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Volume 28 (2022): Issue 3 (June 2022)

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Volume 28 (2022): Issue 1 (June 2022)

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Volume 27 (2021): Issue 2 (June 2021)

Volume 27 (2021): Issue 1 (June 2021)

Volume 26 (2020): Issue 3 (June 2020)

Volume 26 (2020): Issue 2 (June 2020)

Volume 26 (2020): Issue 1 (June 2020)

Volume 25 (2019): Issue 3 (June 2019)

Volume 25 (2019): Issue 2 (June 2019)

Volume 25 (2019): Issue 1 (June 2019)

Volume 24 (2018): Issue 3 (June 2018)

Volume 24 (2018): Issue 2 (June 2018)

Volume 24 (2018): Issue 1 (June 2018)

Volume 23 (2017): Issue 3 (June 2017)

Volume 23 (2017): Issue 2 (June 2017)

Volume 23 (2017): Issue 1 (June 2017)

Volume 22 (2016): Issue 3 (June 2016)

Volume 22 (2016): Issue 2 (June 2016)

Volume 22 (2016): Issue 1 (June 2016)

Volume 21 (2015): Issue 3 (June 2015)

Volume 21 (2015): Issue 2 (June 2015)

Volume 21 (2015): Issue 1 (June 2015)

Conference Details
Format
Conference
eISSN
2451-3113
ISSN
1843-6722
First Published
15 Dec 2015
Publication timeframe
3 times per year
Languages
English

Search

Volume 23 (2017): Issue 1 (June 2017)

Conference Details
Format
Conference
eISSN
2451-3113
ISSN
1843-6722
First Published
15 Dec 2015
Publication timeframe
3 times per year
Languages
English

Search

79 Articles
Open Access

Role of Women in Security and Defense: Bulgarian National Policies and Experience

Published Online: 20 Jul 2017
Page range: 9 - 14

Abstract

Abstract

The paper focuses on the policies for gender equality which can and should be understood as a long-term investment, not as a situational solution or a short-term cost, especially in military environment. On the basis of the UN Security Council Resolution 1325 - “Women, peace and security”, the National plan for implementation of the Resolution 1325 in the MoD in Bulgaria has been analyzed. New policies or initiatives concerning the implementation of gender in the Bulgarian Armed Forces are included with the actual information about female active duty military personnel and the perspectives to overcome the prejudices and stereotypes in people’s minds.

Keywords

  • gender
  • implementation of good policy
  • UNSC Resolution 1325
Open Access

Distribution of Combat Capabilities on Objectives by Using a Transport Problem

Published Online: 20 Jul 2017
Page range: 15 - 20

Abstract

Abstract

The transport problem finds its application in situations where the upper echelons must draw up an optimal plan of resources allocation for combat capabilities on objectives. In order to achieve more reliable results for the real problem, the data needed to formulate the mathematical model are extracted from an order of operations. This paper presents the optimization of military action, showing how to solve a practical problem using the transportation problem.

Keywords

  • transport
  • resources
  • operations
Open Access

Creation of a Model for Social Defense in Case of Disasters for the Citizens of the Republic of Bulgaria

Published Online: 20 Jul 2017
Page range: 21 - 24

Abstract

Abstract

In Bulgaria there is a great need for a scheme for social defense and protection in case of natural or anthropogenic disasters. Our country has a relatively good social politics, covering a great deal of society’s social illnesses. But our financial capabilities for natural and anthropogenic disaster prevention and handling present a great financial difficulty for our country’s budget. In great deal of cases aid-money are being spend for covering material damage caused by natural disasters, but the aspect of affected citizens gets neglected and remains in the background. Our country comes as far as securing them with a one-off humanitarian or/and financial help for damaged property. In a great deal of cases though our country’s help is inadequate in amount or gets postponed in time due to administrative procedures.

Keywords

  • national security
  • disaster
  • social defense
Open Access

Manners of Performing Terrorist Attacks

Published Online: 20 Jul 2017
Page range: 25 - 31

Abstract

Abstract

The article below presents the evolution of terrorist tactics over the years. It describes the basic types of terrorist attacks divided by the place of attack and by means used to execute it. The recent ways of performing terrorist attacks by terrorist organizations have been presented on the basis of accessible sources and statistics. The last part of the article is dedicated to expected changes of terrorist attack tactics in the future.

Keywords

  • terrorism
  • terrorist attack
  • performance manner
Open Access

WICS Model’s Impact Upon Successful Military Leaders

Published Online: 20 Jul 2017
Page range: 32 - 37

Abstract

Abstract

What does actually define successful leadership? We all know that one of the fundamental principles of the inter-personal connections represents the similarity reasoning - which means that we are attracted to people like ourselves. Applying this principle to the military organizational background, it can be observed that former leaders who occupy a decision-making position in an organization seek for future appointed leaders with similar ideas and competencies. This can only be achieved through a profound process of individual evaluation, based on the standardization in the military. Nevertheless, it has been frequently demonstrated that standardized tests may not properly dignify the leader’s skills. Therefore, we can avoid being deprived of our personal aptnesses by expanding our knowledge in the matter of successful leading skills through accepting and implementing innovative leadership perspectives such as the one WICS model presents. The abbreviated model involves the harmonious transposition of specific components that define successful leaders through the synthesis of the intelligence, creativity and wisdom.

Keywords

  • WICS
  • meta-components
  • military leader
  • success
Open Access

The Forest Offences and the National Security of Romania

Published Online: 20 Jul 2017
Page range: 38 - 43

Abstract

Abstract

In the last 25 years, we have assisted to an increase of the criminal actions in the forestry field. The factors generating the criminal phenomenon in the above mentioned field are social, economic, to which we can add the lack in people’s education, as well as some persons’ mentality and, last but not least, we mention poverty and the wish to get rich under any circumstances. The prevailing factor is corruption existing at all levels, some people’s eagerness of easily gained wealth and the lack of involvement of the government institutions, which were supposed to take measures in this respect. In many cases, the forestry criminal actions were undertaken with the help of certain representatives of judicial organs or public institutions and authorities of the state. Illegal cutting of trees, illegal deforestation and inappropriate forestry become a new threat to the national security of Romania. The new Forestry Code makes provisions for the illegal actions that are considered criminal offences and for the criminal sanctions for committing forestry crimes. These illegal actions have serious consequences: financial, for the environment, for the national security, requiring measures to reduce them and to fight against their negative effects.

Keywords

  • forest offences
  • threats
  • national security
Open Access

Security and Privacy in Smart Devices Era

Published Online: 20 Jul 2017
Page range: 44 - 52

Abstract

Abstract

Today, more than ever, our society has become obsessed with technology and people surround themselves with smart devices designed to improve their lifestyle. Communications have benefited of this rise of the gadgets the most, and reality shows that most adults in the urban environment own a smartphone with the help of which they can connect to the Internet. We would be tempted to state that the World Wide Web will change in the future into Human World Wide Web, but connecting to the Internet does not stop here. Vehicles, TV sets and other electronic devices or appliances have already started to be connected to the Internet, which makes it easier to believe that, in the future, we will live in a society where most devices around us will be interconnected to a global or even spatial network. This concept, which the academic world embraced as the Internet of Things, should be understood and accepted by society not only from the perspective of the deprivation of privacy it generates, but especially from the perspective of the insecurity, a possible result of this dependence on software and programs that can be remotely accessed and controlled.

Keywords

  • privacy
  • security
  • internet
  • Vault7
  • Stuxnet
  • Snowden
  • Facebook
  • Xkeyscore
Open Access

Complex Challenges, Complex Responses and the State

Published Online: 20 Jul 2017
Page range: 53 - 60

Abstract

Abstract

After the Cold War, military challenges were generated on the periphery of Europe and beyond. Europe and NATO dealt with such challenges within the framework of crisis response and peace support operations. During the development of operations in the increasingly complex environments military actors carried out increasingly complex tasks and missions. The top of the efforts is state building affecting almost all of the governmental and state organizations and actors. Today in Central Europe and in the Carpathian Basin we are facing new threats. The massive and uncontrolled migration, terrorism and hybrid threats pose new challenges for the states. Today the physical and internal security in the homeland has to be reconsidered by the state. The new threats require a new type of response. The military and law enforcement organizations, vital governmental authorities have to effectively act together in order to provide safe and secure environment in the country. This joint effort is a new type of home- and collective defence. The complex security of the state and citizens can be guaranteed by coordinated cooperation based on mutual trust and knowledge among organizations only. This activity is labelled as Inter-agency Operations, in which the intent and capability of interoperability are required from all actors.

Keywords

  • stability
  • complex operation environment
  • state responsibility
  • cooperation
  • inter-agency operation
  • joint effort of governmental actors
Open Access

Military Education and Training Supported by Blended Simulation

Published Online: 20 Jul 2017
Page range: 61 - 65

Abstract

Abstract

The existing conflicts, both military and non-military are currently mostly of non-linear nature, where units composed of multiple specializations, both smaller and acting independently are prevailing. Those units are usually separated from home base and proper access to its own central supply lines of communication which strengthens emphasizes on their independent command and control, coordination within deployed forces and other assets within given operation. Therefore, prior collective training and preparation for deployment is one of the crucial operational planning requirements before deployment takes place. Modern training simulation techniques and assets do support preparedness of those units planned for deployment by aligning and synchronizing interoperability of their activities. One of such techniques - Blended simulation - can realistically generate a wide range of situations with exact imitation of activities to practice the ability of different types of units to the declared capabilities across the broad spectrum of tasks. Evaluation of the blended simulation effectiveness does further help to deliver more efficient methodologies and tactical procedures for further use within preparation stag. Such approach is in line with the trend of increased use of modelling and simulation techniques within military education and training.

Keywords

  • military education and training
  • simulation tools
  • blended simulation
  • constructive simulation
  • virtual and live simulation
Open Access

Perspectives and Options for the Development of Virtual Teams for Command of Units in Operations

Published Online: 20 Jul 2017
Page range: 66 - 73

Abstract

Abstract

Team cooperation has been one of the crucial elements of effective and successful organization since the late 1960s. Function, structure and behavior within work teams are common part of organizations, firms and security structures. Increasing cooperation across fields, along with tendency to develop horizontal organizational structures, requires the capability to cross geographic and organizational boundaries. Traditional teams are not suitable for this kind of cooperation. With continual invention and application of new information technology, the communication with units during the operations is becoming simpler and faster than ever before. With the development of technologies, command and control has to evolve too. Commanders and staff on the positions of command during operation are not always skilled and informed enough to solve particular problems. The search for new potential will enable the achievement of goals of armed forces during the operations. System of command and control requires new viewpoints and new ways. The solution might be the development of the virtual teams. However, virtual teams are not understood well enough from the practical and theoretical perspective.

Keywords

  • Information and Communication Technologies
  • Staff
  • Virtual Team
  • Command and Control System
  • Operations
Open Access

The Hybrid Warfare in the 21St Century: An Old Concept with a New Face

Published Online: 20 Jul 2017
Page range: 74 - 78

Abstract

Abstract

In the last years the focus of the military specialists changed from the asymmetrical threats to the hybrid threats, seen as one of the main challenge for the security in the 21st century. The increased attention paid to hybrid threats is due to the events that took place in Ukraine, Syria and other confrontation areas and which highlighted the vulnerability of the modern societies and modern armies toward this type of actions. The use of hybrid type tactics can ensure the achievement of the main objectives of an international actor, with a low effort, usually without using the force, and can deny to the target/victim the possibility to take any defensive actions. The hybrid warfare can represent the war of the 21st century, a new type of direct or indirect confrontation, with effects on short and medium term, impossible to be anticipated.

Keywords

  • hybrid
  • threat
  • confrontation
  • international actors
Open Access

Constellation of Cubesats to Monitor the Environment for the Benefit of Europe

Published Online: 20 Jul 2017
Page range: 79 - 88

Abstract

Abstract

In our project we are going to present a concept for the creation, launching, usage and exploiting of an innovative system of semi-autonomous, grouped in “swarm” satellites from one type with 24/7 link to Earth-based facilities and stations for control, transfer and analysis of space-gathered data. The innovation in our mission is the usage of a group of apparatuses that can work both like a structured group with one directed goal or like a loosely-chained system of autonomous machines, each with a different task or mission given by the control center on Earth.

Keywords

  • space
  • national security
  • satellites
  • disasters
Open Access

Challenges of the Security Environment Before the Correlation “Resources-Cabilities - Effects”

Published Online: 20 Jul 2017
Page range: 89 - 93

Abstract

Abstract

In the complex and controversial security environment characterized by dynamic changes and the trend of increasing resource limitation, there is the disbalance between the projected capabilities and the maintenance of the existing ones on the one hand, and on the other - the need for the defense capabilities to be adaptable to the parameters of the changing environment. This necessitates compliance to one of the fundamental principles for enhancing the effectiveness of the defense policy - the principle of improving management as a process and structure for the management of defense resources and related defense products. Moreover, maintaining a stable level of defense spending as a proportion of gross domestic product, is the basis for building the necessary defense capabilities in accordance to the imperatives of the modern armed forces. It is of utmost importance to achieve a balance in the correlation “resources-capabilities-effects”. This, in a security environment which is marked by terrorism provoked by the actions of the “Islamic State” and the permanent threat they impose, by the migration flows that create conditions for serious alteration of the morals and traditions of the “Old continent” and its economic stability, by the danger of spreading and instilling radical Islamism and “redrawing” of state borders, and by hybrid war, is the challange which provokes the scientific research of the author.

Keywords

  • defence resource management
  • defence capabilities
  • security environment
Open Access

Using Geopolitics in the Comparative Analysis of Two International Systems Based on Factors Considered Relevant

Published Online: 20 Jul 2017
Page range: 94 - 99

Abstract

Abstract

The international scene is still modeled on the states’ interests, despite the challenges of non-state actors, whose international policy intervention can not be described as new. The state still continues to play a central role in shaping the international system, even if it is forced to act in an environment where large corporations are designing many of the national economies of states whose nationality they do not have, and non-governmental organizations are at the outskirts of an emerging global civil society, which could jeopardize the state’s right and obligation to prevent injustice, and considering that at the global level there is no entity able to issue regulations in this regard, all of which amid testing international governance models. Looking retrospectively, during the Cold War, the state was much stronger and the threats which it had to face were characterized by a much higher degree of predictability. This paper aims to analyze the contemporary international system by reference to that specific to the Cold War, based on factors considered relevant, the objective being to identify the possibility of turning the present international system to a new Cold War.

Keywords

  • geopolitics
  • power
  • international system
  • historical factor
  • ideological factor
Open Access

Towed Anti-Tank Guns Renaissance of Almost Forgotten Weapons in Ukrainian Conflict

Published Online: 20 Jul 2017
Page range: 100 - 105

Abstract

Abstract

Russia’s operations in Ukraine stand in stark contrast to the old Soviet doctrine of methodical, timetable- and echelon-driven employment of ground forces that sought to outmass the opposing army. Apart from obvious tactical implications and use of some modern equipment, this approach has led to reoccurrence of rather forgotten types of military hardware on the battlefield, most notably the towed anti-tank guns that had profound effect on later stages of the conflict. This article assess the reasons of their reoccurrence, types of these weapons and ammunition used on both sides of the conflict and in the last part tactical use of towed anti-tank guns with possible prospect for the future warfare. Data collection and analysis relied chiefly on media and image analysis both from Russian and Ukrainian sources.

Keywords

  • Russia
  • Ukraine
  • Towed anti-tank guns
Open Access

Revolution in Military Affairs and Outer Space

Published Online: 20 Jul 2017
Page range: 106 - 111

Abstract

Abstract

Concept of the Revolution in Military Affairs (RMA) analyses and describes processes of major changes in military-strategic dimension, which provide possibilities especially for states to enhance their military power and establish superiority over their opponents. Contemporary, development of new (weapon) technologies (e.g. precision-guided munitions, unmanned aerial vehicles) and doctrines (e.g. network centric warfare, system-of-systems) represents such opportunity. Outer space in this context represents relatively new dimension of warfare with increasing importance for strategical thinking of all main state actors (e.g. China, Russia, and the U.S.). This paper deals with relation between RMA and outer space. The aim of this paper is to analyses how outer space and space technologies influence contemporary/future RMA and vice versa.

Keywords

  • C4I
  • Network Centric Warfare
  • Outer Space
  • Revolution in Military Affairs
Open Access

The Operational Environment Influence on the Development Level of Military Structures

Published Online: 20 Jul 2017
Page range: 112 - 118

Abstract

Abstract

The war has not disappeared and will never disappear. It is constantly changing, in perfect correlation with those who created it, the people organized into social structures. It changes according to the changes in the operational environment, influenced, in turn, by the technical-scientific discoveries. All these changes impose a new philosophy of warfare in which the methods of creating and using forces acquire new valences generated by the diversity and the possibilities of access to the new technologies. Knowing the way in which indirect (having the potential) factors influence the fighting capacity of a military structure is just as useful for predicting the outcome of the operation/battle/war. Knowing this assessment, the military decision makers will be able to submit variants and solutions to the political decision maker, who will choose the one that he will appreciate as being the most appropriate.

Keywords

  • operational environment
  • hybrid war
  • military operations
  • structure of the force
Open Access

Emergence and Development of Civil-Military Cooperation

Published Online: 20 Jul 2017
Page range: 119 - 123

Abstract

Abstract

The report examines the emergence and development of CIMIC. It analyses the reasons for its emergence, and states guidelines in its development. This will contribute to a better understanding of the relationship between civil environment and military forces in the face of civil-military cooperation.

Keywords

  • Civil-Military Cooperation (CIMIC)
  • Civil-Military Interaction (CMI)
  • Civil-Military Relations (CIMIR)
  • Civil Affairs (CA)
Open Access

Improving Coordination, Interaction and Cooperation in Humanitarian Aid Operations

Published Online: 20 Jul 2017
Page range: 124 - 129

Abstract

Abstract

The report examines the possibility of improving coordination, interaction and cooperation in conducting humanitarian aid operations. It reveals how Civil-Military Cooperation staff would help overcome difficulties in the joint planning process and work between the different actors involved in humanitarian operations through the deployment of the Humanitarian Aid Coordination Centre.

Keywords

  • Civil-Military Cooperation (CIMIC)
  • Coordination
  • Interaction
  • Cooperation
  • Humanitarian Aid Operations
Open Access

EU Policy Initiatives in the Mediterranean Region

Published Online: 20 Jul 2017
Page range: 130 - 134

Abstract

Abstract

The article traces the various stages in the development of EU - the Mediterranean region as well as the EU policy initiatives in the Mediterranean region. The very history of the European unification gives hope that by gaining experience in overcoming the difficulties of diverse nature, the Union will be able to “reset” relations with its Mediterranean partners, basing them on new principles and values.

Keywords

  • EU
  • Mediterranean region
  • Euro-Mediterranean Partnership (Euromed)
  • European Neighbourhood Policy
  • Union for the Mediterranean (UfM)
Open Access

Hybrid Warfare – A Form of Asymmetric Conflict

Published Online: 20 Jul 2017
Page range: 135 - 143

Abstract

Abstract

For a few decades now, a vivid scholarly discussion centred on new forms of conflict has been developing. Military historians and political scientists entered into debates building consistent pro and counter-arguments about whether armed conflict at the end of the 20th century and beginning of the 21st century features novel aspects. Several concepts have been coined in order to describe the nature and dynamic of warfare in a post-clausewitzian/post-conventional era, such as new wars, Fourth Generation Warfare, compound wars and last, but not least, hybrid warfare. This article will briefly present the core of each category and will stress hybrid warfare as most recent development of such intellectual categories. The main argument defended here is that hybrid wars are a contemporary feature of global politics, mostly associated with non-state actors (such as terrorist groups) and with Russia’s strategies in eastern Ukraine, but also that they are a form of asymmetric conflict.

Keywords

  • new wars
  • compound warfare
  • fourth generation warfare
  • hybrid warfare
  • Russian hybrid warfare
Open Access

Wargaming and Challenges in the Experimentation Domain

Published Online: 20 Jul 2017
Page range: 144 - 149

Abstract

Abstract

Military domain lacks the sufficient funding. It becomes extremely critical investing into the right projects that will deliver the expected outcome in the acquisition phase from the medium and long term perspective. The Concept Development and Experimentation (CD&E) is a powerful approach to reduce the related risk if it is consistently applied. Wargaming is a method that is used in the military to get insight about the examined phenomena when employing the military decision making process. The article deals with the role of wargaming in the CD&E. The second part of the article describes the architecture of wargame, main constructs, phases and critical factors of its design. The last part of the article describes the proposed Case Study of the Computer Assisted Wargaming (CAW) to be used for the complex problem like military capability planning and risk reduction under the specified uncertainty. Uncertainty is reduced by proper Design of Experiment when the CAW plays the crucial role.

Keywords

  • modelling and simulation
  • wargaming
  • experimentation
  • capability planning
Open Access

Keystones of Irregular Warfare

Published Online: 20 Jul 2017
Page range: 150 - 154

Abstract

Abstract

The current security environment is evolving towards a global complexity of unpredictable events. The risk of state and non-state actors attempting to achieve their goals through destabilization exists. In the operating environment, this implies a blurring of the boundaries between state and nonstate actors (such as insurgents, terrorists and criminals) and NATO may confront an adversary who uses traditional (conventional), irregular warfare or both (hybrid warfare). The aim of the article is to find, analyze and describe the key elements that fundamentally different irregular of traditional (conventional) and hybrid warfare.

Keywords

  • irregular
  • traditional
  • hybrid
  • warfare
  • tactics
Open Access

Cyberwarfare

Published Online: 20 Jul 2017
Page range: 155 - 160

Abstract

Abstract

The internet has to be considered a very dangerous battlefield. Nobody is secure. It is a paradox that those countries which do not feel vulnerable may be the most threatened by cyber war. This applies primarily to western powers and fast developing countries. Cyberattack may easily be ordered through the internet. Such an attack is cheaper than an attack by conventional weapons and at the same time it causes bigger economic losses. It is obvious from the military standpoint that cyberattacks and defence against them have to be an indispensable part of military activities. The reason is that the military consider the internet and virtual space to be the fifth area of employment of their forces, besides land, air, water and space. It is stated in the hypotheses that cyber activities will be an inseparable part of future military operations. The key objective will be to achieve information supremacy or information dominance on the battlefield. Thus developed countries develop and introduce new cyber weapons with the aim of striking the enemy´s command and control structures, its logistics, transport, early warning systems and other vitally important military functions at any time upon receiving an order.

Keywords

  • Cyberwarfare
  • NATO
  • Cyberattacks
  • Cyberspace
Open Access

Cultural Interoperability – Prerequisite for the Response to Hybrid Threats

Published Online: 20 Jul 2017
Page range: 161 - 165

Abstract

Abstract

Nowadays, in addition to the already known challenges, the hybrid threats require new responses, which had a timely appearance (adapting the existing military capabilities, the establishment of new military structures, at division and brigade level, their training etc.) and which involve an unconditional cooperation between NATO Member States and between them and their partners. From the perspective of the military response, creating multinational military structures based on different national contingents raises a number of questions on how they succeed to act coherently, in a coordinated and integrated manner. In this respect, the role of interoperability in general, and of cultural interoperability at the level of NATO military structures, in particular, has significantly increased, becoming a necessity for the development of multinational military operations as a joint response to the hybrid threats.

Keywords

  • cultural diversity
  • cultural differences
  • interoperability behavioral
  • interoperability
  • cultural interoperability
  • multinational military structures
  • multinational military operations
  • hybrid threats
Open Access

Hungarian Security Policy and the Migrant Crisis (2015–2017)

Published Online: 20 Jul 2017
Page range: 166 - 171

Abstract

Abstract

The purpose of this article is to present the Hungarian security policy over the last two years, focused on the migrant crisis. This policy is explained on the basis of the National Security Strategy. According to the Strategy, the migration is treated as a natural and at the same time complex phenomenon, bringing economic and demographic advantages and, at the same time, carrying public and national security risks. It is concluded that resolving the crisis is one of the most important priorities of the Hungarian security policy. The paper highlights the differences between the Hungarian security policy and the official policy of the EU. Like the other members of the Visegrád Group, Budapest is against the quota system for the allocation of migrants. The position of Hungary is that the discussion of the migrant problem both in the Group and at EU level should be based on the concept of effective solidarity. The country supports European integration of the Western Balkans. The study is based on documents, mainly of the Visegrád Group, and materials from the media.

Keywords

  • migrant crisis
  • security policy
  • Visegrád Group
  • European Union
Open Access

Modern Approaches in the Training of Military Police Cadets at Vassil Levski National Military University

Published Online: 20 Jul 2017
Page range: 172 - 178

Abstract

Abstract

The mission of the Vasil Levski National Military University is to build its students morally, mentally and physically, to indoctrinate them with the ideals of patriotism, duty and honour, to form them as individuals and leaders. The graduated students have to possess leadership qualities, be able to develop and apply scientific knowledge, manage public and special structures in peacetime and crises and to participate in national and multinational projects aiming at maintaining security, peace and development of society. The present paper describes some results of the implementation of the modern person centered educational approaches to training of the Military police cadets.

Keywords

  • training approaches
  • cadets
  • military police
Open Access

The Importance of Developing Security Culture Among Military Personnel as a Way to Mitigate the Terrorist Threat

Published Online: 20 Jul 2017
Page range: 179 - 183

Abstract

Abstract

A higher level of knowledge owned by military personnel about the specific actions of terrorist organizations, especially those used to recruit new members from colectivities of military personnel, in particulary military cadets, is a matter of novelty and requires some security education values in order to face the current threats. In the last 5 years, the Internet has become the preferred vehicle for spreading the radical jihadist discourse and a recruitment field of followers, eager to be involved directly or indirectly through logistical support, financial information for terrorist purposes. The interest of terrorist organizations for the social category, represented by young soldiers or cadets, is given by their access to information and skills on weapons, ammunition, explosives usage and even the information about how and from where find and steal them. More than that it appears the intention of recruitment and cultivation a secret and confident relationship with the future military personnel to obtain classified information, especially about terrorist actions organized by the specialized antiterrorist structures of the state.

Keywords

  • security education
  • terrorist threat
  • persuasion
  • classified information
  • risky behaviour
Open Access

Security, Defence and Armed Forces - Public View

Published Online: 20 Jul 2017
Page range: 184 - 188

Abstract

Abstract

The paper deals with the interpretation of public opinion polls in the Czech Republic related to security, defence and armed forces. In recent years, we can observe concern about the security situation development in the relatively close vicinity of the Czech Republic. In particular, information regarding the activities of the so-called Islamic State, the conflict in Ukraine and media presentation of recent terrorist attacks, as well as the dominant securitization of migration, have a major impact on the public opinion and the level of support for specific steps of the government in the field of security and defence policy. In the surveys, we can trace not only the growing public concern, but also the increasing support for higher defence spending and possible reintroduction of some form of compulsory military service. Special attention is paid to the public perception of the armed forces and the interpretation of the latest public opinion polls at the turn of 2016/2017. The growing support for the military and the increasing willingness of the public to engage in the Active Reserve System are positive factors that can be used to meet the recruiting goals of the Czech Armed Forces.

Keywords

  • public polls
  • threats
  • public attitudes
  • security and defence issues
Open Access

Commander’s Managerial Competences in the Czech Armed Forces

Published Online: 20 Jul 2017
Page range: 189 - 194

Abstract

Abstract

The paper summarizes the research results of commanders’ managerial competences. The aim of the research consisted in identifying facts, which managerial competences make or do not make troubles for commanders; there are offered recommendations for the development of commanders’ critical competences. The research was conducted within three groups of respondents: the first group comprised senior officers, participants of the General Staff course; the second group comprised junior officers, participants of the senior officer course, and the third group covered graduates of the basic officers’ course. Using the questionnaire research, respondents rated ten selected managerial competences of their subordinates. The research results concluded that commanders face the greatest difficulties in communication, self-development and analytical thinking.

Keywords

  • commander
  • competences
  • quantitative research
  • Czech Armed Forces
Open Access

Deployability Of Armed Forces In The Current Armed Conflicts

Published Online: 20 Jul 2017
Page range: 195 - 199

Abstract

Abstract

Achieving victory in nowadays armed conflicts by using of conventional military forces seems more and more difficult. Military solutions are not satisfying and used civilian-military effort still needs many improvements. So-called irregular warfare requires more regular or conventional capabilities than is usually necessary to win in regular warfare. The question is how to adapt armed forces for the nowadays irregular environment. How to educate, train and deploy armed forces? How to create a reliable tool of military power for using in irregular warfare?

Keywords

  • Capabilities
  • conventional warfare
  • irregular warfare
Open Access

Military Terminology – Meanings and Grammar Approach

Published Online: 20 Jul 2017
Page range: 200 - 204

Abstract

Abstract

The aim of this article is to analyze the basic phrases from the operational plans / orders by explaining concepts such as mission and execution, together with their elements, from a semantic and grammatical approach, and also by adding plastic elements in order to facilitate the understanding of the debated topics.

Keywords

  • military terminology
  • “execution”
  • “mission”
Open Access

Competence to the Leadership and It’s Concept in the Army of Czech Republic

Published Online: 20 Jul 2017
Page range: 205 - 212

Abstract

Abstract

The performance of commanding roles in non-standard situations and cooperation within NATO troops showed the need for the development of leadership skills among the commanders of the Army of the Czech Republic at all levels of command. The competence to lead people hasn't been yet systematically developed and explored in the Czech Army. It lacks not only a precise definition for the role of commander but also specifications for each level of command. The aim of this article is to inform about the initial approach to the concept of competence to lead people in the Czech Army, to generate the structure of given competence and a description of its sub-skills for the position of team and platoon from the available theoretical sources. To compare the theoretical model with the results of the research among selected military professionals, which will permit to more accurately identify, for the military experience, necessary elements of competence. The results will be usable for following internal differentiation of the researched competence for other levels of command. This article was written as a part of the project Development of social competencies of the military leader.

Keywords

  • competence for leadership
  • social competence
  • leadership
Open Access

Defending the Truth and Counter Information Warfare in Europe

Published Online: 20 Jul 2017
Page range: 213 - 219

Abstract

Abstract

Information warfare has gained new valences, although some states have historical roots in developing subversive and manipulative tactics; the action pattern is supported today by the use of new information propagation vectors, access to new technologies, and a mix of themes with political, economic, military, cultural and social collective interest. The aim of the propaganda is that the aggressor demoralizes and minimizes the trust of citizens in domestic institutions and policies. Hypotheses and work themes are combined with false news, counterfeit media, capable of creating ambiguity. On such a media of open sources, non-kinetic threats and elements of the hybrid war manifest themselves in the information space and create the ambiguity much hoped to diminish the establishment that reflects the aggressor’s opposition. The study presents relevant cases and recommendations for members of the Euro-Atlantic community related to the management of Russian information actions.

Keywords

  • information warfare
  • kinetic threats
  • propaganda
  • defense
  • Russia
Open Access

Physiognomy of the Operations Against Terrorism

Published Online: 20 Jul 2017
Page range: 220 - 226

Abstract

Abstract

In current conflicts, the terrorist networks already represent a major player and the terrorist threats remain highly topical. In the physiognomy of the actions of the forces engaged in counter-terrorism operations offfensive actions must prevail, but there will be situations in which the military forces will have to undertake defensive actions aswell, because the neutralization of the terrorist entities does not necessarily mean removal of their infrastructure. The operations against terrorism require, for the military structures present in theaters, the review and reconsideration of their own tasks, forms and methods of action, profound transformation of the adopted strategies, a multi-dimensional vision on the effects to be achieved, a comprehensive approach to planning operations, that will help the management of the situations and achievement of the desired end state.

Keywords

  • terorrism
  • insurgency
  • comprehensive approach
  • stability
Open Access

Criteria Determination for Obstacle Effectivenes Evaluation

Published Online: 20 Jul 2017
Page range: 227 - 232

Abstract

Abstract

Up to date concept of warfare is characterized by a high mobility of units, in spite of this counter-mobility is currently disregarded. However, military engineers try to keep and develop this capability. One of the most important elements for the development in the field of counter-mobility is man-made obstacles effectiveness evaluation. The process of evaluation is applicable to the obstacle employment design, to the estimation of a battle progress as well as to the development of mine-laying means, including mines and explosives for obstacle creating. The article is focused on determination of the appropriate obstacles effectiveness evaluation criteria. The criteria can be applied within planning of barriers as well as other complexes of obstacles (obstacle areas, zones, belts), which allows to optimize the engagement of engineer units and means to fulfil the engineer tasks.

Keywords

  • military engineering
  • military obstacles
  • effectiveness
  • evaluation
  • criteria
Open Access

Comparative Analysis of National Approaches to Military Capability Planning

Published Online: 20 Jul 2017
Page range: 233 - 240

Abstract

Abstract

National defence planning processes are often compared with the NATO Defence Planning Process (NDPP). Taking into account that NDPP needs commonly agreed criteria to evaluate military capabilities of the different nations, and given the significant effort invested in performance measurement by several nations, it would be beneficial to examine how respective nations are currently assessing their performance within the capability-based planning process, with a view to establishing potential common measures that would benefit individual nations while addressing the needs of NATO at the same time. The principles which the NDPP is based on are referred to in some of national defence strategic documents, although there is no explicitly statement that the national defence planning process should be tailored in the same way as it is the case of the NDPP. In order to find an answer to the above mentioned issue and identify common practices and lessons to support capability planning within nations and NATO an analysis was carried out with the objective of identifying to which extent national planning processes of respective nations correlate with principles of NDPP as well as with principles of the EU capability development.

Keywords

  • capability planning
  • shortfalls
  • assessment
  • prioritisation
Open Access

Leadership in the Process of Command and Control, Place and Role of Commander-Manager

Published Online: 20 Jul 2017
Page range: 241 - 245

Abstract

Abstract

The paper clarifies the place and role of a commander as a manager in the process of command and control. It explained the concept of the competences model that the commander should possess. The authors define the basic requirements for the capabilities of all military professionals. The paper focused on the commander manager s ability to actively and creatively adapt to changing environment as well as on the ability to regulate negative psychological impacts. Emphasis is placed also on the ability to make decisions in uncertainty and on the ability to regulate commander’s internal and external activity due to the current situation.

Keywords

  • leadership
  • management
  • competences
  • communication
  • organization
Open Access

Prevention and Crisis Management

Published Online: 20 Jul 2017
Page range: 246 - 250

Abstract

Abstract

Crisis management should always be proactive and not just reactive. Every organization must engage in proactive crisis management by monitoring issues related to its business and to society in general, by assessing risks and developing a crisis communication plan. Proactive crisis management helps organizations anticipate a crisis before it occurs. This said, a great part of crisis management is reactive management, as it is about dealing with a crisis once it hits.

Keywords

  • crisis
  • tension
  • management
Open Access

Diplomacy and Security

Published Online: 20 Jul 2017
Page range: 251 - 255

Abstract

Abstract

Changes in diplomacy are especially visible by the involvement of many new actors in the area of international cooperation. A fast developing international system opened doors to many new actors, including international organizations, transnational corporations, and important interest groups.Diplomacy that, from the middle of the 15th century, was known as an important tool of foreign policy became wider in the post-Cold War era. In fact, the transformation of diplomacy has not been completed yet. Nowadays, for instance, governmental diplomacy must deal with various nonstate actors that shape its agenda.

Keywords

  • diplomacy
  • security
  • external affairs
Open Access

Some Considerations on SEEDRO (South Eastern Europe Disaster Relief Operations) Concept

Published Online: 20 Jul 2017
Page range: 256 - 259

Abstract

Abstract

SEEDRO (South Eastern Europe Disaster Relief Operations) Concept was approved on 21st October 2009 during SEDM Ministerial Meeting in Sofia and open the way for SEEBRIG to be engaged not only in PSOs (Peace Support Operations) but also in DROs (Disaster Relief Operations). In this paper, I present some considerations about the importance of this concept for SEEBRIG (South Eastern Europe Brigade), the main activities developed related to this concept and what should be the way ahead in the evolution SEEDRO Concept

Keywords

  • SEEDRO
  • SEEBRIG
  • disasters
  • relief operations
  • engineer forces
Open Access

Brexit – Major Consequences on the Process of European Military Integration?

Published Online: 20 Jul 2017
Page range: 260 - 264

Abstract

Abstract

The United Kingdom’s choice to withdraw from the European Union (Brexit) took many by surprise, including a good part of the „Leave“ voters. The repercussions of this vote are in full display and affect each and every area of the community life. Considering different indicators (such as the number of troops deployed by the United Kingdom to military operations conducted by the European Union or the British contributions to the Battlegroups), in this paper we submit to analysis the United Kingdom’s stance in the process of military integration within the European Union in the period before the Brexit Referendum (2011-2015); we mainly argue that - although regrettable - Brexit will not significantly affect the day-to-day activities and projects conducted within the Common Security and Defence Policy.

Keywords

  • Brexit
  • common defence
  • European Union
  • military integration
  • United Kingdom
Open Access

Civil Preparation of the Battlespace - Necessity in the Irregular or Hybrid Warfare

Published Online: 20 Jul 2017
Page range: 265 - 270

Abstract

Abstract

The lessons learned from the most recent conflicts or theatres of operations in Iraq, Afghanistan, Ukraine, or Syria prove that the Intelligence Preparation of the Battlefield (IPB) process is no longer sufficient. Why? Because in the irregular and hybrid conflicts the centre of gravity is represented by the civilian population, which requires precise understanding of the operational environment, including aspects about the local communities, and profound knowledge of the people, their social structures, their culture, their customs, and their way of thinking and reacting to certain internal and external stimuli. In such an operational environment, protecting the civilian population becomes the main mission of the armed forces. Consequently, we present the most important stages through which the Civil Preparation of the Battlespace (CPB) can be accomplished.

Keywords

  • operational environment
  • civilian population
  • civilian environment
  • civil preparation of the battlespace
Open Access

Slovak Troops in Italy During Second Word War

Published Online: 20 Jul 2017
Page range: 271 - 275

Abstract

Abstract

This article deals with activities of Slovak military troops in Italy during the World War II in the period from October 1943 to the end of war. Article describes the construction of field fortifications on the German defensive lines in central and northern Italy. As well it describes the appearance of resistance to the alliance with Nazi Germany, the involvement of the Slovaks in Italian resistance and the culmination of the fight against Nazism. The resulting manifestation was the creation of the 1st Czechoslovak division in Italy, which fought against German troops alongside the Allies at the end of the war.

Keywords

  • Second world war
  • Slovak troops
  • Italy
  • defense lines
  • resistance
Open Access

Intelligence Preparation of the Battlefield as a Part of Knowledge Development

Published Online: 20 Jul 2017
Page range: 276 - 280

Abstract

Abstract

The aim of this article is to introduce an approach to intelligence preparation of the battlefield (IPB) as a part of knowledge development in conditions of the Army of the Czech Republic (ACR). Numerous of NATO publications and Stanags has been analyzed as well as Czech national documents. Based on results of the analyses and personal experience of authors, the current state of IPB applied in ACR has been outlined and main imperfections of this process have been emphasized such as a disregard of dynamic changes of terrain in time and so on. It the closing section of the article a few possible ways of IPB development have been suggested. Those suggestions show possible form of this process for needs in 21st century.

Keywords

  • military engineering support
  • intelligence preparation of the battlefield
  • knowledge development
  • terrain
  • land slide
Open Access

Principles and Their Significance in Military Art

Published Online: 20 Jul 2017
Page range: 281 - 285

Abstract

Abstract

This paper focuses on the issue of military principles in terms of their meaning and significance for the personnel applying the military art. The author argues that principles are important factors that influence the planning and conduct of wars; some of them exist since antiquity but their application may differ according to the environment and specific circumstances. More than a focused discussion about each of the principle the author reveals approaches to their application in military thinking as well as their value for the military operations planning process.

Keywords

  • principle
  • military art
  • operation
  • doctrine
Open Access

Theoretical and Methodological Aspects on Military Students’ Education

Published Online: 20 Jul 2017
Page range: 286 - 291

Abstract

Abstract

The complexity of military actions on the modern battlefield, as well as the increase in high-tech weaponry call for a professional instruction system that requires an optimal organization, in order to be effective. The efforts to achieve this purpose are mainly targeting the didactic strategies. The paper presents a brief exposition of the forms and methods of instruction used in preparing military students, with focus on the major impacting methods used along this complex process.

Keywords

  • military
  • organization
  • education
  • process
  • instruction
Open Access

Didactics of the Military Specialty – Pedagogic Process with Major Implications in the Curricular Architecture of Military Leaders’ Training

Published Online: 20 Jul 2017
Page range: 292 - 297

Abstract

Abstract

Didactics is, in the etymological sense, the science of learning, a science that has evolved over time under the influence of the maturing of the other sciences of education and as a result of relations with other scientific fields. Through the common subject (the learning process, training through the learning process), didactics is associated with the training theory.

Keywords

  • didactics
  • leader
  • education
  • training
  • functions
Open Access

Non-Military Intervention Through Sanctions

Published Online: 20 Jul 2017
Page range: 298 - 304

Abstract

Abstract

Humanitarian intervention has been perceived as one of the most debatable points between diplomats, jurists and scientists for a long time. It is also a very complex and multifaceted issue, which incorporates a number of ethical, international and military aspects. At the present time the topic of humanitarian intervention is seen primarily in terms of the application of military forces in order to achieve a specific aim, which may only in certain cases be humanitarian. However, the relevant nonmilitary intervention, expressed in a variety of sanctions, should also be considered.

Keywords

  • Humanitarian intervention
  • non-military intervention
  • sanctions
  • United Nations
Open Access

The Drones and Issues Connected with Their Use in Contemporary Conflicts

Published Online: 20 Jul 2017
Page range: 305 - 310

Abstract

Abstract

The text deals with the development and methods of use of Drones or Unmanned Aerial Vehicles in contemporary conflicts or special operations. The contribution tries to present the main advantages of these vehicles as being the main reasons for their current use in armed forces of state as well as non-state actors and their dynamic proliferation in global space in past years. We can observe a new trend in the armed conflict in the last two decades - use of advanced systems of unmanned vehicles in such a range that many military and academic experts talk about a new wave of revolutionary changes in the military affairs. This wave, or we could even talk about militarytechnological breakthrough should lead to imminent use of these systems in contemporary as well as future conflicts which would result in the partial or complex robotization of the battlefield. Specific attention is dedicated to controversies tied to the use of Drones/Unmanned Aerial Vehicles in socalled Drone Warfare and current discussion in the context of cultural or societal dimension of their use and perspectives for further development.

Keywords

  • Drones
  • Unmanned Aerial Vehicles
  • contemporary conflicts
  • robotization
Open Access

Paratroopers in the Intelligence Confrontations During the Second World War

Published Online: 20 Jul 2017
Page range: 311 - 316

Abstract

Abstract

Characterised by the capability to rapidly penetrate the enemy disposition, at long distance, by air, using transport aircraft, by parachuting or landing, as well as by own combat capacity, airborne troops could successfully execute a wide range of specific missions, either independently or in cooperation with other units or large units in the land, air or naval forces, to meet the operational and strategic goals. Mention should be made that almost all belligerents in the Second World War successfully employed groups of well-trained fighters, parachuted behind the enemy disposition, to execute intelligence missions: information collection, “commando”-type diversionary actions, as well as supply of weapons for local partisans and resistance formations

Keywords

  • airborne troops
  • paratroopers
  • intelligence
  • commando
  • partisans
Open Access

Is Russia That Powerful in Hybrid Warfare?

Published Online: 20 Jul 2017
Page range: 317 - 324

Abstract

Abstract

Short answer is yes. As it is stated in a NATO reference hybrid warfare actions can be applied to the full DIMEFIL (Diplomatic, Information, Military, Economic, Financial, Intelligence, Legal) spectrum. This paper will demonstrate that Russia has significant elements which makes this country very well suited for this type of war and gives her some advantages on all DIMEFIL areas. In my view those elements are: current leadership, history and political mentality, size and geography, economic and financial power and military power.

Keywords

  • hybrid warfare
  • military power
  • economic
  • finance
  • resources
  • history and mentality
Open Access

The Relation Cultural Awareness – Tactical Multinational Military Structures’ Effectiveness

Published Online: 20 Jul 2017
Page range: 325 - 330

Abstract

Abstract

Addressing the problem of tactical multinational military structures’ effectiveness is not new, this becoming an important concern of military specialists once with the participation of national contingents to different multinational missions. Today, recent hybrid threats generate the necessity for it to be analyzed and stressed more, because the interoperability level of NATO’s multinational military structures must ensure a common, timely, coordinated and effective response. The analyses of multinational military structures’ effectiveness from the perspective of cultural diversity have highlighted not only the positive aspects but also the negative ones. Lessons learned from numerous multinational military operations have demonstrated the fact that the reduction and elimination of negative manifestations of cultural diversity, both in static military structures (multinational commandment) and multinational maneuver structures depend largely on the cultural awareness’ level of military personnel. In this regard, the proper understanding of cultural awareness’ concept and its role in achieving the effectiveness of tactical multinational military structures and also the definition of the relationship between these two variables become significant milestones that will be addressed in this article

Keywords

  • cultural awareness
  • cultural competence
  • effectiveness
Open Access

Opinions Regarding the Fundamental Domains of National Security

Published Online: 20 Jul 2017
Page range: 331 - 338

Abstract

Abstract

“The multiple dimension of national security in the international contemporary context - characterized by accelerated, radical changes - is determined by the necessity of constantly promoting and permanently defending our national values and interests against the extraordinary diversity of insecurity factors - destabilizing vectors that manifest themselves in a surprising manner and create difficulties in the process of assessment of the specific disruptive effects. This complex framework of social evolution offers numerous perspectives for the analysis of the concept of security, but these studies do not need to dilute its fundamental connotations, but it is necessary for these efforts to particularly relate to the subsystems that are really relevant for individual and collective security and maintenance and, on the basis of a very good documentation, be exactly circumscribed into the legislative coordinates that correspond to the reference domain.”

Keywords

  • national security
  • protection of critical infrastructure
  • civil protection
  • public order
  • constitutional order
  • national defence
  • national security
  • assumed risk
  • societal vulnerabilities
Open Access

The Vicious Circle of Subsidised Employment

Published Online: 20 Jul 2017
Page range: 339 - 343

Abstract

Abstract

The problem with subsidised employment has become more and more serious in recent years. There is a trend in which vulnerable groups lose their jobs again after the period of support. Our focus in this report is on employment and, in particular, on the issues related to its effective and not so effective stimulation. When implementing this strategy in Bulgaria, institutions aim primarily at reaching certain numeric indicators, rather than structural reforms and discontinuation of bad practices.

Keywords

  • employment
  • subsidised
  • vulnerable groups
  • job
Open Access

Considerations on the Necessity of Modernization of Engineer Forces from NATO Members Countries

Published Online: 20 Jul 2017
Page range: 344 - 347

Abstract

Abstract

The engineer branch has been established at a certain stage of historical evolution of the armed forces to provide engineer support to the combat forces, as well as to support civil societies to achieve, develop and maintain the necessary infrastructure elements in order to conduct of economic and social activities. Having in mind all these elements and taking into account the structural perspective and the endowment, the evolution of engineer forces should have been made in accordance with the evolution of the common combat joint forces, keeping the same rhythm of development. Unfortunately, the engineer forces within the armies of the NATO member states did not evolve under the aforementioned aspects, even if some commitments have been made at the various summits held over time at different levels. As a result of these realities, in this paper we present some considerations about what should be the way ahead in the evolution of the engineer forces until the horizon of 2050.

Keywords

  • engineer forces
  • engineer support
  • modernization
  • multi-purpose engineer vehicle
Open Access

The Relationship Between Leadership and Employees

Published Online: 20 Jul 2017
Page range: 348 - 353

Abstract

Abstract

The leadership style and the thereof oriented behavior pattern represents the basic attitude in which a person exercises its leadership tasks. There are a series of different leadership styles with numerous explanation attempts aiming to present a model for a successful leadership behavior. The worldwide trend leads in the direction of Management by Delegation with clear operating principles which is nowadays the central point of all general interests concerning this topic but a thorough documentation regarding the different leadership styles is the starting point for each manager when trying to build a good relation with the employees. A well-defined and applied leadership style will influence the working behavior of the employees and in turns lead to a better functioning of the whole organization. The knowledge-based organization needs to be up to date with both the oldest and the newest theories concerning leadership so it can create a working relationship with its employees. The present paper aims to present the main aspects concerning leadership, leadership styles and concepts in order to find the best way of creating a successful relationship between leadership and employees by strengthening the individual responsibility of each employee and hence improving the functioning of an organization.

Keywords

  • leadership
  • leadership style
  • employee
  • manager
Open Access

Translation of Capability Requirement Into Management by Objectives Environment

Published Online: 20 Jul 2017
Page range: 354 - 359

Abstract

Abstract

Capability-based planning focused on materialisation of Alliance´s ambitions has already been a reality for national strategic planners for several years. This relatively new planning environment offers not only new, broader possibilities but also new challenges. Although there are several documents describing capability-based planning available but no one is focused on a methodology how recognised capability needs is possible to translate into a common planning system explored within national ministries of defence. This article has an aim to overbridge this gap using a logical link between a package of required capabilities and existing hierarchy of goals, measures and tasks exploring a functional areas (DOTLMPFI) tool. Considering an idea the capability is a dynamic issue having its own specific life cycle it is necessary to think over various phases of its life. These phases influence directly a real level of the capability. Hence various phases have their own demands on allocated resources it is not sufficient to plan resources just for achievement of an appropriate level of the needed capability but it is also necessary to pay attention to other parts of the life cycle, especially sustainment.

Keywords

  • capability planning
  • capability life cycle
  • functional areas DOTLMPFI
  • MBO
Open Access

Knowledge Management Via Erasmus Programmes

Published Online: 20 Jul 2017
Page range: 360 - 365

Abstract

Abstract

Living in a highly competitive society which is becoming more and more globalised and students evolving into “digital natives”, students deriving from the European Union countries have benefitted from the Erasmus programmes in an attempt to become aware of the common European culture, education and labour market. Under these circumstances, the present paper addresses the issue of knowledge acquisition via Erasmus programmes and how knowledge management is operated as a result of these study opportunities. For our endeavour, we have conducted an online quantitative and qualitative study with the students from the University of Bucharest and Politehnica University of Bucharest who have benefitted by the programme. As expected, the students' answers came to confirm our hypotheses that the exchange programmes are useful in this sense at the same time that information and experience that benefits students should be exploited and managed more in the Romanian academic life for the labour market.

Keywords

  • Erasmus programme
  • knowledge acquisition
  • knowledge management
  • student
  • culture
Open Access

Aspects of the Management of Negotiating Class II Material Resources for the Bulgarian Armed Forces Under the Conditions of Resource Limitations

Published Online: 20 Jul 2017
Page range: 366 - 371

Abstract

Abstract

In an environment of rapid change, accompanied by unpredictable risks and permanent deficit, logistic support authorities are facing many challenges. The wide scope of logistic support necessitates a differentiated management approach to the specific areas of integrated logistics. Since the units are often faced with the need for quick action on the deployment of forces with the necessary equipment at the right time and at the right place, aiming at the same time to achieve mobility, initiative, simplicity, responsibility and flexibility of management of material resources in the search for effective approaches towards that, our scientific interests are focused on the management of negotiating class II material resources in compliance with the dependency “cost-effects.”

Keywords

  • defence resource management
  • management of negotiation
  • management of material resources
Open Access

Leadership and Corporate Social Responsibility

Published Online: 20 Jul 2017
Page range: 372 - 377

Abstract

Abstract

Leadership and Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) are some of the most widely studied topics, generating an extensive literature. Nowadays, leaders are facing economic, social and environmental challenges. Unfortunately, today trust in business is low. In this complex global environment of uncertainty and ambiguity, leaders have to anticipate the changes and to be catalysts for shifting their organizations towards a sustainable society. The purpose of the present paper is to investigate leaders’ opinion regarding: Corporate responsibilities (Carroll’s’ four-layered pyramid model); Reasons for CSR actions/ projects; Areas of interest for CSR projects/ activities/ initiatives. Taking into account the growing interest towards a sustainable society is a need for a new type of leadership that promotes the CSR’s ideals.

Keywords

  • Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR)
  • leadership
  • business ethics
Open Access

The Organization's Internal Environment and Its Importance in the Organization's Development

Published Online: 20 Jul 2017
Page range: 378 - 381

Abstract

Abstract

Analysis of an organization’s internal environment, including the factors that influence the organization’s activity: its owners, managers and leadership, employees, material resources, organizational culture, should determine the capabilities/capabilities/potential of the organization to adapt to/integrate to the external environmental components. In general, the characteristics and quality of an organization’s internal environment allow the “exploitation” of the opportunities offered by the organization’s external environment.

Keywords

  • internal environment
  • organization
  • organizational culture
Open Access

The Role of Computer Systems in the Management of Hotels in Veliko Tarnovo Region, Bulgaria

Published Online: 20 Jul 2017
Page range: 382 - 386

Abstract

Abstract

This study presents the essence, importance and role of hotel computer systems used in Veliko Tarnovo region. The attached questionnaire presents a method of analyzing systems and their role in the management process. The study shows the most used local systems, their advantages and disadvantages and possible steps and recommendations for the improvement of their effectiveness.

Keywords

  • management
  • software
  • automation of the activities
Open Access

Validating a Defense-Specific Cluster Conceptual Model Using Statistical Instruments

Published Online: 20 Jul 2017
Page range: 387 - 392

Abstract

Abstract

The paper shows how statistical tools can be used for modeling testing and validating. In this sense, the paper presents an example of how to use SPSS for validating a cluster conceptual model for scientific research in the field of defense. The steps taken and the results obtained are presented in detail by correlating the most important characteristics of foreign and domestic clusters in the field of defense and in related domains, with a high potential of applicability in this area. The illustrated correlations fully support the lessons learned from the application of this method.

Keywords

  • Cluster
  • conceptual model
  • SPSS
  • validation
Open Access

The Manager Competences for Risk Management in the Public Sector

Published Online: 20 Jul 2017
Page range: 393 - 398

Abstract

Abstract

Implementation of risk management to the public sector in the Czech Republic presents itself to the new situation managers associated with many difficulties. These are primarily the ability to identify risks in public administration and ensure the proper functioning of their management process. The article aims to show the specifics of public administration in relation to the identification and risk management process and depending on the help of analogies derived from the model of key competences of managers necessary to successfully manage the entire process. In accordance with the stated aim of the text is divided into two main parts. In the competency model, emphasis is placed on the so-called Soft skills with focus on explaining the growing importance of moral competence in the risk management process, which is often neglected. This article was written as a part of the research project Development of Social Skills of a Soldier (LEADER_DZRO_K104), funded by institutional support which is intended for the development of research organizations in the Ministry of Defence (DZRO K- 104) funded from.

Keywords

  • risk management
  • competences for risk management
  • moral competence
Open Access

Research on the Preparation and Professional Realisation of Newly Appointed Logistics Officers

Published Online: 20 Jul 2017
Page range: 399 - 404

Abstract

Abstract

The training and education of cadets at the Vasil Levski National Military University is aimed at professional, intellectual, physical and moral development, and creation of leadership and management skills. The education aims at realizing the concept of optimal receiving a wide range of competencies in the field of military affairs, as well as knowledge about the activities of civil, political, socio-economic structures and systems. It aims at forming knowledge, skills and moral and volitional qualities, which serve as a basis for professional development, allowing implementation of the system for national and collective security and defense. The officer is a leader with undivided personal authority who takes full responsibility for training and combat readiness of the personnel from the military unit entrusted to him, its education in patriotism and national pride, maintenance military discipline and moral-psychological condition, formation of a sense of duty and responsibility to Bulgarian homeland and nation, and responsibility to the state of armaments, military equipment, ammunition and other material resources.

Keywords

  • professional realisation
  • logistics officers
  • leadership
  • management skills
Open Access

Risk Management in the Decision Making Process Concerning the Use of Outsourcing Services in the Bulgarian Armed Forces

Published Online: 20 Jul 2017
Page range: 405 - 410

Abstract

Abstract

Outsourcing services in the armed forces are a promising tool for reducing defence spending which use shall be determined by previously made accurate analysis of peacetime and wartime tasks of army structures. The decision to implement such services allows formations of Bulgarian Army to focus on the implementation of specific tasks related to their combat training. Outsourcing is a successful practice which is applied both in the armies of the member states of NATO and in the Bulgarian Army. Using specialized companies to provide certain services in formations provides a reduction in defence spending, access to technology and skills in terms of financial shortage. The aim of this paper is to analyse main outsourcing risks that affect the relationship between the military formation of the Bulgarian army, the structures of the Ministry of Defence of the Republic of Bulgaria and service providers, and to assess those risks. The basic steps for risk management in outsourcing activities are determined on this base.

Keywords

  • outsourcing
  • risk management
  • outsourcing risk
Open Access

New Approach – Quadrangle of Knowledge Based Sustainability

Published Online: 20 Jul 2017
Page range: 411 - 417

Abstract

Abstract

In our paper we start the analysis of the performance in the knowledge based economy from two premises: a. The productivity of the new economy is much higher comparative with the previous economic systems; b. There are at least six factors which determine the deep change of knowledge business organisation performances. Based on this approach we mention several specific ways for the evaluation of the knowledge based performances formulated by certain renowned international specialists. Finally, we elaborate a new concept regarding the approach and evaluation of the performance in the knowledge based economy - quadrangle of sustainability based on knowledge.

Keywords

  • knowledge
  • sustainability
  • quadrangle
  • efficiency
  • effectiveness
Open Access

Security Management of University Campuses

Published Online: 20 Jul 2017
Page range: 418 - 422

Abstract

Abstract

The paper is approaching a sensitive topic which the whole society is facing, namely the security at a macro and micro-economic level. In this context, increasing the level of terrorism at all levels requires important measures to prevent the acts of terrorism and of providing a security that allows the development of all entities in the society. University offsets represent areas of agglomeration of young students living together, susceptible to challenging actions and to acts of terrorism that may occur at any time. The paper approaches a systemic and systematic thinking of untried actions to be taken for these structures, components of the university.

Keywords

  • security
  • management
  • risks
  • university campus
  • attack
Open Access

Applied Research on Strategic Management of SMEs in Romania in the Digital Age

Published Online: 20 Jul 2017
Page range: 423 - 429

Abstract

Abstract

Technological social and cultural changes generated by the digital age have a significant impact on both individual and society as a whole [1]. Is the context in which our research aimed at revealing the extent to which SMEs in our country are prepared to cope with these changes and can adapt to an environment increasingly turbulent and unpredictable [2]. Based on the three hypotheses of our scientific approach, the method used was the quota for proportional distribution by counties, respectively the optimal-layered model for the distribution by fields of activity. As a means of investigation we used a questionnaire with 26 questions answered by 598 SMEs, the purpose being represented by identifying, on the one hand, the used methods of strategic management and, on the other hand, the uptake of digital means by them. The responses from the distribution of the questionnaire were analyzed by various statistical and econometric methods. In a first stage we used descriptive statistics to identify peculiarities of respondents to compare different homogeneous groups. In the second stage of analysis to determine statistical deductive conclusions, we used the analysis of variance, correlation and linear regression and ANOVA using SPSS software for Windows 16.0. Following validation of the research hypotheses, in the end of the work we formulated a series of proposals to improve the strategic management of SMEs in Romania in the digital age.

Keywords

  • digital age
  • digital services
  • SME
  • strategic management
Open Access

Empirical Study Regarding the Influence of Communication Upon the Purchasing Decision

Published Online: 20 Jul 2017
Page range: 430 - 437

Abstract

Abstract

The aim of the present study is to emphasize the influence of communication upon the customer’s purchasing decision. This objective is translated through determining the change of products in the sales’ structure using communication by omission. The study is focused upon the purchasing selection between two similar products by the subjects included in the study. The difference between the two products lies in the customers’ care for the environment. Thus, one of the two products does not pollute, in the conditions in which the application with care and attention is applied (this being expressed through a price difference compared to the other, polluting, product). The study has two phases in order to compare the sales structure in the situations in which it is used the communication through omission (in the second phase of the study) with the sales structure when the communication through omission is not used. The hypothesis according to which the purchasing process takes place according to the care for the environment and not necessarily according to the direct utility allocated to some apparently similar products has been tested through econometric instruments.

Keywords

  • communication
  • decision
  • omission
  • sales
Open Access

Considerations Regarding the Redesign of Management System of an Organization

Published Online: 20 Jul 2017
Page range: 438 - 443

Abstract

Abstract

In addition to the current exercise of management functions, managers in any organization, must pursue a permanent adjustment of the management system at the new changes that have occurred, and that may be anticipated in the internal and external environment of the organization. This involves a number of activities of organization change management, components that can be included in what we call redesigning the organization management.

Keywords

  • organizational management
  • organizational redesign
  • management system
Open Access

The Role of Emotional Intelligence in the Implementation of Vision

Published Online: 20 Jul 2017
Page range: 444 - 451

Abstract

Abstract

Through the development of the level of efficiency, the military organizations aim at increasing social value, which, in turn, situate it in the top position among security institutions and therefore facilitates easier access to resources. By providing an image of the map, the leader’s vision not only describes an organization’s direction or objective, but also the means of achieving its way towards becoming a guide in planning and strategy implementation efficiency. Specialists say that people, in general, and leaders, in particular, use two kinds of intelligence, one inherited/ fluid and the other crystallized and developed by education, but, in order to achieve success an addition is needed, namely, emotional intelligence. Emotional intelligence, encompasses not only the degree of empathy between the leader and the recipient institutions (organization), but also how the leader will know to manage his/her conditions determined by the environment (friendly or hostile), context (favorable or unfavorable), and the questions raised.

Keywords

  • leadership
  • vision
  • emotional intelligence
  • efficiency
  • strategy
Open Access

Diagnostic Management - Method of Increasing the Potential of Research and Development Station for Cattle From Arad

Published Online: 20 Jul 2017
Page range: 452 - 455

Abstract

Abstract

Research and Development Station for Cattle Arad is a public institution of national interest and its main activity is research and development in biotechnology and livestock breeding. The purpose of this paper is to analyze and improve through recommendations, the management applied on the livestock-breeding farm from the station. We are showing at first glance, the following important aspects: methods and techniques used by senior management and livestock at the farm are not up-to-date both morally and technology, which are also partly used. The station has a hierarchical - functional organizational, but nevertheless, the information system is underdeveloped. Also using such authoritarian management style promotes cooperation resort management, consulting and delegation between the chambers, but in a way inefficient. The role and the performance of the management system of the breeding farm is a decisional component with a privileged role. No other element of the resort management has a specificity so obvious and so great of an impact on all plans and performance results. The strengths and weaknesses of an institution of this kind are described in the literature that we use to test, draw and make recommendations for the future growth potential of the station, both in terms of managerial, economic -financial and in terms of the quality of work processes and finished products. To achieve a practical study, we present the relevant results after applying the latest technology management, reporting and decision-making for some time on senior management, livestock breeding management and on cooperation between these compartments.

Keywords

  • management
  • potential
  • increasing
  • farm
  • cattle
Open Access

Intangible Resource Management - an Organisational Approach

Published Online: 20 Jul 2017
Page range: 456 - 460

Abstract

Abstract

This article is seeking to improve the intangible resource management at organisation level by highlighting the importance of this type of management on one hand and, on the other hand, by creating a pattern describing the process to be followed by the organisations that wish to implement an intangible resource management system. Thus, this study shows the premises underlying the author’s approaches on the importance of intangible resource management, the concept of intangible resource management is substantiated, and some general principles are formulated regarding the substantiation and implementation of this type of management. Specific processes representing the scope of the management at the organization level are analysed, which may be grouped in five phases largely corresponding to the functions of the intangible resource management. Eventually, the phases for implementing an intangible resource management system are identified.

Keywords

  • resources
  • intangibles
  • management
Open Access

Intelectual Capital in Knowledge-Based Organization. Implications for the Military Environment

Published Online: 20 Jul 2017
Page range: 461 - 466

Abstract

Abstract

The near future, but also the farther future, in the knowledge society, will belong to the intelligent knowledge-based organizations that, in order to be sustainable, make efficient use of their available intellectual capital. This will play an active and determining role in any kind of organization, including the military ones. The authors’ intention is that, by using the power of the scientific arguments, to identify the main theoretical approaches of the concepts of knowledge-based organization and intellectual capital, to highlight their role in the knowledge era and to provide solutions for them to become realities in the Romanian economic and military environments.

Keywords

  • knowledge society
  • knowledge-based organization
  • intellectual capital
  • knowledge
  • organizational performance
Open Access

Analysis of the Use of Outsourcing Services for Maintenance and Repair of the Equipment and Armament Available in the Structures of the Bulgarian Armed Forces

Published Online: 20 Jul 2017
Page range: 467 - 472

Abstract

Abstract

The longlasting process of transformation of the armed forces, as well as the reduction of staff resulted in the loss of certain capabilities. In times of transformation, the different structures of the Bulgarian Armed Forces, led by the desire to preserve their most important capabilities, namely the combat ones, are forced to lay off mainly parts of their maintenance and support units. In order to compensate for these lost capabilities, the armed forces resorted to the use of outsourcing services for the repair and maintenance of armament and military equipment.This article studies and analyses the use of outsourcing services for the maintenance and repair of equipment and armament available in the structures of the Bulgarian Armed Forces.

Keywords

  • outsourcing services
  • analysis
  • Bulgarian Armed Forces
  • repair of equipment and armament
Open Access

Analysis of Some of the Applicable Outsourcing Services in the Structures of the Bulgarian Armed Forces

Published Online: 20 Jul 2017
Page range: 473 - 478

Abstract

Abstract

Supplying the Bulgarian Army with the necessary material resources is an extremely important activity. This is an activity with a fundamental significance for making quality logistics decisions on strategic, operational and tactical levels. Therefore, it is necessary to analyse the issues related to the use of outsourcing services in the armed forces. They are implemented in the field of defence primarily in the sphere of utilisation of unnecessary munitions, catering, providing various public utilities, repair and maintenance of equipment and provision of security to military sites. Despite of its limited application, outsourcing is currently an important tool for conducting a great number of the logistics activities, providing support of the combat and special training of military formations and the execution of their specific tasks.This article studies and analyses the use of outsourcing services for providing catering for the personnel in the structures of the Bulgarian Armed Forces and for protection of the military territories.

Keywords

  • outsourcing services
  • analysis
  • Bulgarian Armed Forces
  • catering
  • security
Open Access

The Place and Role of Intellectual Property Policies in an Advanced Scientific Research and Education University

Published Online: 20 Jul 2017
Page range: 479 - 488

Abstract

Abstract

Intellectual property plays an important role in the sustainable development of an university. Nowadays we can not talk about economic growth respectively about innovation and technology transfer if there is no analysis regarding the place and role of intellectual property protection in universities done. In this context, the authors conducted a study and have expressed a view on how the Intellectual Property policies must be understood and implemented later in an advanced scientific research and education university.

Keywords

  • Intellectual Property Policies
  • Intangible Assets
  • Universities
  • knowledge based societies
  • intellectual capital
79 Articles
Open Access

Role of Women in Security and Defense: Bulgarian National Policies and Experience

Published Online: 20 Jul 2017
Page range: 9 - 14

Abstract

Abstract

The paper focuses on the policies for gender equality which can and should be understood as a long-term investment, not as a situational solution or a short-term cost, especially in military environment. On the basis of the UN Security Council Resolution 1325 - “Women, peace and security”, the National plan for implementation of the Resolution 1325 in the MoD in Bulgaria has been analyzed. New policies or initiatives concerning the implementation of gender in the Bulgarian Armed Forces are included with the actual information about female active duty military personnel and the perspectives to overcome the prejudices and stereotypes in people’s minds.

Keywords

  • gender
  • implementation of good policy
  • UNSC Resolution 1325
Open Access

Distribution of Combat Capabilities on Objectives by Using a Transport Problem

Published Online: 20 Jul 2017
Page range: 15 - 20

Abstract

Abstract

The transport problem finds its application in situations where the upper echelons must draw up an optimal plan of resources allocation for combat capabilities on objectives. In order to achieve more reliable results for the real problem, the data needed to formulate the mathematical model are extracted from an order of operations. This paper presents the optimization of military action, showing how to solve a practical problem using the transportation problem.

Keywords

  • transport
  • resources
  • operations
Open Access

Creation of a Model for Social Defense in Case of Disasters for the Citizens of the Republic of Bulgaria

Published Online: 20 Jul 2017
Page range: 21 - 24

Abstract

Abstract

In Bulgaria there is a great need for a scheme for social defense and protection in case of natural or anthropogenic disasters. Our country has a relatively good social politics, covering a great deal of society’s social illnesses. But our financial capabilities for natural and anthropogenic disaster prevention and handling present a great financial difficulty for our country’s budget. In great deal of cases aid-money are being spend for covering material damage caused by natural disasters, but the aspect of affected citizens gets neglected and remains in the background. Our country comes as far as securing them with a one-off humanitarian or/and financial help for damaged property. In a great deal of cases though our country’s help is inadequate in amount or gets postponed in time due to administrative procedures.

Keywords

  • national security
  • disaster
  • social defense
Open Access

Manners of Performing Terrorist Attacks

Published Online: 20 Jul 2017
Page range: 25 - 31

Abstract

Abstract

The article below presents the evolution of terrorist tactics over the years. It describes the basic types of terrorist attacks divided by the place of attack and by means used to execute it. The recent ways of performing terrorist attacks by terrorist organizations have been presented on the basis of accessible sources and statistics. The last part of the article is dedicated to expected changes of terrorist attack tactics in the future.

Keywords

  • terrorism
  • terrorist attack
  • performance manner
Open Access

WICS Model’s Impact Upon Successful Military Leaders

Published Online: 20 Jul 2017
Page range: 32 - 37

Abstract

Abstract

What does actually define successful leadership? We all know that one of the fundamental principles of the inter-personal connections represents the similarity reasoning - which means that we are attracted to people like ourselves. Applying this principle to the military organizational background, it can be observed that former leaders who occupy a decision-making position in an organization seek for future appointed leaders with similar ideas and competencies. This can only be achieved through a profound process of individual evaluation, based on the standardization in the military. Nevertheless, it has been frequently demonstrated that standardized tests may not properly dignify the leader’s skills. Therefore, we can avoid being deprived of our personal aptnesses by expanding our knowledge in the matter of successful leading skills through accepting and implementing innovative leadership perspectives such as the one WICS model presents. The abbreviated model involves the harmonious transposition of specific components that define successful leaders through the synthesis of the intelligence, creativity and wisdom.

Keywords

  • WICS
  • meta-components
  • military leader
  • success
Open Access

The Forest Offences and the National Security of Romania

Published Online: 20 Jul 2017
Page range: 38 - 43

Abstract

Abstract

In the last 25 years, we have assisted to an increase of the criminal actions in the forestry field. The factors generating the criminal phenomenon in the above mentioned field are social, economic, to which we can add the lack in people’s education, as well as some persons’ mentality and, last but not least, we mention poverty and the wish to get rich under any circumstances. The prevailing factor is corruption existing at all levels, some people’s eagerness of easily gained wealth and the lack of involvement of the government institutions, which were supposed to take measures in this respect. In many cases, the forestry criminal actions were undertaken with the help of certain representatives of judicial organs or public institutions and authorities of the state. Illegal cutting of trees, illegal deforestation and inappropriate forestry become a new threat to the national security of Romania. The new Forestry Code makes provisions for the illegal actions that are considered criminal offences and for the criminal sanctions for committing forestry crimes. These illegal actions have serious consequences: financial, for the environment, for the national security, requiring measures to reduce them and to fight against their negative effects.

Keywords

  • forest offences
  • threats
  • national security
Open Access

Security and Privacy in Smart Devices Era

Published Online: 20 Jul 2017
Page range: 44 - 52

Abstract

Abstract

Today, more than ever, our society has become obsessed with technology and people surround themselves with smart devices designed to improve their lifestyle. Communications have benefited of this rise of the gadgets the most, and reality shows that most adults in the urban environment own a smartphone with the help of which they can connect to the Internet. We would be tempted to state that the World Wide Web will change in the future into Human World Wide Web, but connecting to the Internet does not stop here. Vehicles, TV sets and other electronic devices or appliances have already started to be connected to the Internet, which makes it easier to believe that, in the future, we will live in a society where most devices around us will be interconnected to a global or even spatial network. This concept, which the academic world embraced as the Internet of Things, should be understood and accepted by society not only from the perspective of the deprivation of privacy it generates, but especially from the perspective of the insecurity, a possible result of this dependence on software and programs that can be remotely accessed and controlled.

Keywords

  • privacy
  • security
  • internet
  • Vault7
  • Stuxnet
  • Snowden
  • Facebook
  • Xkeyscore
Open Access

Complex Challenges, Complex Responses and the State

Published Online: 20 Jul 2017
Page range: 53 - 60

Abstract

Abstract

After the Cold War, military challenges were generated on the periphery of Europe and beyond. Europe and NATO dealt with such challenges within the framework of crisis response and peace support operations. During the development of operations in the increasingly complex environments military actors carried out increasingly complex tasks and missions. The top of the efforts is state building affecting almost all of the governmental and state organizations and actors. Today in Central Europe and in the Carpathian Basin we are facing new threats. The massive and uncontrolled migration, terrorism and hybrid threats pose new challenges for the states. Today the physical and internal security in the homeland has to be reconsidered by the state. The new threats require a new type of response. The military and law enforcement organizations, vital governmental authorities have to effectively act together in order to provide safe and secure environment in the country. This joint effort is a new type of home- and collective defence. The complex security of the state and citizens can be guaranteed by coordinated cooperation based on mutual trust and knowledge among organizations only. This activity is labelled as Inter-agency Operations, in which the intent and capability of interoperability are required from all actors.

Keywords

  • stability
  • complex operation environment
  • state responsibility
  • cooperation
  • inter-agency operation
  • joint effort of governmental actors
Open Access

Military Education and Training Supported by Blended Simulation

Published Online: 20 Jul 2017
Page range: 61 - 65

Abstract

Abstract

The existing conflicts, both military and non-military are currently mostly of non-linear nature, where units composed of multiple specializations, both smaller and acting independently are prevailing. Those units are usually separated from home base and proper access to its own central supply lines of communication which strengthens emphasizes on their independent command and control, coordination within deployed forces and other assets within given operation. Therefore, prior collective training and preparation for deployment is one of the crucial operational planning requirements before deployment takes place. Modern training simulation techniques and assets do support preparedness of those units planned for deployment by aligning and synchronizing interoperability of their activities. One of such techniques - Blended simulation - can realistically generate a wide range of situations with exact imitation of activities to practice the ability of different types of units to the declared capabilities across the broad spectrum of tasks. Evaluation of the blended simulation effectiveness does further help to deliver more efficient methodologies and tactical procedures for further use within preparation stag. Such approach is in line with the trend of increased use of modelling and simulation techniques within military education and training.

Keywords

  • military education and training
  • simulation tools
  • blended simulation
  • constructive simulation
  • virtual and live simulation
Open Access

Perspectives and Options for the Development of Virtual Teams for Command of Units in Operations

Published Online: 20 Jul 2017
Page range: 66 - 73

Abstract

Abstract

Team cooperation has been one of the crucial elements of effective and successful organization since the late 1960s. Function, structure and behavior within work teams are common part of organizations, firms and security structures. Increasing cooperation across fields, along with tendency to develop horizontal organizational structures, requires the capability to cross geographic and organizational boundaries. Traditional teams are not suitable for this kind of cooperation. With continual invention and application of new information technology, the communication with units during the operations is becoming simpler and faster than ever before. With the development of technologies, command and control has to evolve too. Commanders and staff on the positions of command during operation are not always skilled and informed enough to solve particular problems. The search for new potential will enable the achievement of goals of armed forces during the operations. System of command and control requires new viewpoints and new ways. The solution might be the development of the virtual teams. However, virtual teams are not understood well enough from the practical and theoretical perspective.

Keywords

  • Information and Communication Technologies
  • Staff
  • Virtual Team
  • Command and Control System
  • Operations
Open Access

The Hybrid Warfare in the 21St Century: An Old Concept with a New Face

Published Online: 20 Jul 2017
Page range: 74 - 78

Abstract

Abstract

In the last years the focus of the military specialists changed from the asymmetrical threats to the hybrid threats, seen as one of the main challenge for the security in the 21st century. The increased attention paid to hybrid threats is due to the events that took place in Ukraine, Syria and other confrontation areas and which highlighted the vulnerability of the modern societies and modern armies toward this type of actions. The use of hybrid type tactics can ensure the achievement of the main objectives of an international actor, with a low effort, usually without using the force, and can deny to the target/victim the possibility to take any defensive actions. The hybrid warfare can represent the war of the 21st century, a new type of direct or indirect confrontation, with effects on short and medium term, impossible to be anticipated.

Keywords

  • hybrid
  • threat
  • confrontation
  • international actors
Open Access

Constellation of Cubesats to Monitor the Environment for the Benefit of Europe

Published Online: 20 Jul 2017
Page range: 79 - 88

Abstract

Abstract

In our project we are going to present a concept for the creation, launching, usage and exploiting of an innovative system of semi-autonomous, grouped in “swarm” satellites from one type with 24/7 link to Earth-based facilities and stations for control, transfer and analysis of space-gathered data. The innovation in our mission is the usage of a group of apparatuses that can work both like a structured group with one directed goal or like a loosely-chained system of autonomous machines, each with a different task or mission given by the control center on Earth.

Keywords

  • space
  • national security
  • satellites
  • disasters
Open Access

Challenges of the Security Environment Before the Correlation “Resources-Cabilities - Effects”

Published Online: 20 Jul 2017
Page range: 89 - 93

Abstract

Abstract

In the complex and controversial security environment characterized by dynamic changes and the trend of increasing resource limitation, there is the disbalance between the projected capabilities and the maintenance of the existing ones on the one hand, and on the other - the need for the defense capabilities to be adaptable to the parameters of the changing environment. This necessitates compliance to one of the fundamental principles for enhancing the effectiveness of the defense policy - the principle of improving management as a process and structure for the management of defense resources and related defense products. Moreover, maintaining a stable level of defense spending as a proportion of gross domestic product, is the basis for building the necessary defense capabilities in accordance to the imperatives of the modern armed forces. It is of utmost importance to achieve a balance in the correlation “resources-capabilities-effects”. This, in a security environment which is marked by terrorism provoked by the actions of the “Islamic State” and the permanent threat they impose, by the migration flows that create conditions for serious alteration of the morals and traditions of the “Old continent” and its economic stability, by the danger of spreading and instilling radical Islamism and “redrawing” of state borders, and by hybrid war, is the challange which provokes the scientific research of the author.

Keywords

  • defence resource management
  • defence capabilities
  • security environment
Open Access

Using Geopolitics in the Comparative Analysis of Two International Systems Based on Factors Considered Relevant

Published Online: 20 Jul 2017
Page range: 94 - 99

Abstract

Abstract

The international scene is still modeled on the states’ interests, despite the challenges of non-state actors, whose international policy intervention can not be described as new. The state still continues to play a central role in shaping the international system, even if it is forced to act in an environment where large corporations are designing many of the national economies of states whose nationality they do not have, and non-governmental organizations are at the outskirts of an emerging global civil society, which could jeopardize the state’s right and obligation to prevent injustice, and considering that at the global level there is no entity able to issue regulations in this regard, all of which amid testing international governance models. Looking retrospectively, during the Cold War, the state was much stronger and the threats which it had to face were characterized by a much higher degree of predictability. This paper aims to analyze the contemporary international system by reference to that specific to the Cold War, based on factors considered relevant, the objective being to identify the possibility of turning the present international system to a new Cold War.

Keywords

  • geopolitics
  • power
  • international system
  • historical factor
  • ideological factor
Open Access

Towed Anti-Tank Guns Renaissance of Almost Forgotten Weapons in Ukrainian Conflict

Published Online: 20 Jul 2017
Page range: 100 - 105

Abstract

Abstract

Russia’s operations in Ukraine stand in stark contrast to the old Soviet doctrine of methodical, timetable- and echelon-driven employment of ground forces that sought to outmass the opposing army. Apart from obvious tactical implications and use of some modern equipment, this approach has led to reoccurrence of rather forgotten types of military hardware on the battlefield, most notably the towed anti-tank guns that had profound effect on later stages of the conflict. This article assess the reasons of their reoccurrence, types of these weapons and ammunition used on both sides of the conflict and in the last part tactical use of towed anti-tank guns with possible prospect for the future warfare. Data collection and analysis relied chiefly on media and image analysis both from Russian and Ukrainian sources.

Keywords

  • Russia
  • Ukraine
  • Towed anti-tank guns
Open Access

Revolution in Military Affairs and Outer Space

Published Online: 20 Jul 2017
Page range: 106 - 111

Abstract

Abstract

Concept of the Revolution in Military Affairs (RMA) analyses and describes processes of major changes in military-strategic dimension, which provide possibilities especially for states to enhance their military power and establish superiority over their opponents. Contemporary, development of new (weapon) technologies (e.g. precision-guided munitions, unmanned aerial vehicles) and doctrines (e.g. network centric warfare, system-of-systems) represents such opportunity. Outer space in this context represents relatively new dimension of warfare with increasing importance for strategical thinking of all main state actors (e.g. China, Russia, and the U.S.). This paper deals with relation between RMA and outer space. The aim of this paper is to analyses how outer space and space technologies influence contemporary/future RMA and vice versa.

Keywords

  • C4I
  • Network Centric Warfare
  • Outer Space
  • Revolution in Military Affairs
Open Access

The Operational Environment Influence on the Development Level of Military Structures

Published Online: 20 Jul 2017
Page range: 112 - 118

Abstract

Abstract

The war has not disappeared and will never disappear. It is constantly changing, in perfect correlation with those who created it, the people organized into social structures. It changes according to the changes in the operational environment, influenced, in turn, by the technical-scientific discoveries. All these changes impose a new philosophy of warfare in which the methods of creating and using forces acquire new valences generated by the diversity and the possibilities of access to the new technologies. Knowing the way in which indirect (having the potential) factors influence the fighting capacity of a military structure is just as useful for predicting the outcome of the operation/battle/war. Knowing this assessment, the military decision makers will be able to submit variants and solutions to the political decision maker, who will choose the one that he will appreciate as being the most appropriate.

Keywords

  • operational environment
  • hybrid war
  • military operations
  • structure of the force
Open Access

Emergence and Development of Civil-Military Cooperation

Published Online: 20 Jul 2017
Page range: 119 - 123

Abstract

Abstract

The report examines the emergence and development of CIMIC. It analyses the reasons for its emergence, and states guidelines in its development. This will contribute to a better understanding of the relationship between civil environment and military forces in the face of civil-military cooperation.

Keywords

  • Civil-Military Cooperation (CIMIC)
  • Civil-Military Interaction (CMI)
  • Civil-Military Relations (CIMIR)
  • Civil Affairs (CA)
Open Access

Improving Coordination, Interaction and Cooperation in Humanitarian Aid Operations

Published Online: 20 Jul 2017
Page range: 124 - 129

Abstract

Abstract

The report examines the possibility of improving coordination, interaction and cooperation in conducting humanitarian aid operations. It reveals how Civil-Military Cooperation staff would help overcome difficulties in the joint planning process and work between the different actors involved in humanitarian operations through the deployment of the Humanitarian Aid Coordination Centre.

Keywords

  • Civil-Military Cooperation (CIMIC)
  • Coordination
  • Interaction
  • Cooperation
  • Humanitarian Aid Operations
Open Access

EU Policy Initiatives in the Mediterranean Region

Published Online: 20 Jul 2017
Page range: 130 - 134

Abstract

Abstract

The article traces the various stages in the development of EU - the Mediterranean region as well as the EU policy initiatives in the Mediterranean region. The very history of the European unification gives hope that by gaining experience in overcoming the difficulties of diverse nature, the Union will be able to “reset” relations with its Mediterranean partners, basing them on new principles and values.

Keywords

  • EU
  • Mediterranean region
  • Euro-Mediterranean Partnership (Euromed)
  • European Neighbourhood Policy
  • Union for the Mediterranean (UfM)
Open Access

Hybrid Warfare – A Form of Asymmetric Conflict

Published Online: 20 Jul 2017
Page range: 135 - 143

Abstract

Abstract

For a few decades now, a vivid scholarly discussion centred on new forms of conflict has been developing. Military historians and political scientists entered into debates building consistent pro and counter-arguments about whether armed conflict at the end of the 20th century and beginning of the 21st century features novel aspects. Several concepts have been coined in order to describe the nature and dynamic of warfare in a post-clausewitzian/post-conventional era, such as new wars, Fourth Generation Warfare, compound wars and last, but not least, hybrid warfare. This article will briefly present the core of each category and will stress hybrid warfare as most recent development of such intellectual categories. The main argument defended here is that hybrid wars are a contemporary feature of global politics, mostly associated with non-state actors (such as terrorist groups) and with Russia’s strategies in eastern Ukraine, but also that they are a form of asymmetric conflict.

Keywords

  • new wars
  • compound warfare
  • fourth generation warfare
  • hybrid warfare
  • Russian hybrid warfare
Open Access

Wargaming and Challenges in the Experimentation Domain

Published Online: 20 Jul 2017
Page range: 144 - 149

Abstract

Abstract

Military domain lacks the sufficient funding. It becomes extremely critical investing into the right projects that will deliver the expected outcome in the acquisition phase from the medium and long term perspective. The Concept Development and Experimentation (CD&E) is a powerful approach to reduce the related risk if it is consistently applied. Wargaming is a method that is used in the military to get insight about the examined phenomena when employing the military decision making process. The article deals with the role of wargaming in the CD&E. The second part of the article describes the architecture of wargame, main constructs, phases and critical factors of its design. The last part of the article describes the proposed Case Study of the Computer Assisted Wargaming (CAW) to be used for the complex problem like military capability planning and risk reduction under the specified uncertainty. Uncertainty is reduced by proper Design of Experiment when the CAW plays the crucial role.

Keywords

  • modelling and simulation
  • wargaming
  • experimentation
  • capability planning
Open Access

Keystones of Irregular Warfare

Published Online: 20 Jul 2017
Page range: 150 - 154

Abstract

Abstract

The current security environment is evolving towards a global complexity of unpredictable events. The risk of state and non-state actors attempting to achieve their goals through destabilization exists. In the operating environment, this implies a blurring of the boundaries between state and nonstate actors (such as insurgents, terrorists and criminals) and NATO may confront an adversary who uses traditional (conventional), irregular warfare or both (hybrid warfare). The aim of the article is to find, analyze and describe the key elements that fundamentally different irregular of traditional (conventional) and hybrid warfare.

Keywords

  • irregular
  • traditional
  • hybrid
  • warfare
  • tactics
Open Access

Cyberwarfare

Published Online: 20 Jul 2017
Page range: 155 - 160

Abstract

Abstract

The internet has to be considered a very dangerous battlefield. Nobody is secure. It is a paradox that those countries which do not feel vulnerable may be the most threatened by cyber war. This applies primarily to western powers and fast developing countries. Cyberattack may easily be ordered through the internet. Such an attack is cheaper than an attack by conventional weapons and at the same time it causes bigger economic losses. It is obvious from the military standpoint that cyberattacks and defence against them have to be an indispensable part of military activities. The reason is that the military consider the internet and virtual space to be the fifth area of employment of their forces, besides land, air, water and space. It is stated in the hypotheses that cyber activities will be an inseparable part of future military operations. The key objective will be to achieve information supremacy or information dominance on the battlefield. Thus developed countries develop and introduce new cyber weapons with the aim of striking the enemy´s command and control structures, its logistics, transport, early warning systems and other vitally important military functions at any time upon receiving an order.

Keywords

  • Cyberwarfare
  • NATO
  • Cyberattacks
  • Cyberspace
Open Access

Cultural Interoperability – Prerequisite for the Response to Hybrid Threats

Published Online: 20 Jul 2017
Page range: 161 - 165

Abstract

Abstract

Nowadays, in addition to the already known challenges, the hybrid threats require new responses, which had a timely appearance (adapting the existing military capabilities, the establishment of new military structures, at division and brigade level, their training etc.) and which involve an unconditional cooperation between NATO Member States and between them and their partners. From the perspective of the military response, creating multinational military structures based on different national contingents raises a number of questions on how they succeed to act coherently, in a coordinated and integrated manner. In this respect, the role of interoperability in general, and of cultural interoperability at the level of NATO military structures, in particular, has significantly increased, becoming a necessity for the development of multinational military operations as a joint response to the hybrid threats.

Keywords

  • cultural diversity
  • cultural differences
  • interoperability behavioral
  • interoperability
  • cultural interoperability
  • multinational military structures
  • multinational military operations
  • hybrid threats
Open Access

Hungarian Security Policy and the Migrant Crisis (2015–2017)

Published Online: 20 Jul 2017
Page range: 166 - 171

Abstract

Abstract

The purpose of this article is to present the Hungarian security policy over the last two years, focused on the migrant crisis. This policy is explained on the basis of the National Security Strategy. According to the Strategy, the migration is treated as a natural and at the same time complex phenomenon, bringing economic and demographic advantages and, at the same time, carrying public and national security risks. It is concluded that resolving the crisis is one of the most important priorities of the Hungarian security policy. The paper highlights the differences between the Hungarian security policy and the official policy of the EU. Like the other members of the Visegrád Group, Budapest is against the quota system for the allocation of migrants. The position of Hungary is that the discussion of the migrant problem both in the Group and at EU level should be based on the concept of effective solidarity. The country supports European integration of the Western Balkans. The study is based on documents, mainly of the Visegrád Group, and materials from the media.

Keywords

  • migrant crisis
  • security policy
  • Visegrád Group
  • European Union
Open Access

Modern Approaches in the Training of Military Police Cadets at Vassil Levski National Military University

Published Online: 20 Jul 2017
Page range: 172 - 178

Abstract

Abstract

The mission of the Vasil Levski National Military University is to build its students morally, mentally and physically, to indoctrinate them with the ideals of patriotism, duty and honour, to form them as individuals and leaders. The graduated students have to possess leadership qualities, be able to develop and apply scientific knowledge, manage public and special structures in peacetime and crises and to participate in national and multinational projects aiming at maintaining security, peace and development of society. The present paper describes some results of the implementation of the modern person centered educational approaches to training of the Military police cadets.

Keywords

  • training approaches
  • cadets
  • military police
Open Access

The Importance of Developing Security Culture Among Military Personnel as a Way to Mitigate the Terrorist Threat

Published Online: 20 Jul 2017
Page range: 179 - 183

Abstract

Abstract

A higher level of knowledge owned by military personnel about the specific actions of terrorist organizations, especially those used to recruit new members from colectivities of military personnel, in particulary military cadets, is a matter of novelty and requires some security education values in order to face the current threats. In the last 5 years, the Internet has become the preferred vehicle for spreading the radical jihadist discourse and a recruitment field of followers, eager to be involved directly or indirectly through logistical support, financial information for terrorist purposes. The interest of terrorist organizations for the social category, represented by young soldiers or cadets, is given by their access to information and skills on weapons, ammunition, explosives usage and even the information about how and from where find and steal them. More than that it appears the intention of recruitment and cultivation a secret and confident relationship with the future military personnel to obtain classified information, especially about terrorist actions organized by the specialized antiterrorist structures of the state.

Keywords

  • security education
  • terrorist threat
  • persuasion
  • classified information
  • risky behaviour
Open Access

Security, Defence and Armed Forces - Public View

Published Online: 20 Jul 2017
Page range: 184 - 188

Abstract

Abstract

The paper deals with the interpretation of public opinion polls in the Czech Republic related to security, defence and armed forces. In recent years, we can observe concern about the security situation development in the relatively close vicinity of the Czech Republic. In particular, information regarding the activities of the so-called Islamic State, the conflict in Ukraine and media presentation of recent terrorist attacks, as well as the dominant securitization of migration, have a major impact on the public opinion and the level of support for specific steps of the government in the field of security and defence policy. In the surveys, we can trace not only the growing public concern, but also the increasing support for higher defence spending and possible reintroduction of some form of compulsory military service. Special attention is paid to the public perception of the armed forces and the interpretation of the latest public opinion polls at the turn of 2016/2017. The growing support for the military and the increasing willingness of the public to engage in the Active Reserve System are positive factors that can be used to meet the recruiting goals of the Czech Armed Forces.

Keywords

  • public polls
  • threats
  • public attitudes
  • security and defence issues
Open Access

Commander’s Managerial Competences in the Czech Armed Forces

Published Online: 20 Jul 2017
Page range: 189 - 194

Abstract

Abstract

The paper summarizes the research results of commanders’ managerial competences. The aim of the research consisted in identifying facts, which managerial competences make or do not make troubles for commanders; there are offered recommendations for the development of commanders’ critical competences. The research was conducted within three groups of respondents: the first group comprised senior officers, participants of the General Staff course; the second group comprised junior officers, participants of the senior officer course, and the third group covered graduates of the basic officers’ course. Using the questionnaire research, respondents rated ten selected managerial competences of their subordinates. The research results concluded that commanders face the greatest difficulties in communication, self-development and analytical thinking.

Keywords

  • commander
  • competences
  • quantitative research
  • Czech Armed Forces
Open Access

Deployability Of Armed Forces In The Current Armed Conflicts

Published Online: 20 Jul 2017
Page range: 195 - 199

Abstract

Abstract

Achieving victory in nowadays armed conflicts by using of conventional military forces seems more and more difficult. Military solutions are not satisfying and used civilian-military effort still needs many improvements. So-called irregular warfare requires more regular or conventional capabilities than is usually necessary to win in regular warfare. The question is how to adapt armed forces for the nowadays irregular environment. How to educate, train and deploy armed forces? How to create a reliable tool of military power for using in irregular warfare?

Keywords

  • Capabilities
  • conventional warfare
  • irregular warfare
Open Access

Military Terminology – Meanings and Grammar Approach

Published Online: 20 Jul 2017
Page range: 200 - 204

Abstract

Abstract

The aim of this article is to analyze the basic phrases from the operational plans / orders by explaining concepts such as mission and execution, together with their elements, from a semantic and grammatical approach, and also by adding plastic elements in order to facilitate the understanding of the debated topics.

Keywords

  • military terminology
  • “execution”
  • “mission”
Open Access

Competence to the Leadership and It’s Concept in the Army of Czech Republic

Published Online: 20 Jul 2017
Page range: 205 - 212

Abstract

Abstract

The performance of commanding roles in non-standard situations and cooperation within NATO troops showed the need for the development of leadership skills among the commanders of the Army of the Czech Republic at all levels of command. The competence to lead people hasn't been yet systematically developed and explored in the Czech Army. It lacks not only a precise definition for the role of commander but also specifications for each level of command. The aim of this article is to inform about the initial approach to the concept of competence to lead people in the Czech Army, to generate the structure of given competence and a description of its sub-skills for the position of team and platoon from the available theoretical sources. To compare the theoretical model with the results of the research among selected military professionals, which will permit to more accurately identify, for the military experience, necessary elements of competence. The results will be usable for following internal differentiation of the researched competence for other levels of command. This article was written as a part of the project Development of social competencies of the military leader.

Keywords

  • competence for leadership
  • social competence
  • leadership
Open Access

Defending the Truth and Counter Information Warfare in Europe

Published Online: 20 Jul 2017
Page range: 213 - 219

Abstract

Abstract

Information warfare has gained new valences, although some states have historical roots in developing subversive and manipulative tactics; the action pattern is supported today by the use of new information propagation vectors, access to new technologies, and a mix of themes with political, economic, military, cultural and social collective interest. The aim of the propaganda is that the aggressor demoralizes and minimizes the trust of citizens in domestic institutions and policies. Hypotheses and work themes are combined with false news, counterfeit media, capable of creating ambiguity. On such a media of open sources, non-kinetic threats and elements of the hybrid war manifest themselves in the information space and create the ambiguity much hoped to diminish the establishment that reflects the aggressor’s opposition. The study presents relevant cases and recommendations for members of the Euro-Atlantic community related to the management of Russian information actions.

Keywords

  • information warfare
  • kinetic threats
  • propaganda
  • defense
  • Russia
Open Access

Physiognomy of the Operations Against Terrorism

Published Online: 20 Jul 2017
Page range: 220 - 226

Abstract

Abstract

In current conflicts, the terrorist networks already represent a major player and the terrorist threats remain highly topical. In the physiognomy of the actions of the forces engaged in counter-terrorism operations offfensive actions must prevail, but there will be situations in which the military forces will have to undertake defensive actions aswell, because the neutralization of the terrorist entities does not necessarily mean removal of their infrastructure. The operations against terrorism require, for the military structures present in theaters, the review and reconsideration of their own tasks, forms and methods of action, profound transformation of the adopted strategies, a multi-dimensional vision on the effects to be achieved, a comprehensive approach to planning operations, that will help the management of the situations and achievement of the desired end state.

Keywords

  • terorrism
  • insurgency
  • comprehensive approach
  • stability
Open Access

Criteria Determination for Obstacle Effectivenes Evaluation

Published Online: 20 Jul 2017
Page range: 227 - 232

Abstract

Abstract

Up to date concept of warfare is characterized by a high mobility of units, in spite of this counter-mobility is currently disregarded. However, military engineers try to keep and develop this capability. One of the most important elements for the development in the field of counter-mobility is man-made obstacles effectiveness evaluation. The process of evaluation is applicable to the obstacle employment design, to the estimation of a battle progress as well as to the development of mine-laying means, including mines and explosives for obstacle creating. The article is focused on determination of the appropriate obstacles effectiveness evaluation criteria. The criteria can be applied within planning of barriers as well as other complexes of obstacles (obstacle areas, zones, belts), which allows to optimize the engagement of engineer units and means to fulfil the engineer tasks.

Keywords

  • military engineering
  • military obstacles
  • effectiveness
  • evaluation
  • criteria
Open Access

Comparative Analysis of National Approaches to Military Capability Planning

Published Online: 20 Jul 2017
Page range: 233 - 240

Abstract

Abstract

National defence planning processes are often compared with the NATO Defence Planning Process (NDPP). Taking into account that NDPP needs commonly agreed criteria to evaluate military capabilities of the different nations, and given the significant effort invested in performance measurement by several nations, it would be beneficial to examine how respective nations are currently assessing their performance within the capability-based planning process, with a view to establishing potential common measures that would benefit individual nations while addressing the needs of NATO at the same time. The principles which the NDPP is based on are referred to in some of national defence strategic documents, although there is no explicitly statement that the national defence planning process should be tailored in the same way as it is the case of the NDPP. In order to find an answer to the above mentioned issue and identify common practices and lessons to support capability planning within nations and NATO an analysis was carried out with the objective of identifying to which extent national planning processes of respective nations correlate with principles of NDPP as well as with principles of the EU capability development.

Keywords

  • capability planning
  • shortfalls
  • assessment
  • prioritisation
Open Access

Leadership in the Process of Command and Control, Place and Role of Commander-Manager

Published Online: 20 Jul 2017
Page range: 241 - 245

Abstract

Abstract

The paper clarifies the place and role of a commander as a manager in the process of command and control. It explained the concept of the competences model that the commander should possess. The authors define the basic requirements for the capabilities of all military professionals. The paper focused on the commander manager s ability to actively and creatively adapt to changing environment as well as on the ability to regulate negative psychological impacts. Emphasis is placed also on the ability to make decisions in uncertainty and on the ability to regulate commander’s internal and external activity due to the current situation.

Keywords

  • leadership
  • management
  • competences
  • communication
  • organization
Open Access

Prevention and Crisis Management

Published Online: 20 Jul 2017
Page range: 246 - 250

Abstract

Abstract

Crisis management should always be proactive and not just reactive. Every organization must engage in proactive crisis management by monitoring issues related to its business and to society in general, by assessing risks and developing a crisis communication plan. Proactive crisis management helps organizations anticipate a crisis before it occurs. This said, a great part of crisis management is reactive management, as it is about dealing with a crisis once it hits.

Keywords

  • crisis
  • tension
  • management
Open Access

Diplomacy and Security

Published Online: 20 Jul 2017
Page range: 251 - 255

Abstract

Abstract

Changes in diplomacy are especially visible by the involvement of many new actors in the area of international cooperation. A fast developing international system opened doors to many new actors, including international organizations, transnational corporations, and important interest groups.Diplomacy that, from the middle of the 15th century, was known as an important tool of foreign policy became wider in the post-Cold War era. In fact, the transformation of diplomacy has not been completed yet. Nowadays, for instance, governmental diplomacy must deal with various nonstate actors that shape its agenda.

Keywords

  • diplomacy
  • security
  • external affairs
Open Access

Some Considerations on SEEDRO (South Eastern Europe Disaster Relief Operations) Concept

Published Online: 20 Jul 2017
Page range: 256 - 259

Abstract

Abstract

SEEDRO (South Eastern Europe Disaster Relief Operations) Concept was approved on 21st October 2009 during SEDM Ministerial Meeting in Sofia and open the way for SEEBRIG to be engaged not only in PSOs (Peace Support Operations) but also in DROs (Disaster Relief Operations). In this paper, I present some considerations about the importance of this concept for SEEBRIG (South Eastern Europe Brigade), the main activities developed related to this concept and what should be the way ahead in the evolution SEEDRO Concept

Keywords

  • SEEDRO
  • SEEBRIG
  • disasters
  • relief operations
  • engineer forces
Open Access

Brexit – Major Consequences on the Process of European Military Integration?

Published Online: 20 Jul 2017
Page range: 260 - 264

Abstract

Abstract

The United Kingdom’s choice to withdraw from the European Union (Brexit) took many by surprise, including a good part of the „Leave“ voters. The repercussions of this vote are in full display and affect each and every area of the community life. Considering different indicators (such as the number of troops deployed by the United Kingdom to military operations conducted by the European Union or the British contributions to the Battlegroups), in this paper we submit to analysis the United Kingdom’s stance in the process of military integration within the European Union in the period before the Brexit Referendum (2011-2015); we mainly argue that - although regrettable - Brexit will not significantly affect the day-to-day activities and projects conducted within the Common Security and Defence Policy.

Keywords

  • Brexit
  • common defence
  • European Union
  • military integration
  • United Kingdom
Open Access

Civil Preparation of the Battlespace - Necessity in the Irregular or Hybrid Warfare

Published Online: 20 Jul 2017
Page range: 265 - 270

Abstract

Abstract

The lessons learned from the most recent conflicts or theatres of operations in Iraq, Afghanistan, Ukraine, or Syria prove that the Intelligence Preparation of the Battlefield (IPB) process is no longer sufficient. Why? Because in the irregular and hybrid conflicts the centre of gravity is represented by the civilian population, which requires precise understanding of the operational environment, including aspects about the local communities, and profound knowledge of the people, their social structures, their culture, their customs, and their way of thinking and reacting to certain internal and external stimuli. In such an operational environment, protecting the civilian population becomes the main mission of the armed forces. Consequently, we present the most important stages through which the Civil Preparation of the Battlespace (CPB) can be accomplished.

Keywords

  • operational environment
  • civilian population
  • civilian environment
  • civil preparation of the battlespace
Open Access

Slovak Troops in Italy During Second Word War

Published Online: 20 Jul 2017
Page range: 271 - 275

Abstract

Abstract

This article deals with activities of Slovak military troops in Italy during the World War II in the period from October 1943 to the end of war. Article describes the construction of field fortifications on the German defensive lines in central and northern Italy. As well it describes the appearance of resistance to the alliance with Nazi Germany, the involvement of the Slovaks in Italian resistance and the culmination of the fight against Nazism. The resulting manifestation was the creation of the 1st Czechoslovak division in Italy, which fought against German troops alongside the Allies at the end of the war.

Keywords

  • Second world war
  • Slovak troops
  • Italy
  • defense lines
  • resistance
Open Access

Intelligence Preparation of the Battlefield as a Part of Knowledge Development

Published Online: 20 Jul 2017
Page range: 276 - 280

Abstract

Abstract

The aim of this article is to introduce an approach to intelligence preparation of the battlefield (IPB) as a part of knowledge development in conditions of the Army of the Czech Republic (ACR). Numerous of NATO publications and Stanags has been analyzed as well as Czech national documents. Based on results of the analyses and personal experience of authors, the current state of IPB applied in ACR has been outlined and main imperfections of this process have been emphasized such as a disregard of dynamic changes of terrain in time and so on. It the closing section of the article a few possible ways of IPB development have been suggested. Those suggestions show possible form of this process for needs in 21st century.

Keywords

  • military engineering support
  • intelligence preparation of the battlefield
  • knowledge development
  • terrain
  • land slide
Open Access

Principles and Their Significance in Military Art

Published Online: 20 Jul 2017
Page range: 281 - 285

Abstract

Abstract

This paper focuses on the issue of military principles in terms of their meaning and significance for the personnel applying the military art. The author argues that principles are important factors that influence the planning and conduct of wars; some of them exist since antiquity but their application may differ according to the environment and specific circumstances. More than a focused discussion about each of the principle the author reveals approaches to their application in military thinking as well as their value for the military operations planning process.

Keywords

  • principle
  • military art
  • operation
  • doctrine
Open Access

Theoretical and Methodological Aspects on Military Students’ Education

Published Online: 20 Jul 2017
Page range: 286 - 291

Abstract

Abstract

The complexity of military actions on the modern battlefield, as well as the increase in high-tech weaponry call for a professional instruction system that requires an optimal organization, in order to be effective. The efforts to achieve this purpose are mainly targeting the didactic strategies. The paper presents a brief exposition of the forms and methods of instruction used in preparing military students, with focus on the major impacting methods used along this complex process.

Keywords

  • military
  • organization
  • education
  • process
  • instruction
Open Access

Didactics of the Military Specialty – Pedagogic Process with Major Implications in the Curricular Architecture of Military Leaders’ Training

Published Online: 20 Jul 2017
Page range: 292 - 297

Abstract

Abstract

Didactics is, in the etymological sense, the science of learning, a science that has evolved over time under the influence of the maturing of the other sciences of education and as a result of relations with other scientific fields. Through the common subject (the learning process, training through the learning process), didactics is associated with the training theory.

Keywords

  • didactics
  • leader
  • education
  • training
  • functions
Open Access

Non-Military Intervention Through Sanctions

Published Online: 20 Jul 2017
Page range: 298 - 304

Abstract

Abstract

Humanitarian intervention has been perceived as one of the most debatable points between diplomats, jurists and scientists for a long time. It is also a very complex and multifaceted issue, which incorporates a number of ethical, international and military aspects. At the present time the topic of humanitarian intervention is seen primarily in terms of the application of military forces in order to achieve a specific aim, which may only in certain cases be humanitarian. However, the relevant nonmilitary intervention, expressed in a variety of sanctions, should also be considered.

Keywords

  • Humanitarian intervention
  • non-military intervention
  • sanctions
  • United Nations
Open Access

The Drones and Issues Connected with Their Use in Contemporary Conflicts

Published Online: 20 Jul 2017
Page range: 305 - 310

Abstract

Abstract

The text deals with the development and methods of use of Drones or Unmanned Aerial Vehicles in contemporary conflicts or special operations. The contribution tries to present the main advantages of these vehicles as being the main reasons for their current use in armed forces of state as well as non-state actors and their dynamic proliferation in global space in past years. We can observe a new trend in the armed conflict in the last two decades - use of advanced systems of unmanned vehicles in such a range that many military and academic experts talk about a new wave of revolutionary changes in the military affairs. This wave, or we could even talk about militarytechnological breakthrough should lead to imminent use of these systems in contemporary as well as future conflicts which would result in the partial or complex robotization of the battlefield. Specific attention is dedicated to controversies tied to the use of Drones/Unmanned Aerial Vehicles in socalled Drone Warfare and current discussion in the context of cultural or societal dimension of their use and perspectives for further development.

Keywords

  • Drones
  • Unmanned Aerial Vehicles
  • contemporary conflicts
  • robotization
Open Access

Paratroopers in the Intelligence Confrontations During the Second World War

Published Online: 20 Jul 2017
Page range: 311 - 316

Abstract

Abstract

Characterised by the capability to rapidly penetrate the enemy disposition, at long distance, by air, using transport aircraft, by parachuting or landing, as well as by own combat capacity, airborne troops could successfully execute a wide range of specific missions, either independently or in cooperation with other units or large units in the land, air or naval forces, to meet the operational and strategic goals. Mention should be made that almost all belligerents in the Second World War successfully employed groups of well-trained fighters, parachuted behind the enemy disposition, to execute intelligence missions: information collection, “commando”-type diversionary actions, as well as supply of weapons for local partisans and resistance formations

Keywords

  • airborne troops
  • paratroopers
  • intelligence
  • commando
  • partisans
Open Access

Is Russia That Powerful in Hybrid Warfare?

Published Online: 20 Jul 2017
Page range: 317 - 324

Abstract

Abstract

Short answer is yes. As it is stated in a NATO reference hybrid warfare actions can be applied to the full DIMEFIL (Diplomatic, Information, Military, Economic, Financial, Intelligence, Legal) spectrum. This paper will demonstrate that Russia has significant elements which makes this country very well suited for this type of war and gives her some advantages on all DIMEFIL areas. In my view those elements are: current leadership, history and political mentality, size and geography, economic and financial power and military power.

Keywords

  • hybrid warfare
  • military power
  • economic
  • finance
  • resources
  • history and mentality
Open Access

The Relation Cultural Awareness – Tactical Multinational Military Structures’ Effectiveness

Published Online: 20 Jul 2017
Page range: 325 - 330

Abstract

Abstract

Addressing the problem of tactical multinational military structures’ effectiveness is not new, this becoming an important concern of military specialists once with the participation of national contingents to different multinational missions. Today, recent hybrid threats generate the necessity for it to be analyzed and stressed more, because the interoperability level of NATO’s multinational military structures must ensure a common, timely, coordinated and effective response. The analyses of multinational military structures’ effectiveness from the perspective of cultural diversity have highlighted not only the positive aspects but also the negative ones. Lessons learned from numerous multinational military operations have demonstrated the fact that the reduction and elimination of negative manifestations of cultural diversity, both in static military structures (multinational commandment) and multinational maneuver structures depend largely on the cultural awareness’ level of military personnel. In this regard, the proper understanding of cultural awareness’ concept and its role in achieving the effectiveness of tactical multinational military structures and also the definition of the relationship between these two variables become significant milestones that will be addressed in this article

Keywords

  • cultural awareness
  • cultural competence
  • effectiveness
Open Access

Opinions Regarding the Fundamental Domains of National Security

Published Online: 20 Jul 2017
Page range: 331 - 338

Abstract

Abstract

“The multiple dimension of national security in the international contemporary context - characterized by accelerated, radical changes - is determined by the necessity of constantly promoting and permanently defending our national values and interests against the extraordinary diversity of insecurity factors - destabilizing vectors that manifest themselves in a surprising manner and create difficulties in the process of assessment of the specific disruptive effects. This complex framework of social evolution offers numerous perspectives for the analysis of the concept of security, but these studies do not need to dilute its fundamental connotations, but it is necessary for these efforts to particularly relate to the subsystems that are really relevant for individual and collective security and maintenance and, on the basis of a very good documentation, be exactly circumscribed into the legislative coordinates that correspond to the reference domain.”

Keywords

  • national security
  • protection of critical infrastructure
  • civil protection
  • public order
  • constitutional order
  • national defence
  • national security
  • assumed risk
  • societal vulnerabilities
Open Access

The Vicious Circle of Subsidised Employment

Published Online: 20 Jul 2017
Page range: 339 - 343

Abstract

Abstract

The problem with subsidised employment has become more and more serious in recent years. There is a trend in which vulnerable groups lose their jobs again after the period of support. Our focus in this report is on employment and, in particular, on the issues related to its effective and not so effective stimulation. When implementing this strategy in Bulgaria, institutions aim primarily at reaching certain numeric indicators, rather than structural reforms and discontinuation of bad practices.

Keywords

  • employment
  • subsidised
  • vulnerable groups
  • job
Open Access

Considerations on the Necessity of Modernization of Engineer Forces from NATO Members Countries

Published Online: 20 Jul 2017
Page range: 344 - 347

Abstract

Abstract

The engineer branch has been established at a certain stage of historical evolution of the armed forces to provide engineer support to the combat forces, as well as to support civil societies to achieve, develop and maintain the necessary infrastructure elements in order to conduct of economic and social activities. Having in mind all these elements and taking into account the structural perspective and the endowment, the evolution of engineer forces should have been made in accordance with the evolution of the common combat joint forces, keeping the same rhythm of development. Unfortunately, the engineer forces within the armies of the NATO member states did not evolve under the aforementioned aspects, even if some commitments have been made at the various summits held over time at different levels. As a result of these realities, in this paper we present some considerations about what should be the way ahead in the evolution of the engineer forces until the horizon of 2050.

Keywords

  • engineer forces
  • engineer support
  • modernization
  • multi-purpose engineer vehicle
Open Access

The Relationship Between Leadership and Employees

Published Online: 20 Jul 2017
Page range: 348 - 353

Abstract

Abstract

The leadership style and the thereof oriented behavior pattern represents the basic attitude in which a person exercises its leadership tasks. There are a series of different leadership styles with numerous explanation attempts aiming to present a model for a successful leadership behavior. The worldwide trend leads in the direction of Management by Delegation with clear operating principles which is nowadays the central point of all general interests concerning this topic but a thorough documentation regarding the different leadership styles is the starting point for each manager when trying to build a good relation with the employees. A well-defined and applied leadership style will influence the working behavior of the employees and in turns lead to a better functioning of the whole organization. The knowledge-based organization needs to be up to date with both the oldest and the newest theories concerning leadership so it can create a working relationship with its employees. The present paper aims to present the main aspects concerning leadership, leadership styles and concepts in order to find the best way of creating a successful relationship between leadership and employees by strengthening the individual responsibility of each employee and hence improving the functioning of an organization.

Keywords

  • leadership
  • leadership style
  • employee
  • manager
Open Access

Translation of Capability Requirement Into Management by Objectives Environment

Published Online: 20 Jul 2017
Page range: 354 - 359

Abstract

Abstract

Capability-based planning focused on materialisation of Alliance´s ambitions has already been a reality for national strategic planners for several years. This relatively new planning environment offers not only new, broader possibilities but also new challenges. Although there are several documents describing capability-based planning available but no one is focused on a methodology how recognised capability needs is possible to translate into a common planning system explored within national ministries of defence. This article has an aim to overbridge this gap using a logical link between a package of required capabilities and existing hierarchy of goals, measures and tasks exploring a functional areas (DOTLMPFI) tool. Considering an idea the capability is a dynamic issue having its own specific life cycle it is necessary to think over various phases of its life. These phases influence directly a real level of the capability. Hence various phases have their own demands on allocated resources it is not sufficient to plan resources just for achievement of an appropriate level of the needed capability but it is also necessary to pay attention to other parts of the life cycle, especially sustainment.

Keywords

  • capability planning
  • capability life cycle
  • functional areas DOTLMPFI
  • MBO
Open Access

Knowledge Management Via Erasmus Programmes

Published Online: 20 Jul 2017
Page range: 360 - 365

Abstract

Abstract

Living in a highly competitive society which is becoming more and more globalised and students evolving into “digital natives”, students deriving from the European Union countries have benefitted from the Erasmus programmes in an attempt to become aware of the common European culture, education and labour market. Under these circumstances, the present paper addresses the issue of knowledge acquisition via Erasmus programmes and how knowledge management is operated as a result of these study opportunities. For our endeavour, we have conducted an online quantitative and qualitative study with the students from the University of Bucharest and Politehnica University of Bucharest who have benefitted by the programme. As expected, the students' answers came to confirm our hypotheses that the exchange programmes are useful in this sense at the same time that information and experience that benefits students should be exploited and managed more in the Romanian academic life for the labour market.

Keywords

  • Erasmus programme
  • knowledge acquisition
  • knowledge management
  • student
  • culture
Open Access

Aspects of the Management of Negotiating Class II Material Resources for the Bulgarian Armed Forces Under the Conditions of Resource Limitations

Published Online: 20 Jul 2017
Page range: 366 - 371

Abstract

Abstract

In an environment of rapid change, accompanied by unpredictable risks and permanent deficit, logistic support authorities are facing many challenges. The wide scope of logistic support necessitates a differentiated management approach to the specific areas of integrated logistics. Since the units are often faced with the need for quick action on the deployment of forces with the necessary equipment at the right time and at the right place, aiming at the same time to achieve mobility, initiative, simplicity, responsibility and flexibility of management of material resources in the search for effective approaches towards that, our scientific interests are focused on the management of negotiating class II material resources in compliance with the dependency “cost-effects.”

Keywords

  • defence resource management
  • management of negotiation
  • management of material resources
Open Access

Leadership and Corporate Social Responsibility

Published Online: 20 Jul 2017
Page range: 372 - 377

Abstract

Abstract

Leadership and Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) are some of the most widely studied topics, generating an extensive literature. Nowadays, leaders are facing economic, social and environmental challenges. Unfortunately, today trust in business is low. In this complex global environment of uncertainty and ambiguity, leaders have to anticipate the changes and to be catalysts for shifting their organizations towards a sustainable society. The purpose of the present paper is to investigate leaders’ opinion regarding: Corporate responsibilities (Carroll’s’ four-layered pyramid model); Reasons for CSR actions/ projects; Areas of interest for CSR projects/ activities/ initiatives. Taking into account the growing interest towards a sustainable society is a need for a new type of leadership that promotes the CSR’s ideals.

Keywords

  • Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR)
  • leadership
  • business ethics
Open Access

The Organization's Internal Environment and Its Importance in the Organization's Development

Published Online: 20 Jul 2017
Page range: 378 - 381

Abstract

Abstract

Analysis of an organization’s internal environment, including the factors that influence the organization’s activity: its owners, managers and leadership, employees, material resources, organizational culture, should determine the capabilities/capabilities/potential of the organization to adapt to/integrate to the external environmental components. In general, the characteristics and quality of an organization’s internal environment allow the “exploitation” of the opportunities offered by the organization’s external environment.

Keywords

  • internal environment
  • organization
  • organizational culture
Open Access

The Role of Computer Systems in the Management of Hotels in Veliko Tarnovo Region, Bulgaria

Published Online: 20 Jul 2017
Page range: 382 - 386

Abstract

Abstract

This study presents the essence, importance and role of hotel computer systems used in Veliko Tarnovo region. The attached questionnaire presents a method of analyzing systems and their role in the management process. The study shows the most used local systems, their advantages and disadvantages and possible steps and recommendations for the improvement of their effectiveness.

Keywords

  • management
  • software
  • automation of the activities
Open Access

Validating a Defense-Specific Cluster Conceptual Model Using Statistical Instruments

Published Online: 20 Jul 2017
Page range: 387 - 392

Abstract

Abstract

The paper shows how statistical tools can be used for modeling testing and validating. In this sense, the paper presents an example of how to use SPSS for validating a cluster conceptual model for scientific research in the field of defense. The steps taken and the results obtained are presented in detail by correlating the most important characteristics of foreign and domestic clusters in the field of defense and in related domains, with a high potential of applicability in this area. The illustrated correlations fully support the lessons learned from the application of this method.

Keywords

  • Cluster
  • conceptual model
  • SPSS
  • validation
Open Access

The Manager Competences for Risk Management in the Public Sector

Published Online: 20 Jul 2017
Page range: 393 - 398

Abstract

Abstract

Implementation of risk management to the public sector in the Czech Republic presents itself to the new situation managers associated with many difficulties. These are primarily the ability to identify risks in public administration and ensure the proper functioning of their management process. The article aims to show the specifics of public administration in relation to the identification and risk management process and depending on the help of analogies derived from the model of key competences of managers necessary to successfully manage the entire process. In accordance with the stated aim of the text is divided into two main parts. In the competency model, emphasis is placed on the so-called Soft skills with focus on explaining the growing importance of moral competence in the risk management process, which is often neglected. This article was written as a part of the research project Development of Social Skills of a Soldier (LEADER_DZRO_K104), funded by institutional support which is intended for the development of research organizations in the Ministry of Defence (DZRO K- 104) funded from.

Keywords

  • risk management
  • competences for risk management
  • moral competence
Open Access

Research on the Preparation and Professional Realisation of Newly Appointed Logistics Officers

Published Online: 20 Jul 2017
Page range: 399 - 404

Abstract

Abstract

The training and education of cadets at the Vasil Levski National Military University is aimed at professional, intellectual, physical and moral development, and creation of leadership and management skills. The education aims at realizing the concept of optimal receiving a wide range of competencies in the field of military affairs, as well as knowledge about the activities of civil, political, socio-economic structures and systems. It aims at forming knowledge, skills and moral and volitional qualities, which serve as a basis for professional development, allowing implementation of the system for national and collective security and defense. The officer is a leader with undivided personal authority who takes full responsibility for training and combat readiness of the personnel from the military unit entrusted to him, its education in patriotism and national pride, maintenance military discipline and moral-psychological condition, formation of a sense of duty and responsibility to Bulgarian homeland and nation, and responsibility to the state of armaments, military equipment, ammunition and other material resources.

Keywords

  • professional realisation
  • logistics officers
  • leadership
  • management skills
Open Access

Risk Management in the Decision Making Process Concerning the Use of Outsourcing Services in the Bulgarian Armed Forces

Published Online: 20 Jul 2017
Page range: 405 - 410

Abstract

Abstract

Outsourcing services in the armed forces are a promising tool for reducing defence spending which use shall be determined by previously made accurate analysis of peacetime and wartime tasks of army structures. The decision to implement such services allows formations of Bulgarian Army to focus on the implementation of specific tasks related to their combat training. Outsourcing is a successful practice which is applied both in the armies of the member states of NATO and in the Bulgarian Army. Using specialized companies to provide certain services in formations provides a reduction in defence spending, access to technology and skills in terms of financial shortage. The aim of this paper is to analyse main outsourcing risks that affect the relationship between the military formation of the Bulgarian army, the structures of the Ministry of Defence of the Republic of Bulgaria and service providers, and to assess those risks. The basic steps for risk management in outsourcing activities are determined on this base.

Keywords

  • outsourcing
  • risk management
  • outsourcing risk
Open Access

New Approach – Quadrangle of Knowledge Based Sustainability

Published Online: 20 Jul 2017
Page range: 411 - 417