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Special Edizione: This issue is dedicated to the memory of Milan Ryboš, DVM, D.Sc.

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Volume 49 (2012): Edizione 4 (December 2012)

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Volume 49 (2012): Edizione 2 (June 2012)

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Dettagli della rivista
Formato
Rivista
eISSN
1336-9083
ISSN
0440-6605
Pubblicato per la prima volta
22 Apr 2006
Periodo di pubblicazione
4 volte all'anno
Lingue
Inglese

Cerca

Volume 49 (2012): Edizione 4 (December 2012)

Dettagli della rivista
Formato
Rivista
eISSN
1336-9083
ISSN
0440-6605
Pubblicato per la prima volta
22 Apr 2006
Periodo di pubblicazione
4 volte all'anno
Lingue
Inglese

Cerca

12 Articoli
Accesso libero

In vivo inhibition of inducible nitric oxide synthase by aminoguanidine influences free radicals production and macrophage activity in Trichinella spiralis infected low responders (C57BL/6) and high responders (BALB/c) mice

Pubblicato online: 06 Nov 2012
Pagine: 189 - 200

Astratto

Abstract

The influence of aminoguanidine (AG) — inhibitor of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), on macrophage activity and free radicals level was examined during Trichinella spiralis infection in two strains of mice: C57BL/6 and BALB/c. AG was administered either between 1–5 days post infection (dpi) for intestinal phase examinations or between 16–29 dpi for muscle phase examinations. The number of peritoneal macrophages and level of nitric oxide NO) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in biological fluids were determined in both strains after infection or infection together with AG treatment as well as in control uninfected mice. The performed studies have proved, that free radicals play role in host immune response during intestinal and muscle phase of T.spiralis infection in mice. Inflammatory response in peritoneal cavity was delayed during infection in low responders C57BL/6 mice in comparison with high responders BALB/c mice. C57BL/6 mice are Th-1 like strain and react stronger to AG in contrary to BALB/c being Th-2 like strain. It was manifested as changes and fluctuations of free radicals levels and in the number of peritoneal macrophages after AG treatment in C57BL/6 mice. A weak or no reaction on AG injection in BALB/c mice is responsible for more stable and more effective defense response of the host to T. spiralis infection.

Parole chiave

  • Trichinella spiralis
  • aminoguanidine
  • nitric oxide
  • hydrogen peroxide
  • macrophages
  • strain of mice
Accesso libero

Trichinella spiralis reinfection: changes in cellular and humoral immune response in BALB/c mice

Pubblicato online: 06 Nov 2012
Pagine: 201 - 210

Astratto

Abstract

Trichinella spiralis infection induces a host cell-mediated and humoral response. The role of T and B lymphocytes in the immune response of mice reinfected with 2 × 400 T. spiralis larvae was studied in relation to the parasite burden. BALB/c mice were infected on days 0 and 60 and immunological parameters were examined within a period of 180 days. In comparison with a single T. spiralis infection, T- and B-lymphocytes in reinfected mice responded by a significant increase in the proliferative activity during 10 days after reinfection. At the same time, the percentages of CD4+ T-cells of reinfected mice were also increased. In contrast, the CD8+ T-cell numbers were significantly reduced almost 30 days after reinfection. High concentration of serum IFN-γ lasted till the end of the experiment. The IL-5 level was increased only for 2 weeks after reinfection, followed by its decrease. Kinetics of specific anti-Trichinella immunoglobulins IgG2a was not affected with reinfection, but specific antibodies IgG1 significantly increased after reinfection and persisted elevated till the end of the experiment. Lower numbers of adults (69.2 % reduction) in the small intestine and 72.3 % reduction in muscle larvae were found after reinfection. Stimulation of the host immune response — the increased activity of CD4+ T lymphocytes and high levels of IFN-γ and specific IgG1 after reinfection, contributed to the reduction of the parasite burden.

Parole chiave

  • Trichinella spiralis
  • T lymphocytes
  • cytokines IFN-γ and IL-5
  • immunoglobulines IgG1 and IgG2a
Accesso libero

Effect of albendazole therapy on susceptible and resistant Haemonchus contortus larvae in Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus) and distribution of inflammatory cells in the stomach wall

Pubblicato online: 06 Nov 2012
Pagine: 211 - 220

Astratto

Abstract

The effect of albendazole therapy on the reduction of drugsusceptible and drug-resistant strains of Haemonchus contortus larvae on day 10 post infection (p.i.), distribution and the relative numbers of innate immunity cells — eosinophils/neutrophils and mast cells in the stomach wall of immunosupressed Mongolian gerbils on days 4/1, 7/4, 10/7 and 14/11 post infection/post therapy (p.i./p.t.) were investigated in the present study. The efficacy of albendazole was significantly lower on benzimidazole (BZ) resistant larvae (L3 and L4 stages) (58.92 %) than the efficacy on susceptible strain of larvae (94.15 %). H. contortus infection elicited strong inflammation in mucosal and submucosal layers of the stomach, where mucosal mast cells MMC) were in the highest numbers in the lamina propria mucosae on day 7/4 p.i./p.t. Reduction of larval numbers following treatment resulted in a gradual decrease of MMC and connective tissue mast cells (CTMC). The lower counts of CTMC in the submucosa were seen in gerbils infected with BZ-susceptible strain during the whole period post therapy. In case of infection with BZ-resistant strain, peroxidase containig cells (eosinophils) peaked on day 7/4 p.i./p.t., whereas infection with BZ-susceptible strain elicited massive accumulation of these cells on day 4/1 p.i./p.t., particularly in the submucosa. No marked differences in eosinophils localisation were observed between both groups after the therapy. Goblet cells were found only in the proximal parts of glandulae gastricae close to the mucosal surface and no differences in the distribution in the stomach wall of both groups of animals were observed. After therapy the higher larval counts in case of BZ-resistant strain were in the correlation with the lower decline of CTMC and eosinophils, but MMC numbers were not significantly different between both treated groups. Present data indicate that in early stage post infection, the distribution of individual innate immunity cells might be directly affected by the larvae, and that the genetic and consequently biological differences related to the resistance to benzimidazoles probably had the impact on the interactions of larvae with the different immune cells in their niche.

Parole chiave

  • Haemonchus contortus
  • Mongolian gerbil
  • albendazole
  • mast cell
  • eosinophil
  • goblet cell
Accesso libero

Monitoring of Ascaris suum in slaughter pigs during 2000–2009 in Slovakia

Pubblicato online: 06 Nov 2012
Pagine: 221 - 224

Astratto

Abstract

Ascaris suum is a parasitic nematode of pigs with worldwide distribution causing economic loses due do health interactions, reduced feed to gain efficiency and loses due to liver condemnation at abattoirs. To survey the herd prevalence of ascariosis in Slovakia, the presence of milk spots in liver of slaughtered pigs is monitored at abattoirs. According to shortened life-span of fattening pigs, this is the most suitable screening method for efficiency evaluation of control measures. Within the monitoring in 2000–2009, in total 279 herds (19 017 animals) were examined. During this period, marked decrease in occurrence of pathological lesions, resp. milk spots, in liver was recorded (from 39.51 % to 6.85 %) in investigated herds.

Parole chiave

  • A. suum
  • pigs
  • milk spot
  • monitoring
Accesso libero

Canine subcutaneous dirofilariosis — noteless and neglected (Difficulties in disease monitoring)

Pubblicato online: 06 Nov 2012
Pagine: 225 - 228

Astratto

Abstract

In Central Europe, several new endemic regions of subcutaneous dirofilariosis caused by filarial nematode Dirofilaria repens were identified during recent years. Among those countries is also Slovakia, where the infection in dogs was recorded for the first time in 2005. We summarize here the activities intended to increase the veterinarian’s awareness of dirofilariosis and problems connected with establishing cooperation in monitoring of the infection in Slovakia. We also present the results of the questionnaire survey of public (foremost dog breeders and owners) knowledge on dirofilariosis.

Our experience shows that despite the fact that the disease was discovered in Slovakia already 6 years ago, veterinarians still do not attach adequate importance and attention to it. Out of over 540 veterinarians, who have been repeatedly requested to cooperate, only 26 were willing to engage in the monitoring programme. Surprisingly, we noticed much higher interest from the general public and dog owners: 53.1 % of responders indicated that they had already heard about dirofilariosis and 45.2 % of them knew about the risk of transmission to humans. But as many as 78.9 % of animal owners pointed out, that they were not informed by their veterinarian about the possibilities of testing and prevention.

Nevertheless, in spite of multiple negative experiences, it is necessary to continue the monitoring of dirofilariosis given that the real distribution of the parasite in Slovakia is still unknown, which prevents the introduction of effective preventive measures.

Parole chiave

  • Canine dirofilariosis
  • monitoring
  • prevention
Accesso libero

Prevalence of Cysticercus bovis in slaughtered cattle determined by traditional meat inspection in Croatian abattoir from 2005 to 2010

Pubblicato online: 06 Nov 2012
Pagine: 229 - 232

Astratto

Abstract

The aim of this work was to evaluate the presence of Cysticercus bovis of slaughtered cattle in a Croatian slaughterhouse between 2005 and 2010. In total, 203 166 carcasses and organs were examined, of which in 228 C. bovis was found (0.11 %). The highest number of cysticercosis was found in cows (0.69 %, n = 13 605), then in steers (0.093 %; n = 134 212), and the lowest in calves (0.014 %; n = 55 349). Among the 228 positive specimens, 129 (56.57 %) came from rural estates and 99 (43.43 %) from farms. The ratio of invaded steers from rural estates (n = 2 790) and from farm breed (n = 131 422) was 1.075 %: 0.064 %, calves (n = 316 and n = 55 033) 0.316 %: 0.012 %, and cows (n = 8 985 and n = 4 620) 097 %: 0.15 %. The number of cysticercosis invaded cattle decreased from the initial 0.37 % to 0.07 %. Despite low prevalence, we consider that each positive result requires an individual epidemiologic study in order to decrease the risk even more.

Parole chiave

  • cysticercosis
  • cattle
  • meat inspection
Accesso libero

Changes of enzymatic antioxidant system in the small intestine of rats after the chronic invasion by Hymenolepis diminuta (Cestoda, Hymenolepididae)

Pubblicato online: 06 Nov 2012
Pagine: 233 - 240

Astratto

Abstract

The aim of this study was to evaluate changes in the enzymatic antioxidant system in rat small intestine caused by invasion of tapeworms Hymenolepis diminuta. The study material consisted of samples of the rats small intestine after short- (1.5-months) and long-term (1.5-years) larvae invasion of tapeworm H. diminuta. In tissue extracts the concentration of oxidative stress markers (GSH and TBARS) and activity of antioxidant enzymes (SOD, CAT, total GSHPx, SeGSHPx, GST and GSHR) were determined. Changes demonstrated for GSH and TBARS level and the activity of antioxidant enzymes in the small intestine in rats indicate the induction of oxidative stress and weakening of antioxidant defense mechanisms, after both short- and long-term invasion of H. diminuta tapeworms. Observed profile of antioxidant enzymes activity in the small intestine of rats after prolonged exposure to direct or indirect contact with H. diminuta tapeworms points to the adaptation of the definitive host to oxidative stress and defense against parasitic invasions.

Parole chiave

  • Hymenolepis diminuta invasion
  • small intestine of the definitive host
  • oxidative stress
  • markers of oxidative stress
  • antioxidant enzymes
Accesso libero

Parasitic helminthes — probable cause of death of birds

Pubblicato online: 06 Nov 2012
Pagine: 241 - 246

Astratto

Abstract

Parasitic helminths were the probable cause of death of 41 passeriform birds (29 adults and 12 juveniles in their first year of life) caught in the net during the spring and autumn ringing (1986–2010). The birds (1 Chaffinch Fringilla coelebs, 1 House Martin Delichon urbica, 2 Blue Tit Cyanistes caeruleus, 9 Great Tit Parus major, 3 Willow Tit Poecile palustris, 1 Great Reed Acrocephalus arundinaceus, 1 Chiffchaff Phylloscopus collybita, 3 Blackcap Sylvia atricapilla, 2 Dunnock Prunella modularis, 1 Magpie Pica pica, 5 Robin Erithacus rubecula, 9 Common Blackbird Turdus merula and 3 Song Thrush T. philomelos) were caught in the environs of Přerov (Czech Republic). The helminths: trematodes, tapeworms, nematodes and hook worms, were located in the intestine, glandular and muscular stomach, cloaca, rectum, gall bladder, liver, pulmonary cavity, air sac, nasal and orbital cavity and subcutaneous tissue of the hosts. The intensity of invasion with different species of parasites was up to 734 per host. Some parasites Brachydistomum ventricosum, Mosesia sittae, Aprocta cylindrica, Diplotriaena tridens were acquired at the wintering grounds. All the helmniths were heteroxenous, with development cycle involving intermediate hosts (invertebrates) which are part of the birds’ diet.

Accesso libero

Streptocara formosensis Sugimoto, 1930 (Nematoda: Acuariidae) in wild ducks from the southern coast of the Baltic Sea

Pubblicato online: 06 Nov 2012
Pagine: 247 - 252

Astratto

Abstract

Although nematofauna of wild ducks in north-western Poland seems to be quite well known, researchers still discover species that are new for the fauna of this region and Europe in general. One of them is Streptocara formosensis Sugimoto, 1930 with distinct ecological specificity (the nematode parasites only ducks wintering in the southern Baltic Sea) and topospecificity (limited to the gizzard). During parasitological research on 1005 wild ducks representing 17 species, 13,333 nematodes were isolated, 360 of which (2.7 %) were identified as Streptocara formosensis Sugimoto, 1930. The distinguishing feature of this species from other nematodes of the genus Streptocara (Railliet, Henry and Sisoff, 1912) is the absence of a collar and a specific arrangement of deirids at the nerve ring. During the study, the nematodes were located only under the stratum corneum of the gizzard, lying down in the form of characteristic white “springs.” This is the first observation of this parasite in the nematofauna of Polish wild birds. The nematode was found in 84 (8.35 %) wild ducks representing 7 species: Aythya Marila (Aythyini), Bucephala clangula, Clangula hyemalis, Melanitta nigra, M. fusca, Mergus merganser, Mergellus albellus (Mergini). The highest prevalence (36.7 %) occurred in mergansers; the coefficient of dominance showed that S. formosensis is a subdominant species in B. clangula, C. hyemalis and M. merganser, and a rare species in other hosts. The presence of the parasite in only three out of 157 examined A. marila suggests that the greater scaup is only an accidental host for the nematode.

Parole chiave

  • Nematoda
  • Streptocara formosensis
  • Baltic Sea
  • wild birds
Accesso libero

The egg-shell ultrastructure of Blatticola blattae (Graeffe, 1860) (Oxyuridomorpha: Thelastomatidae)

Pubblicato online: 06 Nov 2012
Pagine: 253 - 258

Astratto

Abstract

The egg-shell ultrastructure of Blatticola blattae has been studied under scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Similar to other studied oxyurids, it consists of five layers: a lipid layer, a chitinous layer, a vitelline layer, internal and external uterine layers. Unlike in the closely related thelastomatid Hammerschmidtiella diesingi, the external uterine layer of B. blattae has a honeycomb structure, the complex system of tightly joined prismatic chambers.

Parole chiave

  • scanning and transmission electron microscopy
  • cockroaches
  • honeycomb pattern of the external uterine layer
  • prismatic chambers
Accesso libero

Nematicidal and fertilizing effects of chicken manure, fresh and composted olive mill wastes on organic melon

Pubblicato online: 06 Nov 2012
Pagine: 259 - 269

Astratto

Abstract

The fertilizing and nematicidal effects of three organic amendments were evaluated in a pot experiment on melon plants infested by the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita. A soil artificially infested with 4 eggs and juveniles/ ml soil of the nematode was amended with: a) virgin olive pomace (VOP); b) composted olive pomace (COP); c) chicken manure based fertilizer (CM) and d) chicken manure based fertilizer combined with the biological control agent Paecilomyces lilacinus strain 251, brand name BioAct WG (CMB). VOP was applied at doses of 11 (VOP-A), 22 (VOP-B) and 44 t/ha (VOP-C); COP at 4.5 (COP-A), 9 (COP-B) and 18 t/ha (COP-C); CM at 3 t/ha and CMB at 3 t/ha combined with 4 kg/ha of BioAct WG. Untreated soil was used as control. The treatments CM, CMB, VOP-B and COP-B were established on the basis of N requirement of melon plants (120 kg/ha) taking into account soil and amendments N availability. Two weeks later amendment application and nematode inoculation, the soil was poured in 4.8 l clay pots which were arranged in a greenhouse according to a randomized block design with ten replications for each treatment. A one-month old melon seedling (cv. Galia) was transplanted in each pot and organic farming management practices were used during the growing period. At the end of the experiment, 60 days after transplant, plants were uprooted and height, fresh and dry shoot and root weights were recorded. Root gall index, on the roots, caused by the nematode attack, was estimated according to a 0–5 scale. Final nematode population density and reproduction rate were also calculated for each pot. All data were subjected to statistical analysis of variance (ANOVA) and means compared according to Least Significant Difference’s Test. Nematode population and root infestation were significantly suppressed by the addition of all amendments, compared to untreated control. However, CM and CMB resulted in a total more suppressive effect and in a significantly higher plant growth in comparison to all the other treatments. A significant correlation was found between root gall index and eggs and juveniles/g root and final nematode population density. No signifycant correlations were found between nematological parameters or plant growth parameters and amendment doses.

Parole chiave

  • Meloidogyne incognita
  • nematode control
  • composts
  • N requirement
Accesso libero

Longidorus profundorum Hooper, 1965 (Nematoda: Dorylaimida) in the Slovak Republic

Pubblicato online: 06 Nov 2012
Pagine: 270 - 274

Astratto

Abstract

The species Longidorus profundorum Hooper, 1965 was for the first time recorded in the territory of Slovakia. It was observed in the rhizosphere of Fraxineto-Quercetum forest of riverine plain along Moravia River in south-western part of country, close to boundary with Austria. Morphometrics of females, males and four juvenile stages, morfological and molecular characteristic of Slovakian specimens are presented.

Parole chiave

  • Nematoda
  • Longidoridae
  • Longidorus profundorum
  • morphology
  • molecular characteristic
  • ecology
  • flooded forest
  • Slovak Republic
12 Articoli
Accesso libero

In vivo inhibition of inducible nitric oxide synthase by aminoguanidine influences free radicals production and macrophage activity in Trichinella spiralis infected low responders (C57BL/6) and high responders (BALB/c) mice

Pubblicato online: 06 Nov 2012
Pagine: 189 - 200

Astratto

Abstract

The influence of aminoguanidine (AG) — inhibitor of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), on macrophage activity and free radicals level was examined during Trichinella spiralis infection in two strains of mice: C57BL/6 and BALB/c. AG was administered either between 1–5 days post infection (dpi) for intestinal phase examinations or between 16–29 dpi for muscle phase examinations. The number of peritoneal macrophages and level of nitric oxide NO) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in biological fluids were determined in both strains after infection or infection together with AG treatment as well as in control uninfected mice. The performed studies have proved, that free radicals play role in host immune response during intestinal and muscle phase of T.spiralis infection in mice. Inflammatory response in peritoneal cavity was delayed during infection in low responders C57BL/6 mice in comparison with high responders BALB/c mice. C57BL/6 mice are Th-1 like strain and react stronger to AG in contrary to BALB/c being Th-2 like strain. It was manifested as changes and fluctuations of free radicals levels and in the number of peritoneal macrophages after AG treatment in C57BL/6 mice. A weak or no reaction on AG injection in BALB/c mice is responsible for more stable and more effective defense response of the host to T. spiralis infection.

Parole chiave

  • Trichinella spiralis
  • aminoguanidine
  • nitric oxide
  • hydrogen peroxide
  • macrophages
  • strain of mice
Accesso libero

Trichinella spiralis reinfection: changes in cellular and humoral immune response in BALB/c mice

Pubblicato online: 06 Nov 2012
Pagine: 201 - 210

Astratto

Abstract

Trichinella spiralis infection induces a host cell-mediated and humoral response. The role of T and B lymphocytes in the immune response of mice reinfected with 2 × 400 T. spiralis larvae was studied in relation to the parasite burden. BALB/c mice were infected on days 0 and 60 and immunological parameters were examined within a period of 180 days. In comparison with a single T. spiralis infection, T- and B-lymphocytes in reinfected mice responded by a significant increase in the proliferative activity during 10 days after reinfection. At the same time, the percentages of CD4+ T-cells of reinfected mice were also increased. In contrast, the CD8+ T-cell numbers were significantly reduced almost 30 days after reinfection. High concentration of serum IFN-γ lasted till the end of the experiment. The IL-5 level was increased only for 2 weeks after reinfection, followed by its decrease. Kinetics of specific anti-Trichinella immunoglobulins IgG2a was not affected with reinfection, but specific antibodies IgG1 significantly increased after reinfection and persisted elevated till the end of the experiment. Lower numbers of adults (69.2 % reduction) in the small intestine and 72.3 % reduction in muscle larvae were found after reinfection. Stimulation of the host immune response — the increased activity of CD4+ T lymphocytes and high levels of IFN-γ and specific IgG1 after reinfection, contributed to the reduction of the parasite burden.

Parole chiave

  • Trichinella spiralis
  • T lymphocytes
  • cytokines IFN-γ and IL-5
  • immunoglobulines IgG1 and IgG2a
Accesso libero

Effect of albendazole therapy on susceptible and resistant Haemonchus contortus larvae in Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus) and distribution of inflammatory cells in the stomach wall

Pubblicato online: 06 Nov 2012
Pagine: 211 - 220

Astratto

Abstract

The effect of albendazole therapy on the reduction of drugsusceptible and drug-resistant strains of Haemonchus contortus larvae on day 10 post infection (p.i.), distribution and the relative numbers of innate immunity cells — eosinophils/neutrophils and mast cells in the stomach wall of immunosupressed Mongolian gerbils on days 4/1, 7/4, 10/7 and 14/11 post infection/post therapy (p.i./p.t.) were investigated in the present study. The efficacy of albendazole was significantly lower on benzimidazole (BZ) resistant larvae (L3 and L4 stages) (58.92 %) than the efficacy on susceptible strain of larvae (94.15 %). H. contortus infection elicited strong inflammation in mucosal and submucosal layers of the stomach, where mucosal mast cells MMC) were in the highest numbers in the lamina propria mucosae on day 7/4 p.i./p.t. Reduction of larval numbers following treatment resulted in a gradual decrease of MMC and connective tissue mast cells (CTMC). The lower counts of CTMC in the submucosa were seen in gerbils infected with BZ-susceptible strain during the whole period post therapy. In case of infection with BZ-resistant strain, peroxidase containig cells (eosinophils) peaked on day 7/4 p.i./p.t., whereas infection with BZ-susceptible strain elicited massive accumulation of these cells on day 4/1 p.i./p.t., particularly in the submucosa. No marked differences in eosinophils localisation were observed between both groups after the therapy. Goblet cells were found only in the proximal parts of glandulae gastricae close to the mucosal surface and no differences in the distribution in the stomach wall of both groups of animals were observed. After therapy the higher larval counts in case of BZ-resistant strain were in the correlation with the lower decline of CTMC and eosinophils, but MMC numbers were not significantly different between both treated groups. Present data indicate that in early stage post infection, the distribution of individual innate immunity cells might be directly affected by the larvae, and that the genetic and consequently biological differences related to the resistance to benzimidazoles probably had the impact on the interactions of larvae with the different immune cells in their niche.

Parole chiave

  • Haemonchus contortus
  • Mongolian gerbil
  • albendazole
  • mast cell
  • eosinophil
  • goblet cell
Accesso libero

Monitoring of Ascaris suum in slaughter pigs during 2000–2009 in Slovakia

Pubblicato online: 06 Nov 2012
Pagine: 221 - 224

Astratto

Abstract

Ascaris suum is a parasitic nematode of pigs with worldwide distribution causing economic loses due do health interactions, reduced feed to gain efficiency and loses due to liver condemnation at abattoirs. To survey the herd prevalence of ascariosis in Slovakia, the presence of milk spots in liver of slaughtered pigs is monitored at abattoirs. According to shortened life-span of fattening pigs, this is the most suitable screening method for efficiency evaluation of control measures. Within the monitoring in 2000–2009, in total 279 herds (19 017 animals) were examined. During this period, marked decrease in occurrence of pathological lesions, resp. milk spots, in liver was recorded (from 39.51 % to 6.85 %) in investigated herds.

Parole chiave

  • A. suum
  • pigs
  • milk spot
  • monitoring
Accesso libero

Canine subcutaneous dirofilariosis — noteless and neglected (Difficulties in disease monitoring)

Pubblicato online: 06 Nov 2012
Pagine: 225 - 228

Astratto

Abstract

In Central Europe, several new endemic regions of subcutaneous dirofilariosis caused by filarial nematode Dirofilaria repens were identified during recent years. Among those countries is also Slovakia, where the infection in dogs was recorded for the first time in 2005. We summarize here the activities intended to increase the veterinarian’s awareness of dirofilariosis and problems connected with establishing cooperation in monitoring of the infection in Slovakia. We also present the results of the questionnaire survey of public (foremost dog breeders and owners) knowledge on dirofilariosis.

Our experience shows that despite the fact that the disease was discovered in Slovakia already 6 years ago, veterinarians still do not attach adequate importance and attention to it. Out of over 540 veterinarians, who have been repeatedly requested to cooperate, only 26 were willing to engage in the monitoring programme. Surprisingly, we noticed much higher interest from the general public and dog owners: 53.1 % of responders indicated that they had already heard about dirofilariosis and 45.2 % of them knew about the risk of transmission to humans. But as many as 78.9 % of animal owners pointed out, that they were not informed by their veterinarian about the possibilities of testing and prevention.

Nevertheless, in spite of multiple negative experiences, it is necessary to continue the monitoring of dirofilariosis given that the real distribution of the parasite in Slovakia is still unknown, which prevents the introduction of effective preventive measures.

Parole chiave

  • Canine dirofilariosis
  • monitoring
  • prevention
Accesso libero

Prevalence of Cysticercus bovis in slaughtered cattle determined by traditional meat inspection in Croatian abattoir from 2005 to 2010

Pubblicato online: 06 Nov 2012
Pagine: 229 - 232

Astratto

Abstract

The aim of this work was to evaluate the presence of Cysticercus bovis of slaughtered cattle in a Croatian slaughterhouse between 2005 and 2010. In total, 203 166 carcasses and organs were examined, of which in 228 C. bovis was found (0.11 %). The highest number of cysticercosis was found in cows (0.69 %, n = 13 605), then in steers (0.093 %; n = 134 212), and the lowest in calves (0.014 %; n = 55 349). Among the 228 positive specimens, 129 (56.57 %) came from rural estates and 99 (43.43 %) from farms. The ratio of invaded steers from rural estates (n = 2 790) and from farm breed (n = 131 422) was 1.075 %: 0.064 %, calves (n = 316 and n = 55 033) 0.316 %: 0.012 %, and cows (n = 8 985 and n = 4 620) 097 %: 0.15 %. The number of cysticercosis invaded cattle decreased from the initial 0.37 % to 0.07 %. Despite low prevalence, we consider that each positive result requires an individual epidemiologic study in order to decrease the risk even more.

Parole chiave

  • cysticercosis
  • cattle
  • meat inspection
Accesso libero

Changes of enzymatic antioxidant system in the small intestine of rats after the chronic invasion by Hymenolepis diminuta (Cestoda, Hymenolepididae)

Pubblicato online: 06 Nov 2012
Pagine: 233 - 240

Astratto

Abstract

The aim of this study was to evaluate changes in the enzymatic antioxidant system in rat small intestine caused by invasion of tapeworms Hymenolepis diminuta. The study material consisted of samples of the rats small intestine after short- (1.5-months) and long-term (1.5-years) larvae invasion of tapeworm H. diminuta. In tissue extracts the concentration of oxidative stress markers (GSH and TBARS) and activity of antioxidant enzymes (SOD, CAT, total GSHPx, SeGSHPx, GST and GSHR) were determined. Changes demonstrated for GSH and TBARS level and the activity of antioxidant enzymes in the small intestine in rats indicate the induction of oxidative stress and weakening of antioxidant defense mechanisms, after both short- and long-term invasion of H. diminuta tapeworms. Observed profile of antioxidant enzymes activity in the small intestine of rats after prolonged exposure to direct or indirect contact with H. diminuta tapeworms points to the adaptation of the definitive host to oxidative stress and defense against parasitic invasions.

Parole chiave

  • Hymenolepis diminuta invasion
  • small intestine of the definitive host
  • oxidative stress
  • markers of oxidative stress
  • antioxidant enzymes
Accesso libero

Parasitic helminthes — probable cause of death of birds

Pubblicato online: 06 Nov 2012
Pagine: 241 - 246

Astratto

Abstract

Parasitic helminths were the probable cause of death of 41 passeriform birds (29 adults and 12 juveniles in their first year of life) caught in the net during the spring and autumn ringing (1986–2010). The birds (1 Chaffinch Fringilla coelebs, 1 House Martin Delichon urbica, 2 Blue Tit Cyanistes caeruleus, 9 Great Tit Parus major, 3 Willow Tit Poecile palustris, 1 Great Reed Acrocephalus arundinaceus, 1 Chiffchaff Phylloscopus collybita, 3 Blackcap Sylvia atricapilla, 2 Dunnock Prunella modularis, 1 Magpie Pica pica, 5 Robin Erithacus rubecula, 9 Common Blackbird Turdus merula and 3 Song Thrush T. philomelos) were caught in the environs of Přerov (Czech Republic). The helminths: trematodes, tapeworms, nematodes and hook worms, were located in the intestine, glandular and muscular stomach, cloaca, rectum, gall bladder, liver, pulmonary cavity, air sac, nasal and orbital cavity and subcutaneous tissue of the hosts. The intensity of invasion with different species of parasites was up to 734 per host. Some parasites Brachydistomum ventricosum, Mosesia sittae, Aprocta cylindrica, Diplotriaena tridens were acquired at the wintering grounds. All the helmniths were heteroxenous, with development cycle involving intermediate hosts (invertebrates) which are part of the birds’ diet.

Accesso libero

Streptocara formosensis Sugimoto, 1930 (Nematoda: Acuariidae) in wild ducks from the southern coast of the Baltic Sea

Pubblicato online: 06 Nov 2012
Pagine: 247 - 252

Astratto

Abstract

Although nematofauna of wild ducks in north-western Poland seems to be quite well known, researchers still discover species that are new for the fauna of this region and Europe in general. One of them is Streptocara formosensis Sugimoto, 1930 with distinct ecological specificity (the nematode parasites only ducks wintering in the southern Baltic Sea) and topospecificity (limited to the gizzard). During parasitological research on 1005 wild ducks representing 17 species, 13,333 nematodes were isolated, 360 of which (2.7 %) were identified as Streptocara formosensis Sugimoto, 1930. The distinguishing feature of this species from other nematodes of the genus Streptocara (Railliet, Henry and Sisoff, 1912) is the absence of a collar and a specific arrangement of deirids at the nerve ring. During the study, the nematodes were located only under the stratum corneum of the gizzard, lying down in the form of characteristic white “springs.” This is the first observation of this parasite in the nematofauna of Polish wild birds. The nematode was found in 84 (8.35 %) wild ducks representing 7 species: Aythya Marila (Aythyini), Bucephala clangula, Clangula hyemalis, Melanitta nigra, M. fusca, Mergus merganser, Mergellus albellus (Mergini). The highest prevalence (36.7 %) occurred in mergansers; the coefficient of dominance showed that S. formosensis is a subdominant species in B. clangula, C. hyemalis and M. merganser, and a rare species in other hosts. The presence of the parasite in only three out of 157 examined A. marila suggests that the greater scaup is only an accidental host for the nematode.

Parole chiave

  • Nematoda
  • Streptocara formosensis
  • Baltic Sea
  • wild birds
Accesso libero

The egg-shell ultrastructure of Blatticola blattae (Graeffe, 1860) (Oxyuridomorpha: Thelastomatidae)

Pubblicato online: 06 Nov 2012
Pagine: 253 - 258

Astratto

Abstract

The egg-shell ultrastructure of Blatticola blattae has been studied under scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Similar to other studied oxyurids, it consists of five layers: a lipid layer, a chitinous layer, a vitelline layer, internal and external uterine layers. Unlike in the closely related thelastomatid Hammerschmidtiella diesingi, the external uterine layer of B. blattae has a honeycomb structure, the complex system of tightly joined prismatic chambers.

Parole chiave

  • scanning and transmission electron microscopy
  • cockroaches
  • honeycomb pattern of the external uterine layer
  • prismatic chambers
Accesso libero

Nematicidal and fertilizing effects of chicken manure, fresh and composted olive mill wastes on organic melon

Pubblicato online: 06 Nov 2012
Pagine: 259 - 269

Astratto

Abstract

The fertilizing and nematicidal effects of three organic amendments were evaluated in a pot experiment on melon plants infested by the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita. A soil artificially infested with 4 eggs and juveniles/ ml soil of the nematode was amended with: a) virgin olive pomace (VOP); b) composted olive pomace (COP); c) chicken manure based fertilizer (CM) and d) chicken manure based fertilizer combined with the biological control agent Paecilomyces lilacinus strain 251, brand name BioAct WG (CMB). VOP was applied at doses of 11 (VOP-A), 22 (VOP-B) and 44 t/ha (VOP-C); COP at 4.5 (COP-A), 9 (COP-B) and 18 t/ha (COP-C); CM at 3 t/ha and CMB at 3 t/ha combined with 4 kg/ha of BioAct WG. Untreated soil was used as control. The treatments CM, CMB, VOP-B and COP-B were established on the basis of N requirement of melon plants (120 kg/ha) taking into account soil and amendments N availability. Two weeks later amendment application and nematode inoculation, the soil was poured in 4.8 l clay pots which were arranged in a greenhouse according to a randomized block design with ten replications for each treatment. A one-month old melon seedling (cv. Galia) was transplanted in each pot and organic farming management practices were used during the growing period. At the end of the experiment, 60 days after transplant, plants were uprooted and height, fresh and dry shoot and root weights were recorded. Root gall index, on the roots, caused by the nematode attack, was estimated according to a 0–5 scale. Final nematode population density and reproduction rate were also calculated for each pot. All data were subjected to statistical analysis of variance (ANOVA) and means compared according to Least Significant Difference’s Test. Nematode population and root infestation were significantly suppressed by the addition of all amendments, compared to untreated control. However, CM and CMB resulted in a total more suppressive effect and in a significantly higher plant growth in comparison to all the other treatments. A significant correlation was found between root gall index and eggs and juveniles/g root and final nematode population density. No signifycant correlations were found between nematological parameters or plant growth parameters and amendment doses.

Parole chiave

  • Meloidogyne incognita
  • nematode control
  • composts
  • N requirement
Accesso libero

Longidorus profundorum Hooper, 1965 (Nematoda: Dorylaimida) in the Slovak Republic

Pubblicato online: 06 Nov 2012
Pagine: 270 - 274

Astratto

Abstract

The species Longidorus profundorum Hooper, 1965 was for the first time recorded in the territory of Slovakia. It was observed in the rhizosphere of Fraxineto-Quercetum forest of riverine plain along Moravia River in south-western part of country, close to boundary with Austria. Morphometrics of females, males and four juvenile stages, morfological and molecular characteristic of Slovakian specimens are presented.

Parole chiave

  • Nematoda
  • Longidoridae
  • Longidorus profundorum
  • morphology
  • molecular characteristic
  • ecology
  • flooded forest
  • Slovak Republic

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