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Special Edizione: This issue is dedicated to the memory of Milan Ryboš, DVM, D.Sc.

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Dettagli della rivista
Formato
Rivista
eISSN
1336-9083
ISSN
0440-6605
Pubblicato per la prima volta
22 Apr 2006
Periodo di pubblicazione
4 volte all'anno
Lingue
Inglese

Cerca

Volume 51 (2014): Edizione 3 (September 2014)

Dettagli della rivista
Formato
Rivista
eISSN
1336-9083
ISSN
0440-6605
Pubblicato per la prima volta
22 Apr 2006
Periodo di pubblicazione
4 volte all'anno
Lingue
Inglese

Cerca

13 Articoli
Accesso libero

The important role of matrix metalloproteinases in nematode parasites

Pubblicato online: 17 Sep 2014
Pagine: 167 - 170

Astratto

Abstract

Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) represent a large family of over twenty different secreted or membrane-bound endopeptidases, involved in many physiological (embryogenesis, precursor or stem cell mobilization, tissue remodeling during wound healing, etc.), as well as pathological (inflammation, tumor progression and metastasis in cancer, vascular pathology, etc.) conditions. For a long time, MMPs were considered only for the ability to degrade extracellular matrix (ECM) molecules (e.g., collagen, laminin, fibronectin) and to release hidden epitopes from the ECM. However, expressions of many MMPs have been associated with several pathological conditions. It has been established that the MMPs are conserved throughout the animal kingdom and studies of invertebrate have demonstrated that primarily they are involved in various developing functions in hydra, Drosophila, sea urchin and nematodes. The syntheses of these proteolytic enzymes and their release as excretory and secretory products have been reported in various parasitic nematodes. Host invasion and tissue migration of several nematodes have been linked to the expression and release of parasite-derived proteases. Studies with enzyme inhibitors suggest that the enzyme may be a metalloproteinase. Moreover, substrate impregnated zymographic analysis of extracts and excretory and secretory products of different nematode parasites have revealed the multiple enzyme activities of MMPs with various molecular weights. More research on MMP degradome in nematode parasites can provide valuable information for intense evaluation of pathogenesis caused by these parasites.

Parole chiave

  • matrix metalloproteinase
  • endopeptidases
  • nematode parasites
Accesso libero

Effect of heavy metal intoxication on macrophage metabolic activity of mice infected with Ascaris suum

Pubblicato online: 17 Sep 2014
Pagine: 171 - 180

Astratto

Abstract

The effect of heavy metal intoxication on superoxide anion (O2 −) production and larval burden during experimental Ascaris suum infection was studied. Mice were chronically intoxicated with lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd) or mercury (Hg) and subsequently infected with A. suum. The metabolic activity of peritoneal macrophages in mice intoxicated with Pb was suppressed and subsequent parasitic infection did not change this inhibition. Cd intoxication increased the superoxide production and also stimulated the activity of this oxygen radical after A. suum infection. Intoxication with Hg had a stimulative effect on the macrophage metabolic activity and subsequent A. suum infection moderately reduced this activity. Parasite burden was different depending on a type of heavy metal intoxication. Pb intoxication moderately increased the parasite burden in the liver and lungs of intoxicated mice. In contrast, Cd and Hg intoxication triggered a marked reduction of A. suum larvae in the liver and lungs of intoxicated mice, respectively. Monitored heavy metals differed in their immunomodulatory effect on metabolic activity of macrophages what also altered the intensity of the parasite infection in the hosts.

Parole chiave

  • heavy metals
  • Ascaris suum
  • macrophages
  • superoxide anion
  • mice
Accesso libero

Detection of circulating antigens in serum samples of mice experimentally infected with Trichinella spiralis by a sandwich ELISA based on IgY

Pubblicato online: 17 Sep 2014
Pagine: 181 - 189

Astratto

Abstract

In the present study, a sandwich ELISA based on IgY (egg yolk immunoglobulin) was developed for detection of circulating antigens (CAg) in sere of mice experimentally infected with Trichinella spiralis. The IgY-sandwich ELISA assay involved the use of chicken antibody IgY against excretory-secretory (ES) antigens of Trichinella spiralis muscle larvae as a capture antibody and mouse polyclonal antibody IgG to ES antigens as a detecting antibody. This method was able to detect as little as 3 ng/ml of ES antigens added to normal mouse serum. A group of sixteen mice was orally inoculated with 500 T. spiralis muscle larvae per animal. The serum samples from the infected mice were taken during 1–35 days post-infection (dpi). The CAg was detectable as early as 8 dpi in the sera of infected mice. The level of CAg increased dramatically during 13–15 dpi and reached a peak at 22 dpi and remained a plateau for 3 days, then declined gradually. Another peak of CAg occurred at 31 dpi. The anti-Trichinella antibodies was first detected in 14.3 % of the infected mice at 2 weeks post-infection (wpi), and reached a peak positive rate of 100 % at 5 wpi. Moreover, the infected mice were treated with abendazole at 5 wpi and the serum CAg levels increased significantly during 2–6 days posttreatment (dpt) and then declined rapidly during 8–14 dpt. By 42 dpt, the CAg levels decreased to the undetected level, but the detection rate of antibodies was still 100 %. The IgY-sandwich ELISA appears to be a sensitive for detection of antigenemia of T. spiralis and valuable to judge the efficacy of chemotherapy in trichinellosis.

Parole chiave

  • Trichinella spiralis
  • circulating antigens
  • sandwich ELISA
  • IgY
  • abendazole
Accesso libero

First finding of Trichinella pseudospiralis in two tawny owls (Strix aluco) from Sweden

Pubblicato online: 17 Sep 2014
Pagine: 190 - 197

Astratto

Abstract

The worldwide distribution of Trichinella pseudospiralis, the first discovered non-encapsulated Trichinella species infecting both mammals and avian hosts, has been suggested to be attributed to bird migration. At present, the knowledge on the role of carnivorous avian species as a reservoir hosts in Europe is still limited. Thus, the aim of this research was to screen for T. pseudospiralis in raptorial, carrion-feeding, and scavenging birds in Sweden and Slovakia, where the parasite has been previously documented in wildlife. In total, 212 pectoral muscle samples of carnivorous birds from Slovakia (n = 153) and Sweden (n = 59) were examined for the presence of Trichinella larvae using standard artificial digestion method. Out of 12 Accipitridae species, 4 Falconidae species, 2 Strigidae species, 1 Tytonidae species, and 4 Corvidae species examined within our study, muscle larvae were found in two non-migratory tawny owls (Strix aluco) from one geographical region of Sweden. Histological and molecular methods confirmed the presence of T. pseudospiralis. This is the first report of this parasite in an avian species in Sweden and the second report in European birds.

Parole chiave

  • Trichinella pseudospiralis
  • epidemiology
  • carnivorous birds
  • birds of prey
  • tawny owl
  • Strix aluco
  • Sweden
  • Slovakia
Accesso libero

First report of Trichinella spiralis from the white-eared (Didelphis albiventris) and the thick-tailed opossum (Lutreolina crassicaudata) in central Argentina

Pubblicato online: 17 Sep 2014
Pagine: 198 - 202

Astratto

Abstract

Trichinellosis is a zoonotic disease caused by nematodes of the genus Trichinella. Humans, who are the final hosts, acquire the infection by eating raw or undercooked meat of different animal origin. Trichinella spiralis is an encapsulated species that infects mammals and is widely distributed in different continents. In Argentina, this parasite has been reported in the domestic cycle that includes pigs and synanthropic hosts (mainly rats and some carnivores). This is the first report of T. spiralis in the opossums Didelphis albiventris and Lutreolina crassicaudata in Argentina, and the first report in opossums in South America. In this survey, Trichinella larvae were detected by enzymatic digestion in three D. albiventris and one L. crassicaudata captured on pig and dairy farms located in the northeast of Buenos Aires province. The microscopic examination of the 32 larvae isolated presented the diagnostic characteristic of the genus Trichinella. Two larvae isolated from two D. albiventris and one from L. crassicaudata were identified as T. spiralis by nested multiplex PCR and confirmed by sequencing. Further research to determine the burdens of T. spiralis in opossums may contribute to a better understanding of the risk of T. spiralis transmission to the synanthropic populations.

Parole chiave

  • Trichinella spiralis
  • opossum
  • Didelphis albiventris
  • Lutreolina crassicaudata
  • Argentina
Accesso libero

The reduction rate of invasive Ascaris suum eggs number in slurry and humus layers of selected soil types

Pubblicato online: 17 Sep 2014
Pagine: 203 - 209

Astratto

Abstract

The aim of this study was to determine under laboratory conditions the percentage and rate of reduction in invasive Ascaris suum eggs, as well as the maximal time of invasiveness retaining by them in swine slurry and 3 soil types. A. suum eggs were introduced into perforated perlon bags which then were placed in samples of slurry and in humus layers of the soils: podsolic soil, black earth and browned black earth. The experiment was carried out for 44 weeks at 4 and 20 °C. Finally, at 4 °C a reduction in the number of invasive eggs from 41 % (the humus layer of podsolic soil) to 65 % (the humus layer of black earth) was observed. At 20 °C the fluctuations were smaller and the percentage of elimination ranged from 89 % (slurry) to 96 % (the humus layer of browned black earth).

Parole chiave

  • Ascaris suum
  • percentage of invasive eggs
  • slurry
  • soil
Accesso libero

Effectiveness of coproscopic concentration techniques

Pubblicato online: 17 Sep 2014
Pagine: 210 - 214

Astratto

Abstract

The aim of the present study was to compare the effectiveness of the concentration techniques of flotation-centrifugation with zinc chloride (FZn) (δ = 1.45) with the spontaneous sedimentation (SSed) and the sucrose flotation-centrifugation (FSuc) (δ = 1.2) to recuperate gastrointestinal parasites from camelid fecal samples. The technique with more positive results for the detection of Nematodirus sp., Trichuris sp., strongyle-type eggs and Eimeria macusaniensis oocysts was the FZn. For Trichuris sp. and Eimeria macusaniensis, the higher coverglass counts were detected by FZn procedure. No significant differences were registered among centrifugation flotation techniques for Nematodirus spp. Coverglass count for strongyle-type eggs was significantly higher for FSuc than FZn (p = 0.0005) or SSed (p = 0.0005), being also significantly higher for FZn than for SSed (p = 0.008). FZn is a sensitive technique that allows the recovery of parasite elements with high density and it exerts low osmotic pressure avoiding parasite deformation.

Parole chiave

  • Concentration techniques
  • zinc chloride
  • parasite
  • camelid
Accesso libero

Diplostomum and Ornithodiplostomum scardinii (Diplostomidae, Digenea) species from naturally infected birds (Anatinae) in the Czech Republic and in Poland: morphological, morphometric and ecological features

Pubblicato online: 17 Sep 2014
Pagine: 215 - 224

Astratto

Abstract

The study aimed to describe morphological and morphometric characteristics of species representing the genera Diplostomum Nordmann, 1832 and Ornithodiplostomum Dubois, 1936, originating from naturally infected birds in the Czech Republic and in Poland, and to compare their species richness and the intensity of infection in their avian hosts. Diplostomum mergi Dubois, 1932, D. parviventosum Dubois, 1932, D. phoxini (Faust, 1918), D. pusillum (Dubois, 1928), and Ornithodiplostomum scardinii (Schulman, 1952) were found in the gossander (Mergus merganser). D. parviventosum was found in the velvet scoter (Melanitta fusca). D. pungitii Shigin, 1965 was found in the tufted duck (Aythya fuligula), common eider (Somateria mollissima), common goldeneye (Bucephala clangula), and in the long-tailed duck (Clangula hyemalis). D. spathaceum (Rudolphi, 1819) was found in the mallard (Anas platyrhynchos). Morphology and morphometry of those Diplostomum species from the Czech Republic and from Poland were not analyzed before. The morphological and morphometric description of the adult form of O. scardinii presented in this study has been the first such description of a specimen obtained from a naturally infected bird. The highest intensity of infection was observed in the gossander (D. pusillum and D. mergi). Study results provided new data on the occurrence of the Diplostomum and O. scardinii trematodes in the Czech Republic and in Poland.

Parole chiave

  • Diplostomidae
  • mature trematodes
  • morphology
  • anseriform birds
Accesso libero

Severe granulomatous gastric lesions following migration of Spiroxys contortus larvae (Nematoda: Spirurida) in European pond turtles, Emys orbicularis

Pubblicato online: 17 Sep 2014
Pagine: 225 - 229

Astratto

Abstract

The European pond turtle gradually disappeared from most of its range due to various factors. Hence, conservation measures are of main concern in all European countries where it is still present. A decent methodology for assessing the effect of parasites on the health of wildlife is microscopic lesion description. In 2002–2007, eight Emys orbicularis were brought for necropsy. The presence of gastric nematodes, identified as adults and larval Spiroxys contortus was noticed in all the turtles. A discrete cellular infiltrate with mononuclear cells and eosinophils was noticed in the gastric mucosa. The most prominent lesions were severe granulomas with or without degenerated larval structures. Some of the granulomas presented a central area of coagulation necrosis surrounded by giant cells, epithelioid cells and macrophages. In mature granulomas, the cluster of macrophage cell line and necrosis were surrounded by a fibrous capsule. Vascular cuffs, hyperemia, edema and venous ectasia were also present.

Parole chiave

  • Emys orbicularis
  • granuloma
  • migration
  • Spiroxys contortus
  • stomach wall
Accesso libero

Buckleyella ornata n. sp. (Nematoda: Philometridae) from the abdominal cavity of the talang queenfish Scomberoides commersonnianus (Perciformes: Carangidae) off the northern coast of Australia

Pubblicato online: 17 Sep 2014
Pagine: 230 - 235

Astratto

Abstract

A new nematode species, Buckleyella ornata n. sp. (Philometridae), is described from female specimens found in the abdominal cavity (mesenteries) of the talang queenfish Scomberoides commersonnianus Lacepède (Carangidae, Perciformes) caught in Darwin Harbour, northern Australia. Based on light and scanning electron microscopical examination, the new species mainly differs from the only other congeneric species B. buckleyi Rasheed, 1963 in having a markedly shorter oesophagus (2.04–2.75 mm long), by the absence of a cephalic mound around the mouth aperture, by the presence of four submedian cephalic papillae of the inner circle, and by a somewhat different arrangement of cuticular ornamentations on the body surface. Three protruding oesophageal teeth and large, dome-shaped cephalic papillae of the external circle present in the smallest gravid female of B. ornata are atrophied in larger conspecific gravid females. Buckleyella ornata is the first known nominal species of a philometrid parasitizing carangid fishes in Australian waters.

Parole chiave

  • Parasitic nematode
  • new species
  • Dracunculoidea
  • marine fish
  • Darwin Harbour
Accesso libero

First description of male Philometra thaiensis Moravec, Fiala et Dyková, 2004 (Nematoda: Philometridae) from the body cavity of the eyespot pufferfish Tetraodon biocellatus Tirant, and evolutionary relationships of this species with other dracunculoids as inferred from SSU rRNA gene sequences

Pubblicato online: 17 Sep 2014
Pagine: 236 - 245

Astratto

Abstract

Finding male philometrid nematodes is essential for taxonomic identification among congeneric species. In this study, male Philometra thaiensis Moravec, Fiala et Dyková, 2004 were collected and described for the first time, from the body cavity of the freshwater fish (eyespot pufferfish) Tetraodon biocellatus Tirant (Tetraodontiformes, Tetraodontidae), and conspecific females were redescribed based on the additional morphological biometrics examined. Molecular examination was carried out on the small subunit 18S rRNA, revealing the evolutionary relationships of P. thaiensis and reported philometrid species (Philometra and Philometroides) from Japan with other dracunculoids deposited in the GenBank. Based on the molecular data, there are some genera (Philometra, Philometroides, Clavinema, and Margolisianum [genus inquirendum]) requiring further morphological re-evaluation that should be supported with molecular data.

Parole chiave

  • Philometra thaiensis
  • Tetraodon biocellatus
  • eyespot pufferfish
  • small subunit 18S rRNA
  • Philometra
  • Philometroides
Accesso libero

Human ocular dirofilariosis in Slovakia, a case report

Pubblicato online: 17 Sep 2014
Pagine: 246 - 249

Astratto

Abstract

A case of the human ocular dirofilariosis in 72-year-old man from southern Slovakia is documented. Two days before visiting a doctor he noticed a live worm in his right eye. The eye was inflamed and itching. The worm of 100 mm in length was isolated from the subconjunctival space. On the basis of morphological appearance, histological examination and PCR-based detection, it was identified as Dirofilaria repens. The patient was probably infected in the southern Slovakia, which is an enzootic area of dirofilariosis of dogs.

Parole chiave

  • Dirofilaria repens
  • Dirofilaria immitis
  • ocular dirofilariosis
  • Slovakia
Accesso libero

The marine leech Stibarobdella moorei (Oka, 1910) (Hirudinea, Piscicolidae) parasitic on the thornback ray Raja clavata Linnaeus, 1758 and angelshark Squatina squatina (Linnaeus, 1758) in Antalya Bay, Mediterranean Sea of Turkey

Pubblicato online: 17 Sep 2014
Pagine: 250 - 252

Astratto

Abstract

The marine leech, Stibarobdella moorei was collected from dorsal parts of the thornback ray (Raja clavata) and angelshark (Squatina squatina) (Elasmobranchii) captured by commercial trawl vessels as non-target species from depth of 50 meters of Antalya Bay which is located in the eastern Mediterranean coast of Turkey on April and July, 2013. The leeches caused two typical lesions on epidermal tissues of both hosts: the major lesion by oral sucker and a minor one by caudal sucker. The leeches were identified as Stibarobdella moorei which has not been reported from elasmobranches in the Turkey’s Mediterranean shores. This study represents new host and geographical records.

Parole chiave

  • new geographical record
  • parasitic annelids
  • Elasmobranchii
  • Stibarobdella moorei
  • Raja clavata
  • Squatina squatina
13 Articoli
Accesso libero

The important role of matrix metalloproteinases in nematode parasites

Pubblicato online: 17 Sep 2014
Pagine: 167 - 170

Astratto

Abstract

Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) represent a large family of over twenty different secreted or membrane-bound endopeptidases, involved in many physiological (embryogenesis, precursor or stem cell mobilization, tissue remodeling during wound healing, etc.), as well as pathological (inflammation, tumor progression and metastasis in cancer, vascular pathology, etc.) conditions. For a long time, MMPs were considered only for the ability to degrade extracellular matrix (ECM) molecules (e.g., collagen, laminin, fibronectin) and to release hidden epitopes from the ECM. However, expressions of many MMPs have been associated with several pathological conditions. It has been established that the MMPs are conserved throughout the animal kingdom and studies of invertebrate have demonstrated that primarily they are involved in various developing functions in hydra, Drosophila, sea urchin and nematodes. The syntheses of these proteolytic enzymes and their release as excretory and secretory products have been reported in various parasitic nematodes. Host invasion and tissue migration of several nematodes have been linked to the expression and release of parasite-derived proteases. Studies with enzyme inhibitors suggest that the enzyme may be a metalloproteinase. Moreover, substrate impregnated zymographic analysis of extracts and excretory and secretory products of different nematode parasites have revealed the multiple enzyme activities of MMPs with various molecular weights. More research on MMP degradome in nematode parasites can provide valuable information for intense evaluation of pathogenesis caused by these parasites.

Parole chiave

  • matrix metalloproteinase
  • endopeptidases
  • nematode parasites
Accesso libero

Effect of heavy metal intoxication on macrophage metabolic activity of mice infected with Ascaris suum

Pubblicato online: 17 Sep 2014
Pagine: 171 - 180

Astratto

Abstract

The effect of heavy metal intoxication on superoxide anion (O2 −) production and larval burden during experimental Ascaris suum infection was studied. Mice were chronically intoxicated with lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd) or mercury (Hg) and subsequently infected with A. suum. The metabolic activity of peritoneal macrophages in mice intoxicated with Pb was suppressed and subsequent parasitic infection did not change this inhibition. Cd intoxication increased the superoxide production and also stimulated the activity of this oxygen radical after A. suum infection. Intoxication with Hg had a stimulative effect on the macrophage metabolic activity and subsequent A. suum infection moderately reduced this activity. Parasite burden was different depending on a type of heavy metal intoxication. Pb intoxication moderately increased the parasite burden in the liver and lungs of intoxicated mice. In contrast, Cd and Hg intoxication triggered a marked reduction of A. suum larvae in the liver and lungs of intoxicated mice, respectively. Monitored heavy metals differed in their immunomodulatory effect on metabolic activity of macrophages what also altered the intensity of the parasite infection in the hosts.

Parole chiave

  • heavy metals
  • Ascaris suum
  • macrophages
  • superoxide anion
  • mice
Accesso libero

Detection of circulating antigens in serum samples of mice experimentally infected with Trichinella spiralis by a sandwich ELISA based on IgY

Pubblicato online: 17 Sep 2014
Pagine: 181 - 189

Astratto

Abstract

In the present study, a sandwich ELISA based on IgY (egg yolk immunoglobulin) was developed for detection of circulating antigens (CAg) in sere of mice experimentally infected with Trichinella spiralis. The IgY-sandwich ELISA assay involved the use of chicken antibody IgY against excretory-secretory (ES) antigens of Trichinella spiralis muscle larvae as a capture antibody and mouse polyclonal antibody IgG to ES antigens as a detecting antibody. This method was able to detect as little as 3 ng/ml of ES antigens added to normal mouse serum. A group of sixteen mice was orally inoculated with 500 T. spiralis muscle larvae per animal. The serum samples from the infected mice were taken during 1–35 days post-infection (dpi). The CAg was detectable as early as 8 dpi in the sera of infected mice. The level of CAg increased dramatically during 13–15 dpi and reached a peak at 22 dpi and remained a plateau for 3 days, then declined gradually. Another peak of CAg occurred at 31 dpi. The anti-Trichinella antibodies was first detected in 14.3 % of the infected mice at 2 weeks post-infection (wpi), and reached a peak positive rate of 100 % at 5 wpi. Moreover, the infected mice were treated with abendazole at 5 wpi and the serum CAg levels increased significantly during 2–6 days posttreatment (dpt) and then declined rapidly during 8–14 dpt. By 42 dpt, the CAg levels decreased to the undetected level, but the detection rate of antibodies was still 100 %. The IgY-sandwich ELISA appears to be a sensitive for detection of antigenemia of T. spiralis and valuable to judge the efficacy of chemotherapy in trichinellosis.

Parole chiave

  • Trichinella spiralis
  • circulating antigens
  • sandwich ELISA
  • IgY
  • abendazole
Accesso libero

First finding of Trichinella pseudospiralis in two tawny owls (Strix aluco) from Sweden

Pubblicato online: 17 Sep 2014
Pagine: 190 - 197

Astratto

Abstract

The worldwide distribution of Trichinella pseudospiralis, the first discovered non-encapsulated Trichinella species infecting both mammals and avian hosts, has been suggested to be attributed to bird migration. At present, the knowledge on the role of carnivorous avian species as a reservoir hosts in Europe is still limited. Thus, the aim of this research was to screen for T. pseudospiralis in raptorial, carrion-feeding, and scavenging birds in Sweden and Slovakia, where the parasite has been previously documented in wildlife. In total, 212 pectoral muscle samples of carnivorous birds from Slovakia (n = 153) and Sweden (n = 59) were examined for the presence of Trichinella larvae using standard artificial digestion method. Out of 12 Accipitridae species, 4 Falconidae species, 2 Strigidae species, 1 Tytonidae species, and 4 Corvidae species examined within our study, muscle larvae were found in two non-migratory tawny owls (Strix aluco) from one geographical region of Sweden. Histological and molecular methods confirmed the presence of T. pseudospiralis. This is the first report of this parasite in an avian species in Sweden and the second report in European birds.

Parole chiave

  • Trichinella pseudospiralis
  • epidemiology
  • carnivorous birds
  • birds of prey
  • tawny owl
  • Strix aluco
  • Sweden
  • Slovakia
Accesso libero

First report of Trichinella spiralis from the white-eared (Didelphis albiventris) and the thick-tailed opossum (Lutreolina crassicaudata) in central Argentina

Pubblicato online: 17 Sep 2014
Pagine: 198 - 202

Astratto

Abstract

Trichinellosis is a zoonotic disease caused by nematodes of the genus Trichinella. Humans, who are the final hosts, acquire the infection by eating raw or undercooked meat of different animal origin. Trichinella spiralis is an encapsulated species that infects mammals and is widely distributed in different continents. In Argentina, this parasite has been reported in the domestic cycle that includes pigs and synanthropic hosts (mainly rats and some carnivores). This is the first report of T. spiralis in the opossums Didelphis albiventris and Lutreolina crassicaudata in Argentina, and the first report in opossums in South America. In this survey, Trichinella larvae were detected by enzymatic digestion in three D. albiventris and one L. crassicaudata captured on pig and dairy farms located in the northeast of Buenos Aires province. The microscopic examination of the 32 larvae isolated presented the diagnostic characteristic of the genus Trichinella. Two larvae isolated from two D. albiventris and one from L. crassicaudata were identified as T. spiralis by nested multiplex PCR and confirmed by sequencing. Further research to determine the burdens of T. spiralis in opossums may contribute to a better understanding of the risk of T. spiralis transmission to the synanthropic populations.

Parole chiave

  • Trichinella spiralis
  • opossum
  • Didelphis albiventris
  • Lutreolina crassicaudata
  • Argentina
Accesso libero

The reduction rate of invasive Ascaris suum eggs number in slurry and humus layers of selected soil types

Pubblicato online: 17 Sep 2014
Pagine: 203 - 209

Astratto

Abstract

The aim of this study was to determine under laboratory conditions the percentage and rate of reduction in invasive Ascaris suum eggs, as well as the maximal time of invasiveness retaining by them in swine slurry and 3 soil types. A. suum eggs were introduced into perforated perlon bags which then were placed in samples of slurry and in humus layers of the soils: podsolic soil, black earth and browned black earth. The experiment was carried out for 44 weeks at 4 and 20 °C. Finally, at 4 °C a reduction in the number of invasive eggs from 41 % (the humus layer of podsolic soil) to 65 % (the humus layer of black earth) was observed. At 20 °C the fluctuations were smaller and the percentage of elimination ranged from 89 % (slurry) to 96 % (the humus layer of browned black earth).

Parole chiave

  • Ascaris suum
  • percentage of invasive eggs
  • slurry
  • soil
Accesso libero

Effectiveness of coproscopic concentration techniques

Pubblicato online: 17 Sep 2014
Pagine: 210 - 214

Astratto

Abstract

The aim of the present study was to compare the effectiveness of the concentration techniques of flotation-centrifugation with zinc chloride (FZn) (δ = 1.45) with the spontaneous sedimentation (SSed) and the sucrose flotation-centrifugation (FSuc) (δ = 1.2) to recuperate gastrointestinal parasites from camelid fecal samples. The technique with more positive results for the detection of Nematodirus sp., Trichuris sp., strongyle-type eggs and Eimeria macusaniensis oocysts was the FZn. For Trichuris sp. and Eimeria macusaniensis, the higher coverglass counts were detected by FZn procedure. No significant differences were registered among centrifugation flotation techniques for Nematodirus spp. Coverglass count for strongyle-type eggs was significantly higher for FSuc than FZn (p = 0.0005) or SSed (p = 0.0005), being also significantly higher for FZn than for SSed (p = 0.008). FZn is a sensitive technique that allows the recovery of parasite elements with high density and it exerts low osmotic pressure avoiding parasite deformation.

Parole chiave

  • Concentration techniques
  • zinc chloride
  • parasite
  • camelid
Accesso libero

Diplostomum and Ornithodiplostomum scardinii (Diplostomidae, Digenea) species from naturally infected birds (Anatinae) in the Czech Republic and in Poland: morphological, morphometric and ecological features

Pubblicato online: 17 Sep 2014
Pagine: 215 - 224

Astratto

Abstract

The study aimed to describe morphological and morphometric characteristics of species representing the genera Diplostomum Nordmann, 1832 and Ornithodiplostomum Dubois, 1936, originating from naturally infected birds in the Czech Republic and in Poland, and to compare their species richness and the intensity of infection in their avian hosts. Diplostomum mergi Dubois, 1932, D. parviventosum Dubois, 1932, D. phoxini (Faust, 1918), D. pusillum (Dubois, 1928), and Ornithodiplostomum scardinii (Schulman, 1952) were found in the gossander (Mergus merganser). D. parviventosum was found in the velvet scoter (Melanitta fusca). D. pungitii Shigin, 1965 was found in the tufted duck (Aythya fuligula), common eider (Somateria mollissima), common goldeneye (Bucephala clangula), and in the long-tailed duck (Clangula hyemalis). D. spathaceum (Rudolphi, 1819) was found in the mallard (Anas platyrhynchos). Morphology and morphometry of those Diplostomum species from the Czech Republic and from Poland were not analyzed before. The morphological and morphometric description of the adult form of O. scardinii presented in this study has been the first such description of a specimen obtained from a naturally infected bird. The highest intensity of infection was observed in the gossander (D. pusillum and D. mergi). Study results provided new data on the occurrence of the Diplostomum and O. scardinii trematodes in the Czech Republic and in Poland.

Parole chiave

  • Diplostomidae
  • mature trematodes
  • morphology
  • anseriform birds
Accesso libero

Severe granulomatous gastric lesions following migration of Spiroxys contortus larvae (Nematoda: Spirurida) in European pond turtles, Emys orbicularis

Pubblicato online: 17 Sep 2014
Pagine: 225 - 229

Astratto

Abstract

The European pond turtle gradually disappeared from most of its range due to various factors. Hence, conservation measures are of main concern in all European countries where it is still present. A decent methodology for assessing the effect of parasites on the health of wildlife is microscopic lesion description. In 2002–2007, eight Emys orbicularis were brought for necropsy. The presence of gastric nematodes, identified as adults and larval Spiroxys contortus was noticed in all the turtles. A discrete cellular infiltrate with mononuclear cells and eosinophils was noticed in the gastric mucosa. The most prominent lesions were severe granulomas with or without degenerated larval structures. Some of the granulomas presented a central area of coagulation necrosis surrounded by giant cells, epithelioid cells and macrophages. In mature granulomas, the cluster of macrophage cell line and necrosis were surrounded by a fibrous capsule. Vascular cuffs, hyperemia, edema and venous ectasia were also present.

Parole chiave

  • Emys orbicularis
  • granuloma
  • migration
  • Spiroxys contortus
  • stomach wall
Accesso libero

Buckleyella ornata n. sp. (Nematoda: Philometridae) from the abdominal cavity of the talang queenfish Scomberoides commersonnianus (Perciformes: Carangidae) off the northern coast of Australia

Pubblicato online: 17 Sep 2014
Pagine: 230 - 235

Astratto

Abstract

A new nematode species, Buckleyella ornata n. sp. (Philometridae), is described from female specimens found in the abdominal cavity (mesenteries) of the talang queenfish Scomberoides commersonnianus Lacepède (Carangidae, Perciformes) caught in Darwin Harbour, northern Australia. Based on light and scanning electron microscopical examination, the new species mainly differs from the only other congeneric species B. buckleyi Rasheed, 1963 in having a markedly shorter oesophagus (2.04–2.75 mm long), by the absence of a cephalic mound around the mouth aperture, by the presence of four submedian cephalic papillae of the inner circle, and by a somewhat different arrangement of cuticular ornamentations on the body surface. Three protruding oesophageal teeth and large, dome-shaped cephalic papillae of the external circle present in the smallest gravid female of B. ornata are atrophied in larger conspecific gravid females. Buckleyella ornata is the first known nominal species of a philometrid parasitizing carangid fishes in Australian waters.

Parole chiave

  • Parasitic nematode
  • new species
  • Dracunculoidea
  • marine fish
  • Darwin Harbour
Accesso libero

First description of male Philometra thaiensis Moravec, Fiala et Dyková, 2004 (Nematoda: Philometridae) from the body cavity of the eyespot pufferfish Tetraodon biocellatus Tirant, and evolutionary relationships of this species with other dracunculoids as inferred from SSU rRNA gene sequences

Pubblicato online: 17 Sep 2014
Pagine: 236 - 245

Astratto

Abstract

Finding male philometrid nematodes is essential for taxonomic identification among congeneric species. In this study, male Philometra thaiensis Moravec, Fiala et Dyková, 2004 were collected and described for the first time, from the body cavity of the freshwater fish (eyespot pufferfish) Tetraodon biocellatus Tirant (Tetraodontiformes, Tetraodontidae), and conspecific females were redescribed based on the additional morphological biometrics examined. Molecular examination was carried out on the small subunit 18S rRNA, revealing the evolutionary relationships of P. thaiensis and reported philometrid species (Philometra and Philometroides) from Japan with other dracunculoids deposited in the GenBank. Based on the molecular data, there are some genera (Philometra, Philometroides, Clavinema, and Margolisianum [genus inquirendum]) requiring further morphological re-evaluation that should be supported with molecular data.

Parole chiave

  • Philometra thaiensis
  • Tetraodon biocellatus
  • eyespot pufferfish
  • small subunit 18S rRNA
  • Philometra
  • Philometroides
Accesso libero

Human ocular dirofilariosis in Slovakia, a case report

Pubblicato online: 17 Sep 2014
Pagine: 246 - 249

Astratto

Abstract

A case of the human ocular dirofilariosis in 72-year-old man from southern Slovakia is documented. Two days before visiting a doctor he noticed a live worm in his right eye. The eye was inflamed and itching. The worm of 100 mm in length was isolated from the subconjunctival space. On the basis of morphological appearance, histological examination and PCR-based detection, it was identified as Dirofilaria repens. The patient was probably infected in the southern Slovakia, which is an enzootic area of dirofilariosis of dogs.

Parole chiave

  • Dirofilaria repens
  • Dirofilaria immitis
  • ocular dirofilariosis
  • Slovakia
Accesso libero

The marine leech Stibarobdella moorei (Oka, 1910) (Hirudinea, Piscicolidae) parasitic on the thornback ray Raja clavata Linnaeus, 1758 and angelshark Squatina squatina (Linnaeus, 1758) in Antalya Bay, Mediterranean Sea of Turkey

Pubblicato online: 17 Sep 2014
Pagine: 250 - 252

Astratto

Abstract

The marine leech, Stibarobdella moorei was collected from dorsal parts of the thornback ray (Raja clavata) and angelshark (Squatina squatina) (Elasmobranchii) captured by commercial trawl vessels as non-target species from depth of 50 meters of Antalya Bay which is located in the eastern Mediterranean coast of Turkey on April and July, 2013. The leeches caused two typical lesions on epidermal tissues of both hosts: the major lesion by oral sucker and a minor one by caudal sucker. The leeches were identified as Stibarobdella moorei which has not been reported from elasmobranches in the Turkey’s Mediterranean shores. This study represents new host and geographical records.

Parole chiave

  • new geographical record
  • parasitic annelids
  • Elasmobranchii
  • Stibarobdella moorei
  • Raja clavata
  • Squatina squatina

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