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Volume 28 (2022): Issue 3 (June 2022)

Volume 28 (2022): Issue 2 (June 2022)

Volume 28 (2022): Issue 1 (June 2022)

Volume 27 (2021): Issue 3 (June 2021)

Volume 27 (2021): Issue 2 (June 2021)

Volume 27 (2021): Issue 1 (June 2021)

Volume 26 (2020): Issue 3 (June 2020)

Volume 26 (2020): Issue 2 (June 2020)

Volume 26 (2020): Issue 1 (June 2020)

Volume 25 (2019): Issue 3 (June 2019)

Volume 25 (2019): Issue 2 (June 2019)

Volume 25 (2019): Issue 1 (June 2019)

Volume 24 (2018): Issue 3 (June 2018)

Volume 24 (2018): Issue 2 (June 2018)

Volume 24 (2018): Issue 1 (June 2018)

Volume 23 (2017): Issue 3 (June 2017)

Volume 23 (2017): Issue 2 (June 2017)

Volume 23 (2017): Issue 1 (June 2017)

Volume 22 (2016): Issue 3 (June 2016)

Volume 22 (2016): Issue 2 (June 2016)

Volume 22 (2016): Issue 1 (June 2016)

Volume 21 (2015): Issue 3 (June 2015)

Volume 21 (2015): Issue 2 (June 2015)

Volume 21 (2015): Issue 1 (June 2015)

Conference Details
Format
Conference
eISSN
2451-3113
First Published
15 Dec 2015
Publication timeframe
3 times per year
Languages
English

Search

Volume 27 (2021): Issue 1 (June 2021)

Conference Details
Format
Conference
eISSN
2451-3113
First Published
15 Dec 2015
Publication timeframe
3 times per year
Languages
English

Search

38 Articles
Open Access

Media as a Transmitter of Information Provided by Armed Forces, the State and Terrorist Organisations in Armed Conflicts and Terrorist Attacks

Published Online: 12 Jul 2021
Page range: 1 - 7

Abstract

Abstract

The article deals with issues related to the media as a relay of information provided by the armed forces, the state and terrorist organizations, in armed conflicts and terrorist acts. It contains two main subchapters, namely: the first on the role of the media in armed conflicts and terrorist acts, and the second describing the use of media by terrorists. There is no doubt that almost every ongoing armed conflict or terrorist attack can count on a broad media coverage. It is an event that neither news agencies, broadcasters of television news services, nor print media publishers can miss. The text mentions the basic models of behavior of state authorities in this matter of informing the public about events such as warfare or terrorist attack. Forms of providing information from conflict regions or terrorist activities by contemporary journalism have also been described. There was also information about the role of the Internet in the process of reporting the course of the war. An important part of the article is to describe the media strategy in relation to this type of event. The summary concludes on the role of mass media in contemporary armed conflict and the terrorist attack.

Keywords

  • Media
  • information
  • armed conflict
  • terrorist act
Open Access

Unattended Ground Sensor Borders – the Forgotten Solution for Afghanistan

Published Online: 12 Jul 2021
Page range: 8 - 13

Abstract

Abstract

Recent military conflicts identify the permanent feature of weaker combatants to take refuge in sanctuaries outside areas of responsibility. These territories in the vicinity of theaters of operations were used mainly for protection and survival but also for the recruitment, equipment, training or supply and support of forces directly involved in military actions. The expansion of the Hon Chi Min Trail supply network through Laos and Cambodia or the installation of a Taliban safe haven in Pakistan are examples that confirm their impact on the end result. The paper aims to analyze strategies that use sensors, drones and other capabilities specific to today’s arsenal of technology that can support military leaders in the field in solving this challenge of monitoring and controlling the boundaries of a theater of operations (TO).

Keywords

  • safe haven
  • Afghan war
  • Hon Chi Min Trail
  • the Morice Line
Open Access

A Perspective on Military Operations in the Urban Environment

Published Online: 12 Jul 2021
Page range: 14 - 19

Abstract

Abstract

The current operational environment is increasingly complex, dynamic and unpredictable. Military actions vary in duration and intensity, but regardless of their type, they represent a major challenge to the participating forces due to the complexity of the environment and the operational context and the multitude of actors present in the area of operations. The last period also shows that military actions, contrary to the recommendations of military strategists, focus on inhabited areas and especially on urban areas that concentrate economic, political, military power and offer multiple opportunities, especially to forces in numerical and technological inferiority. The conduct of military operations in urban areas is a major challenge for all armies, regardless of their level and combat experience, and overburdens personnel beyond borders.

Keywords

  • urban warfare
  • conflict
  • complexity
  • combat power
Open Access

The National Security Strategy in the Current Environment: from DIME to a DIME-T Approach

Published Online: 12 Jul 2021
Page range: 20 - 25

Abstract

Abstract

The contemporary security environment is characterized by Volatility, Uncertainty, Complexity and Ambiguity (VUCA), the use of hybrid warfare and grey zone conflicts, generating the need to adapt the national security strategies to the changes demands of the environment. In this context, the instruments of national power (diplomatic, information, economic, military) should be used in an integrated manner, in order to provide a more comprehensive approach to national security. The technology has become an integral part of the life of the society, and as such it should be taken into consideration as an instrument of power and highlighted as a major component of a national security strategy. The paper proposes a DIME-T approach to national instruments of power, by analysing the complex implications of technology on all the areas of security.

Keywords

  • security
  • VUCA
  • DIME
  • instruments
  • technology
Open Access

Popular Geopolitics and the Ideological use of Sports

Published Online: 12 Jul 2021
Page range: 26 - 32

Abstract

Abstract

Globalization has benefits despite solid objections to the policies and regimes on which it is based on or the ongoing challenges it poses to the nation-state, weakening its authority and driving into world affairs the sub- and transnational spaces. These benefits include access to information on various topics through various means, including mass media communication. On the one hand, the paper enlights the reader with the notion of popular geopolitics, demonstrating at the same time that we are not facing an entirely new phenomenon. On the other hand, it connects the attitude towards or during a major sporting event with the geopolitical context of that time to better understand world politics by the non-specialists in the field.

Keywords

  • popular geopolitics
  • world politics
  • social media
  • sports
Open Access

The Evolution of Military Staffs and the Possible Effects of Artificial Intelligence

Published Online: 12 Jul 2021
Page range: 33 - 38

Abstract

Abstract

The military staffs are vital parts of military organizations dealing with the numerous details required for the successful conduct of either the peace-time daily routine tasks or the war-time missions. In NATO’s view the staffs are the bodies of specialists whose main task is to provide advice for the commanders on problems at hand as well as to materialize a bold plan acting upon the commanders’ intent and guidance. Staffs capable of meeting these requirements do not have a long history, although different kind of advisory bodies of selected personnel were accompanied the military leaders throughout the history. The military staff of today can be considered as a step on the evolutionary ladder of staffs, on which the emerging technologies will reveal new steps to be taken. One of the most important technology that will affect, or revolutionize even, the internal work processes and the constitution of a military staff is the artificial intelligence. This paper describes the technological and social changes that led to the emergence of the current NATO staff organization and gives some hints about the possible future effects of artificial intelligence on the staff system.

Keywords

  • military staff
  • artificial intelligence
Open Access

Adapting the Training Process of the Forces to the Specific Conceptual and Actional Characteristics of the Hybrid War

Published Online: 12 Jul 2021
Page range: 39 - 46

Abstract

Abstract

The proliferation of entities that innovatively, almost simultaneously, combine conventional and unconventional capabilities and make a rapid transition between them to create strategic effects, has brought the concept of hybrid threat to the attention of analysts, creating numerous debates on this issue, with implications for strategic military priorities, planning, policy and resource development. The concept of hybrid threat represents an evolution of military art and a potential paradigm shift as a doctrinal and organizational revolution in the military field. In order to counteract the effects of hybrid threats, it is necessary to identify the essential characteristics that define them and use them in the design of force training programs.

Keywords

  • hybrid threat
  • hybrid war
  • forces
  • conflict
  • training
Open Access

Strategic Leadership in Hybrid Warfare

Published Online: 12 Jul 2021
Page range: 47 - 50

Abstract

Abstract

Strategic leadership is the most important action undertaken during a war and is therefore the main target of the opponent. Hybrid warfare is the war of the present and the future, and within it, the action against leadership is carried out according to new rules and has absolute priority. The working hypotheses validated in this article demonstrate that the influence of leadership begins with the process of forming command cadres and continues with the action of cyber attack on the technical management systemsl.

Keywords

  • leadership
  • hybrid war
  • strategic
  • command and control
  • critical infrastructure
Open Access

Perspectives on the Implementation of the 2017 Nuclear Weapons Ban Treaty

Published Online: 12 Jul 2021
Page range: 51 - 55

Abstract

Abstract

The adoption of The Treaty on the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons (TPNW) by the UN General Assembly in July 2017 is a real success for the international community in the fight against armaments and the danger of an apocalyptic war. Despite the scepticism of many, the treaty entered into force in January 2021, with its 50th ratification. Although this story seems to have come to a happy end, it is only now that the turmoil begins. No nuclear-weapon state has supported the adoption of the treaty and they refuse to recognize its legal power. The implementation of this treaty will be the hardest test for the UN. Nuclear states are the strongest and most decision-making, especially within the Security Council. In this context, the question arises whether the UN will succeed in finding an effective way to persuade nuclear states to give up these weapons or whether we will witness an international “putsch” of nuclear states.

Keywords

  • International humanitarian law
  • Nuclear Weapons
  • United Nations
Open Access

The Characteristics of the Romanian Infantry Tactics during the Interwar Period

Published Online: 12 Jul 2021
Page range: 56 - 61

Abstract

Abstract

This article examines the main tactical characteristics of the Romanian infantry during the interwar period under the influence of the French principles, in the context in which the First World War proved the need to consider providing the units with a variety of technical equipment for a greater firepower on the battlefield. This article presents the basic forms of warfare according to the regulations of the time, defining the tactical rules of the battalion, presenting the new concepts that have emerged in the infantry tactics after the great world conflagration. It also presents aspects of subunit training, as well as the main technical characteristics of the infantry weaponry compared to that of the French army. On the other hand, it identifies the difficulties encountered in adapting the tactical principles of the French Regulations to the specificities of the Romanian infantry which had to take into account the physiognomy of a possible war, the troops available, but also the differences in army industry development.

Keywords

  • tactics
  • infantry
  • French
  • interwar
  • First World War
Open Access

The Competing Hypotheses Analytical Model and Human Intelligence Single-Source Analysis

Published Online: 12 Jul 2021
Page range: 62 - 73

Abstract

Abstract

The article examines some particular aspects of the analytical process within the intelligence cycle, having as reference the framework of strategic intelligence. Starting from a proposed model of analysis of the competing hypotheses using phases-tailored tools, which will improve the quality of all-source intelligence analysis and its final products, we further assess its applicability in HUMINT (Human Intelligence) analysis. The model of intelligence analysis as a problem-solving method, with a focus on predictive analysis, will serve to understand the expectations from single-source collection disciplines (in our case, HUMINT) data gathering and reporting, connected to the roles of HUMINT analysts in the specialized branches.

Keywords

  • Information
  • Intelligence
  • HUMINT
  • analysis
Open Access

An Image of the Evolution of Switzerland’s Neutrality Policy

Published Online: 12 Jul 2021
Page range: 74 - 81

Abstract

Abstract

The specific elements of neutrality, namely, the national interests, the right to neutrality, the international situation, as well as aspects related to tradition and history, are determinants of Switzerland’s neutrality policy. Switzerland’s role on the international stage is the role of a “silent witness” who transmits his “testimony” through nonverbal language. The effort of the Swiss confederation to preserve its neutrality is the effort of a champion who puts his title to the test again and again to permanently reconfirm the legitimacy of his position.

Keywords

  • neutrality
  • neutrality law
  • neutral country
  • military neutrality
Open Access

Genesis and Evolution of Military Strategy

Published Online: 12 Jul 2021
Page range: 82 - 88

Abstract

Abstract

It cannot be a strategy without technical determinations. Technique is the most dynamic element of the action. In general, the technical component answers a sharp question: with what? The ancient warrior used the spear, the bow and arrow, the sword and the shield. These means allowed nothing but close combat and, eventually, hitting the enemy from a distance with an arrow or a spear. The historical evolution of peoples was obviously based on the art of political-military leadership. In the distant past, there was no theoretical system of general notions, principles and laws of this art, although, intuitively, great army commanders, some of them true geniuses of war politics, masterfully applied it.

Keywords

  • genesis
  • evolution
  • perpetual war
  • strategic space
  • unrestricted war
Open Access

Reflections on the Context of the Change of War

Published Online: 12 Jul 2021
Page range: 89 - 94

Abstract

Abstract

In order to understand and explain the changes of war in a very complex operational environment and in a continuous transformation, we must anticipate, render in an abstract form and create solutions for successful decisions. The estimates of this communication resulted from a combined analysis of the conditions of war without winners and losers, given that humanity has evolved towards modernity from the perspective of changing the forms of consciousness, reshaping relationships and social structures, technological developments, or reporting the individual to the environment around him. In this context, identifying the relationships between the phenomenon of war and the other aspects (domains) of social life becomes a real challenge.

Keywords

  • information warfare
  • hybrid threats
  • operational states
  • misinformation
Open Access

Translation Support Model of the Ukrainian Armed Forces under the Ongoing Hybrid Russian Warfare

Published Online: 12 Jul 2021
Page range: 95 - 101

Abstract

Abstract

The article explores the specifics of translation and interpretation components in the framework of the Translation Support Model of the Ukrainian Armed Forces (the Model) in the context of ongoing hybrid Russian warfare against Ukraine. The functional-interpretive approach of modelling the translation process is reviewed as a theoretical basis for the Model. Translation Component of the Model is implemented primarily through the Translation Project Management (TPM), and consists of the Organizational and Instructional components, implemented with such principles as circularity, continuity and fluency. Translation Workflow as well as Roles and Functions are the constituents of the Organizational component within TPM concept. The first one is described via the following stages: Acquisition of the original text (OT) from the Client, Organization and planning, Preparation of the OT for translation, Pre-translation analysis, Uploading the Project into the CAT software, Translation, Editing, Proofreading, and Finalization. The Instructional component facilitates the effective use of the translation resources (Translation Memories and Terminology Bases), categorized according to the NATO functional classes (J-structure). The interpretation component of the Model is mainly regarded through the prism of risk mitigation strategy, being the crucial aspect in the hybrid warfare setting.

Keywords

  • model of translation
  • military translation
  • translation support
  • hybrid warfare
  • translation process
Open Access

The Relevance of the Berlin Plus Agreements for the Planning Phase of the Military Operation Eufor Althea

Published Online: 12 Jul 2021
Page range: 102 - 105

Abstract

Abstract

Conducted in Bosnia and Herzegovina since 2004, EUFOR Althea still remains the most significant military operation of the European Union. Using the document analysis as a qualitative research tool, this paper examines the usefulness and viability of the Berlin Plus Agreements (established between NATO and the EU) in the initial planning phase of EUFOR Althea.

Keywords

  • Berlin Plus Agreements
  • Bosnia and Herzegovina
  • EUFOR Althea
Open Access

The Effectiveness of Infantry Squad Combat and Pre-Combat Formations for Warfighting

Published Online: 12 Jul 2021
Page range: 106 - 111

Abstract

Abstract

The article aims to describe experimental research into infantry squad pre-combat formations. It focuses on the most used formations, and addresses their advantages and suitability for various tactical situations. A highlighted feature of the experiment is the involvement of units with varying degrees of training as research subjects: from novices through to professional soldiers, from combat squads to instructors of the elite course of the ACR ground forces. The synthesized results can therefore be perceived as having universal validity. For broad-spectrum research of their properties and usability, each formation is evaluated in different terrains and different tactical situations. The presented data are usable in practice for training infantry, motorized airborne units, and in certain cases mechanized forces and combat support units. Research into this area of small-unit tactics is now even more progressive, since a significant number of tasks in conducting combat operations are being transferred to small units. This is at the expense of large troop formations, which are increasingly difficult to use in times of high-precision weapons and hybrid warfare. In certain situations even a small unit can perform tasks with operational ramifications. Moreover, in this area of tactics publications are very rare due to the low scientific interest and the inclusion of information falling under the ‘classified information’ of individual armies. The data presented in the article are set in their broader context, commented upon by the authors of the training, and described with the intention their inclusion in the training of troops.

Keywords

  • infantry training
  • pre-combat assembly
  • results of experiment
  • small-unit tactics
Open Access

Hybrid Conflicts Actors’ Action Models Analysis

Published Online: 12 Jul 2021
Page range: 112 - 117

Abstract

Abstract

The present article highlights the need to understand the physiognomy of hybrid conflicts, the action methodology of the actors in these conflicts, and aims to identify the correlation between the characteristics of the hybrid operational environment and the typology of participating actors in order to model future military actions. The ever-changing nature of the operational environment emphasizes the importance of understanding the military phenomenon in terms of the process of conflict management and resolution, in general, and of the hybrid conflicts in particular.

Keywords

  • hybrid conflict
  • security generating actors
  • insecurity generating actors
  • action models
Open Access

The NATO 2030 Report. Strategic Priorities of the Alliance

Published Online: 12 Jul 2021
Page range: 118 - 124

Abstract

Abstract

According to the NATO 2030 report the Alliance will have to adapt to a more complex strategic environment over the next decade. In this study, we address the major strategic priorities of the report, and its recommendations for the Alliance’s partnerships. NATO’s partnership initiatives (Partnership for Peace, Mediterranean Dialogue, Istanbul Cooperation Initiative, Partners Across the Globe) are key tools for building cooperative security and cooperation with partners. It provides a good opportunity to review the Alliance’s ability of continuous innovation and its adaptation to a changing world.

Keywords

  • NATO 2030 report
  • transatlantic bond
  • burden sharing
  • cooperative security
  • Berlin Partnership Package
Open Access

Employment of the Armed Forces of Ukraine in Different Periods of Anti-Terrorist Operation in Eastern Ukraine (2014–2018)

Published Online: 12 Jul 2021
Page range: 125 - 130

Abstract

Abstract

The article reviews issues related to the use of the Armed Forces of Ukraine in the anti-terrorist operation (ATO) in eastern Ukraine (2014-2018), which became a form of repel and deterrence of Russian aggression, began in Crimea in February 2014 and subsequently continued in eastern regions of Ukraine. According to the nature and consequences of hostilities, the Russian-Ukrainian armed conflict is divided into initial and two main periods, within which a number of stages are defined, distinguished qualitatively in the nature and content of hostilities. The article shows how this affected the change of forms of the Armed Forces of Ukraine employment in the anti-terrorist operation. During the initial (Crimean) period, units and subdivisions of the Ukrainian army were not actually used to repel hybrid aggression of the Russian Federation, but later, when the Russian leadership began using a similar scenario of aggression in the eastern regions of Ukraine, the state responded with the armed fight. The authors believe that despite the swiftness of the first period, its events were characterized by frequent changes in the use of the Armed Forces of Ukraine - from patrolling and guarding important facilities to offensive, raid and search operations. The second period, according to the authors, was characterized by the conduct of the Ukrainian army’s defensive actions with the active use of maneuvers in various dangerous areas.

Keywords

  • anti-terrorist operation
  • Armed Forces of Ukraine
  • Russian occupation forces
  • eastern Ukraine
Open Access

Particularities of the Exercise of the Public Service by the Military

Published Online: 12 Jul 2021
Page range: 131 - 135

Abstract

Abstract

The achievement of the public interest by the state implies the enduing with public prerogatives of certain persons, who, in the exercise of the public function and by fulfilling the conditions provided by law, acquire the quality of civil servants. The regulation of the public office in Romania offers both a general perspective, through the Statute of the Civil Servants, which since the adoption of the Administrative Code in 2019 is an integral part of it, and a particular perspective, embodied by the special statutes of certain professional categories that exercise the public office in a specific regime, derogating from the general rules. Law no. 80/1995 regulates the Statute of Military Personnel and, through the conditions of exercising the stipulated duties and rights, confers a special indisputable status to military personnel. However, the provisions of the same law do not establish the quality of civil servants of the military, this quality being established by juridical interpretation.

Keywords

  • military
  • public office
  • civil servant
  • law
Open Access

The Praetorian Guard, Rome’s Intelligence Service

Published Online: 12 Jul 2021
Page range: 136 - 143

Abstract

Abstract

Rome was a kingdom, then a republic, and culminated in a militaristic empire. For this, the city of Mars invented, perfected and organized efficient institutions to carry out its plans, which extended it from the Italic Peninsula throughout the world on which Rome had a say. One of the most efficient institutions, the essence of the Roman executive power, was not the Princeps, but the Praetorian Guard, a military and police institution, at the same time political, economic, but especially with the powers of a secret service, being one of the forerunners of European secret services, surpassing all that had existed until its functioning, not being matched to this day in terms of efficiency and impact in the life of a civilization. When founding the Principate, the Praetorian Guard was the one which transformed the imperial dream of Rome into a historical reality. The “wings of the Roman eagle” that spread over the world conquered by the Romans were Praetorian, if we consider that this institution was coordinated by ordo equester, the tagma of Rome’s career officers, its headquarters, but also the government of Rome, the praetorian prefect also fulfilling the function which today we would call prime minister, the second man in the hierarchy of the Roman state, of course after the princeps (the first of the citizens).Although as a military structure, the Praetorian Guard appeared with the professional Roman army, it reached its peak with the Principate, initially having a guard function for the Roman military commander, it became in time the most effective secret service of classical Antiquity. This success was due to the fact that the Romans were inspired by the Spartans (especially the Ephorian magistrates), but also by the Persians (from the administrative organization of the satrapies, the 10,000 immortals, and especially the royal postal service of Persia), the Roman creation being the most complete, therefore the etymology of the word “information” is Latin.From a military perspective, the Praetorian Guard was organized at all levels of a global society, such as Rome, covering informatively, politically, militarily, economically, but also diplomatically all Roman interests in the world controlled by Rome, being a true intelligence service. It was the first informative outpost in non-Roman territories, which had to be transformed into Roman territories, as was the case of Dacia.

Keywords

  • Rome
  • elite military
  • secret service
  • intelligence
  • expansion
Open Access

Aspects of Cooperation in the Balkans between SOE and NKVD in January–August 1944

Published Online: 12 Jul 2021
Page range: 144 - 152

Abstract

Abstract

A meeting was held on 14th January 1944 to discuss the possibilities which might exist for increased collaboration between S.O.E. and N.K.V.D. in the Balkans. The following agenda was submitted: A review of S.O.E. aims in each area and an outline of their resources with the object of examining the possibilities of a concerted Balkans plan for all countries concerned. The coordination of all these plans into one directive. The possibility of discussing such a plan with the N.K.V.D. in an endeavor to enlist their cooperation and assistance in a common plan for S.O.E., O.S.S. and N.K.V.D. Our article follows the evolution of these plans during January-August 1944.

Keywords

  • SOE
  • NKVD
  • Balkan
  • O.S.S.
  • Force 133
Open Access

Cooperation Plans between SOE and NKVD Regarding the Romanian Area during January–May 1944

Published Online: 12 Jul 2021
Page range: 153 - 160

Abstract

Abstract

The main S.O.E aim seems to have been the utilization of political circles in an endeavour to overthrow the government and get Romania out of the war or at least to bring about the removal of its array from the Russians front, and to deny the national resources to Germany. The USSR has been constant in its disinclination to play with Maniu or associates itself with British planes until they are convinced that some concrete contribution at their war aim would results. They would however be ready to discuss unconditional surrender with the emissary of the Romanian government, capable of putting it into effect. The evolution of these SOE plans will be presented in this article.

Keywords

  • SOE
  • NKVD
  • Romania
  • Antonescu
  • Maniu
Open Access

Serbian Armed Forces Rifle Platoon: Basic Models of Command Organisation

Published Online: 12 Jul 2021
Page range: 161 - 167

Abstract

Abstract

This paper is intended for military officers on rifle platoon commander duty to help them in decision making about platoon command organization. Management and command in Serbian Armed Forces rifle platoon are mostly based on experiences of twenty century. Contemporary environment influence on missions of armed forces and surely influence on tactics. To be able to perform given tasks rifle platoon commanders must know how to adopt platoon organisation as a system of sections. This paper gives better understanding how rifle platoon commander could organise subordinated units depending on various duties and weapon systems.

Keywords

  • management and command
  • command organisation
  • subordination
  • infantry
  • rifle platoon and sections
Open Access

Knowledge Augmentation in the Organizational Field through Managerial Behavioral Models

Published Online: 12 Jul 2021
Page range: 168 - 172

Abstract

Abstract

Organizational transformation based on capabilities and, implicitly, the transfer of experience and expertise between different generations are valuable and interesting organizational processes to increase organizational performance, regardless of the type of organization. In the field of human resources, the temporary succession of different typologies of generations (Z, Millennials, etc.) has brought to the attention of theorists and practitioners the need to reconsider practices to reach the audience with the most appropriate message, in terms of gaining the most appropriate resource, its formation and loyalty throughout their career. An important role, certainly amplified by the context of the pandemic crisis, is held by the formative component (through basic specialized education and through specialized trainings or training sessions) and subsequently, the way in which good managerial practices are highlighted in it. In the general framework described in this article, it is intended to highlight the existing particularities for the military field, with emphasis on the university dimension, considering the premise that the cultivation of successful managerial behaviors is a factor in increasing knowledge in the field of defense. Using mainly qualitative research methods, several possible directions are proposed for the development of solutions specific to the field mentioned in the title, which would contribute to making the current practice more dynamic.

Keywords

  • management
  • behavior
  • model
  • defense
  • knowledge
Open Access

Impacts of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Social Development and its Implications for the Transition to Sustainable Development

Published Online: 12 Jul 2021
Page range: 173 - 182

Abstract

Abstract

The COVID-19 crisis has revealed the vulnerability of people, societies and economies and has forced a rethinking of the economic and social activities of an organization. The crisis requires strong responses based on solidarity, cooperation and responsibility. Socio-economic organizations (associations, cooperatives, alliances, and social enterprises) whose business models are based on these principles can help reshape economies and societies after the crisis.

Keywords

  • social development
  • sustainable development
  • economic development
  • economic transition
  • COVID-19 economic impact
Open Access

A Study on the Identification of Factors with a Negative Influence on the Transformation of Military and Civilian Higher Education Institutions into “Sustainable Higher Education Institutions”

Published Online: 12 Jul 2021
Page range: 183 - 191

Abstract

Abstract

Education is the foundation in the development of skills and knowledge that materialize in changing the mentality and in building a sustainable vision. The integration of the importance of sustainable development and of how a sustainable society can be built in the process of university education finally leads to the development of the entrepreneurial spirit. Accepting the changes generated by the transformation into “sustainable higher education institutions” in the university environment is influenced by internal and external factors. The article analyses the negative aspects identified in the external environment of military and civilian higher education institutions.

Keywords

  • sustainable development
  • higher education institutions
  • PESTE technique
Open Access

Digitalisation of Human Resource Management. Key Roles and Relevant Issues for Military Organisations

Published Online: 12 Jul 2021
Page range: 192 - 197

Abstract

Abstract

Many recent studies focus on the issue of interdependence relationship between the successful management of human resource and the improvement of organisational performance, under the aegis of key advances in technologies and information. Therefore, the digitalisation of human resource management is a hotly debated topic, with researchers focusing on the importance of this process within the organisations. The general intention of the author of this paper is to provide those interested with conceptual clarifications on electronic human resource management (e-HRM), by reference to the literature. From a specific point of view, the paper aims to highlight the relevant aspects of the digitalisation of human resource management in military organisations.

Keywords

  • human resource management
  • digitalisation
  • e-HRM
  • military organisations
Open Access

Image and Attributes of the Police as an Employer in Poland – Perspective of the Z-Generation

Published Online: 12 Jul 2021
Page range: 198 - 203

Abstract

Abstract

Recruitment to the Police is a continuous process aimed at supplementing the shortage of human resources, whose number for many years has oscillated around 4 thousand. Taking into account the difficulty of obtaining candidates for service, as well as high competitiveness on the labour market among employers, the aim of the conducted research was to identify the quality of the image of the Police as an employer in Poland from the perspective of generation Z, i.e. the group of potential candidates for service. The analysis also focused on the attributes of Police attractiveness, paying particular attention to attractiveness in the economic, developmental and psychological dimensions. An attempt was also made to indicate a typical image of the Police as an employer by means of subjective associations with the brand. For this purpose, potential associations associated with different types of organizational culture were distinguished, and then subjected to the assessment of respondents. The research using a diagnostic survey was conducted on a sample of 100 people in 2019.

Keywords

  • image
  • attributes
  • employers
  • Police
  • generation Z
Open Access

The Influence of Disruptive Technologies on the Preparation of the National Economy and of the Territory for Defense

Published Online: 12 Jul 2021
Page range: 204 - 209

Abstract

Abstract

The paper reviews the main factors relevant to the preparation of the economy and territory for defense as well as the main developments of military applications of disruptive technologies. The brief presentation of some of these technologies, as well as the exemplification with certain data regarding their use, come to outline the need to constantly adapt defense policies to the new trends in this field.

Keywords

  • disruptive technologies
  • defence policy
  • economical power
  • military power
Open Access

Quantification of the Sustainable use of the Cultural Heritage in the Central Area of the Municipality of Ploieşti using the Cobachrem Model

Published Online: 12 Jul 2021
Page range: 210 - 215

Abstract

Abstract

Making connections between the localization of cultural heritage elements and local and regional policies for the benefit of communities, at different scales, has been one of the constant concerns of researchers and policy makers. The purpose of this study is to highlight the effects generated by cultural policy at the local, regional and central level, through investments allocated to cultural heritage in the central area of Ploieşti. The local policy aimed at building a more attractive image of Ploieşti through the renovation of the most important cultural institutions, benefiting from the funds allocated by the administration at regional and central level and European funds. The analysis of the effects produced by the investments related to the historical monuments from the central area of Ploieşti municipality was carried out through the Community-Based Cultural Heritage Resources Management (COBACHREM) model.

Keywords

  • urban heritage
  • cultural policy
  • conservation
  • economic value
  • quality of life
Open Access

New Managerial Paradigm: Manager–Stakeholder Instead of Manager–Employee

Published Online: 12 Jul 2021
Page range: 216 - 223

Abstract

Abstract

This paper aims to propose a change of the management paradigm by placing in the foreground the relationship between manager and stakeholder instead of the manager–subordinate relationship. The new managerial paradigm comes as a result of the wide-ranging mutations that have taken place in recent decades at the level of societies, economies and organizations around the world, which have forced the change of traditional managerial approaches. The work emphasizes why is necessary and possible to change the management paradigm in the present context, taking into consideration managerial and organizational arguments, that are based on observations, suggestions and recommendations of numerous specialists. Also, there are highlighted the quantitative and the qualitative differences between managerial paradigm focused on stakeholders and classical managerial paradigm of manager–employee, as well as the main advantages of a company stakeholder-based management system.

Keywords

  • management
  • manager
  • stakeholder
  • managerial paradigm
  • knowledge
Open Access

The Fundamental Role of a Leader’s Character in Motivating his Team to Achieve the Group Goals

Published Online: 12 Jul 2021
Page range: 224 - 230

Abstract

Abstract

Starting from the premise of the complexity of the management process, it is essential to approach the fulfillment of the organization’s objectives in terms of the leader’s personality, taking into account the influence of his character on those he shepherds and who contribute earnestly to the success of the organization. Without being a coincidence, the specialists were interested in what motivates people to follow leaders and especially what traits of leaders make them to be appreciated and exert their influence casually, in order to achieve organizational efficiency. Onto exercising true leadership, beyond rigorous knowledge of principles, rules, modern leadership methods and styles, require a formidable, beautiful character, meant to achieve the cohesion of the community and its influence in achieving the purpose for which the organization was established. The character traits of the leader must be persuasive for the disciples, especially when we talk about an organizational climate prone to personal and professional development of each of the team members, and implicitly of the organization.

Keywords

  • leadership
  • motivation
  • team
Open Access

Considerations Regarding the Inclusion of Cybersecurity in Knowledge Management

Published Online: 12 Jul 2021
Page range: 231 - 236

Abstract

Abstract

The development of information and communication technology brought many advantages to management and especially to knowledge management. Despite of this fact, it also brought vulnerabilities, threats and risks regarding the security of the information and organizational knowledge capital, that can conduct to information and knowledge theft. Therefore, organizations must find solutions to use technology in an efficient and secure way, considering cybersecurity as an important part of its knowledge management strategy. Even if we should be tempted to consider that cybersecurity is related just to technology, it has a much wider field of application and can have a good impact also on the other two knowledge management components: people and processes.

Keywords

  • knowledge management
  • cybersecurity
  • information
  • technology
Open Access

Knowledge Management in Military Organizations. A Seci Model Perspective

Published Online: 12 Jul 2021
Page range: 237 - 240

Abstract

Abstract

Knowledge management is a multidisciplinary domain that involves people, technology, and processes. From these three components results a series of social, technical, and other implications which influences the way knowledge is created, stored, and transmitted through organizations. One way to express these processes is through the SECI model, based on the two types of knowledge: tacit and explicit. The four dimensions of the SECI model – socialization, externalization, combination, and internalization, have particular features from organization to organization, based on the domain of activity, organizational culture and other cultural influences, type of management, processes and so on. Considering that military organization have an essential role in assuring global security and they heavily rely on knowledge, the study of knowledge management from the SECI model point of view is important as it can offer a better understating on this domain and improve it in the studied field of activity.

Keywords

  • knowledge management
  • knowledge transfer
  • tacit and tacit knowledge
Open Access

Leadership Style Determination according to Robert Blake and Jane Mouton’s Managerial Grid

Published Online: 12 Jul 2021
Page range: 241 - 246

Abstract

Abstract

The organizational development assume the unconditional support of the leadership. Over time, the researchers have developed four major behavioural theories of leadership: the trait theory, behavioural theory of leadership, situational leadership theory and integrative leadership theory. These focus on the work of leaders, what they do, what they say and what they communicate across organizational boundaries. Over time, these theories have been adapted, developed and improved according to the main objectives of the organization and each leader. The researchers in the field were those who tried to find and identify the best style of leadership, regardless of the situation they might encounter in the course of their activities. Robert Blake and Jane Mouton are among those who built the management grid. They have published more than forty articles and books that describe their theory. This management network helps to think about a manager’s leadership style and its effects on the productivity and motivation of his team. The position of a leader can be anywhere in the network, depending on the relative importance gives to the people and to the results. On the one hand, this paper analyzes the organizational development from the perspective of management, and on the other hand, after presenting the necessary explanations related to the theoretical part of the grid exemplified above, a concrete example of this grid with application in a private organization will be presented. So, the study pursued the managerial grid application and analysis on a general manager in a certified vocational training entity (AS Financial Markets Sibiu), whose managerial style could be established after a test in which he answered at 20 questions.

Keywords

  • management
  • leadership
  • position
  • behaviour
  • attitude
Open Access

The Importance of Leadership Development and Self-Development within the Organization

Published Online: 12 Jul 2021
Page range: 247 - 252

Abstract

Abstract

Leadership being a process of social influence, it is imperative to train true leaders, emotionally intelligent, able to motivate and mobilize people in the organizations they lead, in order to achieve beneficial results for all parties involved: organizations, leaders, disciples. Within the military organization, the military leader must fulfill his mission in theaters of operations, not in the context of the “the end justifies the means”, not by minimizing the human component “ stepping over bodies”, but by exercising effective servant leadership from a multicultural perspective. The leader-subordinate relationship is reciprocal and influences both the performance of the individual and the organizational one. Leadership can be based on a personality trait or can be seen as a behavioral category, being related to motivation, interpersonal behavior and the communication process. Good leadership involves the actual process of delegation, but not before leaders form and train other leaders, as real leadership is exercised “face to face” and trough interaction. The fundamental premise from which we start our approach is that the leader matters, that the people at the top of the hierarchy certainly influence the efficiency of any organization. By setting standards, goals and priorities a leader can bring about changes in daily performance. It can permanently influence the meaning of the evolution of the organization by establishing a strategic vision and formulating long-term objectives.

Keywords

  • self-development
  • leader
  • organization
38 Articles
Open Access

Media as a Transmitter of Information Provided by Armed Forces, the State and Terrorist Organisations in Armed Conflicts and Terrorist Attacks

Published Online: 12 Jul 2021
Page range: 1 - 7

Abstract

Abstract

The article deals with issues related to the media as a relay of information provided by the armed forces, the state and terrorist organizations, in armed conflicts and terrorist acts. It contains two main subchapters, namely: the first on the role of the media in armed conflicts and terrorist acts, and the second describing the use of media by terrorists. There is no doubt that almost every ongoing armed conflict or terrorist attack can count on a broad media coverage. It is an event that neither news agencies, broadcasters of television news services, nor print media publishers can miss. The text mentions the basic models of behavior of state authorities in this matter of informing the public about events such as warfare or terrorist attack. Forms of providing information from conflict regions or terrorist activities by contemporary journalism have also been described. There was also information about the role of the Internet in the process of reporting the course of the war. An important part of the article is to describe the media strategy in relation to this type of event. The summary concludes on the role of mass media in contemporary armed conflict and the terrorist attack.

Keywords

  • Media
  • information
  • armed conflict
  • terrorist act
Open Access

Unattended Ground Sensor Borders – the Forgotten Solution for Afghanistan

Published Online: 12 Jul 2021
Page range: 8 - 13

Abstract

Abstract

Recent military conflicts identify the permanent feature of weaker combatants to take refuge in sanctuaries outside areas of responsibility. These territories in the vicinity of theaters of operations were used mainly for protection and survival but also for the recruitment, equipment, training or supply and support of forces directly involved in military actions. The expansion of the Hon Chi Min Trail supply network through Laos and Cambodia or the installation of a Taliban safe haven in Pakistan are examples that confirm their impact on the end result. The paper aims to analyze strategies that use sensors, drones and other capabilities specific to today’s arsenal of technology that can support military leaders in the field in solving this challenge of monitoring and controlling the boundaries of a theater of operations (TO).

Keywords

  • safe haven
  • Afghan war
  • Hon Chi Min Trail
  • the Morice Line
Open Access

A Perspective on Military Operations in the Urban Environment

Published Online: 12 Jul 2021
Page range: 14 - 19

Abstract

Abstract

The current operational environment is increasingly complex, dynamic and unpredictable. Military actions vary in duration and intensity, but regardless of their type, they represent a major challenge to the participating forces due to the complexity of the environment and the operational context and the multitude of actors present in the area of operations. The last period also shows that military actions, contrary to the recommendations of military strategists, focus on inhabited areas and especially on urban areas that concentrate economic, political, military power and offer multiple opportunities, especially to forces in numerical and technological inferiority. The conduct of military operations in urban areas is a major challenge for all armies, regardless of their level and combat experience, and overburdens personnel beyond borders.

Keywords

  • urban warfare
  • conflict
  • complexity
  • combat power
Open Access

The National Security Strategy in the Current Environment: from DIME to a DIME-T Approach

Published Online: 12 Jul 2021
Page range: 20 - 25

Abstract

Abstract

The contemporary security environment is characterized by Volatility, Uncertainty, Complexity and Ambiguity (VUCA), the use of hybrid warfare and grey zone conflicts, generating the need to adapt the national security strategies to the changes demands of the environment. In this context, the instruments of national power (diplomatic, information, economic, military) should be used in an integrated manner, in order to provide a more comprehensive approach to national security. The technology has become an integral part of the life of the society, and as such it should be taken into consideration as an instrument of power and highlighted as a major component of a national security strategy. The paper proposes a DIME-T approach to national instruments of power, by analysing the complex implications of technology on all the areas of security.

Keywords

  • security
  • VUCA
  • DIME
  • instruments
  • technology
Open Access

Popular Geopolitics and the Ideological use of Sports

Published Online: 12 Jul 2021
Page range: 26 - 32

Abstract

Abstract

Globalization has benefits despite solid objections to the policies and regimes on which it is based on or the ongoing challenges it poses to the nation-state, weakening its authority and driving into world affairs the sub- and transnational spaces. These benefits include access to information on various topics through various means, including mass media communication. On the one hand, the paper enlights the reader with the notion of popular geopolitics, demonstrating at the same time that we are not facing an entirely new phenomenon. On the other hand, it connects the attitude towards or during a major sporting event with the geopolitical context of that time to better understand world politics by the non-specialists in the field.

Keywords

  • popular geopolitics
  • world politics
  • social media
  • sports
Open Access

The Evolution of Military Staffs and the Possible Effects of Artificial Intelligence

Published Online: 12 Jul 2021
Page range: 33 - 38

Abstract

Abstract

The military staffs are vital parts of military organizations dealing with the numerous details required for the successful conduct of either the peace-time daily routine tasks or the war-time missions. In NATO’s view the staffs are the bodies of specialists whose main task is to provide advice for the commanders on problems at hand as well as to materialize a bold plan acting upon the commanders’ intent and guidance. Staffs capable of meeting these requirements do not have a long history, although different kind of advisory bodies of selected personnel were accompanied the military leaders throughout the history. The military staff of today can be considered as a step on the evolutionary ladder of staffs, on which the emerging technologies will reveal new steps to be taken. One of the most important technology that will affect, or revolutionize even, the internal work processes and the constitution of a military staff is the artificial intelligence. This paper describes the technological and social changes that led to the emergence of the current NATO staff organization and gives some hints about the possible future effects of artificial intelligence on the staff system.

Keywords

  • military staff
  • artificial intelligence
Open Access

Adapting the Training Process of the Forces to the Specific Conceptual and Actional Characteristics of the Hybrid War

Published Online: 12 Jul 2021
Page range: 39 - 46

Abstract

Abstract

The proliferation of entities that innovatively, almost simultaneously, combine conventional and unconventional capabilities and make a rapid transition between them to create strategic effects, has brought the concept of hybrid threat to the attention of analysts, creating numerous debates on this issue, with implications for strategic military priorities, planning, policy and resource development. The concept of hybrid threat represents an evolution of military art and a potential paradigm shift as a doctrinal and organizational revolution in the military field. In order to counteract the effects of hybrid threats, it is necessary to identify the essential characteristics that define them and use them in the design of force training programs.

Keywords

  • hybrid threat
  • hybrid war
  • forces
  • conflict
  • training
Open Access

Strategic Leadership in Hybrid Warfare

Published Online: 12 Jul 2021
Page range: 47 - 50

Abstract

Abstract

Strategic leadership is the most important action undertaken during a war and is therefore the main target of the opponent. Hybrid warfare is the war of the present and the future, and within it, the action against leadership is carried out according to new rules and has absolute priority. The working hypotheses validated in this article demonstrate that the influence of leadership begins with the process of forming command cadres and continues with the action of cyber attack on the technical management systemsl.

Keywords

  • leadership
  • hybrid war
  • strategic
  • command and control
  • critical infrastructure
Open Access

Perspectives on the Implementation of the 2017 Nuclear Weapons Ban Treaty

Published Online: 12 Jul 2021
Page range: 51 - 55

Abstract

Abstract

The adoption of The Treaty on the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons (TPNW) by the UN General Assembly in July 2017 is a real success for the international community in the fight against armaments and the danger of an apocalyptic war. Despite the scepticism of many, the treaty entered into force in January 2021, with its 50th ratification. Although this story seems to have come to a happy end, it is only now that the turmoil begins. No nuclear-weapon state has supported the adoption of the treaty and they refuse to recognize its legal power. The implementation of this treaty will be the hardest test for the UN. Nuclear states are the strongest and most decision-making, especially within the Security Council. In this context, the question arises whether the UN will succeed in finding an effective way to persuade nuclear states to give up these weapons or whether we will witness an international “putsch” of nuclear states.

Keywords

  • International humanitarian law
  • Nuclear Weapons
  • United Nations
Open Access

The Characteristics of the Romanian Infantry Tactics during the Interwar Period

Published Online: 12 Jul 2021
Page range: 56 - 61

Abstract

Abstract

This article examines the main tactical characteristics of the Romanian infantry during the interwar period under the influence of the French principles, in the context in which the First World War proved the need to consider providing the units with a variety of technical equipment for a greater firepower on the battlefield. This article presents the basic forms of warfare according to the regulations of the time, defining the tactical rules of the battalion, presenting the new concepts that have emerged in the infantry tactics after the great world conflagration. It also presents aspects of subunit training, as well as the main technical characteristics of the infantry weaponry compared to that of the French army. On the other hand, it identifies the difficulties encountered in adapting the tactical principles of the French Regulations to the specificities of the Romanian infantry which had to take into account the physiognomy of a possible war, the troops available, but also the differences in army industry development.

Keywords

  • tactics
  • infantry
  • French
  • interwar
  • First World War
Open Access

The Competing Hypotheses Analytical Model and Human Intelligence Single-Source Analysis

Published Online: 12 Jul 2021
Page range: 62 - 73

Abstract

Abstract

The article examines some particular aspects of the analytical process within the intelligence cycle, having as reference the framework of strategic intelligence. Starting from a proposed model of analysis of the competing hypotheses using phases-tailored tools, which will improve the quality of all-source intelligence analysis and its final products, we further assess its applicability in HUMINT (Human Intelligence) analysis. The model of intelligence analysis as a problem-solving method, with a focus on predictive analysis, will serve to understand the expectations from single-source collection disciplines (in our case, HUMINT) data gathering and reporting, connected to the roles of HUMINT analysts in the specialized branches.

Keywords

  • Information
  • Intelligence
  • HUMINT
  • analysis
Open Access

An Image of the Evolution of Switzerland’s Neutrality Policy

Published Online: 12 Jul 2021
Page range: 74 - 81

Abstract

Abstract

The specific elements of neutrality, namely, the national interests, the right to neutrality, the international situation, as well as aspects related to tradition and history, are determinants of Switzerland’s neutrality policy. Switzerland’s role on the international stage is the role of a “silent witness” who transmits his “testimony” through nonverbal language. The effort of the Swiss confederation to preserve its neutrality is the effort of a champion who puts his title to the test again and again to permanently reconfirm the legitimacy of his position.

Keywords

  • neutrality
  • neutrality law
  • neutral country
  • military neutrality
Open Access

Genesis and Evolution of Military Strategy

Published Online: 12 Jul 2021
Page range: 82 - 88

Abstract

Abstract

It cannot be a strategy without technical determinations. Technique is the most dynamic element of the action. In general, the technical component answers a sharp question: with what? The ancient warrior used the spear, the bow and arrow, the sword and the shield. These means allowed nothing but close combat and, eventually, hitting the enemy from a distance with an arrow or a spear. The historical evolution of peoples was obviously based on the art of political-military leadership. In the distant past, there was no theoretical system of general notions, principles and laws of this art, although, intuitively, great army commanders, some of them true geniuses of war politics, masterfully applied it.

Keywords

  • genesis
  • evolution
  • perpetual war
  • strategic space
  • unrestricted war
Open Access

Reflections on the Context of the Change of War

Published Online: 12 Jul 2021
Page range: 89 - 94

Abstract

Abstract

In order to understand and explain the changes of war in a very complex operational environment and in a continuous transformation, we must anticipate, render in an abstract form and create solutions for successful decisions. The estimates of this communication resulted from a combined analysis of the conditions of war without winners and losers, given that humanity has evolved towards modernity from the perspective of changing the forms of consciousness, reshaping relationships and social structures, technological developments, or reporting the individual to the environment around him. In this context, identifying the relationships between the phenomenon of war and the other aspects (domains) of social life becomes a real challenge.

Keywords

  • information warfare
  • hybrid threats
  • operational states
  • misinformation
Open Access

Translation Support Model of the Ukrainian Armed Forces under the Ongoing Hybrid Russian Warfare

Published Online: 12 Jul 2021
Page range: 95 - 101

Abstract

Abstract

The article explores the specifics of translation and interpretation components in the framework of the Translation Support Model of the Ukrainian Armed Forces (the Model) in the context of ongoing hybrid Russian warfare against Ukraine. The functional-interpretive approach of modelling the translation process is reviewed as a theoretical basis for the Model. Translation Component of the Model is implemented primarily through the Translation Project Management (TPM), and consists of the Organizational and Instructional components, implemented with such principles as circularity, continuity and fluency. Translation Workflow as well as Roles and Functions are the constituents of the Organizational component within TPM concept. The first one is described via the following stages: Acquisition of the original text (OT) from the Client, Organization and planning, Preparation of the OT for translation, Pre-translation analysis, Uploading the Project into the CAT software, Translation, Editing, Proofreading, and Finalization. The Instructional component facilitates the effective use of the translation resources (Translation Memories and Terminology Bases), categorized according to the NATO functional classes (J-structure). The interpretation component of the Model is mainly regarded through the prism of risk mitigation strategy, being the crucial aspect in the hybrid warfare setting.

Keywords

  • model of translation
  • military translation
  • translation support
  • hybrid warfare
  • translation process
Open Access

The Relevance of the Berlin Plus Agreements for the Planning Phase of the Military Operation Eufor Althea

Published Online: 12 Jul 2021
Page range: 102 - 105

Abstract

Abstract

Conducted in Bosnia and Herzegovina since 2004, EUFOR Althea still remains the most significant military operation of the European Union. Using the document analysis as a qualitative research tool, this paper examines the usefulness and viability of the Berlin Plus Agreements (established between NATO and the EU) in the initial planning phase of EUFOR Althea.

Keywords

  • Berlin Plus Agreements
  • Bosnia and Herzegovina
  • EUFOR Althea
Open Access

The Effectiveness of Infantry Squad Combat and Pre-Combat Formations for Warfighting

Published Online: 12 Jul 2021
Page range: 106 - 111

Abstract

Abstract

The article aims to describe experimental research into infantry squad pre-combat formations. It focuses on the most used formations, and addresses their advantages and suitability for various tactical situations. A highlighted feature of the experiment is the involvement of units with varying degrees of training as research subjects: from novices through to professional soldiers, from combat squads to instructors of the elite course of the ACR ground forces. The synthesized results can therefore be perceived as having universal validity. For broad-spectrum research of their properties and usability, each formation is evaluated in different terrains and different tactical situations. The presented data are usable in practice for training infantry, motorized airborne units, and in certain cases mechanized forces and combat support units. Research into this area of small-unit tactics is now even more progressive, since a significant number of tasks in conducting combat operations are being transferred to small units. This is at the expense of large troop formations, which are increasingly difficult to use in times of high-precision weapons and hybrid warfare. In certain situations even a small unit can perform tasks with operational ramifications. Moreover, in this area of tactics publications are very rare due to the low scientific interest and the inclusion of information falling under the ‘classified information’ of individual armies. The data presented in the article are set in their broader context, commented upon by the authors of the training, and described with the intention their inclusion in the training of troops.

Keywords

  • infantry training
  • pre-combat assembly
  • results of experiment
  • small-unit tactics
Open Access

Hybrid Conflicts Actors’ Action Models Analysis

Published Online: 12 Jul 2021
Page range: 112 - 117

Abstract

Abstract

The present article highlights the need to understand the physiognomy of hybrid conflicts, the action methodology of the actors in these conflicts, and aims to identify the correlation between the characteristics of the hybrid operational environment and the typology of participating actors in order to model future military actions. The ever-changing nature of the operational environment emphasizes the importance of understanding the military phenomenon in terms of the process of conflict management and resolution, in general, and of the hybrid conflicts in particular.

Keywords

  • hybrid conflict
  • security generating actors
  • insecurity generating actors
  • action models
Open Access

The NATO 2030 Report. Strategic Priorities of the Alliance

Published Online: 12 Jul 2021
Page range: 118 - 124

Abstract

Abstract

According to the NATO 2030 report the Alliance will have to adapt to a more complex strategic environment over the next decade. In this study, we address the major strategic priorities of the report, and its recommendations for the Alliance’s partnerships. NATO’s partnership initiatives (Partnership for Peace, Mediterranean Dialogue, Istanbul Cooperation Initiative, Partners Across the Globe) are key tools for building cooperative security and cooperation with partners. It provides a good opportunity to review the Alliance’s ability of continuous innovation and its adaptation to a changing world.

Keywords

  • NATO 2030 report
  • transatlantic bond
  • burden sharing
  • cooperative security
  • Berlin Partnership Package
Open Access

Employment of the Armed Forces of Ukraine in Different Periods of Anti-Terrorist Operation in Eastern Ukraine (2014–2018)

Published Online: 12 Jul 2021
Page range: 125 - 130

Abstract

Abstract

The article reviews issues related to the use of the Armed Forces of Ukraine in the anti-terrorist operation (ATO) in eastern Ukraine (2014-2018), which became a form of repel and deterrence of Russian aggression, began in Crimea in February 2014 and subsequently continued in eastern regions of Ukraine. According to the nature and consequences of hostilities, the Russian-Ukrainian armed conflict is divided into initial and two main periods, within which a number of stages are defined, distinguished qualitatively in the nature and content of hostilities. The article shows how this affected the change of forms of the Armed Forces of Ukraine employment in the anti-terrorist operation. During the initial (Crimean) period, units and subdivisions of the Ukrainian army were not actually used to repel hybrid aggression of the Russian Federation, but later, when the Russian leadership began using a similar scenario of aggression in the eastern regions of Ukraine, the state responded with the armed fight. The authors believe that despite the swiftness of the first period, its events were characterized by frequent changes in the use of the Armed Forces of Ukraine - from patrolling and guarding important facilities to offensive, raid and search operations. The second period, according to the authors, was characterized by the conduct of the Ukrainian army’s defensive actions with the active use of maneuvers in various dangerous areas.

Keywords

  • anti-terrorist operation
  • Armed Forces of Ukraine
  • Russian occupation forces
  • eastern Ukraine
Open Access

Particularities of the Exercise of the Public Service by the Military

Published Online: 12 Jul 2021
Page range: 131 - 135

Abstract

Abstract

The achievement of the public interest by the state implies the enduing with public prerogatives of certain persons, who, in the exercise of the public function and by fulfilling the conditions provided by law, acquire the quality of civil servants. The regulation of the public office in Romania offers both a general perspective, through the Statute of the Civil Servants, which since the adoption of the Administrative Code in 2019 is an integral part of it, and a particular perspective, embodied by the special statutes of certain professional categories that exercise the public office in a specific regime, derogating from the general rules. Law no. 80/1995 regulates the Statute of Military Personnel and, through the conditions of exercising the stipulated duties and rights, confers a special indisputable status to military personnel. However, the provisions of the same law do not establish the quality of civil servants of the military, this quality being established by juridical interpretation.

Keywords

  • military
  • public office
  • civil servant
  • law
Open Access

The Praetorian Guard, Rome’s Intelligence Service

Published Online: 12 Jul 2021
Page range: 136 - 143

Abstract

Abstract

Rome was a kingdom, then a republic, and culminated in a militaristic empire. For this, the city of Mars invented, perfected and organized efficient institutions to carry out its plans, which extended it from the Italic Peninsula throughout the world on which Rome had a say. One of the most efficient institutions, the essence of the Roman executive power, was not the Princeps, but the Praetorian Guard, a military and police institution, at the same time political, economic, but especially with the powers of a secret service, being one of the forerunners of European secret services, surpassing all that had existed until its functioning, not being matched to this day in terms of efficiency and impact in the life of a civilization. When founding the Principate, the Praetorian Guard was the one which transformed the imperial dream of Rome into a historical reality. The “wings of the Roman eagle” that spread over the world conquered by the Romans were Praetorian, if we consider that this institution was coordinated by ordo equester, the tagma of Rome’s career officers, its headquarters, but also the government of Rome, the praetorian prefect also fulfilling the function which today we would call prime minister, the second man in the hierarchy of the Roman state, of course after the princeps (the first of the citizens).Although as a military structure, the Praetorian Guard appeared with the professional Roman army, it reached its peak with the Principate, initially having a guard function for the Roman military commander, it became in time the most effective secret service of classical Antiquity. This success was due to the fact that the Romans were inspired by the Spartans (especially the Ephorian magistrates), but also by the Persians (from the administrative organization of the satrapies, the 10,000 immortals, and especially the royal postal service of Persia), the Roman creation being the most complete, therefore the etymology of the word “information” is Latin.From a military perspective, the Praetorian Guard was organized at all levels of a global society, such as Rome, covering informatively, politically, militarily, economically, but also diplomatically all Roman interests in the world controlled by Rome, being a true intelligence service. It was the first informative outpost in non-Roman territories, which had to be transformed into Roman territories, as was the case of Dacia.

Keywords

  • Rome
  • elite military
  • secret service
  • intelligence
  • expansion
Open Access

Aspects of Cooperation in the Balkans between SOE and NKVD in January–August 1944

Published Online: 12 Jul 2021
Page range: 144 - 152

Abstract

Abstract

A meeting was held on 14th January 1944 to discuss the possibilities which might exist for increased collaboration between S.O.E. and N.K.V.D. in the Balkans. The following agenda was submitted: A review of S.O.E. aims in each area and an outline of their resources with the object of examining the possibilities of a concerted Balkans plan for all countries concerned. The coordination of all these plans into one directive. The possibility of discussing such a plan with the N.K.V.D. in an endeavor to enlist their cooperation and assistance in a common plan for S.O.E., O.S.S. and N.K.V.D. Our article follows the evolution of these plans during January-August 1944.

Keywords

  • SOE
  • NKVD
  • Balkan
  • O.S.S.
  • Force 133
Open Access

Cooperation Plans between SOE and NKVD Regarding the Romanian Area during January–May 1944

Published Online: 12 Jul 2021
Page range: 153 - 160

Abstract

Abstract

The main S.O.E aim seems to have been the utilization of political circles in an endeavour to overthrow the government and get Romania out of the war or at least to bring about the removal of its array from the Russians front, and to deny the national resources to Germany. The USSR has been constant in its disinclination to play with Maniu or associates itself with British planes until they are convinced that some concrete contribution at their war aim would results. They would however be ready to discuss unconditional surrender with the emissary of the Romanian government, capable of putting it into effect. The evolution of these SOE plans will be presented in this article.

Keywords

  • SOE
  • NKVD
  • Romania
  • Antonescu
  • Maniu
Open Access

Serbian Armed Forces Rifle Platoon: Basic Models of Command Organisation

Published Online: 12 Jul 2021
Page range: 161 - 167

Abstract

Abstract

This paper is intended for military officers on rifle platoon commander duty to help them in decision making about platoon command organization. Management and command in Serbian Armed Forces rifle platoon are mostly based on experiences of twenty century. Contemporary environment influence on missions of armed forces and surely influence on tactics. To be able to perform given tasks rifle platoon commanders must know how to adopt platoon organisation as a system of sections. This paper gives better understanding how rifle platoon commander could organise subordinated units depending on various duties and weapon systems.

Keywords

  • management and command
  • command organisation
  • subordination
  • infantry
  • rifle platoon and sections
Open Access

Knowledge Augmentation in the Organizational Field through Managerial Behavioral Models

Published Online: 12 Jul 2021
Page range: 168 - 172

Abstract

Abstract

Organizational transformation based on capabilities and, implicitly, the transfer of experience and expertise between different generations are valuable and interesting organizational processes to increase organizational performance, regardless of the type of organization. In the field of human resources, the temporary succession of different typologies of generations (Z, Millennials, etc.) has brought to the attention of theorists and practitioners the need to reconsider practices to reach the audience with the most appropriate message, in terms of gaining the most appropriate resource, its formation and loyalty throughout their career. An important role, certainly amplified by the context of the pandemic crisis, is held by the formative component (through basic specialized education and through specialized trainings or training sessions) and subsequently, the way in which good managerial practices are highlighted in it. In the general framework described in this article, it is intended to highlight the existing particularities for the military field, with emphasis on the university dimension, considering the premise that the cultivation of successful managerial behaviors is a factor in increasing knowledge in the field of defense. Using mainly qualitative research methods, several possible directions are proposed for the development of solutions specific to the field mentioned in the title, which would contribute to making the current practice more dynamic.

Keywords

  • management
  • behavior
  • model
  • defense
  • knowledge
Open Access

Impacts of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Social Development and its Implications for the Transition to Sustainable Development

Published Online: 12 Jul 2021
Page range: 173 - 182

Abstract

Abstract

The COVID-19 crisis has revealed the vulnerability of people, societies and economies and has forced a rethinking of the economic and social activities of an organization. The crisis requires strong responses based on solidarity, cooperation and responsibility. Socio-economic organizations (associations, cooperatives, alliances, and social enterprises) whose business models are based on these principles can help reshape economies and societies after the crisis.

Keywords

  • social development
  • sustainable development
  • economic development
  • economic transition
  • COVID-19 economic impact
Open Access

A Study on the Identification of Factors with a Negative Influence on the Transformation of Military and Civilian Higher Education Institutions into “Sustainable Higher Education Institutions”

Published Online: 12 Jul 2021
Page range: 183 - 191

Abstract

Abstract

Education is the foundation in the development of skills and knowledge that materialize in changing the mentality and in building a sustainable vision. The integration of the importance of sustainable development and of how a sustainable society can be built in the process of university education finally leads to the development of the entrepreneurial spirit. Accepting the changes generated by the transformation into “sustainable higher education institutions” in the university environment is influenced by internal and external factors. The article analyses the negative aspects identified in the external environment of military and civilian higher education institutions.

Keywords

  • sustainable development
  • higher education institutions
  • PESTE technique
Open Access

Digitalisation of Human Resource Management. Key Roles and Relevant Issues for Military Organisations

Published Online: 12 Jul 2021
Page range: 192 - 197

Abstract

Abstract

Many recent studies focus on the issue of interdependence relationship between the successful management of human resource and the improvement of organisational performance, under the aegis of key advances in technologies and information. Therefore, the digitalisation of human resource management is a hotly debated topic, with researchers focusing on the importance of this process within the organisations. The general intention of the author of this paper is to provide those interested with conceptual clarifications on electronic human resource management (e-HRM), by reference to the literature. From a specific point of view, the paper aims to highlight the relevant aspects of the digitalisation of human resource management in military organisations.

Keywords

  • human resource management
  • digitalisation
  • e-HRM
  • military organisations
Open Access

Image and Attributes of the Police as an Employer in Poland – Perspective of the Z-Generation

Published Online: 12 Jul 2021
Page range: 198 - 203

Abstract

Abstract

Recruitment to the Police is a continuous process aimed at supplementing the shortage of human resources, whose number for many years has oscillated around 4 thousand. Taking into account the difficulty of obtaining candidates for service, as well as high competitiveness on the labour market among employers, the aim of the conducted research was to identify the quality of the image of the Police as an employer in Poland from the perspective of generation Z, i.e. the group of potential candidates for service. The analysis also focused on the attributes of Police attractiveness, paying particular attention to attractiveness in the economic, developmental and psychological dimensions. An attempt was also made to indicate a typical image of the Police as an employer by means of subjective associations with the brand. For this purpose, potential associations associated with different types of organizational culture were distinguished, and then subjected to the assessment of respondents. The research using a diagnostic survey was conducted on a sample of 100 people in 2019.

Keywords

  • image
  • attributes
  • employers
  • Police
  • generation Z
Open Access

The Influence of Disruptive Technologies on the Preparation of the National Economy and of the Territory for Defense

Published Online: 12 Jul 2021
Page range: 204 - 209

Abstract

Abstract

The paper reviews the main factors relevant to the preparation of the economy and territory for defense as well as the main developments of military applications of disruptive technologies. The brief presentation of some of these technologies, as well as the exemplification with certain data regarding their use, come to outline the need to constantly adapt defense policies to the new trends in this field.

Keywords

  • disruptive technologies
  • defence policy
  • economical power
  • military power
Open Access

Quantification of the Sustainable use of the Cultural Heritage in the Central Area of the Municipality of Ploieşti using the Cobachrem Model

Published Online: 12 Jul 2021
Page range: 210 - 215

Abstract

Abstract

Making connections between the localization of cultural heritage elements and local and regional policies for the benefit of communities, at different scales, has been one of the constant concerns of researchers and policy makers. The purpose of this study is to highlight the effects generated by cultural policy at the local, regional and central level, through investments allocated to cultural heritage in the central area of Ploieşti. The local policy aimed at building a more attractive image of Ploieşti through the renovation of the most important cultural institutions, benefiting from the funds allocated by the administration at regional and central level and European funds. The analysis of the effects produced by the investments related to the historical monuments from the central area of Ploieşti municipality was carried out through the Community-Based Cultural Heritage Resources Management (COBACHREM) model.

Keywords

  • urban heritage
  • cultural policy
  • conservation
  • economic value
  • quality of life
Open Access

New Managerial Paradigm: Manager–Stakeholder Instead of Manager–Employee

Published Online: 12 Jul 2021
Page range: 216 - 223

Abstract

Abstract

This paper aims to propose a change of the management paradigm by placing in the foreground the relationship between manager and stakeholder instead of the manager–subordinate relationship. The new managerial paradigm comes as a result of the wide-ranging mutations that have taken place in recent decades at the level of societies, economies and organizations around the world, which have forced the change of traditional managerial approaches. The work emphasizes why is necessary and possible to change the management paradigm in the present context, taking into consideration managerial and organizational arguments, that are based on observations, suggestions and recommendations of numerous specialists. Also, there are highlighted the quantitative and the qualitative differences between managerial paradigm focused on stakeholders and classical managerial paradigm of manager–employee, as well as the main advantages of a company stakeholder-based management system.

Keywords

  • management
  • manager
  • stakeholder
  • managerial paradigm
  • knowledge
Open Access

The Fundamental Role of a Leader’s Character in Motivating his Team to Achieve the Group Goals

Published Online: 12 Jul 2021
Page range: 224 - 230

Abstract

Abstract

Starting from the premise of the complexity of the management process, it is essential to approach the fulfillment of the organization’s objectives in terms of the leader’s personality, taking into account the influence of his character on those he shepherds and who contribute earnestly to the success of the organization. Without being a coincidence, the specialists were interested in what motivates people to follow leaders and especially what traits of leaders make them to be appreciated and exert their influence casually, in order to achieve organizational efficiency. Onto exercising true leadership, beyond rigorous knowledge of principles, rules, modern leadership methods and styles, require a formidable, beautiful character, meant to achieve the cohesion of the community and its influence in achieving the purpose for which the organization was established. The character traits of the leader must be persuasive for the disciples, especially when we talk about an organizational climate prone to personal and professional development of each of the team members, and implicitly of the organization.

Keywords

  • leadership
  • motivation
  • team
Open Access

Considerations Regarding the Inclusion of Cybersecurity in Knowledge Management

Published Online: 12 Jul 2021
Page range: 231 - 236

Abstract

Abstract

The development of information and communication technology brought many advantages to management and especially to knowledge management. Despite of this fact, it also brought vulnerabilities, threats and risks regarding the security of the information and organizational knowledge capital, that can conduct to information and knowledge theft. Therefore, organizations must find solutions to use technology in an efficient and secure way, considering cybersecurity as an important part of its knowledge management strategy. Even if we should be tempted to consider that cybersecurity is related just to technology, it has a much wider field of application and can have a good impact also on the other two knowledge management components: people and processes.

Keywords

  • knowledge management
  • cybersecurity
  • information
  • technology
Open Access

Knowledge Management in Military Organizations. A Seci Model Perspective

Published Online: 12 Jul 2021
Page range: 237 - 240

Abstract

Abstract

Knowledge management is a multidisciplinary domain that involves people, technology, and processes. From these three components results a series of social, technical, and other implications which influences the way knowledge is created, stored, and transmitted through organizations. One way to express these processes is through the SECI model, based on the two types of knowledge: tacit and explicit. The four dimensions of the SECI model – socialization, externalization, combination, and internalization, have particular features from organization to organization, based on the domain of activity, organizational culture and other cultural influences, type of management, processes and so on. Considering that military organization have an essential role in assuring global security and they heavily rely on knowledge, the study of knowledge management from the SECI model point of view is important as it can offer a better understating on this domain and improve it in the studied field of activity.

Keywords

  • knowledge management
  • knowledge transfer
  • tacit and tacit knowledge
Open Access

Leadership Style Determination according to Robert Blake and Jane Mouton’s Managerial Grid

Published Online: 12 Jul 2021
Page range: 241 - 246

Abstract

Abstract

The organizational development assume the unconditional support of the leadership. Over time, the researchers have developed four major behavioural theories of leadership: the trait theory, behavioural theory of leadership, situational leadership theory and integrative leadership theory. These focus on the work of leaders, what they do, what they say and what they communicate across organizational boundaries. Over time, these theories have been adapted, developed and improved according to the main objectives of the organization and each leader. The researchers in the field were those who tried to find and identify the best style of leadership, regardless of the situation they might encounter in the course of their activities. Robert Blake and Jane Mouton are among those who built the management grid. They have published more than forty articles and books that describe their theory. This management network helps to think about a manager’s leadership style and its effects on the productivity and motivation of his team. The position of a leader can be anywhere in the network, depending on the relative importance gives to the people and to the results. On the one hand, this paper analyzes the organizational development from the perspective of management, and on the other hand, after presenting the necessary explanations related to the theoretical part of the grid exemplified above, a concrete example of this grid with application in a private organization will be presented. So, the study pursued the managerial grid application and analysis on a general manager in a certified vocational training entity (AS Financial Markets Sibiu), whose managerial style could be established after a test in which he answered at 20 questions.

Keywords

  • management
  • leadership
  • position
  • behaviour
  • attitude
Open Access

The Importance of Leadership Development and Self-Development within the Organization

Published Online: 12 Jul 2021
Page range: 247 - 252

Abstract

Abstract

Leadership being a process of social influence, it is imperative to train true leaders, emotionally intelligent, able to motivate and mobilize people in the organizations they lead, in order to achieve beneficial results for all parties involved: organizations, leaders, disciples. Within the military organization, the military leader must fulfill his mission in theaters of operations, not in the context of the “the end justifies the means”, not by minimizing the human component “ stepping over bodies”, but by exercising effective servant leadership from a multicultural perspective. The leader-subordinate relationship is reciprocal and influences both the performance of the individual and the organizational one. Leadership can be based on a personality trait or can be seen as a behavioral category, being related to motivation, interpersonal behavior and the communication process. Good leadership involves the actual process of delegation, but not before leaders form and train other leaders, as real leadership is exercised “face to face” and trough interaction. The fundamental premise from which we start our approach is that the leader matters, that the people at the top of the hierarchy certainly influence the efficiency of any organization. By setting standards, goals and priorities a leader can bring about changes in daily performance. It can permanently influence the meaning of the evolution of the organization by establishing a strategic vision and formulating long-term objectives.

Keywords

  • self-development
  • leader
  • organization

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