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Volume 54 (2017): Edizione 4 (December 2017)
Special Edizione: This issue is dedicated to the memory of Milan Ryboš, DVM, D.Sc.

Volume 54 (2017): Edizione 3 (September 2017)

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Dettagli della rivista
Formato
Rivista
eISSN
1336-9083
ISSN
0440-6605
Pubblicato per la prima volta
22 Apr 2006
Periodo di pubblicazione
4 volte all'anno
Lingue
Inglese

Cerca

Volume 51 (2014): Edizione 4 (December 2014)

Dettagli della rivista
Formato
Rivista
eISSN
1336-9083
ISSN
0440-6605
Pubblicato per la prima volta
22 Apr 2006
Periodo di pubblicazione
4 volte all'anno
Lingue
Inglese

Cerca

15 Articoli
access type Accesso libero

Preparation and characterization of monoclonal antibodies against ES antigens of Trichinella spiralis

Pubblicato online: 04 Nov 2014
Pagine: 253 - 261

Astratto

Abstract

Hybridomas secreting monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against excretory-secretory (ES) antigen of Trichinella spiralis muscle larvae were produced. The 12 monoclones (designated 3A11, 7D9, 7F6, 5A7, 6H7, 39F3, 38H2, 37E7, 35B9, 29A11, 39C9 and 39A6) secreted IgM, IgG3 and IgG2b, respectively. Western blot using T. spiralis ES antigens showed that ten of 12 MAbs recognized the bands between 119.8 − 19.3kDa (mainly 68.4 − 28.7kDa) and two MAbs (3A11, 37E7) did not recognize any protein constituents of ES antigens. Nine of 12 MAbs also recognized the larval antigens of T. nativa, T. pseudospiralis and T. nelsoni at 40 days post-infection (dpi). No cross-reactions were found with the somatic antigens of adult worms of P. westermani, C. sinensis, and T. solium cysticercus. However, three (3A11, 6H7 and 39A6) were cross-reacted with the somatic antigens of adult worms of S. japonicum. Immunofluorescent location showed that the nine MAbs reacted with the cuticle and internal organs of T. spiralis larvae. Additionally, five and eight MAbs generated in this study can recognize the early antigens of pre-encapsulated T. spiralis larvae at 11 dpi and 13 dpi, respectively. The generation and characterization of the MAbs against T. spiralis ES antigens provide foundation for the development of specific early serodiagnostic techniques for trichinellosis.

Parole chiave

  • Trichinella spiralis
  • MAbs
  • muscle larvae
  • excretory-secretory (ES) antigens
  • mice
access type Accesso libero

First report on molecular identification and fenbendazole resistance against Baylisascaris transfuga infection in Melursus ursinus (sloth bear)

Pubblicato online: 04 Nov 2014
Pagine: 262 - 268

Astratto

Abstract

Based on morphometric findings and polymerase chain reaction amplification of internal transcribed spacer regions (ITSs), the worms and eggs retrieved from sloth bear (Melursus ursinus) kept at Mahendra Mohan Choudhury Zoological Park, Chhatbir (Punjab, India) were delineated as Baylisascaris transfuga. Therapeutic intervention with fenbendazole à 10 mg/kg body weight for three consecutive days, associated with complete disinfection of the enclosures, proved to be effective for the first few days with the reduction of eggs per gram (EPG) of faeces from 2800 (zero day) to 400 (14.28 %), 700 (25 %) and 800 (28.57 %) on days 1, 4 and 7 post treatments, respectively. The intensity of EPG increased to 2400 (85.71 %) on day 21 post treatment with respect to day zero. A modified schedule with fenbendazole à 15 mg/kg body weight for first three days followed by 10 mg/kg body weight for next three days proved to be effective thus indicating the development of resistance. The study places on record the molecular characterisation of B. transfuga from sloth bears and development of resistance against fenbendazole.

Parole chiave

  • Baylisascaris transfuga
  • deworming
  • eggs per gram
  • ITSs
  • molecular identification
  • sloth bear
access type Accesso libero

Molecular detection of E. granulosus sheep strain (G1) infections in naturally infected dogs in Punjab (India)

Pubblicato online: 04 Nov 2014
Pagine: 269 - 272

Astratto

Abstract

Echinococcosis is a preventable but neglected zoonosis in India. Although the disease in domestic animals is usually asymptomatic, huge economic losses have been reported due to cystic echinococcosis in livestock in India. The molecular characterization of Echinococcus from dog populations has not been previously carried out in Punjab (India). A total of 237 pet and stray dog faecal samples were collected and examined for the presence of eggs of the Taeniidae family in Punjab (India). A 255 base pair fragment of the mitochondrial 12S rRNA gene was amplified and the presence of sheep strain (G1) of E. granulosus has been reported. We detected eggs of the Taeniidae family in 2.11 per cent of the faecal samples. High prevalence was recorded in stray dogs (9.52 %) living near slaughter shops/post mortem areas. The prevalence of E. granulosus sheep strain (G1) using PCR was found to be 0.84 per cent in naturally infected dogs. This is the first study confirming the presence of E. granulosus (G1) sheep strain in dogs in Punjab (India). The results reveal the presence of sheep strain of E. granulosus and demand implementation of Animal Birth Control programme so as to control the stray dog population of the country.

Parole chiave

  • Echinococcus granulosus
  • dogs
  • sheep strain (G1)
  • PCR
  • North India
access type Accesso libero

Parasitic contamination of urban and rural environments in the Slovak Republic: dog’s excrements as a source

Pubblicato online: 04 Nov 2014
Pagine: 273 - 280

Astratto

Abstract

The objective of this study was to determine the possibility of soil contamination with propagative stages of intestinal endoparasites at different public places (public parks, playgrounds, sandpits, sidewalks, road sides). In a one-year-study, totally 578 dog’s faecal samples from 8 towns (Košice, Trebišov, Veľké Kapušany, Prešov, Snina, Levoča, Zvolen and Trenčín) and 3 villages (Dlhé Stráže, Dravce, Valaliky) were examined for the presence of parasitic germs. 29.9 % of faecal samples were positive. Eight different species of intestinal parasites with following incidence were detected: Toxocara canis (11.9 %), Trichuris vulpis (8.5 %), Ancylostomatidae (8.1 %), Taenia spp. (4.0 %), Toxascaris leonina (3.1 %), Capillaria spp. (1.0 %), Dipylidium caninum (0.2 %) and Coccidia oocysts (0.2 %). Additionally 285 sandpits were examined. Sand samples were collected from Košice (136), Zvolen (38), Trenčín (36), Prešov (30), Veľké Kapušany (24), Snina (15), and village Valaliky (6). The parasitic eggs occurence in the sandpits was as follows: Toxocara spp. (11.8 %), Ancylostomatidae (1.1 %), Taenia type (0.7 %) and Trichuris spp. (0.4 %). The occurrence of Toxocara spp. varied between the urban and rural environments. The highest number of Toxocara spp. was found in village Valaliky (33.3 %) whereas cities showed lesser prevalence (Prešov — 10 %, Košice — 7.4 %, Trenčín — 5.6 %, Zvolen — 5.3 %, Veľké Kapušany — 4.2 %). The epidemiological aspects and health risk factors are also discussed.

Parole chiave

  • endoparasites
  • T. canis
  • eggs
  • dog’s excrements
  • sandpits
access type Accesso libero

The helminth community of the Iberian hare, Lepus granatensis (Lagomorpha: Leporidae), in the province of Granada, Spain

Pubblicato online: 04 Nov 2014
Pagine: 281 - 287

Astratto

Abstract

The helminth community of the Iberian hare, Lepus granatensis, in the southern Spanish province of Granada was analysed, thorough the study of 487 individuals shot by hunters between November 1998 and October 1999. Six helminth species were found: Mosgovoyia pectinata (Cestoda); Trichostrongylus retortaeformis, Nematodiroides zembrae, Nematodirus sp., Passalurus ambiguus and Micipsella numidica (Nematoda). N. zembrae and M. pectinata (62.4 % and 17.2 %, respectively) were the only component species found. The predominance of helminth species with a direct life cycle is noteworthy. These two component species were significantly influenced by season of capture. Other factors, such as host age and municipality of capture, influenced the prevalences and/or abundances of the component species, while host sex did not exert any important role. These variations, determined by extrinsic and/or intrinsic factors, in the helminth community could be related to the ecology of the Iberian hare, mainly diet, habitat and behaviour.

Parole chiave

  • Helminth community
  • Iberian hare
  • Lepus granatensis
  • Granada
  • Spain
access type Accesso libero

First record of Muellerius capillaris (Nematoda, Protostrongylidae) in northwestern Argentina

Pubblicato online: 04 Nov 2014
Pagine: 288 - 292

Astratto

Abstract

Seven flocks of different composition of goat and/or sheep were evaluated for the presence of Muellerius capillaris (Mueller 1889) in sites of different climatic conditions and under different management practices in northwestern Argentina. The nematode was recovered and identified in four goat flocks and two mixed goat and sheep flocks. Three goat flocks and both mixed goat and sheep flocks were located in Lerma Valley (Salta), with the other goat flock located in Quebrada de Humahuaca (Jujuy). M. capillaris was not detected in the Puna of Jujuy (3500 m a.s.l.). First-stage larvae were recovered from fecal samples using the Baermann technique. Lungs from six goats revealed numerous small pulmonary nodules and areas of emphysema, as well as a small number of M. capillaris adults. This is the first report of M. capillaris in Argentina.

Parole chiave

  • Muellerius capillaris
  • goats
  • sheep
  • northwestern Argentina
access type Accesso libero

Larval trematodes in bithyniid snails (Gastropoda: Bithyniidae) in the lake-rivers systems from the steppe zone (The West Siberian Plain, Russia)

Pubblicato online: 04 Nov 2014
Pagine: 293 - 300

Astratto

Abstract

A survey of cercariae and metacercariae (Trematoda, Digenea) from bithyniid snails (Gastropoda: Bithyniidae) in lake-river systems in Northern Kulunda (of the steppe zone of the West Siberia Plain) is presented. The role of Bithynia tentaculata (Linne, 1758) and Bithynia troscheli (Paasch, 1842) as the first intermediate hosts and as the second intermediate hosts of trematodes in the study area was accomplished for the first time. Twelve species of cercariae (8 families) and 12 species of metacercariae (6 families) were found in bithyniid snails. Altogether, bithyniid snails were infected with 23 trematode species including 16 genera in 11 families. New Cercariae Holostephanus sp. and five original species of trematode metacercariae, were discovered in bithyniid snails of the steppe zone of the West Siberia Plain. The dominant cercariae were those of the families Prosthogonimidae and Lecithodendriidae. The most prevalent metacercariae were Echinoparyphium aconiatum Dietz, 1909 and E. recurvatum Linstow, 1873 (both family Echinostomatidae) and Cyathocotyle bithyniae Sudarikov, 1974 (Cyathocotylidae). B. troscheli infected by trematode parthenitae of Holostephanus sp. was detected in the Russia for the first time.

Parole chiave

  • ecosystems
  • steppe zone
  • Bithynia tentaculata
  • Bithynia troscheli
  • Prosthogonimidae
  • Lecithodendriidae
  • Cyathocotylidae
  • Echinostomatidae
access type Accesso libero

Microhabitat differences surrounding a pond affects the distribution of trematode parasites among a pulmonate snail community

Pubblicato online: 04 Nov 2014
Pagine: 301 - 308

Astratto

Abstract

Anthropogenic disturbance associated with clear-cutting and changing the environmental landscape can lead to distinct microhabitat structure surrounding aquatic habitats. The transmission dynamics of trematode parasites in their snail first intermediate hosts were examined to determine if these alterations affect trematode parasite distribution. This was accomplished by examining 2,771 pulmonate snails belonging to two species (Physa gyrina and Lymnaea columella) over a three month period in a pond surrounded by distinct microhabitats as a result of anthropogenic changes to the environmental landscape. Trematode parasite distribution in the snail first intermediate hosts was largely tied to the microhabitat preference of their vertebrate definitive hosts. Autogenic species were found further away from the center of the open microhabitat and allogenic parasites were closer to the centralized point, most likely as a result of habitat preference by their frog and waterfowl definitive hosts, respectively. Additionally, there was increased parasitism in the molluscan hosts at the edges of the wooded environments due to habitat overlap of autogenic and allogenic species hosts, indicating that microhabitat structure can have profound effects on parasite distribution.

Parole chiave

  • trematode
  • snail
  • microhabitat
  • autogenic
  • allogenic
access type Accesso libero

Population structure of Opisthorchis felineus (Trematoda) and its second intermediate hosts — cyprinid fishes in the Ob-Irtysh focus of opisthorchiasis, based on allozyme data

Pubblicato online: 04 Nov 2014
Pagine: 309 - 317

Astratto

Abstract

Genetic variability of West Siberian populations of Opisthorchis felineus and two species of cyprinid fish, its second intermediate hosts, was studied by isozyme analysis. Low levels of allozyme variation and genetic differentiation in O. felineus from the Ob-Irtysh focus of opisthorchiasis were detected. The proportion of polymorphic loci was 21.1 %, the average observed heterozygosity (Hobs) was 0.008, and expected heterozygosity (Hexp) was 0.052. For most loci in O. felineus deficit of heterozygotes (FIS = 0.7424) was observed. A comparison of population genetic structure of fish and parasites showed they were not congruent. Estimates of genetic differentiation of the parasite were smaller than for the fish — its intermediate host. Migration and population structure of the second intermediate hosts do not play an important role in formation of the population-genetic structure of O. felineus in the Ob-Irtysh focus of opisthorchiasis.

Parole chiave

  • Opisthorchis felineus
  • cyprinid fishes
  • Ob-Irtysh river basin
  • genetic structure of populations
  • isozymes
access type Accesso libero

Larval strigeoid trematodes in anurans from southern Nigeria

Pubblicato online: 04 Nov 2014
Pagine: 318 - 322

Astratto

Abstract

Anurans from locations in the rainforest, derived savannah and a monoculture plantation in Nigeria were examined for infection with strigeoid trematode larvae. Two types of metacercarial cysts were recovered. The cyst type I (rounded with fringe projections) occurred in tree frogs from the Okomu National Park, at Usen (derived savannah) and the Okomu Oil Palm Plantation (OOPP). The cyst type II was recovered from A. dorsalis and Ptychadena bibroni collected at OOPP. The cysts were ovoid in shape, devoid of projections at the fringes and were not subject to trypsin action. An unencysted metacercaria was found in A. dorsalis collected at Usen while mesocercaria of Alaria occurred in the lungs of Pty. pumilio at OOPP. The finding of Alaria mesocercaria in Pty. pumilio is of public health importance in view of the fact that many ranid frogs are consumed in Nigeria and other West African countries.

Parole chiave

  • anurans
  • strigeoid larvae
  • rainforest
  • derived savannah
  • Nigeria
access type Accesso libero

Morphological and molecular characterization of two isolates of Paratrichodorus porosus from Shenzhen, China

Pubblicato online: 04 Nov 2014
Pagine: 323 - 330

Astratto

Abstract

Studies were conducted to characterize morphological and molecular profiles of two isolates of Paratrichodorus porosus (SZ1 and SZ2) which were recovered from Acacia mangium in Tianxinshan and Gleichenia linearis in Yangmeikeng environmental monitoring sites in Shenzhen, China, respectively. Analysis of morphometric, morphological and molecular characters revealed these two Shenzhen isolates are identical to P. porosus. Measurements of both study isolates lie within the ranges for P. porosus. It is typologically characterized by possessing a clearly swollen body cuticle after fixation, an onchiostyle ventrally curved, 46–58 μm long, a pharyngeal bulb usually with a well developed anterior-dorsal intestinal overlap, a secretoryexcretory pore opening between the nerve ring and anterior end of pharyngeal bulb, 90–110 μm from the anterior end, a reproductive system with didelphic, amphidelphic, without spermathecae, a pore-like vulva in ventral view and occupying 52.0 %–59.5 % of total body length from anterior end, a short and barrel-shaped vagina with small sclerotizations, a pair of ventromedian advulvar body pores located prevulvar and postvulvar, a rounded tail and a subterminal anus in females. The sequence analysis based on partial rDNA 18S gene and 28S D2/D3 expansion segment confirm its identity as P. porosus. This is the first report of P. porosus associated with A. mangium and G. linearis.

Parole chiave

  • Paratrichodorus porosus
  • Acacia mangium
  • Gleichenia linearis
  • 18S small subunit rDNA
  • 28S large subunit rDNA
  • PCR
  • stubby-root nematode
  • taxonomy
access type Accesso libero

New data on Malayometastrongylus diardinematus (Gibbons and Krishnasamy, 1986) (Metastrongyloidea: Angiostrongylidae) a lungworm occurring in Rattus tanezumi (Temminck, 1844) from South-East Asia

Pubblicato online: 04 Nov 2014
Pagine: 331 - 336

Astratto

Abstract

A survey of rodents from Luang Prabang Province (Lao PDR) in February 2010 and May 2012 allowed examining lungs of 95 rodents belonging to 7 different genera (Bandicota, Berylmys, Cannomys, Leopoldamys, Maxomys, Mus, Rattus). The helminth Malayometastrongylus diardinematus (Nematoda: Metastrongyloidea) was identified in Rattus tanezumi living in close contact with humans, being the first report after its original description in R. tanezumi from Malaysia. A molecular study using mitochondrial gene cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) of M. diardinematus placed the genus Malayometastrongylus in a separate clade in comparison with Angiostrongylus cantonensis (subgenus Parastrongylus) and other representatives of the genus, both present in rodents of South East Asia.

Parole chiave

  • Metastrongyloidea
  • genes
  • Rodentia
  • Laos
access type Accesso libero

The bionomics and diversity of freshwater snails species in Yewa North, Ogun State, Southwestern Nigeria

Pubblicato online: 04 Nov 2014
Pagine: 337 - 344

Astratto

Abstract

Snail control as a form of integrated control for schistosomiasis has been strongly advocated but data on biocontrol using competitor snails are relatively lacking in most endemic areas. Monthly sampling of freshwater snails was conducted in four water bodies in Yewa North Local Government Area, Ogun State, Nigeria. Monthly in situ measurements of the physico-chemical characteristics of surface waters were carried out using field meters. A total number of 13 snail species were recovered from the water bodies. Of these, Bulinus camerunensis was reported for the first time in Nigeria. A significant positive relationship occurred between snail density and dissolved oxygen. Other important relationships were those between Lanistes lybicus and Bulinus senegalensis, Bulinus globosus and Bulinus jousseaumei, and B. senegalensis and Segmentorbis augustus. Snail control using competitor snails should be integrated into schistosomiasis management programmes in endemic areas in order to prevent residual schistosomiasis transmission after control intervention through mass drug treatment.

Parole chiave

  • schistosomiasis
  • freshwater snail diversity
  • physico-chemical parameters
  • biocontrol
  • Nigeria
access type Accesso libero

Endoparasites found in European brown hares (Lepus europaeus) hunted in Macedonia, Greece

Pubblicato online: 04 Nov 2014
Pagine: 345 - 351

Astratto

Abstract

The European brown hare (Lepus europaeus) is widespread throughout Europe with population declines in some countries. Parasites can be one of the natural regulative factors of hare population. The information about the prevalence of endoparasites of European hares in Southern Europe is limited while relevant data from Greece are lacking. Gastrointestinal tracts of 84 Lepus europaeus, hunted in Macedonia, Greece, were examined for endoparasites. Sixty two (73.8 %) of the animals were parasitized by one or multiple parasitic species. Eimeria spp. was found in 54 (64.28 %) of the gastrointestinal tracts, Trichostrongylus retortaeformis in 42 (50 %), Trichuris leporis in 18 (21.42 %), Dicrocoelium dentriticum in 8 (9.52 %), Passalurus ambiguus in 4 (4.76 %) and Protostrongylus spp. in 2 (1.22 %). Moreover, Linguatula serrata larvae were found in 16 (19.04 %) animals and Dirofilaria scapiceps in one. Mixed infections were significantly more common than single infections. Although the parasites found do not represent a threat for other animal species, under certain conditions, they may play an important role in the health status of hares.

Parole chiave

  • endoparasites
  • helminths
  • protozoa
  • Greece
  • Lepus europaeus
access type Accesso libero

Pratylenchus brachyurus (Nematoda: Pratylenchidae) in Guariroba in the state of Goiás, Brazil

Pubblicato online: 04 Nov 2014
Pagine: 352 - 354

Astratto

Abstract

Roots of Syagrus oleracea were collected in two growing areas in the municipality of Rio Verde, state of Goiás (Brazil). Morphological, morphometric and molecular (ITS1 sequences) approaches allowed us to identify the infecting nematode as Pratylenchus brachyurus. To our knowledge, this is the first record of P. brachyurus parasitizing guariroba elsewhere (new host).

Parole chiave

  • Brazil
  • guariroba
  • molecular approaches
  • Pratylenchus brachyurus
  • taxonomy
15 Articoli
access type Accesso libero

Preparation and characterization of monoclonal antibodies against ES antigens of Trichinella spiralis

Pubblicato online: 04 Nov 2014
Pagine: 253 - 261

Astratto

Abstract

Hybridomas secreting monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against excretory-secretory (ES) antigen of Trichinella spiralis muscle larvae were produced. The 12 monoclones (designated 3A11, 7D9, 7F6, 5A7, 6H7, 39F3, 38H2, 37E7, 35B9, 29A11, 39C9 and 39A6) secreted IgM, IgG3 and IgG2b, respectively. Western blot using T. spiralis ES antigens showed that ten of 12 MAbs recognized the bands between 119.8 − 19.3kDa (mainly 68.4 − 28.7kDa) and two MAbs (3A11, 37E7) did not recognize any protein constituents of ES antigens. Nine of 12 MAbs also recognized the larval antigens of T. nativa, T. pseudospiralis and T. nelsoni at 40 days post-infection (dpi). No cross-reactions were found with the somatic antigens of adult worms of P. westermani, C. sinensis, and T. solium cysticercus. However, three (3A11, 6H7 and 39A6) were cross-reacted with the somatic antigens of adult worms of S. japonicum. Immunofluorescent location showed that the nine MAbs reacted with the cuticle and internal organs of T. spiralis larvae. Additionally, five and eight MAbs generated in this study can recognize the early antigens of pre-encapsulated T. spiralis larvae at 11 dpi and 13 dpi, respectively. The generation and characterization of the MAbs against T. spiralis ES antigens provide foundation for the development of specific early serodiagnostic techniques for trichinellosis.

Parole chiave

  • Trichinella spiralis
  • MAbs
  • muscle larvae
  • excretory-secretory (ES) antigens
  • mice
access type Accesso libero

First report on molecular identification and fenbendazole resistance against Baylisascaris transfuga infection in Melursus ursinus (sloth bear)

Pubblicato online: 04 Nov 2014
Pagine: 262 - 268

Astratto

Abstract

Based on morphometric findings and polymerase chain reaction amplification of internal transcribed spacer regions (ITSs), the worms and eggs retrieved from sloth bear (Melursus ursinus) kept at Mahendra Mohan Choudhury Zoological Park, Chhatbir (Punjab, India) were delineated as Baylisascaris transfuga. Therapeutic intervention with fenbendazole à 10 mg/kg body weight for three consecutive days, associated with complete disinfection of the enclosures, proved to be effective for the first few days with the reduction of eggs per gram (EPG) of faeces from 2800 (zero day) to 400 (14.28 %), 700 (25 %) and 800 (28.57 %) on days 1, 4 and 7 post treatments, respectively. The intensity of EPG increased to 2400 (85.71 %) on day 21 post treatment with respect to day zero. A modified schedule with fenbendazole à 15 mg/kg body weight for first three days followed by 10 mg/kg body weight for next three days proved to be effective thus indicating the development of resistance. The study places on record the molecular characterisation of B. transfuga from sloth bears and development of resistance against fenbendazole.

Parole chiave

  • Baylisascaris transfuga
  • deworming
  • eggs per gram
  • ITSs
  • molecular identification
  • sloth bear
access type Accesso libero

Molecular detection of E. granulosus sheep strain (G1) infections in naturally infected dogs in Punjab (India)

Pubblicato online: 04 Nov 2014
Pagine: 269 - 272

Astratto

Abstract

Echinococcosis is a preventable but neglected zoonosis in India. Although the disease in domestic animals is usually asymptomatic, huge economic losses have been reported due to cystic echinococcosis in livestock in India. The molecular characterization of Echinococcus from dog populations has not been previously carried out in Punjab (India). A total of 237 pet and stray dog faecal samples were collected and examined for the presence of eggs of the Taeniidae family in Punjab (India). A 255 base pair fragment of the mitochondrial 12S rRNA gene was amplified and the presence of sheep strain (G1) of E. granulosus has been reported. We detected eggs of the Taeniidae family in 2.11 per cent of the faecal samples. High prevalence was recorded in stray dogs (9.52 %) living near slaughter shops/post mortem areas. The prevalence of E. granulosus sheep strain (G1) using PCR was found to be 0.84 per cent in naturally infected dogs. This is the first study confirming the presence of E. granulosus (G1) sheep strain in dogs in Punjab (India). The results reveal the presence of sheep strain of E. granulosus and demand implementation of Animal Birth Control programme so as to control the stray dog population of the country.

Parole chiave

  • Echinococcus granulosus
  • dogs
  • sheep strain (G1)
  • PCR
  • North India
access type Accesso libero

Parasitic contamination of urban and rural environments in the Slovak Republic: dog’s excrements as a source

Pubblicato online: 04 Nov 2014
Pagine: 273 - 280

Astratto

Abstract

The objective of this study was to determine the possibility of soil contamination with propagative stages of intestinal endoparasites at different public places (public parks, playgrounds, sandpits, sidewalks, road sides). In a one-year-study, totally 578 dog’s faecal samples from 8 towns (Košice, Trebišov, Veľké Kapušany, Prešov, Snina, Levoča, Zvolen and Trenčín) and 3 villages (Dlhé Stráže, Dravce, Valaliky) were examined for the presence of parasitic germs. 29.9 % of faecal samples were positive. Eight different species of intestinal parasites with following incidence were detected: Toxocara canis (11.9 %), Trichuris vulpis (8.5 %), Ancylostomatidae (8.1 %), Taenia spp. (4.0 %), Toxascaris leonina (3.1 %), Capillaria spp. (1.0 %), Dipylidium caninum (0.2 %) and Coccidia oocysts (0.2 %). Additionally 285 sandpits were examined. Sand samples were collected from Košice (136), Zvolen (38), Trenčín (36), Prešov (30), Veľké Kapušany (24), Snina (15), and village Valaliky (6). The parasitic eggs occurence in the sandpits was as follows: Toxocara spp. (11.8 %), Ancylostomatidae (1.1 %), Taenia type (0.7 %) and Trichuris spp. (0.4 %). The occurrence of Toxocara spp. varied between the urban and rural environments. The highest number of Toxocara spp. was found in village Valaliky (33.3 %) whereas cities showed lesser prevalence (Prešov — 10 %, Košice — 7.4 %, Trenčín — 5.6 %, Zvolen — 5.3 %, Veľké Kapušany — 4.2 %). The epidemiological aspects and health risk factors are also discussed.

Parole chiave

  • endoparasites
  • T. canis
  • eggs
  • dog’s excrements
  • sandpits
access type Accesso libero

The helminth community of the Iberian hare, Lepus granatensis (Lagomorpha: Leporidae), in the province of Granada, Spain

Pubblicato online: 04 Nov 2014
Pagine: 281 - 287

Astratto

Abstract

The helminth community of the Iberian hare, Lepus granatensis, in the southern Spanish province of Granada was analysed, thorough the study of 487 individuals shot by hunters between November 1998 and October 1999. Six helminth species were found: Mosgovoyia pectinata (Cestoda); Trichostrongylus retortaeformis, Nematodiroides zembrae, Nematodirus sp., Passalurus ambiguus and Micipsella numidica (Nematoda). N. zembrae and M. pectinata (62.4 % and 17.2 %, respectively) were the only component species found. The predominance of helminth species with a direct life cycle is noteworthy. These two component species were significantly influenced by season of capture. Other factors, such as host age and municipality of capture, influenced the prevalences and/or abundances of the component species, while host sex did not exert any important role. These variations, determined by extrinsic and/or intrinsic factors, in the helminth community could be related to the ecology of the Iberian hare, mainly diet, habitat and behaviour.

Parole chiave

  • Helminth community
  • Iberian hare
  • Lepus granatensis
  • Granada
  • Spain
access type Accesso libero

First record of Muellerius capillaris (Nematoda, Protostrongylidae) in northwestern Argentina

Pubblicato online: 04 Nov 2014
Pagine: 288 - 292

Astratto

Abstract

Seven flocks of different composition of goat and/or sheep were evaluated for the presence of Muellerius capillaris (Mueller 1889) in sites of different climatic conditions and under different management practices in northwestern Argentina. The nematode was recovered and identified in four goat flocks and two mixed goat and sheep flocks. Three goat flocks and both mixed goat and sheep flocks were located in Lerma Valley (Salta), with the other goat flock located in Quebrada de Humahuaca (Jujuy). M. capillaris was not detected in the Puna of Jujuy (3500 m a.s.l.). First-stage larvae were recovered from fecal samples using the Baermann technique. Lungs from six goats revealed numerous small pulmonary nodules and areas of emphysema, as well as a small number of M. capillaris adults. This is the first report of M. capillaris in Argentina.

Parole chiave

  • Muellerius capillaris
  • goats
  • sheep
  • northwestern Argentina
access type Accesso libero

Larval trematodes in bithyniid snails (Gastropoda: Bithyniidae) in the lake-rivers systems from the steppe zone (The West Siberian Plain, Russia)

Pubblicato online: 04 Nov 2014
Pagine: 293 - 300

Astratto

Abstract

A survey of cercariae and metacercariae (Trematoda, Digenea) from bithyniid snails (Gastropoda: Bithyniidae) in lake-river systems in Northern Kulunda (of the steppe zone of the West Siberia Plain) is presented. The role of Bithynia tentaculata (Linne, 1758) and Bithynia troscheli (Paasch, 1842) as the first intermediate hosts and as the second intermediate hosts of trematodes in the study area was accomplished for the first time. Twelve species of cercariae (8 families) and 12 species of metacercariae (6 families) were found in bithyniid snails. Altogether, bithyniid snails were infected with 23 trematode species including 16 genera in 11 families. New Cercariae Holostephanus sp. and five original species of trematode metacercariae, were discovered in bithyniid snails of the steppe zone of the West Siberia Plain. The dominant cercariae were those of the families Prosthogonimidae and Lecithodendriidae. The most prevalent metacercariae were Echinoparyphium aconiatum Dietz, 1909 and E. recurvatum Linstow, 1873 (both family Echinostomatidae) and Cyathocotyle bithyniae Sudarikov, 1974 (Cyathocotylidae). B. troscheli infected by trematode parthenitae of Holostephanus sp. was detected in the Russia for the first time.

Parole chiave

  • ecosystems
  • steppe zone
  • Bithynia tentaculata
  • Bithynia troscheli
  • Prosthogonimidae
  • Lecithodendriidae
  • Cyathocotylidae
  • Echinostomatidae
access type Accesso libero

Microhabitat differences surrounding a pond affects the distribution of trematode parasites among a pulmonate snail community

Pubblicato online: 04 Nov 2014
Pagine: 301 - 308

Astratto

Abstract

Anthropogenic disturbance associated with clear-cutting and changing the environmental landscape can lead to distinct microhabitat structure surrounding aquatic habitats. The transmission dynamics of trematode parasites in their snail first intermediate hosts were examined to determine if these alterations affect trematode parasite distribution. This was accomplished by examining 2,771 pulmonate snails belonging to two species (Physa gyrina and Lymnaea columella) over a three month period in a pond surrounded by distinct microhabitats as a result of anthropogenic changes to the environmental landscape. Trematode parasite distribution in the snail first intermediate hosts was largely tied to the microhabitat preference of their vertebrate definitive hosts. Autogenic species were found further away from the center of the open microhabitat and allogenic parasites were closer to the centralized point, most likely as a result of habitat preference by their frog and waterfowl definitive hosts, respectively. Additionally, there was increased parasitism in the molluscan hosts at the edges of the wooded environments due to habitat overlap of autogenic and allogenic species hosts, indicating that microhabitat structure can have profound effects on parasite distribution.

Parole chiave

  • trematode
  • snail
  • microhabitat
  • autogenic
  • allogenic
access type Accesso libero

Population structure of Opisthorchis felineus (Trematoda) and its second intermediate hosts — cyprinid fishes in the Ob-Irtysh focus of opisthorchiasis, based on allozyme data

Pubblicato online: 04 Nov 2014
Pagine: 309 - 317

Astratto

Abstract

Genetic variability of West Siberian populations of Opisthorchis felineus and two species of cyprinid fish, its second intermediate hosts, was studied by isozyme analysis. Low levels of allozyme variation and genetic differentiation in O. felineus from the Ob-Irtysh focus of opisthorchiasis were detected. The proportion of polymorphic loci was 21.1 %, the average observed heterozygosity (Hobs) was 0.008, and expected heterozygosity (Hexp) was 0.052. For most loci in O. felineus deficit of heterozygotes (FIS = 0.7424) was observed. A comparison of population genetic structure of fish and parasites showed they were not congruent. Estimates of genetic differentiation of the parasite were smaller than for the fish — its intermediate host. Migration and population structure of the second intermediate hosts do not play an important role in formation of the population-genetic structure of O. felineus in the Ob-Irtysh focus of opisthorchiasis.

Parole chiave

  • Opisthorchis felineus
  • cyprinid fishes
  • Ob-Irtysh river basin
  • genetic structure of populations
  • isozymes
access type Accesso libero

Larval strigeoid trematodes in anurans from southern Nigeria

Pubblicato online: 04 Nov 2014
Pagine: 318 - 322

Astratto

Abstract

Anurans from locations in the rainforest, derived savannah and a monoculture plantation in Nigeria were examined for infection with strigeoid trematode larvae. Two types of metacercarial cysts were recovered. The cyst type I (rounded with fringe projections) occurred in tree frogs from the Okomu National Park, at Usen (derived savannah) and the Okomu Oil Palm Plantation (OOPP). The cyst type II was recovered from A. dorsalis and Ptychadena bibroni collected at OOPP. The cysts were ovoid in shape, devoid of projections at the fringes and were not subject to trypsin action. An unencysted metacercaria was found in A. dorsalis collected at Usen while mesocercaria of Alaria occurred in the lungs of Pty. pumilio at OOPP. The finding of Alaria mesocercaria in Pty. pumilio is of public health importance in view of the fact that many ranid frogs are consumed in Nigeria and other West African countries.

Parole chiave

  • anurans
  • strigeoid larvae
  • rainforest
  • derived savannah
  • Nigeria
access type Accesso libero

Morphological and molecular characterization of two isolates of Paratrichodorus porosus from Shenzhen, China

Pubblicato online: 04 Nov 2014
Pagine: 323 - 330

Astratto

Abstract

Studies were conducted to characterize morphological and molecular profiles of two isolates of Paratrichodorus porosus (SZ1 and SZ2) which were recovered from Acacia mangium in Tianxinshan and Gleichenia linearis in Yangmeikeng environmental monitoring sites in Shenzhen, China, respectively. Analysis of morphometric, morphological and molecular characters revealed these two Shenzhen isolates are identical to P. porosus. Measurements of both study isolates lie within the ranges for P. porosus. It is typologically characterized by possessing a clearly swollen body cuticle after fixation, an onchiostyle ventrally curved, 46–58 μm long, a pharyngeal bulb usually with a well developed anterior-dorsal intestinal overlap, a secretoryexcretory pore opening between the nerve ring and anterior end of pharyngeal bulb, 90–110 μm from the anterior end, a reproductive system with didelphic, amphidelphic, without spermathecae, a pore-like vulva in ventral view and occupying 52.0 %–59.5 % of total body length from anterior end, a short and barrel-shaped vagina with small sclerotizations, a pair of ventromedian advulvar body pores located prevulvar and postvulvar, a rounded tail and a subterminal anus in females. The sequence analysis based on partial rDNA 18S gene and 28S D2/D3 expansion segment confirm its identity as P. porosus. This is the first report of P. porosus associated with A. mangium and G. linearis.

Parole chiave

  • Paratrichodorus porosus
  • Acacia mangium
  • Gleichenia linearis
  • 18S small subunit rDNA
  • 28S large subunit rDNA
  • PCR
  • stubby-root nematode
  • taxonomy
access type Accesso libero

New data on Malayometastrongylus diardinematus (Gibbons and Krishnasamy, 1986) (Metastrongyloidea: Angiostrongylidae) a lungworm occurring in Rattus tanezumi (Temminck, 1844) from South-East Asia

Pubblicato online: 04 Nov 2014
Pagine: 331 - 336

Astratto

Abstract

A survey of rodents from Luang Prabang Province (Lao PDR) in February 2010 and May 2012 allowed examining lungs of 95 rodents belonging to 7 different genera (Bandicota, Berylmys, Cannomys, Leopoldamys, Maxomys, Mus, Rattus). The helminth Malayometastrongylus diardinematus (Nematoda: Metastrongyloidea) was identified in Rattus tanezumi living in close contact with humans, being the first report after its original description in R. tanezumi from Malaysia. A molecular study using mitochondrial gene cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) of M. diardinematus placed the genus Malayometastrongylus in a separate clade in comparison with Angiostrongylus cantonensis (subgenus Parastrongylus) and other representatives of the genus, both present in rodents of South East Asia.

Parole chiave

  • Metastrongyloidea
  • genes
  • Rodentia
  • Laos
access type Accesso libero

The bionomics and diversity of freshwater snails species in Yewa North, Ogun State, Southwestern Nigeria

Pubblicato online: 04 Nov 2014
Pagine: 337 - 344

Astratto

Abstract

Snail control as a form of integrated control for schistosomiasis has been strongly advocated but data on biocontrol using competitor snails are relatively lacking in most endemic areas. Monthly sampling of freshwater snails was conducted in four water bodies in Yewa North Local Government Area, Ogun State, Nigeria. Monthly in situ measurements of the physico-chemical characteristics of surface waters were carried out using field meters. A total number of 13 snail species were recovered from the water bodies. Of these, Bulinus camerunensis was reported for the first time in Nigeria. A significant positive relationship occurred between snail density and dissolved oxygen. Other important relationships were those between Lanistes lybicus and Bulinus senegalensis, Bulinus globosus and Bulinus jousseaumei, and B. senegalensis and Segmentorbis augustus. Snail control using competitor snails should be integrated into schistosomiasis management programmes in endemic areas in order to prevent residual schistosomiasis transmission after control intervention through mass drug treatment.

Parole chiave

  • schistosomiasis
  • freshwater snail diversity
  • physico-chemical parameters
  • biocontrol
  • Nigeria
access type Accesso libero

Endoparasites found in European brown hares (Lepus europaeus) hunted in Macedonia, Greece

Pubblicato online: 04 Nov 2014
Pagine: 345 - 351

Astratto

Abstract

The European brown hare (Lepus europaeus) is widespread throughout Europe with population declines in some countries. Parasites can be one of the natural regulative factors of hare population. The information about the prevalence of endoparasites of European hares in Southern Europe is limited while relevant data from Greece are lacking. Gastrointestinal tracts of 84 Lepus europaeus, hunted in Macedonia, Greece, were examined for endoparasites. Sixty two (73.8 %) of the animals were parasitized by one or multiple parasitic species. Eimeria spp. was found in 54 (64.28 %) of the gastrointestinal tracts, Trichostrongylus retortaeformis in 42 (50 %), Trichuris leporis in 18 (21.42 %), Dicrocoelium dentriticum in 8 (9.52 %), Passalurus ambiguus in 4 (4.76 %) and Protostrongylus spp. in 2 (1.22 %). Moreover, Linguatula serrata larvae were found in 16 (19.04 %) animals and Dirofilaria scapiceps in one. Mixed infections were significantly more common than single infections. Although the parasites found do not represent a threat for other animal species, under certain conditions, they may play an important role in the health status of hares.

Parole chiave

  • endoparasites
  • helminths
  • protozoa
  • Greece
  • Lepus europaeus
access type Accesso libero

Pratylenchus brachyurus (Nematoda: Pratylenchidae) in Guariroba in the state of Goiás, Brazil

Pubblicato online: 04 Nov 2014
Pagine: 352 - 354

Astratto

Abstract

Roots of Syagrus oleracea were collected in two growing areas in the municipality of Rio Verde, state of Goiás (Brazil). Morphological, morphometric and molecular (ITS1 sequences) approaches allowed us to identify the infecting nematode as Pratylenchus brachyurus. To our knowledge, this is the first record of P. brachyurus parasitizing guariroba elsewhere (new host).

Parole chiave

  • Brazil
  • guariroba
  • molecular approaches
  • Pratylenchus brachyurus
  • taxonomy

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