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Special Edizione: This issue is dedicated to the memory of Milan Ryboš, DVM, D.Sc.

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Dettagli della rivista
Formato
Rivista
eISSN
1336-9083
ISSN
0440-6605
Pubblicato per la prima volta
22 Apr 2006
Periodo di pubblicazione
4 volte all'anno
Lingue
Inglese

Cerca

Volume 48 (2011): Edizione 4 (December 2011)

Dettagli della rivista
Formato
Rivista
eISSN
1336-9083
ISSN
0440-6605
Pubblicato per la prima volta
22 Apr 2006
Periodo di pubblicazione
4 volte all'anno
Lingue
Inglese

Cerca

10 Articoli
access type Accesso libero

Overview of the cestode fauna of European shrews of the genus Sorex with comments on the fauna in Neomys and Crocidura and an exploration of historical processes in post-glacial Europe

Pubblicato online: 30 Oct 2011
Pagine: 207 - 228

Astratto

Abstract

The cestode fauna in shrews of the genus Sorex from the European region consists of seventeen species. Twelve cestode species have broad Palearctic distributions, three belong to the Western-Asian-European faunistic complex, and only two are endemic to the European zone. Postglacial expansion into the European territory resulted in geographic colonization by sixteen species. The large number of cestode species with transpalearctic ranges, as well as paleontological data indicating a nearly complete faunal turnover for species of Sorex in the Pleistocene, suggests that these parasites are more ancient than the assemblage of contemporary hosts in which they now occur, and thus represent ecological relicts. We suggest that origins of the cestode fauna pre-date those of the modern fauna of its hosts, and that initial formation and radiation occurred not later than the Pliocene. In the current review, we outline testable hypotheses to explore the structure, history and development of this fauna which appears limited to species of Sorex.

Parole chiave

  • Cestodes
  • Biogeography
  • Colonization
  • Post-Glacial Europe
  • Sorex
access type Accesso libero

Alveolar echinococcosis in patient after cadaveric kidney transplantation

Pubblicato online: 30 Oct 2011
Pagine: 229 - 236

Astratto

Abstract

52-years old man years following the kidney transplantation from deceased donor was admitted to the hospital with fever and progressive abdominal pain. The patient was diagnosed with chronic hepatitis C seven years before admission. Graft function in posttransplant period was stable and optimal, the patient was treated with standard maintenance immunosupresive protocol (cyclosporine A, mycophenolate mofetil and low-dose prednison), metylprednisolon bolus therapy (1 g/m2 body surface area), was administered two months prior to admission due to creeping creatinine (suspection of acute rejection was not confirmed by biopsy). Empiric antibiotic treatment due to febrile status was ineffective. Abdominal ultrasound and computer tomography (CT) scan revealed three tumorous lesions in the liver, radical surgical intervention was not executable. Histological examination of the tissue from the lesions demostrated alveolar echinococcosis, serology for Echinoccocus multilocularis was positive. Long-term treatment by mebendazol 200 mg twice daily led to disappearance of the clinical symptoms, but after the therapy cessasion patient was again hospitalized with fever and progression of cystic lesions in CT scan. Following the mebendazol therapy reinstalation the clinical course of echinococcosis was improved and remained stable, transplant kidney failure occurred due to progression of interstitial fibrosis/tubular atrophy and chronic haemodialysis was initiated one year later.

Parole chiave

  • Echinococcosis
  • kidney transplantation
  • antiparasitic treatment
  • immunosuppressive treatment
  • chronic hepatitis C
access type Accesso libero

Competition for minerals (Zn, Mn, Fe, Cu) and Cd between sheep tapeworm (Moniezia expansa) and its definitive host sheep (Ovis aries)

Pubblicato online: 30 Oct 2011
Pagine: 237 - 243

Astratto

Abstract

Concentrations of various essential and toxic elements (Zn, Mn, Fe, Cu and Cd) were analysed by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) in the sheep tapeworm (Moniezia expansa) and in different tissues of its host Ovis aries. The element concentrations of the cestode parasites were compared to different organs (liver, kidney, and muscle) of sheep that were exposed to experimental amounts of Cd (0.2 g of CdCl2 added to 10 ml of distilled water and administered orally to the sheep every day for a period of 1 week). All sheep were randomly divided into four groups; the first group (Cd) contained uninfected, Cd exposed sheep, and its control (group C) were uninfected and unexposed to Cd; the second group (TCd) contained infected, Cd exposed sheep, and its control (group CT) contained infected, unexposed sheep. The experimental Cd exposure resulted in significantly higher Mn concentrations in sheep tapeworms (10.0 mg/kg) than in sheep muscle (0.6 mg/kg) and kidney (0.8 mg/kg). The experimental Cd exposure also significantly decreased the Cu concentrations in sheep liver and muscle. Moreover Cd exposure decreased the Fe concentrations in sheep kidney but caused it to increase in sheep liver and muscle. Zinc concentrations showed no differences between groups (Cd, TCd, C, T) in any monitored sheep tissues. The article also discuss the effect of tapeworm infection on a significant decrease of Fe in sheep muscle, liver and kidneys, as well as a decrease in Cu levels of the muscles and liver. This mineral imbalance may contribute to various health problems such as osteoporosis, metabolic processes disorder, antioxidant (SOD) dysfunction etc.

Parole chiave

  • Cd exposure
  • Zn
  • Mn
  • Fe
  • Cu
  • sheep
  • tapeworm
access type Accesso libero

Influence of Echinococcus multilocularis infection on immune response of mice and their offspring

Pubblicato online: 30 Oct 2011
Pagine: 244 - 250

Astratto

Abstract

Parasitic infection during pregnancy represents a serious stress factor and affects the course of pregnancy and the foeto-maternal relationship. The infection may not clinically manifest itself, however it can modulate the immune response of the offspring for a long-time. The influence of secondary Echinococcus multilocularis infection on the proportion of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells and the level of anti-Echinococcus antibodies were studied in Balb/c mice. The female mice were infected with homogenised metacestode material containing 2000 E. multilocularis protoscoleces (Group 1, 2). Group 1 was fertilised on day 60 post infection, while Group 2 remained unfertilised. Group 3 was uninfected and fertilised on the same day as Group 1. The numbers of both T cell subpopulations were higher in non-pregnant than in pregnant mice. In late pregnancy, the decline of CD4+, however, the increase of CD8+ T-cell subtypes were observed in both, infected and uninfected mothers, respectively. The strong humoral response with the high production of IgM and IgG2b antibodies in infected mice was detected. In infected mothers, IgG2b level was higher than in infected nonpregnant mice during almost whole monitored period. In Group 1, delivery caused suppression of Th2 immune response, represented by IgG1, under the level observed in uninfected mothers. The findings show the changes in helper regulatory and cytotoxic immunity mechanisms of infected mothers. In offspring of infected mothers all IgG subclasses were detected, however specific IgM were not transmitted neither transplacentary, nor transmammary.

Parole chiave

  • Echinococcus multilocularis
  • mouse
  • pregnancy
  • immune response
  • offspring
access type Accesso libero

The course of Echinococcus multilocularis infection and pregnancy in mice model

Pubblicato online: 30 Oct 2011
Pagine: 251 - 255

Astratto

Abstract

Parasitic infection during pregnancy can affect the course of pregnancy, complicate the foeto-maternal relationship and increase abortion rate. The work was aimed to study the course of E. multilocularis secondary infection and reproductive parameters in infected mice. The Balb/c mice were bred in the exponential phase of the metacestode growth, after infection with two different doses (0.5 ml or 1.25 ml) of metacestode material. In comparison to uninfected control group, the effect of infection on reproductive parameters (natality, size of litters) and the course of disease during pregnancy and after the delivery were monitored. The weight of E. multilocularis larval stages was higher in both fertilised groups in comparison to unfertilised control. The number of deliveries and litter counts were similar in both, infected and uninfected mice. Present study confirmed only minor impact of alveolar echinococcosis on the reproduction of rodents, intermediate hosts of parasite.

Parole chiave

  • Echinococcus multilocularis
  • infection
  • reproduction
  • mice
access type Accesso libero

A new species of Parastrigea (Digenea, Strigeidae) endoparasite of Buteogallus urubitinga (Aves, Accipitridae) from Argentina

Pubblicato online: 30 Oct 2011
Pagine: 256 - 261

Astratto

Abstract

A new strigeid digenean, Parastrigea macrobursa n. sp., is described from specimens recovered from the small intestine of the great black-hawk, Buteogallus urubitinga (Aves: Accipitridae), from Formosa Province, Argentina. The new species is characterized by having a tulip-shaped forebody, a hindbody without neck region, a large, well delimited copulatory bursa, and a very deep genital atrium. Three species of Parastrigea share the shape of the copulatory bursa namely P. faini, P. astridae and P. tulipoides. Parastrigea faini and P. astridae differ mainly from the new species by having the forebody strongly divided in two regions and very developed lateral expansions, and Parastrigea tulipoides by having a long neck region and a longer body size. This new species represents the first record of a member of the genus Parastrigea Szidat, 1928 parasitizing birds from Argentina. A key is presented for the species currently recognized as valid in the genus.

Parole chiave

  • Strigeidae
  • Parastrigea macrobursa n. sp.
  • Buteogallus urubitinga
  • Accipitridae
  • Argentina
access type Accesso libero

Raphidascaris (Ichthyascaris) arii sp. n. (Nematoda: Anisakidae), a new ascaridoid nematode from marine catfishes in the Gulf of Thailand

Pubblicato online: 30 Oct 2011
Pagine: 262 - 267

Astratto

Abstract

A new nematode species, Raphidascaris (Ichthyascaris) arii sp. n. (Anisakidae), is described from male and female specimens found in the intestine of two species of marine siluriform fishes, the spotted catfish Arius maculatus (Thunberg) (Ariidae) (type host) and the striped eel catfish Plotosus lineatus (Thunberg) (Plotosidae) from the coastal region of the Gulf of Thailand, Thailand. Based on light and scanning electron microscopy examinations, the new species differs from other nine representatives of the subgenus Ichthyascaris Wu, 1949 mainly in the length of spicules (210–333 μm), body length of gravid females (10–17 mm), and in the presence of small cuticular spines or protuberances on the tail tip of both sexes and 21–30 pairs of preanal and 8 pairs of postanal papillae in the male. This is the first species of this subgenus reported from fishes of the order Siluriformes and the first species of the subgenus Ichthyascaris Wu, 1949 recorded from the Gulf of Thailand.

Parole chiave

  • parasitic nematode
  • Raphidascaris
  • Ichthyascaris
  • marine fish
  • Arius
  • Plotosus
  • Gulf of Thailand
access type Accesso libero

Resurrection of Pomphorhynchus tereticollis (Rudolphi, 1809) (Acanthocephala: Pomphorhynchidae) based on new morphological and molecular data

Pubblicato online: 30 Oct 2011
Pagine: 268 - 277

Astratto

Abstract

Pomphorhynchus tereticollis (Rudolphi, 1809) is here redescribed on the basis of Rudolphi’s material, deposited in the Museum für Naturkunde Berlin, and on acanthocephalans recently collected from the type host Platichthys flessus (L.) and the region embodying the type locality. Out of the paratypes of P. tereticollis, the lectotype and paralectotypes have been designated. Their morphology fits well with that of newly collected material of P. tereticollis dissected from the type fish host from the Baltic coast near Stralsund. The resurrection of P. tereticollis, previously considered a synonym of Pomphorhynchus laevis (Zoega in Müller, 1779), is supported by several morphological features distinguishing the two Pomphorhynchus species: 1. The basal parts of the proboscis hooks located on the posterior proboscis half possess proximal projections in P. tereticollis but not in P. laevis. This shape of the hook bases is clearly visible only in unfixed fresh worms; 2. The last hooks are situated at the anterior part of the bulbus or rarely at the posterior-most end of the proboscis in P. tereticollis, while they lie anterior to the end of the proboscis in P. laevis; 3. The proboscis hooks No. 5 or 6 are markedly stout (robust) and clearly distinct in comparison with the surrounding hooks in P. tereticollis, while less robust and more similar to the hooks in P. laevis. In addition, genetic divergence between P. tereticollis and P. laevis based on ITS1, ITS2 and COI sequencing supports the existence of two distinct species and reveals that some isolates previously identified as P. laevis were actually P. tereticollis. Previous and present morphological and genetic data show that both Pomphorhynchus species occur in freshwaters throughout Europe and may infect the same fish hosts, such as chub and barbel, and also several species of isopods (Gammaridae). This study also provides morphological evidence that Pomphorhynchus intermedius Engelbrecht, 1957 is a synonym of P. tereticollis, because the only discrimination character of the former species, the “existing but small proximal projections of basal parts of the proboscis hooks located on the posterior proboscis half” are present also in P. tereticollis.

Parole chiave

  • lectotype
  • paralectotype
  • redescription
  • Pomphorhynchus laevis
  • genetic differentiation
access type Accesso libero

Suppression of root-knot nematodes in potting mixes amended with different composted biowastes

Pubblicato online: 30 Oct 2011
Pagine: 278 - 287

Astratto

Abstract

Suppressiveness of soil amendments with different rates of composted biowaste materials, olive pomace, municipal green wastes, sewage sludge and spent mushroom substrate, was evaluated against the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita on tomato in potting mixtures. Soil amendments were applied at 0, 10, 25, 50 and 100 g kg−1 soil, according to a randomized block design with five replications for each treatment. Sixty days after tomato transplanting, nematode population density on plant roots and in soil and root gall infestation were assessed on each root system, and plant top and root weight were also recorded. Soil pH, dry and organic matter content, total and ammoniacal nitrogen were analyzed at the same time. Olive pomace-based composts resulted in the highest nematode suppression (73–97 %, according to the rate) and significantly reduced gall formation on tomato roots. Olive-waste compost affected positively tomato growth only in combination with sheep wool wastes, but it caused phytotoxicity when mixed with chicken manure and urea. Soil amendments with composted mushroom substrate also provided a consistent nematode suppression and a significant increase of plant growth, whereas composted municipal green wastes were more suppressive and positively affected tomato growth when combined with sewage sludge. Soil chemical parameters were scarcely affected by compost amendments, as organic matter was significantly increased only by the olive pomace-derived composts and nitrogen content only at the highest rate of the five composts. Data from the experiment confirmed the potential of compost amendments for sustainable management of root-knot nematodes both in field and greenhouse container media, though their technical effectiveness and economic convenience are strictly dependent on a correct proportion and local availability of raw materials used in the composting process.

Parole chiave

  • root-knot nematodes
  • control
  • biowastes
  • compost
access type Accesso libero

Cutaneous trematode Collyriclum faba in wild birds in Costa Rica

Pubblicato online: 30 Oct 2011
Pagine: 288 - 289

Astratto

Abstract

An adult Collyriclum faba was found in a cutaneous cyst at the base of the lower mandible in a blue-gray tanager (Thraupis episcopus, Thraupidae) examined in the Zona Protectora Las Tablas, Costa Rica on 18 August 2010. A total of 1878 birds belonging to 217 species were examined in the country during 2004, 2009, and 2010. C. faba was found for the first time in blue-gray tanager and for the first time in Costa Rica as well.

10 Articoli
access type Accesso libero

Overview of the cestode fauna of European shrews of the genus Sorex with comments on the fauna in Neomys and Crocidura and an exploration of historical processes in post-glacial Europe

Pubblicato online: 30 Oct 2011
Pagine: 207 - 228

Astratto

Abstract

The cestode fauna in shrews of the genus Sorex from the European region consists of seventeen species. Twelve cestode species have broad Palearctic distributions, three belong to the Western-Asian-European faunistic complex, and only two are endemic to the European zone. Postglacial expansion into the European territory resulted in geographic colonization by sixteen species. The large number of cestode species with transpalearctic ranges, as well as paleontological data indicating a nearly complete faunal turnover for species of Sorex in the Pleistocene, suggests that these parasites are more ancient than the assemblage of contemporary hosts in which they now occur, and thus represent ecological relicts. We suggest that origins of the cestode fauna pre-date those of the modern fauna of its hosts, and that initial formation and radiation occurred not later than the Pliocene. In the current review, we outline testable hypotheses to explore the structure, history and development of this fauna which appears limited to species of Sorex.

Parole chiave

  • Cestodes
  • Biogeography
  • Colonization
  • Post-Glacial Europe
  • Sorex
access type Accesso libero

Alveolar echinococcosis in patient after cadaveric kidney transplantation

Pubblicato online: 30 Oct 2011
Pagine: 229 - 236

Astratto

Abstract

52-years old man years following the kidney transplantation from deceased donor was admitted to the hospital with fever and progressive abdominal pain. The patient was diagnosed with chronic hepatitis C seven years before admission. Graft function in posttransplant period was stable and optimal, the patient was treated with standard maintenance immunosupresive protocol (cyclosporine A, mycophenolate mofetil and low-dose prednison), metylprednisolon bolus therapy (1 g/m2 body surface area), was administered two months prior to admission due to creeping creatinine (suspection of acute rejection was not confirmed by biopsy). Empiric antibiotic treatment due to febrile status was ineffective. Abdominal ultrasound and computer tomography (CT) scan revealed three tumorous lesions in the liver, radical surgical intervention was not executable. Histological examination of the tissue from the lesions demostrated alveolar echinococcosis, serology for Echinoccocus multilocularis was positive. Long-term treatment by mebendazol 200 mg twice daily led to disappearance of the clinical symptoms, but after the therapy cessasion patient was again hospitalized with fever and progression of cystic lesions in CT scan. Following the mebendazol therapy reinstalation the clinical course of echinococcosis was improved and remained stable, transplant kidney failure occurred due to progression of interstitial fibrosis/tubular atrophy and chronic haemodialysis was initiated one year later.

Parole chiave

  • Echinococcosis
  • kidney transplantation
  • antiparasitic treatment
  • immunosuppressive treatment
  • chronic hepatitis C
access type Accesso libero

Competition for minerals (Zn, Mn, Fe, Cu) and Cd between sheep tapeworm (Moniezia expansa) and its definitive host sheep (Ovis aries)

Pubblicato online: 30 Oct 2011
Pagine: 237 - 243

Astratto

Abstract

Concentrations of various essential and toxic elements (Zn, Mn, Fe, Cu and Cd) were analysed by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) in the sheep tapeworm (Moniezia expansa) and in different tissues of its host Ovis aries. The element concentrations of the cestode parasites were compared to different organs (liver, kidney, and muscle) of sheep that were exposed to experimental amounts of Cd (0.2 g of CdCl2 added to 10 ml of distilled water and administered orally to the sheep every day for a period of 1 week). All sheep were randomly divided into four groups; the first group (Cd) contained uninfected, Cd exposed sheep, and its control (group C) were uninfected and unexposed to Cd; the second group (TCd) contained infected, Cd exposed sheep, and its control (group CT) contained infected, unexposed sheep. The experimental Cd exposure resulted in significantly higher Mn concentrations in sheep tapeworms (10.0 mg/kg) than in sheep muscle (0.6 mg/kg) and kidney (0.8 mg/kg). The experimental Cd exposure also significantly decreased the Cu concentrations in sheep liver and muscle. Moreover Cd exposure decreased the Fe concentrations in sheep kidney but caused it to increase in sheep liver and muscle. Zinc concentrations showed no differences between groups (Cd, TCd, C, T) in any monitored sheep tissues. The article also discuss the effect of tapeworm infection on a significant decrease of Fe in sheep muscle, liver and kidneys, as well as a decrease in Cu levels of the muscles and liver. This mineral imbalance may contribute to various health problems such as osteoporosis, metabolic processes disorder, antioxidant (SOD) dysfunction etc.

Parole chiave

  • Cd exposure
  • Zn
  • Mn
  • Fe
  • Cu
  • sheep
  • tapeworm
access type Accesso libero

Influence of Echinococcus multilocularis infection on immune response of mice and their offspring

Pubblicato online: 30 Oct 2011
Pagine: 244 - 250

Astratto

Abstract

Parasitic infection during pregnancy represents a serious stress factor and affects the course of pregnancy and the foeto-maternal relationship. The infection may not clinically manifest itself, however it can modulate the immune response of the offspring for a long-time. The influence of secondary Echinococcus multilocularis infection on the proportion of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells and the level of anti-Echinococcus antibodies were studied in Balb/c mice. The female mice were infected with homogenised metacestode material containing 2000 E. multilocularis protoscoleces (Group 1, 2). Group 1 was fertilised on day 60 post infection, while Group 2 remained unfertilised. Group 3 was uninfected and fertilised on the same day as Group 1. The numbers of both T cell subpopulations were higher in non-pregnant than in pregnant mice. In late pregnancy, the decline of CD4+, however, the increase of CD8+ T-cell subtypes were observed in both, infected and uninfected mothers, respectively. The strong humoral response with the high production of IgM and IgG2b antibodies in infected mice was detected. In infected mothers, IgG2b level was higher than in infected nonpregnant mice during almost whole monitored period. In Group 1, delivery caused suppression of Th2 immune response, represented by IgG1, under the level observed in uninfected mothers. The findings show the changes in helper regulatory and cytotoxic immunity mechanisms of infected mothers. In offspring of infected mothers all IgG subclasses were detected, however specific IgM were not transmitted neither transplacentary, nor transmammary.

Parole chiave

  • Echinococcus multilocularis
  • mouse
  • pregnancy
  • immune response
  • offspring
access type Accesso libero

The course of Echinococcus multilocularis infection and pregnancy in mice model

Pubblicato online: 30 Oct 2011
Pagine: 251 - 255

Astratto

Abstract

Parasitic infection during pregnancy can affect the course of pregnancy, complicate the foeto-maternal relationship and increase abortion rate. The work was aimed to study the course of E. multilocularis secondary infection and reproductive parameters in infected mice. The Balb/c mice were bred in the exponential phase of the metacestode growth, after infection with two different doses (0.5 ml or 1.25 ml) of metacestode material. In comparison to uninfected control group, the effect of infection on reproductive parameters (natality, size of litters) and the course of disease during pregnancy and after the delivery were monitored. The weight of E. multilocularis larval stages was higher in both fertilised groups in comparison to unfertilised control. The number of deliveries and litter counts were similar in both, infected and uninfected mice. Present study confirmed only minor impact of alveolar echinococcosis on the reproduction of rodents, intermediate hosts of parasite.

Parole chiave

  • Echinococcus multilocularis
  • infection
  • reproduction
  • mice
access type Accesso libero

A new species of Parastrigea (Digenea, Strigeidae) endoparasite of Buteogallus urubitinga (Aves, Accipitridae) from Argentina

Pubblicato online: 30 Oct 2011
Pagine: 256 - 261

Astratto

Abstract

A new strigeid digenean, Parastrigea macrobursa n. sp., is described from specimens recovered from the small intestine of the great black-hawk, Buteogallus urubitinga (Aves: Accipitridae), from Formosa Province, Argentina. The new species is characterized by having a tulip-shaped forebody, a hindbody without neck region, a large, well delimited copulatory bursa, and a very deep genital atrium. Three species of Parastrigea share the shape of the copulatory bursa namely P. faini, P. astridae and P. tulipoides. Parastrigea faini and P. astridae differ mainly from the new species by having the forebody strongly divided in two regions and very developed lateral expansions, and Parastrigea tulipoides by having a long neck region and a longer body size. This new species represents the first record of a member of the genus Parastrigea Szidat, 1928 parasitizing birds from Argentina. A key is presented for the species currently recognized as valid in the genus.

Parole chiave

  • Strigeidae
  • Parastrigea macrobursa n. sp.
  • Buteogallus urubitinga
  • Accipitridae
  • Argentina
access type Accesso libero

Raphidascaris (Ichthyascaris) arii sp. n. (Nematoda: Anisakidae), a new ascaridoid nematode from marine catfishes in the Gulf of Thailand

Pubblicato online: 30 Oct 2011
Pagine: 262 - 267

Astratto

Abstract

A new nematode species, Raphidascaris (Ichthyascaris) arii sp. n. (Anisakidae), is described from male and female specimens found in the intestine of two species of marine siluriform fishes, the spotted catfish Arius maculatus (Thunberg) (Ariidae) (type host) and the striped eel catfish Plotosus lineatus (Thunberg) (Plotosidae) from the coastal region of the Gulf of Thailand, Thailand. Based on light and scanning electron microscopy examinations, the new species differs from other nine representatives of the subgenus Ichthyascaris Wu, 1949 mainly in the length of spicules (210–333 μm), body length of gravid females (10–17 mm), and in the presence of small cuticular spines or protuberances on the tail tip of both sexes and 21–30 pairs of preanal and 8 pairs of postanal papillae in the male. This is the first species of this subgenus reported from fishes of the order Siluriformes and the first species of the subgenus Ichthyascaris Wu, 1949 recorded from the Gulf of Thailand.

Parole chiave

  • parasitic nematode
  • Raphidascaris
  • Ichthyascaris
  • marine fish
  • Arius
  • Plotosus
  • Gulf of Thailand
access type Accesso libero

Resurrection of Pomphorhynchus tereticollis (Rudolphi, 1809) (Acanthocephala: Pomphorhynchidae) based on new morphological and molecular data

Pubblicato online: 30 Oct 2011
Pagine: 268 - 277

Astratto

Abstract

Pomphorhynchus tereticollis (Rudolphi, 1809) is here redescribed on the basis of Rudolphi’s material, deposited in the Museum für Naturkunde Berlin, and on acanthocephalans recently collected from the type host Platichthys flessus (L.) and the region embodying the type locality. Out of the paratypes of P. tereticollis, the lectotype and paralectotypes have been designated. Their morphology fits well with that of newly collected material of P. tereticollis dissected from the type fish host from the Baltic coast near Stralsund. The resurrection of P. tereticollis, previously considered a synonym of Pomphorhynchus laevis (Zoega in Müller, 1779), is supported by several morphological features distinguishing the two Pomphorhynchus species: 1. The basal parts of the proboscis hooks located on the posterior proboscis half possess proximal projections in P. tereticollis but not in P. laevis. This shape of the hook bases is clearly visible only in unfixed fresh worms; 2. The last hooks are situated at the anterior part of the bulbus or rarely at the posterior-most end of the proboscis in P. tereticollis, while they lie anterior to the end of the proboscis in P. laevis; 3. The proboscis hooks No. 5 or 6 are markedly stout (robust) and clearly distinct in comparison with the surrounding hooks in P. tereticollis, while less robust and more similar to the hooks in P. laevis. In addition, genetic divergence between P. tereticollis and P. laevis based on ITS1, ITS2 and COI sequencing supports the existence of two distinct species and reveals that some isolates previously identified as P. laevis were actually P. tereticollis. Previous and present morphological and genetic data show that both Pomphorhynchus species occur in freshwaters throughout Europe and may infect the same fish hosts, such as chub and barbel, and also several species of isopods (Gammaridae). This study also provides morphological evidence that Pomphorhynchus intermedius Engelbrecht, 1957 is a synonym of P. tereticollis, because the only discrimination character of the former species, the “existing but small proximal projections of basal parts of the proboscis hooks located on the posterior proboscis half” are present also in P. tereticollis.

Parole chiave

  • lectotype
  • paralectotype
  • redescription
  • Pomphorhynchus laevis
  • genetic differentiation
access type Accesso libero

Suppression of root-knot nematodes in potting mixes amended with different composted biowastes

Pubblicato online: 30 Oct 2011
Pagine: 278 - 287

Astratto

Abstract

Suppressiveness of soil amendments with different rates of composted biowaste materials, olive pomace, municipal green wastes, sewage sludge and spent mushroom substrate, was evaluated against the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita on tomato in potting mixtures. Soil amendments were applied at 0, 10, 25, 50 and 100 g kg−1 soil, according to a randomized block design with five replications for each treatment. Sixty days after tomato transplanting, nematode population density on plant roots and in soil and root gall infestation were assessed on each root system, and plant top and root weight were also recorded. Soil pH, dry and organic matter content, total and ammoniacal nitrogen were analyzed at the same time. Olive pomace-based composts resulted in the highest nematode suppression (73–97 %, according to the rate) and significantly reduced gall formation on tomato roots. Olive-waste compost affected positively tomato growth only in combination with sheep wool wastes, but it caused phytotoxicity when mixed with chicken manure and urea. Soil amendments with composted mushroom substrate also provided a consistent nematode suppression and a significant increase of plant growth, whereas composted municipal green wastes were more suppressive and positively affected tomato growth when combined with sewage sludge. Soil chemical parameters were scarcely affected by compost amendments, as organic matter was significantly increased only by the olive pomace-derived composts and nitrogen content only at the highest rate of the five composts. Data from the experiment confirmed the potential of compost amendments for sustainable management of root-knot nematodes both in field and greenhouse container media, though their technical effectiveness and economic convenience are strictly dependent on a correct proportion and local availability of raw materials used in the composting process.

Parole chiave

  • root-knot nematodes
  • control
  • biowastes
  • compost
access type Accesso libero

Cutaneous trematode Collyriclum faba in wild birds in Costa Rica

Pubblicato online: 30 Oct 2011
Pagine: 288 - 289

Astratto

Abstract

An adult Collyriclum faba was found in a cutaneous cyst at the base of the lower mandible in a blue-gray tanager (Thraupis episcopus, Thraupidae) examined in the Zona Protectora Las Tablas, Costa Rica on 18 August 2010. A total of 1878 birds belonging to 217 species were examined in the country during 2004, 2009, and 2010. C. faba was found for the first time in blue-gray tanager and for the first time in Costa Rica as well.

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