagine: 167 - 187

Astratto

Abstract

The rDNA region of eukaryotes has the immense potential to resolve the evolutionary and phylogeny problems using molecular markers. As evident from the present review, ITS region data is considered for interpretation of inter and intra-specific variations of 136 studies of 33 families including 78 genus and 114 species affecting individuals worldwide. Along with ITS-1 and ITS-2 region in 29 studies 18S region, in 38 studies 28S region and in 43 studies mitochondrial genes (COI and NDI) were also analyzed. Three new genera (Allobilharzia gen. nov., Caulanus gen. nov., and Latuterus gen. nov.) and 49 new species were discovered. Only 47 studies expressed variations at intra-specific and inter-specific level in complete ITS region, ITS-1 and ITS-2 rDNA sequences due to differences in nucleotide positions. According to the findings ITS region is more reliable and precise marker for demarcation and identification of species in combination of other DNA markers. Major studies were involved around the parasites of families Fasciolidae, Schistosomatidae, Opisthorchidae, Paragonimidae and Paramphistomidae, Clinostomidae, Diplostomidae, Haploporidae, among others infecting humans, farm animals, birds, fishes, reptiles and amphibians on the clinical basis. In future, molecular and bioinformatics aspects based on genetic variations will lead to explore the untouched areas of trematodes.

Keywords

  • Internal transcribe spacer
  • Cytochrome c oxidase I
  • Inter and Intra-specif c variations
  • phylogeny
  • Fasciolidae
  • Schistosomtidae
  • trematodes
Accesso libero

Epidemiological risks of endoparasitoses spread by municipal waste water

Pubblicato online: 13 Aug 2015
Pagine: 188 - 194

Astratto

Abstract

The occurrence of developmental stages of endoparasite germs (cysts, oocysts, protozoa, and helminth eggs) as an indirect detection factor of endoparasitoses circulation in the environment, was examined in raw municipal wastewater, sludge and biologically cleaned waste water. Examination of municipal wastewater and sludge from five monitored wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in east Slovakia, from various fractions of municipal wastewater, confirmed 35.87 % positivity of samples for the endoparasitic germs. Among of all analysed samples 11.09 % were protozoan oo(cysts) and 20.87 % were helminth eggs. 3.91 % of samples showed positivity to both the helminth eggs and protozoan oo(cysts). In the raw wastewater the protozoa comprised of Giardia spp. (1.08 %) and Entamoeba spp. (1.08 %). The helminth eggs primarily consisted of Ascaris spp. (4.35 %) and strongyle-type eggs (3.26 %). No germs of protozoa or helminths were found in the treated wastewater. However, the highest presence of the germs was found in drained stabilised sludge. The average number of oo(cysts)/kg was 2.86±0.24 and the average number of helminth eggs/kg was 5.77±0.09. In all kinds of sludge, obtained during the process of wastewater treatment, there were protozoan (Giardia spp., Cryptosporidium spp., Entamoeba spp.) and helminths eggs (Ascaris spp., Trichuris spp., Taenia spp., Hymenolepis spp., or strongyle-type eggs) presented. In drained (condensed) stabilised sludge the eggs of Capillaria spp. and Toxocara spp. were also detected. From the epidemiological aspect the sewage sludge, due to high concentration of protozoal oo(cysts) or helminth eggs, represents a significant epidemiological risk for the endoparasitoses dissemination.

Keywords

  • oo(cysts) of protozoa
  • helminth eggs
  • municipal waste water
  • sewage sludge
  • epidemiology of endoparasitic germs
Accesso libero

Intestinal parasitic fauna and zoonotic potentials of commonly consumed wildlife

Pubblicato online: 13 Aug 2015
Pagine: 195 - 204

Astratto

Abstract

A study was carried out in Nsukka cultural zone, Nigeria, with the aim of determining the prevalence, intensity and abundance of intestinal endoparasitic fauna of commonly consumed wildlife or bushmeat. From the 143 wild animals sampled, 141 (98.6 %) were found at least infected with one intestinal parasite. Ascaris lumbricoides was the overall most prevalent (48.8 %). Dicrocoelium hospes differed significantly in age-related prevalence of infection. Significant sex-related difference in infection (P<0.05) was recorded for Strongyloides papillosus, A. lumbricoides, Oesophagostomum columbianum and Moniliformis moniliformis while Taenia saginata and Entamoeba histolytica showed significant seasonal differences in intensity of infection. The results suggest that bush-meats were hosts of various parasites of medical and veterinary importance. There is need for health inspection of bush-meat for trade and consumption.

Keywords

  • wildlife
  • zoonosis
  • intestinal parasites
  • prevalence
  • bush-meat
Accesso libero

Serological survey for canine angiostrongylosis in Slovakia

Pubblicato online: 13 Aug 2015
Pagine: 205 - 210

Astratto

Abstract

In recent years Angiostrongylus vasorum has become another important heart parasite of dogs besides Dirofilaria immitis, with intense spread into new areas of Europe. The first two cases of canine angiostrongylosis in Slovakia were observed in 2013, demonstrating that this life-threatening parasitic disease of dogs has expanded into this territory too. One year after the first A. vasorum findings, a serological survey was conducted to assess the current distribution of this parasitic infection in dogs from Slovakia. Serum samples from 225 dogs were collected from 29 veterinary practices situated in 22 districts of Slovakia and tested by ELISA for the presence of circulating A. vasorum antigens and additionally for the detection of specific antibodies against A. vasorum. Fourteen samples (6.22 %) were seropositive in at least one ELISA. Of these, 7 dogs (3.11 %) were only antibody-positive and 4 dogs (1.78 %) were positive only for circulating A. vasorum antigen. Three animals out of 225 examined (1.33 %) were positive in both ELISAs

Keywords

  • Angiostrongylus vasorum
  • dogs
  • ELISA
  • antigen and antibody detection
  • seroprevalence
  • Slovakia
Accesso libero

Transmission of some species of internal parasites in horse foals born in 2013 in the same pasture on a farm in Central Kentucky

Pubblicato online: 13 Aug 2015
Pagine: 211 - 218

Astratto

Abstract

The present research is a continuation of studies conducted periodically over 40 years on transmission of natural infections of internal parasites in the same horse herd on pasture (Field 10) on a farm in Central Kentucky. It included 12 mixed light horse foals born in 2013 and euthanatized between July, 2013 and April, 2014 for collection of internal parasites. Parasites found: Gasterophilus intestinalis, Strongyloides westeri, Parascaris equorum, Anoplocephala perfoliata, small strongyles (cyathostomes), Strongylus vulgaris, Strongylus edentatus and Thelazia lacrymalis. Prevalence generally was related to age of the foals. Overall prevalence and number of specimens were lower than in earlier studies except for P. equorum. There were 15 species (much fewer than previously) of small strongyles found and recorded by location in the large intestines. All stages of small strongyles encysted in the mucosa of the large intestine were recovered by artificial digestion and in significantly lower numbers in older foals

Keywords

  • Strongylus spp. cyathostomes
  • Parascaris equorum
  • Strongyloides westeri
  • Anoplocephala perfoliata. Gasterophilus intestinalis
  • Thelazia lacrymalis
Accesso libero

Helminths of saiga antelope (Saiga tatarica L.) in the “Askania Nova” Biosphere Reserve, Ukraine

Pubblicato online: 13 Aug 2015
Pagine: 219 - 228

Astratto

Abstract

Analysis of the species composition and community structure of helminths in saiga antelope (Saiga tatarica) was performed using multi-year (1979-2013) data collected from the “Askania Nova” Biosphere Reserve, Ukraine. During this period, 31 saiga antelopes of different ages (7 calves, 24 adults) were examined; totally, more then 63,900 helminth specimens were collected and identified by morphological criteria. Levels of saiga infection by nematodes were from 39 to 671 EPG (207±132 SD); seasonal fluctuations in saiga infections were insignificant (Mann-Whitney test; p>0.05).

Nineteen helminth species were found in saigas in the “Askania Nova”: 3 species of Cestoda (Avitellina centripunctata, Moniezia expansa and Taenia hydatigena) and 16 species of Nematoda (Chabertia ovina, Haemonchus contortus, Marshallagia marshalli, Cooperia oncophora, Camelostrongylus mentulatus, Aonchotheca bovis, Skrjabinema ovis, Oesophagostomum venulosum, Trichostrongylus axei, T. colubriformis, T. probolorus, Ostertagia ostertagi, O. circumcincta, O. trifurcata, Nematodirus spp., Trichurus ovis). From 2 to 13 species per one host were observed. Nematodes dominated within the parasite community and composed more then 99 % of the total helminths found. Significant differences were found in helminth diversity between young and adult saigas (p<0.05). Prevalence- frequency distribution revealed multimodal structure of helminth community with dominant, subdominant, background and rare species. The highest number of helminthes (14 species and 50 % of the total amount) inhabited the small intestine; 11 species (45 %) were found in the abomasum and 9 species (5 %) in the large intestine. The Bray-Curtis cluster analysis revealed significant differences within the helminth communities in saigas from the “Askania Nova” Biosphere Reserve and saigas from Kazakhstan, Dagestan and Kalmykia.

Keywords

  • helminths
  • Cestoda
  • Nematoda
  • Saiga tatarica
  • prevalence-frequency distribution
  • Askania Nova
  • Ukraine
Accesso libero

Seasonal occurrence of some larval stages of endoparasites in three cyprinids from the Nwanedi-Luphephe dams, the Limpopo River System, South Africa

Pubblicato online: 13 Aug 2015
Pagine: 229 - 235

Astratto

Abstract

This study provides information on seasonal occurrence of developmental stages of endoparasites infecting three cyprinids in the Nwanedi-Luphephe dams, Limpopo River System. Labeobarbus marequensis (Smith, 1841), Barbus trimaculatus Peters, 1852 and Barbus radiatus Peters, 1853 were investigated seasonally from January 2008 to October 2008. The following larvae of metazoan parasites were collected: Diplostomum sp. from the eyes of L. marequensis and B. trimaculatus; Ornithodiplostomum sp. from the gills of B. trimaculatus; Posthodiplostomum sp. from muscle, skin and fins of B. trimaculatus and B. radiatus; third-stage Contracaecum larvae (L3) from the mesentery fats and on the liver lobes of L. marequensis and B. trimaculatus and gryporynchid cestode larvae from the outer intestinal wall of B. radiatus. All the flukes encountered were metacercariae. Diplostomum sp. and Contracaecum sp. dominated the parasite communities. Their prevalence exhibited seasonal fluctuations with maxima in summer. Factors likely to influence fish infection such as the body size of fish and their condition factors were also briefly considered in this study.

Keywords

  • Limpopo River Systems
  • Labeobarbus marequensis
  • Barbus trimaculatus
  • Barbus radiatus
  • Diplostomum sp.
  • Ornithodiplostomum sp.
  • Posthodiplostomum sp.
  • Contracaecum sp.
  • gryporynchid cestode
Accesso libero

Seasonal variability of the composition and structure of parasite communities of red porgy, Pagrus pagrus (Perciformes: Sparidae) off Brazil

Pubblicato online: 13 Aug 2015
Pagine: 236 - 243

Astratto

Abstract

A study of seasonal variation of metazoan parasite community of Pagrus pagrus was conducted between January and December 2012. Two hundred forty specimens of Pagrus pagrus were collected in four seasons (autumn and winter in dry season and spring and summer in rainy season) from off the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Twenty one species of metazoan parasites were found, with larvae of Hysterothylacium sp. being the dominant species. The highest values of prevalence and abundance was during the rainy season with peak prevalence of monogeneans and nematodes, period of action of the South Atlantic Central Waters (SACW) and reproductive activity of the host, suggesting that the sasonal variation in the parasites community was influenced for these phenomena.

Parole chiave

  • Pagrus pagrus
  • seasonal variation
  • metazoan parasites
Accesso libero

Additional study of the morphology of eggs and miracidia of Eurytrema coelomaticum (Trematoda)

Pubblicato online: 13 Aug 2015
Pagine: 244 - 251

Astratto

Abstract

The morphology of the eggs and miracidia of Eurytrema coelomaticum was analyzed. The eggshell presented different composition according to the maturation stage of the egg, as seen by distinct birefringence after polarized light microscopic analysis. Detailed morphology of the brownish eggs, measuring 44.97±3.83 (38.67 - 51.40) μm in length and 30.71±2.54 (25.79 -34.47) μm in width, and the different electrondensities of the inner, middle and outer layers of the eggs were determined using light (bright field and DIC) and electronic microscopy (scanning and transmission). The morphometry of the eggs is in accordance to those measures presented in previous studies. The miracidia were observed using light microscopy, inside and outside the egg. It was possible to observe the terebratorium at the anterior end of the body, the ciliated epidermal plates, placed according the formula E=2E1 + 2E2, and the interepidermal ridge, but eyespots were not observed. The excretory vesicle was laterally placed in the posterior middle of the body and the germ balls were observed. The miracidium inside the egg was observed by routine techniques, but the miracidium was not well preserved. Thus, the eggs were processed using high pressure-freeze substitution technique and reasonable preservation was achieved. The cilia covering the larval body, with a typical ciliary organization, the terebratorium with folds and the junction of the epidermal ciliated cell with the larval body were seen. For the first time detailed information on the eggs and miracidia of E. coelomaticum is given, which can be the basis for new studies.

Keywords

  • Digenea
  • larval trematode
  • high pressure freezing
  • light microscopy
  • Eurytrema coelomaticum
Accesso libero

Effect of heavy metals on soil nematode communities in the vicinity of a metallurgical plant in North Slovakia

Pubblicato online: 13 Aug 2015
Pagine: 252 - 260

Astratto

Abstract

The effect of industrial pollution from chromium ferroalloys production on soil free-living nematode assemblages, c-p groups and generic composition was investigated along 7-km transect. From trace elements (Cr, Cu, Ni and Pb), only chromium exceeded the thresholds for uncontaminated soils (10 mg.kg-1) near the pollution source. In contrast mobilizable fraction of Cr has increased with the distance from the pollution source and was found to be positively correlated with Cox, soil pH, and moisture. Generic richness (nematode diversity) was also higher at remote sites. The low contamination has no significant impact on the nematode communities as illustrated by the c-p groups composition and balanced community structure. Widely applied ecological indices SI and EI also proved maturing ecosystem without any significant stress responses

Keywords

  • nematode community
  • chromium
  • contamination
  • metallurgical plant
Accesso libero

Different changes of soil nematode communities in replant and continuous-planting peach orchards and their indicative value for peach replant problem

Pubblicato online: 13 Aug 2015
Pagine: 261 - 269

Astratto

Abstract

Long-term changes of soil nematode diversity and distribution patterns in replant peach orchard (RPO) and continuous-planting peach orchard (CPPO) were assessed to evaluate different effects on nematode community and function by RPO and CPPO, in relation to peach replant problem from the point of soil fauna. Observations were conducted on a silt loam soil, and soil sampling was performed four times through the growing season of peach trees in the period from 2006 to 2008 in Pinggu, Beijing. The result showed that RPO differed from CPPO by its higher abundance of plant feeding nematodes but lower abundance of bacterivore nematodes, as well as significantly higher values of plant parasite index but lower nematode biodiversity. Obviously, the absolute abundance of Paratylenchus in RPO was higher than that in CPPO, which could be a key factor for the peach replant problems from the part of soil nematode. Nematode function indices and weighted nematode fauna profile analysis were no significantly different in the two peach ecosystems, but they represented an indication of high disturbance, N-enriched, bacterial decomposition pathway.

Keywords

  • Amygdalus persica L.
  • replant problem
  • nematode biodiversity
  • nematode function
  • plant parasitic index
  • Paratylenchus spp
Accesso libero

Description of Paratylenchus (Gracilacus) straeleni (De Coninck, 1931) Oostenbrink, 1960 (Nematoda: Criconematoidea, Tylenchulidae) from hazelnut in Turkey and its comparison with other world populations

Pubblicato online: 13 Aug 2015
Pagine: 270 - 279

Astratto

Abstract

Paratylenchus (Gracilacus) straeleni (De Coninck, 1931) Oostenbrink, 1960 was detected for the first time in Turkey. Our studied population was found in the rhizosphere soil of hazelnut orchards in Ordu. Females and males were studied morphologically and morphometrically by light microscopy and molecularly by sequencing the D2-D3 of the 28S rDNA gene. We present here the morphological and molecular characterisation, phylogenetic analysis of examined population and comparison of variability of worldwide known populations of P. straeleni.

Keywords

  • Corylus avellana
  • Multivariate analyses
  • Phylogeny
  • Sequencing
  • Species complex
Accesso libero

Characterization of Pratylenchus crenatus and P. neglectus (Nematoda: Pratylenchidae) associated with wheat crop

Pubblicato online: 13 Aug 2015
Pagine: 280 - 286

Astratto

Abstract

The distribution of Pratylenchus species associated with wheat crops was investigated in Bohemian region of the Czech Republic. In total twelve localities were sampled. The populations were identified based on morphology and morphometrics, and further characterised based on sequences of the rDNA D2/D3 region and 18S gene. Pratylenchus crenatus was present in two localities and P. neglectus in five localities. At one locality both species were detected. Sequence analysis of 18S and D2/D3 region of three populations of P. crenatus reveal no variation while five populations of P. neglectus differ by 0 to 0.14 % (18S) and 0.17 to 0.50 % (D2/D3).

Keywords

  • Pratylenchus crenatus
  • Pratylenchus neglectus
  • PCR
  • ribosomal DNA
  • sequencing
  • nematode
Accesso libero

The pathogenic Asian fish tapeworm, Bothriocephalus acheilognathi Yamaguti, 1934 (Cestoda) in the Red discus (Symphysodon discus)

Pubblicato online: 13 Aug 2015
Pagine: 287 - 292

Astratto

Abstract

The Asian fish tapeworm, Bothriocephalus acheilognathi Yamaguti, 1934, was detected for the first time in breeding of discus fish Symphysodon discus (Perciformes, Cichlidae), a popular South American cichlid. In examined samples, the adult and juvenile cestodes of B. acheilognathi with mean intensity of infection 30 (range 19 - 47) individuals per fish were found. The infected fish displayed acute behavioral symptoms. Mortality was significant; it reached almost 80 % in youngest age categories. As treatment, praziquantel immersions in dose 2 mg per liter were well tolerated and efficacious. The risk of spreading pathogens via imported fish is actual menace for ornamental breeding fish, therefore, thorough quarantine and prophylactic measures needs to be done by all fish imports and introductions. Import and subsequent release of infected ornamental fish into freshwater ecosystems may represent serious risk for spread and establishment of the parasite in native fish species. This case study illustrates that ornamental fish play also a key role in national and international movements of parasites in freshwater habitats.

Keywords

  • Bothriocephalus
  • new host
  • mortality
  • aquarium breeding
  • intestinal obstruction
Accesso libero

The first report of Morishitium vagum (Trematoda: Cyclocoelidae) in Turdus merula in Iran

Pubblicato online: 13 Aug 2015
Pagine: 293 - 296

Astratto

Abstract

This paper describes a trematode isolated from the air sacs of a common blackbird (Turdus merula) by the authors in Qaemshahr city, Mazandaran province, north of Iran. The specimens were in the best form to make whole-mounts for species identification. The identified species was Morishitium vagum (Morishita 1924) Witenberg 1928, belonging to the family Cyclocoelidae Stossich 1902, according to morphologic and morphometric characters, as explained in references. This is the first report of a species belonging to the family Cyclocoelidae in Iran, and the first report of this type-species isolated from Turdus merula in the world.

Keywords

  • Morishitium vagum
  • Turdus merula
  • Iran
Accesso libero

Retraction Note of: The important role of matrix metalloproteinases in nematode parasites

Pubblicato online: 13 Aug 2015
Pagine: 297 - 297

Astratto

16 Articoli
Accesso libero

A review on the molecular characterization of digenean parasites using molecular markers with special reference to ITS region

Pubblicato online: 13 Aug 2015
Pagine: 167 - 187

Astratto

Abstract

The rDNA region of eukaryotes has the immense potential to resolve the evolutionary and phylogeny problems using molecular markers. As evident from the present review, ITS region data is considered for interpretation of inter and intra-specific variations of 136 studies of 33 families including 78 genus and 114 species affecting individuals worldwide. Along with ITS-1 and ITS-2 region in 29 studies 18S region, in 38 studies 28S region and in 43 studies mitochondrial genes (COI and NDI) were also analyzed. Three new genera (Allobilharzia gen. nov., Caulanus gen. nov., and Latuterus gen. nov.) and 49 new species were discovered. Only 47 studies expressed variations at intra-specific and inter-specific level in complete ITS region, ITS-1 and ITS-2 rDNA sequences due to differences in nucleotide positions. According to the findings ITS region is more reliable and precise marker for demarcation and identification of species in combination of other DNA markers. Major studies were involved around the parasites of families Fasciolidae, Schistosomatidae, Opisthorchidae, Paragonimidae and Paramphistomidae, Clinostomidae, Diplostomidae, Haploporidae, among others infecting humans, farm animals, birds, fishes, reptiles and amphibians on the clinical basis. In future, molecular and bioinformatics aspects based on genetic variations will lead to explore the untouched areas of trematodes.

Keywords

  • Internal transcribe spacer
  • Cytochrome c oxidase I
  • Inter and Intra-specif c variations
  • phylogeny
  • Fasciolidae
  • Schistosomtidae
  • trematodes
Accesso libero

Epidemiological risks of endoparasitoses spread by municipal waste water

Pubblicato online: 13 Aug 2015
Pagine: 188 - 194

Astratto

Abstract

The occurrence of developmental stages of endoparasite germs (cysts, oocysts, protozoa, and helminth eggs) as an indirect detection factor of endoparasitoses circulation in the environment, was examined in raw municipal wastewater, sludge and biologically cleaned waste water. Examination of municipal wastewater and sludge from five monitored wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in east Slovakia, from various fractions of municipal wastewater, confirmed 35.87 % positivity of samples for the endoparasitic germs. Among of all analysed samples 11.09 % were protozoan oo(cysts) and 20.87 % were helminth eggs. 3.91 % of samples showed positivity to both the helminth eggs and protozoan oo(cysts). In the raw wastewater the protozoa comprised of Giardia spp. (1.08 %) and Entamoeba spp. (1.08 %). The helminth eggs primarily consisted of Ascaris spp. (4.35 %) and strongyle-type eggs (3.26 %). No germs of protozoa or helminths were found in the treated wastewater. However, the highest presence of the germs was found in drained stabilised sludge. The average number of oo(cysts)/kg was 2.86±0.24 and the average number of helminth eggs/kg was 5.77±0.09. In all kinds of sludge, obtained during the process of wastewater treatment, there were protozoan (Giardia spp., Cryptosporidium spp., Entamoeba spp.) and helminths eggs (Ascaris spp., Trichuris spp., Taenia spp., Hymenolepis spp., or strongyle-type eggs) presented. In drained (condensed) stabilised sludge the eggs of Capillaria spp. and Toxocara spp. were also detected. From the epidemiological aspect the sewage sludge, due to high concentration of protozoal oo(cysts) or helminth eggs, represents a significant epidemiological risk for the endoparasitoses dissemination.

Keywords

  • oo(cysts) of protozoa
  • helminth eggs
  • municipal waste water
  • sewage sludge
  • epidemiology of endoparasitic germs
Accesso libero

Intestinal parasitic fauna and zoonotic potentials of commonly consumed wildlife

Pubblicato online: 13 Aug 2015
Pagine: 195 - 204

Astratto

Abstract

A study was carried out in Nsukka cultural zone, Nigeria, with the aim of determining the prevalence, intensity and abundance of intestinal endoparasitic fauna of commonly consumed wildlife or bushmeat. From the 143 wild animals sampled, 141 (98.6 %) were found at least infected with one intestinal parasite. Ascaris lumbricoides was the overall most prevalent (48.8 %). Dicrocoelium hospes differed significantly in age-related prevalence of infection. Significant sex-related difference in infection (P<0.05) was recorded for Strongyloides papillosus, A. lumbricoides, Oesophagostomum columbianum and Moniliformis moniliformis while Taenia saginata and Entamoeba histolytica showed significant seasonal differences in intensity of infection. The results suggest that bush-meats were hosts of various parasites of medical and veterinary importance. There is need for health inspection of bush-meat for trade and consumption.

Keywords

  • wildlife
  • zoonosis
  • intestinal parasites
  • prevalence
  • bush-meat
Accesso libero

Serological survey for canine angiostrongylosis in Slovakia

Pubblicato online: 13 Aug 2015
Pagine: 205 - 210

Astratto

Abstract

In recent years Angiostrongylus vasorum has become another important heart parasite of dogs besides Dirofilaria immitis, with intense spread into new areas of Europe. The first two cases of canine angiostrongylosis in Slovakia were observed in 2013, demonstrating that this life-threatening parasitic disease of dogs has expanded into this territory too. One year after the first A. vasorum findings, a serological survey was conducted to assess the current distribution of this parasitic infection in dogs from Slovakia. Serum samples from 225 dogs were collected from 29 veterinary practices situated in 22 districts of Slovakia and tested by ELISA for the presence of circulating A. vasorum antigens and additionally for the detection of specific antibodies against A. vasorum. Fourteen samples (6.22 %) were seropositive in at least one ELISA. Of these, 7 dogs (3.11 %) were only antibody-positive and 4 dogs (1.78 %) were positive only for circulating A. vasorum antigen. Three animals out of 225 examined (1.33 %) were positive in both ELISAs

Keywords

  • Angiostrongylus vasorum
  • dogs
  • ELISA
  • antigen and antibody detection
  • seroprevalence
  • Slovakia
Accesso libero

Transmission of some species of internal parasites in horse foals born in 2013 in the same pasture on a farm in Central Kentucky

Pubblicato online: 13 Aug 2015
Pagine: 211 - 218

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Abstract

The present research is a continuation of studies conducted periodically over 40 years on transmission of natural infections of internal parasites in the same horse herd on pasture (Field 10) on a farm in Central Kentucky. It included 12 mixed light horse foals born in 2013 and euthanatized between July, 2013 and April, 2014 for collection of internal parasites. Parasites found: Gasterophilus intestinalis, Strongyloides westeri, Parascaris equorum, Anoplocephala perfoliata, small strongyles (cyathostomes), Strongylus vulgaris, Strongylus edentatus and Thelazia lacrymalis. Prevalence generally was related to age of the foals. Overall prevalence and number of specimens were lower than in earlier studies except for P. equorum. There were 15 species (much fewer than previously) of small strongyles found and recorded by location in the large intestines. All stages of small strongyles encysted in the mucosa of the large intestine were recovered by artificial digestion and in significantly lower numbers in older foals

Keywords

  • Strongylus spp. cyathostomes
  • Parascaris equorum
  • Strongyloides westeri
  • Anoplocephala perfoliata. Gasterophilus intestinalis
  • Thelazia lacrymalis
Accesso libero

Helminths of saiga antelope (Saiga tatarica L.) in the “Askania Nova” Biosphere Reserve, Ukraine

Pubblicato online: 13 Aug 2015
Pagine: 219 - 228

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Abstract

Analysis of the species composition and community structure of helminths in saiga antelope (Saiga tatarica) was performed using multi-year (1979-2013) data collected from the “Askania Nova” Biosphere Reserve, Ukraine. During this period, 31 saiga antelopes of different ages (7 calves, 24 adults) were examined; totally, more then 63,900 helminth specimens were collected and identified by morphological criteria. Levels of saiga infection by nematodes were from 39 to 671 EPG (207±132 SD); seasonal fluctuations in saiga infections were insignificant (Mann-Whitney test; p>0.05).

Nineteen helminth species were found in saigas in the “Askania Nova”: 3 species of Cestoda (Avitellina centripunctata, Moniezia expansa and Taenia hydatigena) and 16 species of Nematoda (Chabertia ovina, Haemonchus contortus, Marshallagia marshalli, Cooperia oncophora, Camelostrongylus mentulatus, Aonchotheca bovis, Skrjabinema ovis, Oesophagostomum venulosum, Trichostrongylus axei, T. colubriformis, T. probolorus, Ostertagia ostertagi, O. circumcincta, O. trifurcata, Nematodirus spp., Trichurus ovis). From 2 to 13 species per one host were observed. Nematodes dominated within the parasite community and composed more then 99 % of the total helminths found. Significant differences were found in helminth diversity between young and adult saigas (p<0.05). Prevalence- frequency distribution revealed multimodal structure of helminth community with dominant, subdominant, background and rare species. The highest number of helminthes (14 species and 50 % of the total amount) inhabited the small intestine; 11 species (45 %) were found in the abomasum and 9 species (5 %) in the large intestine. The Bray-Curtis cluster analysis revealed significant differences within the helminth communities in saigas from the “Askania Nova” Biosphere Reserve and saigas from Kazakhstan, Dagestan and Kalmykia.

Keywords

  • helminths
  • Cestoda
  • Nematoda
  • Saiga tatarica
  • prevalence-frequency distribution
  • Askania Nova
  • Ukraine
Accesso libero

Seasonal occurrence of some larval stages of endoparasites in three cyprinids from the Nwanedi-Luphephe dams, the Limpopo River System, South Africa

Pubblicato online: 13 Aug 2015
Pagine: 229 - 235

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Abstract

This study provides information on seasonal occurrence of developmental stages of endoparasites infecting three cyprinids in the Nwanedi-Luphephe dams, Limpopo River System. Labeobarbus marequensis (Smith, 1841), Barbus trimaculatus Peters, 1852 and Barbus radiatus Peters, 1853 were investigated seasonally from January 2008 to October 2008. The following larvae of metazoan parasites were collected: Diplostomum sp. from the eyes of L. marequensis and B. trimaculatus; Ornithodiplostomum sp. from the gills of B. trimaculatus; Posthodiplostomum sp. from muscle, skin and fins of B. trimaculatus and B. radiatus; third-stage Contracaecum larvae (L3) from the mesentery fats and on the liver lobes of L. marequensis and B. trimaculatus and gryporynchid cestode larvae from the outer intestinal wall of B. radiatus. All the flukes encountered were metacercariae. Diplostomum sp. and Contracaecum sp. dominated the parasite communities. Their prevalence exhibited seasonal fluctuations with maxima in summer. Factors likely to influence fish infection such as the body size of fish and their condition factors were also briefly considered in this study.

Keywords

  • Limpopo River Systems
  • Labeobarbus marequensis
  • Barbus trimaculatus
  • Barbus radiatus
  • Diplostomum sp.
  • Ornithodiplostomum sp.
  • Posthodiplostomum sp.
  • Contracaecum sp.
  • gryporynchid cestode
Accesso libero

Seasonal variability of the composition and structure of parasite communities of red porgy, Pagrus pagrus (Perciformes: Sparidae) off Brazil

Pubblicato online: 13 Aug 2015
Pagine: 236 - 243

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Abstract

A study of seasonal variation of metazoan parasite community of Pagrus pagrus was conducted between January and December 2012. Two hundred forty specimens of Pagrus pagrus were collected in four seasons (autumn and winter in dry season and spring and summer in rainy season) from off the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Twenty one species of metazoan parasites were found, with larvae of Hysterothylacium sp. being the dominant species. The highest values of prevalence and abundance was during the rainy season with peak prevalence of monogeneans and nematodes, period of action of the South Atlantic Central Waters (SACW) and reproductive activity of the host, suggesting that the sasonal variation in the parasites community was influenced for these phenomena.

Parole chiave

  • Pagrus pagrus
  • seasonal variation
  • metazoan parasites
Accesso libero

Additional study of the morphology of eggs and miracidia of Eurytrema coelomaticum (Trematoda)

Pubblicato online: 13 Aug 2015
Pagine: 244 - 251

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Abstract

The morphology of the eggs and miracidia of Eurytrema coelomaticum was analyzed. The eggshell presented different composition according to the maturation stage of the egg, as seen by distinct birefringence after polarized light microscopic analysis. Detailed morphology of the brownish eggs, measuring 44.97±3.83 (38.67 - 51.40) μm in length and 30.71±2.54 (25.79 -34.47) μm in width, and the different electrondensities of the inner, middle and outer layers of the eggs were determined using light (bright field and DIC) and electronic microscopy (scanning and transmission). The morphometry of the eggs is in accordance to those measures presented in previous studies. The miracidia were observed using light microscopy, inside and outside the egg. It was possible to observe the terebratorium at the anterior end of the body, the ciliated epidermal plates, placed according the formula E=2E1 + 2E2, and the interepidermal ridge, but eyespots were not observed. The excretory vesicle was laterally placed in the posterior middle of the body and the germ balls were observed. The miracidium inside the egg was observed by routine techniques, but the miracidium was not well preserved. Thus, the eggs were processed using high pressure-freeze substitution technique and reasonable preservation was achieved. The cilia covering the larval body, with a typical ciliary organization, the terebratorium with folds and the junction of the epidermal ciliated cell with the larval body were seen. For the first time detailed information on the eggs and miracidia of E. coelomaticum is given, which can be the basis for new studies.

Keywords

  • Digenea
  • larval trematode
  • high pressure freezing
  • light microscopy
  • Eurytrema coelomaticum
Accesso libero

Effect of heavy metals on soil nematode communities in the vicinity of a metallurgical plant in North Slovakia

Pubblicato online: 13 Aug 2015
Pagine: 252 - 260

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Abstract

The effect of industrial pollution from chromium ferroalloys production on soil free-living nematode assemblages, c-p groups and generic composition was investigated along 7-km transect. From trace elements (Cr, Cu, Ni and Pb), only chromium exceeded the thresholds for uncontaminated soils (10 mg.kg-1) near the pollution source. In contrast mobilizable fraction of Cr has increased with the distance from the pollution source and was found to be positively correlated with Cox, soil pH, and moisture. Generic richness (nematode diversity) was also higher at remote sites. The low contamination has no significant impact on the nematode communities as illustrated by the c-p groups composition and balanced community structure. Widely applied ecological indices SI and EI also proved maturing ecosystem without any significant stress responses

Keywords

  • nematode community
  • chromium
  • contamination
  • metallurgical plant
Accesso libero

Different changes of soil nematode communities in replant and continuous-planting peach orchards and their indicative value for peach replant problem

Pubblicato online: 13 Aug 2015
Pagine: 261 - 269

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Abstract

Long-term changes of soil nematode diversity and distribution patterns in replant peach orchard (RPO) and continuous-planting peach orchard (CPPO) were assessed to evaluate different effects on nematode community and function by RPO and CPPO, in relation to peach replant problem from the point of soil fauna. Observations were conducted on a silt loam soil, and soil sampling was performed four times through the growing season of peach trees in the period from 2006 to 2008 in Pinggu, Beijing. The result showed that RPO differed from CPPO by its higher abundance of plant feeding nematodes but lower abundance of bacterivore nematodes, as well as significantly higher values of plant parasite index but lower nematode biodiversity. Obviously, the absolute abundance of Paratylenchus in RPO was higher than that in CPPO, which could be a key factor for the peach replant problems from the part of soil nematode. Nematode function indices and weighted nematode fauna profile analysis were no significantly different in the two peach ecosystems, but they represented an indication of high disturbance, N-enriched, bacterial decomposition pathway.

Keywords

  • Amygdalus persica L.
  • replant problem
  • nematode biodiversity
  • nematode function
  • plant parasitic index
  • Paratylenchus spp
Accesso libero

Description of Paratylenchus (Gracilacus) straeleni (De Coninck, 1931) Oostenbrink, 1960 (Nematoda: Criconematoidea, Tylenchulidae) from hazelnut in Turkey and its comparison with other world populations

Pubblicato online: 13 Aug 2015
Pagine: 270 - 279

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Abstract

Paratylenchus (Gracilacus) straeleni (De Coninck, 1931) Oostenbrink, 1960 was detected for the first time in Turkey. Our studied population was found in the rhizosphere soil of hazelnut orchards in Ordu. Females and males were studied morphologically and morphometrically by light microscopy and molecularly by sequencing the D2-D3 of the 28S rDNA gene. We present here the morphological and molecular characterisation, phylogenetic analysis of examined population and comparison of variability of worldwide known populations of P. straeleni.

Keywords

  • Corylus avellana
  • Multivariate analyses
  • Phylogeny
  • Sequencing
  • Species complex
Accesso libero

Characterization of Pratylenchus crenatus and P. neglectus (Nematoda: Pratylenchidae) associated with wheat crop

Pubblicato online: 13 Aug 2015
Pagine: 280 - 286

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Abstract

The distribution of Pratylenchus species associated with wheat crops was investigated in Bohemian region of the Czech Republic. In total twelve localities were sampled. The populations were identified based on morphology and morphometrics, and further characterised based on sequences of the rDNA D2/D3 region and 18S gene. Pratylenchus crenatus was present in two localities and P. neglectus in five localities. At one locality both species were detected. Sequence analysis of 18S and D2/D3 region of three populations of P. crenatus reveal no variation while five populations of P. neglectus differ by 0 to 0.14 % (18S) and 0.17 to 0.50 % (D2/D3).

Keywords

  • Pratylenchus crenatus
  • Pratylenchus neglectus
  • PCR
  • ribosomal DNA
  • sequencing
  • nematode
Accesso libero

The pathogenic Asian fish tapeworm, Bothriocephalus acheilognathi Yamaguti, 1934 (Cestoda) in the Red discus (Symphysodon discus)

Pubblicato online: 13 Aug 2015
Pagine: 287 - 292

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Abstract

The Asian fish tapeworm, Bothriocephalus acheilognathi Yamaguti, 1934, was detected for the first time in breeding of discus fish Symphysodon discus (Perciformes, Cichlidae), a popular South American cichlid. In examined samples, the adult and juvenile cestodes of B. acheilognathi with mean intensity of infection 30 (range 19 - 47) individuals per fish were found. The infected fish displayed acute behavioral symptoms. Mortality was significant; it reached almost 80 % in youngest age categories. As treatment, praziquantel immersions in dose 2 mg per liter were well tolerated and efficacious. The risk of spreading pathogens via imported fish is actual menace for ornamental breeding fish, therefore, thorough quarantine and prophylactic measures needs to be done by all fish imports and introductions. Import and subsequent release of infected ornamental fish into freshwater ecosystems may represent serious risk for spread and establishment of the parasite in native fish species. This case study illustrates that ornamental fish play also a key role in national and international movements of parasites in freshwater habitats.

Keywords

  • Bothriocephalus
  • new host
  • mortality
  • aquarium breeding
  • intestinal obstruction
Accesso libero

The first report of Morishitium vagum (Trematoda: Cyclocoelidae) in Turdus merula in Iran

Pubblicato online: 13 Aug 2015
Pagine: 293 - 296

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Abstract

This paper describes a trematode isolated from the air sacs of a common blackbird (Turdus merula) by the authors in Qaemshahr city, Mazandaran province, north of Iran. The specimens were in the best form to make whole-mounts for species identification. The identified species was Morishitium vagum (Morishita 1924) Witenberg 1928, belonging to the family Cyclocoelidae Stossich 1902, according to morphologic and morphometric characters, as explained in references. This is the first report of a species belonging to the family Cyclocoelidae in Iran, and the first report of this type-species isolated from Turdus merula in the world.

Keywords

  • Morishitium vagum
  • Turdus merula
  • Iran
Accesso libero

Retraction Note of: The important role of matrix metalloproteinases in nematode parasites

Pubblicato online: 13 Aug 2015
Pagine: 297 - 297

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