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Volume 28 (2022): Issue 3 (June 2022)

Volume 28 (2022): Issue 2 (June 2022)

Volume 28 (2022): Issue 1 (June 2022)

Volume 27 (2021): Issue 3 (June 2021)

Volume 27 (2021): Issue 2 (June 2021)

Volume 27 (2021): Issue 1 (June 2021)

Volume 26 (2020): Issue 3 (June 2020)

Volume 26 (2020): Issue 2 (June 2020)

Volume 26 (2020): Issue 1 (June 2020)

Volume 25 (2019): Issue 3 (June 2019)

Volume 25 (2019): Issue 2 (June 2019)

Volume 25 (2019): Issue 1 (June 2019)

Volume 24 (2018): Issue 3 (June 2018)

Volume 24 (2018): Issue 2 (June 2018)

Volume 24 (2018): Issue 1 (June 2018)

Volume 23 (2017): Issue 3 (June 2017)

Volume 23 (2017): Issue 2 (June 2017)

Volume 23 (2017): Issue 1 (June 2017)

Volume 22 (2016): Issue 3 (June 2016)

Volume 22 (2016): Issue 2 (June 2016)

Volume 22 (2016): Issue 1 (June 2016)

Volume 21 (2015): Issue 3 (June 2015)

Volume 21 (2015): Issue 2 (June 2015)

Volume 21 (2015): Issue 1 (June 2015)

Conference Details
Format
Conference
eISSN
2451-3113
First Published
15 Dec 2015
Publication timeframe
3 times per year
Languages
English

Search

Volume 28 (2022): Issue 2 (June 2022)

Conference Details
Format
Conference
eISSN
2451-3113
First Published
15 Dec 2015
Publication timeframe
3 times per year
Languages
English

Search

39 Articles
access type Open Access

Projections on the Role of Sustainable Finances

Published Online: 05 Jul 2022
Page range: 1 - 7

Abstract

Abstract

The paper aims to present a topical issue in today’s socio-economic context when the main challenges are to identify ways of production and consumption that are subordinated to sustainable processes. Through an analysis of the current state of research on the conceptual approach to financial sustainability, the paper aims to identify the main directions and tools to be used to ensure the successful implementation of a sustainable financial system. Following the centralization of the approaches offered by the literature on the framework of sustainable finance, the paper proposes a model of integrated approach of the main determinants of sustainable finance, considered the key element in achieving the objectives of economic, social and environmental sustainability.

Keywords

  • sustainable finance
  • finance framework
  • sustainable instruments
access type Open Access

Qualities Required for Accounting Professionals from the Perspective of Capitalizing the Accounting Information

Published Online: 05 Jul 2022
Page range: 8 - 14

Abstract

Abstract

Often, the relationship between professional accountant and manager works on the principle “I offer you if you ask” but, in our opinion, a good professional is the one who knows how to emphasize the need to “request”. Thus, in order to have this capacity, professional training is not enough but it requires many other qualities of the accounting team, namely the ability to perceive and act very quickly, adaptability, creativity (not in a negative sense), teamwork, ability to learn etc. In this context, the paper aims to analyze the perception of managers regarding the qualities needed by professional accountants from the perspective of capitalizing the accounting information.

Keywords

  • professional accountant
  • opportunity
  • limit
  • professional training
  • qualities
access type Open Access

Transparency of Accounting Information in the Romanian Gendarmerie

Published Online: 05 Jul 2022
Page range: 15 - 20

Abstract

Abstract

Given the current context in which, for the first time since 1945, a war is taking place in Europe between two states, right on the borders of NATO and Romania, it is very important that the specialized state institutions with military status, such as the Romanian Gendarmerie, to be efficient. The budgets allocated to the Romanian Gendarmerie exceed the amount of two billion lei annually. Analyzing the level of funding, the requirements of citizens from the Romanian Gendarmerie can be raised and they expect to benefit from a considerable level of security. The Gendarmerie has the legal obligation to make available to the citizens through the websites the information related to the financial statements. This is a strong proof of openness to the taxpayer, as he has the right to know the directions of action of public entities. The purpose of the paper is to present the importance of the Romanian Gendarmerie’s transparency towards the citizens through the accounting information. The paper also examines the procedure by which interested parts have access to the financial statements and analyzes the particularities and differences between two strategic Gendarmerie units, located in Cluj-Napoca.

Keywords

  • public accounting
  • transparency
  • public finances
  • financial reporting
  • Gendarmerie
access type Open Access

Creative Accounting – Option or Necessity

Published Online: 05 Jul 2022
Page range: 21 - 25

Abstract

Abstract

Starting from the approach of accounting as a “social game”, in which the main actors are on the one hand the providers of accounting information, and, on the other hand, its users, we can see that depending on the interests pursued by the management of the economic entity, the creativity of the accounting professional can be used both to seek new solutions to problems arising at a given time and to “beautify the financial statements”. Thus, these manipulative accounting practices aimed at generating an image that is as convenient as possible for the entity, to the detriment of the true image, are known as creative accounting.

Keywords

  • creative accounting
  • fair presentation
  • management of the economic entity
access type Open Access

Fundamentals of Financial Operations in the Military Organisation

Published Online: 05 Jul 2022
Page range: 26 - 31

Abstract

Abstract

Public financial resources are constituted at the level of the state budget and are used and allocated to institutions for the general interests of the community in accordance with national legislation. Their optimal use requires the application of appropriate financial management, which in concrete terms is the science and art of conducting operations for the full use of financial resources to efficiently achieve the proposed objectives. Thus, financial management starts with the organization of financial planning, through forecasting, and is completed by the execution of the allocated budget. The coordination of public financial resources leads to the achievement of financial discipline, as well as to the obligation to respect the legality and conformity of public expenditure regulations applicable to the military organisation.

Keywords

  • financial resources
  • financial management
  • financial operations
  • methods
  • procedures
access type Open Access

The Impact of Public Budget Distortion on the Defence Capabilities of the New European Nato Member States

Published Online: 05 Jul 2022
Page range: 32 - 38

Abstract

Abstract

Armies’ capabilities are determined by their endowments of resources. The economic crisis that began in 2008 has distorted public budgets, which forced states to start cost-cutting policies. If we focus on the policy of new NATO member states, we can observe that public expenditure cuts affect defense budgets in different states in various ways. If we compare the defense capabilities of countries at the beginning of the economic crisis and ten years after the outbreak of the crisis, the reduction in defense spending is reflected in the loss of some defense capabilities due to the limited possibilities of maintaining and modernizing existing military equipment. Countries that have reduced their defense spending over the long term show a more significant loss of defense capability than countries that reduced their defense spending only in the period immediately after the economic crisis. The different approach to defense spending confirms the previously described phenomenon of free-riding by some NATO member states, which rely on the defense capabilities of their alliance partners while they are slowly losing their defense capabilities.

Keywords

  • defense capability
  • free-riding
  • economic crisis
  • investment
access type Open Access

Useage of Budgetary and Accounting Data for Financial Planning in Time of Crisis: The Case Study of the Czech Republic’s Ministry of Defence

Published Online: 05 Jul 2022
Page range: 39 - 45

Abstract

Abstract

The financial crisis, pandemic, and security crisis are moments that have accompanied Europe and the world in recent years. For each of them, the implications for defence budgets are evident. In the light of the experience of recent years, it is necessary for the government to be prepared and able to predict and appropriately decide which public funds can be temporarily given up in favor of a specific situation, and what effect this decision will have. However, ensuring the reallocation of these funds within public budgets further increases the pressure on their proper management, taking into account economic rationality. Therefore, the paper presents the perspective on the efficiency of planning and budgeting in the selected example of the Ministry of Defence of the Czech Republic (MoD CR) expenditure item in the period of time 2007–2022. The analysis of these data reveals significant shortcomings, despite the real disposal of economic and managerial tools that should purposely prevent them.

Keywords

  • crisis
  • defence
  • defence expenditures
  • planning and budgeting
  • budget and accounting data
access type Open Access

Current Challenges in Allocating Financial Resources for Public Investment

Published Online: 05 Jul 2022
Page range: 46 - 50

Abstract

Abstract

Public investment projects must be linked to the priorities of Cohesion Policy and the Sustainable Development Strategy, highlighting the importance of the investment process and the allocation of funding sources. Therefore, steps such as the evaluation, selection and prioritization of public investment projects are key elements in the public investment process, in order to create a stronger and more sustainable future in the face of crises. This paper aims to clarify some issues related to the current challenges of allocating financial resources for public investment in the context of global economic crises. Public investment management makes the difference in making quality public investment and progress in achieving sustainable development goals. However, the present reality shows that ensuring the efficient management of public investment projects will always encounter difficulties, of which the most threatening are considered to be represented by global economic crises and more recently by the COVID 19 pandemic crisis, through their widespread effects on economies. Therefore, strengthening public investment management must be a priority in public investment policies to maximize the impact of available public resources.

Keywords

  • public investment
  • public investment management
  • financial resources
access type Open Access

Restrictions on the Free Movement of Capital Affecting Third Countries

Published Online: 05 Jul 2022
Page range: 51 - 55

Abstract

Abstract

The aim of the author is to analyse the legal restrictions provided by the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union on the free movement of capital to or from third countries. Those restrictions are reviewed in terms of the reasons upholding them, the objectives pursued by them and the hypotheses in which they are applicable. Practical examples are given, and relevant case law of the Court of Justice of the European Union is presented.

Keywords

  • free movement of capital
  • restrictions
  • sanctions
access type Open Access

Analysis of the Military Spending During Challenging Periods

Published Online: 05 Jul 2022
Page range: 56 - 62

Abstract

Abstract

Despite permanent international changes and given the pandemic context of 2020 worldwide, economic activity has been affected and Romania’s situation has not been different. This study is about an analysis of gross domestic product and defense expenses, especially the system of allocating costs and resources, which became a very important issue, taking into account critical decisions about their beneficiaries, depending on priorities, at European level and in Romania.

Keywords

  • defense
  • gross domestic product
  • military spending
  • economic
  • pandemic context
access type Open Access

Determining the Performance of the Use of Resources in the Public Sector

Published Online: 05 Jul 2022
Page range: 63 - 69

Abstract

Abstract

This paper presents a comparative procurement of performance appraisal products, in the context in which there are several homogeneous, which can be delivered to the public sector (goods/products/services, etc.). The proposed method provides a summary measure of the efficiency, economy, or comparative effectiveness of each unit of analysis, as well as other helpful information in performance management. Such information may include good operating practices, and the setting of performance targets at which a unit/activity/product/service can be set, by reference to the size of the most productive scale, at which another unit operates. Identify an efficient unit as a model, to which an inefficient unit can be reported, to improve its performance and productivity over time. In the paper, a case study was conducted, which aims to identify the best levels of performance of the established indicators. Four product units were analysed (as an example, the performance of four types of projectiles with different characteristics was evaluated).

Keywords

  • economy
  • efficiency
  • effectiveness
  • value for money
access type Open Access

The Possibility of the Contracting Authority to Consult the Market Via the Electronic Procurement System

Published Online: 05 Jul 2022
Page range: 70 - 74

Abstract

Abstract

Market analysis and research is a best practice activity for any procurement process. Market consultation is carried out when, following the market analysis and research, and as a result of correlating the information obtained with the need to be met, the contracting authority decides that it is necessary to start a dialogue with the market in order to describe the need. Once all aspects of the contract have been established, along with the scope of the contract, the type of contract and the benefits to be obtained, market research and analysis and/or review and update of existing information should be carried out so as to understand the context in which the contracting authority meets its needs and what approaches are required by the procurement in an economically and socially efficient manner. The information obtained from market research and analysis underpins decisions regarding the key elements of a competitive exercise such as, but not limited to: estimated value, qualification conditions, contract review clauses, etc.

Keywords

  • public procurement
  • contracting authority
  • Electronic Public Procurement System (ePPS)
  • market
  • notice of intent
access type Open Access

Effects of Globalization on the Internationalization and Management of the Activity of the Multinational Companies

Published Online: 05 Jul 2022
Page range: 75 - 80

Abstract

Abstract

Under the conditions of the contemporary economy, the intensification of foreign trade is a fundamental requirement of economic growth, of business internationalization and, implicitly, of economic globalization. On the other hand, business development in the international environment, regardless of the size of the economic entities or their field of activity, tends to become a prerequisite of organizational existence. For this reason, the business strategies must be synchronized with the requirements and demands of the economic globalization. In this context, the authors of the present paper aimed to identify and briefly present the main effects of the globalization on the business internationalization and the management of the multinational companies.

Keywords

  • economic globalization
  • international affairs
  • multinational companies
  • management
access type Open Access

Influences of Culture on the Management and Development of Economic Organizations

Published Online: 05 Jul 2022
Page range: 81 - 86

Abstract

Abstract

Culture creates, builds, influences and develops, and, alongside education, determines actual manifestations, which are specific to the nation for the problems that concern it, to the organizations, in their specific environment, to their management with the internal and external shareholders. In this general framework, the authors of the present paper aim to highlight the main influences of culture on the management of the economic organizations, investigating a number of approaches to the concept of culture, and the relationship between culture, management, organizational culture and development, at the microeconomic level.

Keywords

  • culture
  • economic organization
  • management
  • development
access type Open Access

Practical Aspects Regarding the Technique of the Method of Calculation and Accounting of Production Costs

Published Online: 05 Jul 2022
Page range: 87 - 94

Abstract

Abstract

The method of calculating costs by manufacturing phases is limited to the range of classical methods of calculating costs. Basically, the “classical methods of calculating costs” refers both to direct costs but also to indirect costs related to a unit of product. The method on calculation phases of manufacturing costs consists in determining the actual cost on each production phase, partly deepened to the product level at the end of the production process, respectively at the end of the management period. The aim of the research is the practical application of the method of calculating costs on manufacturing phases in order to establish the opportunity to use it in practice. The result of the research concludes in the fact that, typical of these methods, we discuss costing only at the end of production, materialized at this time in a posthistorical action, an action that requires information from the company’s accounting based on real costs, which is also a shortcoming of these methods, motivated by the fact that it is a final moment after which it is no longer possible to intervene with actions in any way.

Keywords

  • Costs
  • Production Process
  • Production Phases
  • Cost Calculation Method
  • semi-finished products
access type Open Access

Economic Imbalances Caused By the Abuse of Some Clauses Inserted in Credit Contracts

Published Online: 05 Jul 2022
Page range: 95 - 101

Abstract

Abstract

Credit agreements are membership contracts. Sometimes, within these types of contracts, significant imbalances can occur caused by the insertion of abusive clauses in the credit agreements. Significant imbalances are of an economic nature, created in order for professionals to obtain economic benefits in a manner that is contrary to good faith. The finding of abusive clauses is made “in concrete” only by the court. Once these abusive clauses have been found by the court, the abusive clauses can follow two variants of solutions, respectively: a). Within the contract they may be replaced by other clauses and b). they can be completely removed from bank credit agreements. In the first variant, the abusive clauses will be replaced with other clauses that will have as objective, the correction of the significant imbalances and the assurance of the balance of the credit agreements. In the second variant, the abusive clauses are struck by nullity and can sometimes have major consequences, materialized even in the cancellation of the entire credit agreement. The adopted solution will be based on the concrete situation of each case. The practice further proves the existence of these abusive clauses in one form or another, in credit agreements.

Keywords

  • Harmonization
  • contract
  • clauses
  • European regulations
  • national regulations
access type Open Access

Some Contemporary Aspects Related to the Big Data

Published Online: 05 Jul 2022
Page range: 102 - 106

Abstract

Abstract

The XXI century may well become not only the era of postmodernity, but also the era of ‘post-humanity’ in the sense that artificial intelligence and robots will displace human beings and, to some extent, human thinking. The article points out that the artificial intelligence, Internet of things and Big data are three factors that are crucial for the implementation of the 4.0 industry. At the same time the author stresses that depersonalization of a human being can gradually wean him to think, analyze and be content only with aggressively introduced patterns of stereotypical behaviour in the virtual space. The difference between the two concepts, namely ‘big data’ and ‘business intelligence’has also been discussed. The so-called ‘three V’, namely: Volume, Velocity, and Variety are underlined as the main characteristics of the Big data. The author concludes that in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic the educational process in the Bulgarian universities was carried out under the influence of big data.

Keywords

  • Big data
  • artificial intelligence
  • hate speech
  • higher education
access type Open Access

Societal Resilience, A Key Factor in Combating Hybrid Threats

Published Online: 05 Jul 2022
Page range: 107 - 115

Abstract

Abstract

February 24, 2022 has changed the course of recent history, proving the greatest fears of Western states concerning the intentions of the Russian Federation regarding Ukraine and Europe. Hybrid warfare instruments used in Ukraine over the past decade have led to the destabilization of the security situation in eastern Ukraine, culminating in the invasion of a sovereign state and the outbreak of armed conflict. We are currently witnessing an absurd theater of contradictory news, a struggle for resources and state decisions taken in accordance with their concern for their own economy, cyber-attacks and revelations of a sensational sometimes with macabre overtones. The diversity and complexity of the hybrid threats so evident in today’s society, used as a military strategy prior to the armed conflict but especially since its inception, influences our perception and increases the effects of conventional warfare.

Keywords

  • hybrid threats
  • hybrid warfare
  • societal resilience
  • synergistic approach
  • institutional interoperability
access type Open Access

Impact of the Covid-19 Pandemic on the International Position of East Asian Countries

Published Online: 05 Jul 2022
Page range: 116 - 122

Abstract

Abstract

The outbreak of the Covid-19 pandemic in China and the spread of the SARS-CoV-2 virus caused at first some kind of shift in attitudes towards East Asia. However, in the longer term, wider effects apply into international relations around the world. COVID-19 pandemic determined various activities implemented by government all over the world, which aims at fist were to protect health and life of its inhabitant, but later turned out to wider strategy of each country. COVID-19 pandemic expects negative consequences, which undoubtedly are dominant, in some cases turned out to be very stimulating to development. The article aims to present the changes that have taken place in the context of the international position of East Asian countries over the last two years, caused by the pandemic.

Keywords

  • COVID-19
  • pandemic
  • crisis
  • East Asia
  • security
access type Open Access

STANAG 6001 Russian Language Exam: Holistic Approach to Assessing Speaking

Published Online: 05 Jul 2022
Page range: 123 - 128

Abstract

Abstract

This paper analyzes the STANAG 6001 Russian language exam focusing on the specifics of Speaking Proficiency evaluation. Despite the fact that the testing procedure is based on the Assessment Criteria set by the STANAG 6001, assessing speaking skills through a guided interview or a sequence of techniques seems to be one of the most challenging and hard tasks for testers. Advantages of holistic approach of assessing speaking skills are discussed and justified.

Keywords

  • STANAG 6001 testing
  • Russian language
  • speaking assessment
  • holistic approach
access type Open Access

Advantages of Language Proficiency in the Military Environment

Published Online: 05 Jul 2022
Page range: 129 - 133

Abstract

Abstract

Multilingualism describes the fact of using several living languages, understanding them, and mastering their nuances. Languages apprenticeship is long, tedious, but rewarding. Worldwide, 60-75% of the population speaks at least two languages. To be monolingual is to be part of a minority. For the new generations of military leaders, speaking several languages is a huge advantage, socially, professionally and neurologically. After briefly reviewing some scientific data on the advantages of the bilingual brain, the paper discusses how bilingualism positively affects their cognitive development as future Army leaders. Indeed, the obligation to juggle between two languages, the mother tongue and the language learned, offers bilingual people better control of the executive functions of their brain. In other words, the faculties of attention, memory, reasoning developed by learning the language are reinforced. This is an advantage for the military leader, who can thus process each piece of information more quickly and adapt more effectively to the evolution of a situation in a theatre of operations, for example. Cognitive control skills, mental flexibility, the ability to perform tasks requiring change, monitoring and conflict control are thus easier for a bilingual army officer.

Keywords

  • bilingual
  • military leadership
  • brain
  • language
  • cognitive development
access type Open Access

On the Use of Qualitative Research Methodology in the Military Organization

Published Online: 05 Jul 2022
Page range: 134 - 139

Abstract

Abstract

The paper identifies and analyse some features of qualitative social studies that, in the context of the military organization, could create difficulties in data collection process and could have a negative impact on the validity and reliability of the results. There are presented the main aspects of qualitative research and methodology, and highlighted how the main characteristics of the military organization could influence the conduct of this type of scientific research.

Keywords

  • qualitative research
  • data collection
  • data interpretation
  • military organization
access type Open Access

Challenges to the Military Education System When Training Representatives of Generations X, Y and Z

Published Online: 05 Jul 2022
Page range: 140 - 147

Abstract

Abstract

The world is changing, and transformations in turn affect all areas of society. Some seek to keep up with innovation, while others take a more conservative stance. The behavior strategy of each person often depends not only on their personal beliefs, but also on other factors such as social environment, upbringing and belonging to a particular generation. Generational differences in learning are most evident when changing perspectives during learning as a result of participation in the learning process. All this leads to the diversification of the educational approaches and to the adaptation of military education system to student’s diversity.

Keywords

  • generations X
  • Y and Z
  • diversity
access type Open Access

Oracy in the 21st Century – Developing Speaking Competence for Real World Interactions

Published Online: 05 Jul 2022
Page range: 148 - 153

Abstract

Abstract

Communication is a fundamental skill for the existence and survival of societies. In the learning of a foreign language, classroom practice should focus with priority on developing communicative skills. Oracy, a term coined by Andrew Wilkinson in 1965, is defined as the ability to express oneself efficiently, effectively, and fluently. Having strong oracy skills involves the capacity to structure one’s thoughts in a way that is comprehensible to others, and accurate control of both vocabulary and grammar, in order to transmit a clear message. In the same way that literacy is essential for reading and writing, oracy is necessary for becoming a good speaker and listener. This paper will define oracy as a language teaching strategy, establish an oracy framework, and detail on oracy subskills. The practical part takes a pedagogical approach to the concept of oracy and underlines its importance in the teaching of a foreign language by integrating oracy skills and sub-skills in an applied discussion exemplified by concrete classroom practice.

Keywords

  • oracy
  • communication
  • skills
  • foreign language teaching
access type Open Access

The Higher Education Institution Between Legal Norms and Ethical Rules

Published Online: 05 Jul 2022
Page range: 154 - 160

Abstract

Abstract

The activity within the higher education institutions has been and is the object of study and research for the specialists in the field of Academic Ethics. The key issues, which are being pursued, concern various aspects of the university environment. In this paper, we want to detail some aspects of the connection between the legal norms, which govern the field of university education, and those of an ethical nature, considering that there is an intrinsic link between the two categories of norms. Academic citizenship is defined as the service that academics provide for the benefit of the higher education institution they represent, including the moral obligation they have as a part of the academic system. The moral authority of the teacher is an authority based on fundamental principles or truths that exist independently of written laws, manifested with the purpose of modeling the moral behavior of the students, teaching them to abide by legal norms as well as other ethical norms. Furthermore, in this paper, the notions and principles regarding the ethical culture of the members of the academic community will be considered.

Keywords

  • university
  • higher education
  • academic citizenship
  • moral authority
  • legal norms
  • ethical rules
access type Open Access

Collaborative Teaching – A Bridge Building Towards Students’ Social and Academic Benefits

Published Online: 05 Jul 2022
Page range: 161 - 165

Abstract

Abstract

This article is the result of an analysis based on a 14-year observation of the academic and social evolution of students in different educational institutions, contexts and levels of English and French language study in both Canada and Romania. Collaboration has proven to be an effective concept necessary to be introduced in the curriculum. The focus of this project will be on some groups of students studying English and French within different science faculties within a university in Romania. Learning crises are identified as students feel reluctant to both attend and participate in these classes. Moreover, the low number of classes in the curriculum discourages students even more. There is also an overall lack of motivation resulting in the instructor’s conclusion that a linguistic context is badly needed both inside and outside of the class. Along with their progress during their language practice, students’ motivation will be enhanced if students are involved in extra-curricular activities. Coupled with a few innovative learning strategies, the craft of teaching and social contexts presented by some native speaker guests expert on topics appealing to the students could promote greater interest in the study of these two languages.

Keywords

  • EFL
  • collaborative
  • teaching
  • motivation
access type Open Access

On Types and Paradigms of Military Leadership

Published Online: 05 Jul 2022
Page range: 166 - 170

Abstract

Abstract

Leadership in the military entails making crucial decisions, frequently under intense pressure and with serious repercussions. Effective military leaders reason strategically to arrive at well-informed, actionable conclusions while they build and motivate teams. Within the complexity of such an approach that calls for a wide range of military, psychological, discursive and functional perspectives, this paper sets out to review the notion of leadership and to emphasize several military leadership literature approaches delineating the roles of a military leader that are context-dependable, multi-levelled and transformational in the army environment.

Keywords

  • leadership
  • military
  • leaders
  • roles
  • effectiveness
access type Open Access

Leaders Attributes in Modern Warfare

Published Online: 05 Jul 2022
Page range: 171 - 173

Abstract

Abstract

Modern leaders should display an entire array of qualities, very well structured in knowledge, abilities and will along with leader attributes. Leaders’ attributes help to understand the anatomy of a leader trough his character, presence and intellectual capacity, each features contributing to leader core competencies of leading, developing and achieving.

Keywords

  • character
  • presence
  • intellectual
  • attributes
access type Open Access

International Ideation for Hybrid ESP Teaching

Published Online: 05 Jul 2022
Page range: 174 - 179

Abstract

Abstract

The paper shares some of the experience gained in the ideation process of generating and designing tasks in Specialised Military English for a hybrid learning environment. The product of the ideation is targeted at military and security specialists and is the result of an international project under the EU’s Erasmus+ programme N 2020-1-BG01-KA203-079117. Definitions of ideation, interactive activity/learning, hybrid learning, and ESP are suggested. The main phases of the HELPSec international ideation process of the project partners are presented and some techniques of this process are exemplified.

Keywords

  • ideation
  • interactive activity
  • ESP
  • hybrid teaching/learning
  • HELPSec
access type Open Access

Online Audio-Video Content as Homework in English Language Teaching: A Classroom-Tested Application for Undergraduate Programs Designed During the Coronavirus Pandemic

Published Online: 05 Jul 2022
Page range: 180 - 185

Abstract

Abstract

The paper explores the potential permanent benefits of using online audio-video content as homework for undergraduate students in English Language Teaching (ELT), based on the author’s classroom experience with the application of the said strategy during the Coronavirus pandemic. The classroom-tested implementation analyzed in the article was focused on English Phonetics and Phonology related objectives. Furthermore, a similar, but adapted potential homework design model for teaching Aviation English (radiotelephony phraseology) to Air Force Academy cadets is explored. The main purposes of the present contribution are to describe the activities themselves, along with their intended purposes and results, to analyze student behavior in relation to the said use of technology, and ultimately to review the shortcomings and potential long-term benefits of permanent use for university-level education.

Keywords

  • audio/video content
  • phonetics and phonology
  • aviation English
  • higher education
  • online ELT
access type Open Access

Complaints, Requests and Petitions as Instruments of Social Control for Civil Society in a Democratic State of Law

Published Online: 05 Jul 2022
Page range: 186 - 190

Abstract

Abstract

The article deals with non-procedural means of social influence, such as complaints, requests and petitions, on the performance of public tasks by public authorities. Complaints, requests and petitions belong in Polish law to extra-procedural legal means which discipline bodies and institutions of public authority to perform public tasks in the best possible way. On the other hand, these extra-procedural legal remedies are a tool for civil society capable of becoming active in the social space. In this way, complaints, requests and petitions constitute an important manifestation of social control in a democratic state of law, based on the principles of cooperation between the citizen and the agent of authority. On the one hand, they constitute a kind of cooperation of civil society with the authorities, and on the other hand, they subordinate the directions of the authorities’ actions. The performance of public tasks should, after all, coincide to the highest degree with public expectations. Complainants and petitioners can, through these means, stimulate the activities of public bodies and institutions, and thus influence the spending of public funds. By activating actions of public authorities complaints, requests and petitions become human rights related to freedom, as no one should limit the activity of civil society. On the example of Polish legislation the author explicates these extra-procedural means of supporting civil society initiatives, indicating their importance not only in Polish constitutional and administrative law, but, above all, their general social significance.

Keywords

  • complaints
  • requests
  • petitions
  • social control
  • civil society
access type Open Access

Managing Different Generations in the Workplace

Published Online: 05 Jul 2022
Page range: 191 - 196

Abstract

Abstract

In an ageing society, intergenerational management is becoming increasingly important for organizations. The strategies used by managers in managing the work of the different generational groups working at a particular time in an organization must focus on reducing the differences between them while maintaining their diversity. Choosing the most effective strategies starts with knowing and understanding the characteristics of each generation; implementing them can be done both by exercising appropriate leadership styles and by incorporating them into organizational policies and practices. In this way, a climate of intergenerational cooperation can be built which can only support the achievement of organizational objectives.

Keywords

  • generations
  • management strategies
  • intergenerational cooperation
access type Open Access

Contingent Valuation of Built Cultural Heritage in a Small Town: Oraviţa (Romania)

Published Online: 05 Jul 2022
Page range: 197 - 202

Abstract

Abstract

The evaluation of the cultural heritage from the perspective of the optimal ways of use requires a complex analysis that must be related both to its multiple patrimonial values and to the economic value. In this context, the evaluation of cultural heritage is difficult due to its characteristics such as uniqueness, authenticity and irreversibility. The purpose of this study is to assess the value of non-use of cultural heritage buildings in a small Romanian town, Oraviţa. The evaluation was carried out using the contingent method that allowed to identify the perception of the local community on the cultural heritage and the concern regarding its conservation. The cultural objectives that the local population has selected, mentioning the desire to pay for their conservation, contribute to shaping the tourist attractiveness of Oraviţa.

Keywords

  • urban heritage
  • conservation
  • non-use value
  • cultural tourism
access type Open Access

The Impact of the Covid-19 Pandemic on the Valorization of Cultural Heritage. Case Study: Bucharest Municipality (Romania)

Published Online: 05 Jul 2022
Page range: 203 - 208

Abstract

Abstract

The COVID-19 pandemic has profoundly affected the conservation and capitalization of the tangible and intangible cultural heritage and limited the population’s participation in culture. The purpose of this study is to analyze the impact of the pandemic on the degree of capitalization of the elements of tangible and intangible cultural heritage within the capital city of Romania. The results of this study reflect the efforts of the representatives of cultural institutions to respond to the challenge of keeping in touch with different categories of audience. At the same time, solutions adapted to restrictions on social distancing have been identified, in order to facilitate the capitalization of the elements of cultural heritage by organizing temporary exhibitions and cultural events in the open air or online. It is also noticeable the organization of cultural events through the collaboration of public institutions in order to facilitate the access of the public to culture and increase the degree of capitalization of the cultural heritage.

Keywords

  • cultural institutions
  • social distancing
  • virtual experiences
  • online promotion
  • digitization
access type Open Access

Ways to Increase the Psychological Well-Being of Students During Online Courses

Published Online: 05 Jul 2022
Page range: 209 - 212

Abstract

Abstract

The Covid-19 pandemic, which has unprecedented proportions, has not only adversely affected the economies of all countries in the world, but has also led to a dramatic decline in the psychological well-being of most individuals, with experts particularly concerned about the level of stress manifested by children and young people. More and more studies in psychology and pedagogy are sounding the alarm about the decline in mental health that may occur in future generations and are looking for different solutions to reduce the stress that can make you sick or even deadly. Psychological well-being is generated by a series of factors, among which we mention: the fulfillment of basic needs, genetic factors, personality, age, income, but especially by the support relationships that a person has. We believe that these supportive relationships can also be created and strengthened during the online language classes taught. This paper aims to highlight a number of ways to increase the psychological well-being of students during online English classes, a well-being that has many benefits for both the student and society as a whole.

Keywords

  • psychological well-being
  • higher education
  • online
  • universities
access type Open Access

Of Battle and Business: Military Language in the Corporate Environment

Published Online: 05 Jul 2022
Page range: 213 - 218

Abstract

Abstract

As early as the second half of the 20th century, theoreticians and commentators in the field of business and corporate culture have started to increasingly make use of military and war metaphors when describing or analyzing business-related matters. This ongoing tendency can be explained by the fact that both military and business jargons have had similar historical trajectories and focus on similar goals and objectives. Military philosophy can furthermore offer valuable lessons and advice to any aspiring manager. To be aware of the symbiosis between military jargon and the language of business is to have a clearer overview of the impact of business practices and eventually to gain the upper hand in a domain where battle and the survival of the fittest are at the basis of all activities and endeavors. The aim of the present paper is to trace the similar trajectories in the evolution of military and business jargon and to analyze, by resorting to practical examples, the manifold similarities between the language of war and the one of business.

Keywords

  • military
  • language
  • business
  • corporate
  • jargon
  • war
  • management
access type Open Access

The Psychological Impact of the Public Interest Message on a Healthy Lifestyle

Published Online: 05 Jul 2022
Page range: 219 - 225

Abstract

Abstract

Media communication is one of the channels through which the message, in our case, of public interest, reaches the receiver and is perceived as such. In this context, the transmitted information is addressed to a particular segment of the population and contains a topic addressed in various situations, but it will always take into account psychologically the target group to which it is addressed. Thus, in the public interest message, which has as its subject the healthy lifestyle present within the television networks, the results show that the impact of such an educational sequence is aware of and accountable to the population to whom it is addressed, succeeding in a certain pedagogical time Change behavior, attitude, and even behavior in our case to reconsider our healthy lifestyle, taking into account its age peculiarities. Also, the triad: family - school - community manages to get involved in a concrete way when ignoring the importance of a healthy lifestyle can affect even the physio - psycho - pedo - social component of the individual that corresponds to the pattern of an evolutionary sequence of the human species In a certain given situation and not only.

Keywords

  • message
  • population
  • television
  • style
  • health
access type Open Access

Culture as a Vector of Intercultural Communication in Times of Crisis

Published Online: 05 Jul 2022
Page range: 226 - 232

Abstract

Abstract

Culture and communication are two tightly intertwined concepts. The process of communication, seen as social interaction, facilitates the transmission of messages between individuals of the same culture or belonging to different cultures. The process as a whole is influenced by the culture both the speaker and the listener/receptor belong to. When both participants in the communication process belong to different cultures, they automatically bring perceptual elements to the situation, as well as social and cultural traits and (verbal as well as non-verbal) means of communication characteristic of their respective cultures. Thus, differences between these elements, their recognition or the lack of acceptance towards them are often cause of difficulties or even conflicts which are the result of inefficient communication. The present paper examines, based on relevant secondary literature, the cultural variables which influence the communication between members of different cultural groups. In order to fulfil the desired objective, empirical research will be conducted based on observation and analysis. The research solution advanced in view of achieving efficient and authentic intercultural communication is based on an approach to situational subculture, namely the construction referred to as “third culture”.

Keywords

  • culture
  • intercultural communication
  • cultural variables
  • “third culture”
access type Open Access

The Role of Critical Thinking in Enhancing Military Professionals’ Leadership Skills Through Training in Foreign Language and Economics

Published Online: 05 Jul 2022
Page range: 233 - 237

Abstract

Abstract

The aim of the paper is to research the role of critical thinking in enhancing the leadership skills of military specialists during their foreign language and economics training. The authors explain the theory of critical thinking and its application in the acquisition of foreign language (English) and economics knowledge- subjects that are not a main part of the specialities but are inextricably linked with good quality education of the modern military leader.

Keywords

  • Critical thinking
  • Economics
  • Foreign language
  • Leadership skills
  • Military
39 Articles
access type Open Access

Projections on the Role of Sustainable Finances

Published Online: 05 Jul 2022
Page range: 1 - 7

Abstract

Abstract

The paper aims to present a topical issue in today’s socio-economic context when the main challenges are to identify ways of production and consumption that are subordinated to sustainable processes. Through an analysis of the current state of research on the conceptual approach to financial sustainability, the paper aims to identify the main directions and tools to be used to ensure the successful implementation of a sustainable financial system. Following the centralization of the approaches offered by the literature on the framework of sustainable finance, the paper proposes a model of integrated approach of the main determinants of sustainable finance, considered the key element in achieving the objectives of economic, social and environmental sustainability.

Keywords

  • sustainable finance
  • finance framework
  • sustainable instruments
access type Open Access

Qualities Required for Accounting Professionals from the Perspective of Capitalizing the Accounting Information

Published Online: 05 Jul 2022
Page range: 8 - 14

Abstract

Abstract

Often, the relationship between professional accountant and manager works on the principle “I offer you if you ask” but, in our opinion, a good professional is the one who knows how to emphasize the need to “request”. Thus, in order to have this capacity, professional training is not enough but it requires many other qualities of the accounting team, namely the ability to perceive and act very quickly, adaptability, creativity (not in a negative sense), teamwork, ability to learn etc. In this context, the paper aims to analyze the perception of managers regarding the qualities needed by professional accountants from the perspective of capitalizing the accounting information.

Keywords

  • professional accountant
  • opportunity
  • limit
  • professional training
  • qualities
access type Open Access

Transparency of Accounting Information in the Romanian Gendarmerie

Published Online: 05 Jul 2022
Page range: 15 - 20

Abstract

Abstract

Given the current context in which, for the first time since 1945, a war is taking place in Europe between two states, right on the borders of NATO and Romania, it is very important that the specialized state institutions with military status, such as the Romanian Gendarmerie, to be efficient. The budgets allocated to the Romanian Gendarmerie exceed the amount of two billion lei annually. Analyzing the level of funding, the requirements of citizens from the Romanian Gendarmerie can be raised and they expect to benefit from a considerable level of security. The Gendarmerie has the legal obligation to make available to the citizens through the websites the information related to the financial statements. This is a strong proof of openness to the taxpayer, as he has the right to know the directions of action of public entities. The purpose of the paper is to present the importance of the Romanian Gendarmerie’s transparency towards the citizens through the accounting information. The paper also examines the procedure by which interested parts have access to the financial statements and analyzes the particularities and differences between two strategic Gendarmerie units, located in Cluj-Napoca.

Keywords

  • public accounting
  • transparency
  • public finances
  • financial reporting
  • Gendarmerie
access type Open Access

Creative Accounting – Option or Necessity

Published Online: 05 Jul 2022
Page range: 21 - 25

Abstract

Abstract

Starting from the approach of accounting as a “social game”, in which the main actors are on the one hand the providers of accounting information, and, on the other hand, its users, we can see that depending on the interests pursued by the management of the economic entity, the creativity of the accounting professional can be used both to seek new solutions to problems arising at a given time and to “beautify the financial statements”. Thus, these manipulative accounting practices aimed at generating an image that is as convenient as possible for the entity, to the detriment of the true image, are known as creative accounting.

Keywords

  • creative accounting
  • fair presentation
  • management of the economic entity
access type Open Access

Fundamentals of Financial Operations in the Military Organisation

Published Online: 05 Jul 2022
Page range: 26 - 31

Abstract

Abstract

Public financial resources are constituted at the level of the state budget and are used and allocated to institutions for the general interests of the community in accordance with national legislation. Their optimal use requires the application of appropriate financial management, which in concrete terms is the science and art of conducting operations for the full use of financial resources to efficiently achieve the proposed objectives. Thus, financial management starts with the organization of financial planning, through forecasting, and is completed by the execution of the allocated budget. The coordination of public financial resources leads to the achievement of financial discipline, as well as to the obligation to respect the legality and conformity of public expenditure regulations applicable to the military organisation.

Keywords

  • financial resources
  • financial management
  • financial operations
  • methods
  • procedures
access type Open Access

The Impact of Public Budget Distortion on the Defence Capabilities of the New European Nato Member States

Published Online: 05 Jul 2022
Page range: 32 - 38

Abstract

Abstract

Armies’ capabilities are determined by their endowments of resources. The economic crisis that began in 2008 has distorted public budgets, which forced states to start cost-cutting policies. If we focus on the policy of new NATO member states, we can observe that public expenditure cuts affect defense budgets in different states in various ways. If we compare the defense capabilities of countries at the beginning of the economic crisis and ten years after the outbreak of the crisis, the reduction in defense spending is reflected in the loss of some defense capabilities due to the limited possibilities of maintaining and modernizing existing military equipment. Countries that have reduced their defense spending over the long term show a more significant loss of defense capability than countries that reduced their defense spending only in the period immediately after the economic crisis. The different approach to defense spending confirms the previously described phenomenon of free-riding by some NATO member states, which rely on the defense capabilities of their alliance partners while they are slowly losing their defense capabilities.

Keywords

  • defense capability
  • free-riding
  • economic crisis
  • investment
access type Open Access

Useage of Budgetary and Accounting Data for Financial Planning in Time of Crisis: The Case Study of the Czech Republic’s Ministry of Defence

Published Online: 05 Jul 2022
Page range: 39 - 45

Abstract

Abstract

The financial crisis, pandemic, and security crisis are moments that have accompanied Europe and the world in recent years. For each of them, the implications for defence budgets are evident. In the light of the experience of recent years, it is necessary for the government to be prepared and able to predict and appropriately decide which public funds can be temporarily given up in favor of a specific situation, and what effect this decision will have. However, ensuring the reallocation of these funds within public budgets further increases the pressure on their proper management, taking into account economic rationality. Therefore, the paper presents the perspective on the efficiency of planning and budgeting in the selected example of the Ministry of Defence of the Czech Republic (MoD CR) expenditure item in the period of time 2007–2022. The analysis of these data reveals significant shortcomings, despite the real disposal of economic and managerial tools that should purposely prevent them.

Keywords

  • crisis
  • defence
  • defence expenditures
  • planning and budgeting
  • budget and accounting data
access type Open Access

Current Challenges in Allocating Financial Resources for Public Investment

Published Online: 05 Jul 2022
Page range: 46 - 50

Abstract

Abstract

Public investment projects must be linked to the priorities of Cohesion Policy and the Sustainable Development Strategy, highlighting the importance of the investment process and the allocation of funding sources. Therefore, steps such as the evaluation, selection and prioritization of public investment projects are key elements in the public investment process, in order to create a stronger and more sustainable future in the face of crises. This paper aims to clarify some issues related to the current challenges of allocating financial resources for public investment in the context of global economic crises. Public investment management makes the difference in making quality public investment and progress in achieving sustainable development goals. However, the present reality shows that ensuring the efficient management of public investment projects will always encounter difficulties, of which the most threatening are considered to be represented by global economic crises and more recently by the COVID 19 pandemic crisis, through their widespread effects on economies. Therefore, strengthening public investment management must be a priority in public investment policies to maximize the impact of available public resources.

Keywords

  • public investment
  • public investment management
  • financial resources
access type Open Access

Restrictions on the Free Movement of Capital Affecting Third Countries

Published Online: 05 Jul 2022
Page range: 51 - 55

Abstract

Abstract

The aim of the author is to analyse the legal restrictions provided by the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union on the free movement of capital to or from third countries. Those restrictions are reviewed in terms of the reasons upholding them, the objectives pursued by them and the hypotheses in which they are applicable. Practical examples are given, and relevant case law of the Court of Justice of the European Union is presented.

Keywords

  • free movement of capital
  • restrictions
  • sanctions
access type Open Access

Analysis of the Military Spending During Challenging Periods

Published Online: 05 Jul 2022
Page range: 56 - 62

Abstract

Abstract

Despite permanent international changes and given the pandemic context of 2020 worldwide, economic activity has been affected and Romania’s situation has not been different. This study is about an analysis of gross domestic product and defense expenses, especially the system of allocating costs and resources, which became a very important issue, taking into account critical decisions about their beneficiaries, depending on priorities, at European level and in Romania.

Keywords

  • defense
  • gross domestic product
  • military spending
  • economic
  • pandemic context
access type Open Access

Determining the Performance of the Use of Resources in the Public Sector

Published Online: 05 Jul 2022
Page range: 63 - 69

Abstract

Abstract

This paper presents a comparative procurement of performance appraisal products, in the context in which there are several homogeneous, which can be delivered to the public sector (goods/products/services, etc.). The proposed method provides a summary measure of the efficiency, economy, or comparative effectiveness of each unit of analysis, as well as other helpful information in performance management. Such information may include good operating practices, and the setting of performance targets at which a unit/activity/product/service can be set, by reference to the size of the most productive scale, at which another unit operates. Identify an efficient unit as a model, to which an inefficient unit can be reported, to improve its performance and productivity over time. In the paper, a case study was conducted, which aims to identify the best levels of performance of the established indicators. Four product units were analysed (as an example, the performance of four types of projectiles with different characteristics was evaluated).

Keywords

  • economy
  • efficiency
  • effectiveness
  • value for money
access type Open Access

The Possibility of the Contracting Authority to Consult the Market Via the Electronic Procurement System

Published Online: 05 Jul 2022
Page range: 70 - 74

Abstract

Abstract

Market analysis and research is a best practice activity for any procurement process. Market consultation is carried out when, following the market analysis and research, and as a result of correlating the information obtained with the need to be met, the contracting authority decides that it is necessary to start a dialogue with the market in order to describe the need. Once all aspects of the contract have been established, along with the scope of the contract, the type of contract and the benefits to be obtained, market research and analysis and/or review and update of existing information should be carried out so as to understand the context in which the contracting authority meets its needs and what approaches are required by the procurement in an economically and socially efficient manner. The information obtained from market research and analysis underpins decisions regarding the key elements of a competitive exercise such as, but not limited to: estimated value, qualification conditions, contract review clauses, etc.

Keywords

  • public procurement
  • contracting authority
  • Electronic Public Procurement System (ePPS)
  • market
  • notice of intent
access type Open Access

Effects of Globalization on the Internationalization and Management of the Activity of the Multinational Companies

Published Online: 05 Jul 2022
Page range: 75 - 80

Abstract

Abstract

Under the conditions of the contemporary economy, the intensification of foreign trade is a fundamental requirement of economic growth, of business internationalization and, implicitly, of economic globalization. On the other hand, business development in the international environment, regardless of the size of the economic entities or their field of activity, tends to become a prerequisite of organizational existence. For this reason, the business strategies must be synchronized with the requirements and demands of the economic globalization. In this context, the authors of the present paper aimed to identify and briefly present the main effects of the globalization on the business internationalization and the management of the multinational companies.

Keywords

  • economic globalization
  • international affairs
  • multinational companies
  • management
access type Open Access

Influences of Culture on the Management and Development of Economic Organizations

Published Online: 05 Jul 2022
Page range: 81 - 86

Abstract

Abstract

Culture creates, builds, influences and develops, and, alongside education, determines actual manifestations, which are specific to the nation for the problems that concern it, to the organizations, in their specific environment, to their management with the internal and external shareholders. In this general framework, the authors of the present paper aim to highlight the main influences of culture on the management of the economic organizations, investigating a number of approaches to the concept of culture, and the relationship between culture, management, organizational culture and development, at the microeconomic level.

Keywords

  • culture
  • economic organization
  • management
  • development
access type Open Access

Practical Aspects Regarding the Technique of the Method of Calculation and Accounting of Production Costs

Published Online: 05 Jul 2022
Page range: 87 - 94

Abstract

Abstract

The method of calculating costs by manufacturing phases is limited to the range of classical methods of calculating costs. Basically, the “classical methods of calculating costs” refers both to direct costs but also to indirect costs related to a unit of product. The method on calculation phases of manufacturing costs consists in determining the actual cost on each production phase, partly deepened to the product level at the end of the production process, respectively at the end of the management period. The aim of the research is the practical application of the method of calculating costs on manufacturing phases in order to establish the opportunity to use it in practice. The result of the research concludes in the fact that, typical of these methods, we discuss costing only at the end of production, materialized at this time in a posthistorical action, an action that requires information from the company’s accounting based on real costs, which is also a shortcoming of these methods, motivated by the fact that it is a final moment after which it is no longer possible to intervene with actions in any way.

Keywords

  • Costs
  • Production Process
  • Production Phases
  • Cost Calculation Method
  • semi-finished products
access type Open Access

Economic Imbalances Caused By the Abuse of Some Clauses Inserted in Credit Contracts

Published Online: 05 Jul 2022
Page range: 95 - 101

Abstract

Abstract

Credit agreements are membership contracts. Sometimes, within these types of contracts, significant imbalances can occur caused by the insertion of abusive clauses in the credit agreements. Significant imbalances are of an economic nature, created in order for professionals to obtain economic benefits in a manner that is contrary to good faith. The finding of abusive clauses is made “in concrete” only by the court. Once these abusive clauses have been found by the court, the abusive clauses can follow two variants of solutions, respectively: a). Within the contract they may be replaced by other clauses and b). they can be completely removed from bank credit agreements. In the first variant, the abusive clauses will be replaced with other clauses that will have as objective, the correction of the significant imbalances and the assurance of the balance of the credit agreements. In the second variant, the abusive clauses are struck by nullity and can sometimes have major consequences, materialized even in the cancellation of the entire credit agreement. The adopted solution will be based on the concrete situation of each case. The practice further proves the existence of these abusive clauses in one form or another, in credit agreements.

Keywords

  • Harmonization
  • contract
  • clauses
  • European regulations
  • national regulations
access type Open Access

Some Contemporary Aspects Related to the Big Data

Published Online: 05 Jul 2022
Page range: 102 - 106

Abstract

Abstract

The XXI century may well become not only the era of postmodernity, but also the era of ‘post-humanity’ in the sense that artificial intelligence and robots will displace human beings and, to some extent, human thinking. The article points out that the artificial intelligence, Internet of things and Big data are three factors that are crucial for the implementation of the 4.0 industry. At the same time the author stresses that depersonalization of a human being can gradually wean him to think, analyze and be content only with aggressively introduced patterns of stereotypical behaviour in the virtual space. The difference between the two concepts, namely ‘big data’ and ‘business intelligence’has also been discussed. The so-called ‘three V’, namely: Volume, Velocity, and Variety are underlined as the main characteristics of the Big data. The author concludes that in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic the educational process in the Bulgarian universities was carried out under the influence of big data.

Keywords

  • Big data
  • artificial intelligence
  • hate speech
  • higher education
access type Open Access

Societal Resilience, A Key Factor in Combating Hybrid Threats

Published Online: 05 Jul 2022
Page range: 107 - 115

Abstract

Abstract

February 24, 2022 has changed the course of recent history, proving the greatest fears of Western states concerning the intentions of the Russian Federation regarding Ukraine and Europe. Hybrid warfare instruments used in Ukraine over the past decade have led to the destabilization of the security situation in eastern Ukraine, culminating in the invasion of a sovereign state and the outbreak of armed conflict. We are currently witnessing an absurd theater of contradictory news, a struggle for resources and state decisions taken in accordance with their concern for their own economy, cyber-attacks and revelations of a sensational sometimes with macabre overtones. The diversity and complexity of the hybrid threats so evident in today’s society, used as a military strategy prior to the armed conflict but especially since its inception, influences our perception and increases the effects of conventional warfare.

Keywords

  • hybrid threats
  • hybrid warfare
  • societal resilience
  • synergistic approach
  • institutional interoperability
access type Open Access

Impact of the Covid-19 Pandemic on the International Position of East Asian Countries

Published Online: 05 Jul 2022
Page range: 116 - 122

Abstract

Abstract

The outbreak of the Covid-19 pandemic in China and the spread of the SARS-CoV-2 virus caused at first some kind of shift in attitudes towards East Asia. However, in the longer term, wider effects apply into international relations around the world. COVID-19 pandemic determined various activities implemented by government all over the world, which aims at fist were to protect health and life of its inhabitant, but later turned out to wider strategy of each country. COVID-19 pandemic expects negative consequences, which undoubtedly are dominant, in some cases turned out to be very stimulating to development. The article aims to present the changes that have taken place in the context of the international position of East Asian countries over the last two years, caused by the pandemic.

Keywords

  • COVID-19
  • pandemic
  • crisis
  • East Asia
  • security
access type Open Access

STANAG 6001 Russian Language Exam: Holistic Approach to Assessing Speaking

Published Online: 05 Jul 2022
Page range: 123 - 128

Abstract

Abstract

This paper analyzes the STANAG 6001 Russian language exam focusing on the specifics of Speaking Proficiency evaluation. Despite the fact that the testing procedure is based on the Assessment Criteria set by the STANAG 6001, assessing speaking skills through a guided interview or a sequence of techniques seems to be one of the most challenging and hard tasks for testers. Advantages of holistic approach of assessing speaking skills are discussed and justified.

Keywords

  • STANAG 6001 testing
  • Russian language
  • speaking assessment
  • holistic approach
access type Open Access

Advantages of Language Proficiency in the Military Environment

Published Online: 05 Jul 2022
Page range: 129 - 133

Abstract

Abstract

Multilingualism describes the fact of using several living languages, understanding them, and mastering their nuances. Languages apprenticeship is long, tedious, but rewarding. Worldwide, 60-75% of the population speaks at least two languages. To be monolingual is to be part of a minority. For the new generations of military leaders, speaking several languages is a huge advantage, socially, professionally and neurologically. After briefly reviewing some scientific data on the advantages of the bilingual brain, the paper discusses how bilingualism positively affects their cognitive development as future Army leaders. Indeed, the obligation to juggle between two languages, the mother tongue and the language learned, offers bilingual people better control of the executive functions of their brain. In other words, the faculties of attention, memory, reasoning developed by learning the language are reinforced. This is an advantage for the military leader, who can thus process each piece of information more quickly and adapt more effectively to the evolution of a situation in a theatre of operations, for example. Cognitive control skills, mental flexibility, the ability to perform tasks requiring change, monitoring and conflict control are thus easier for a bilingual army officer.

Keywords

  • bilingual
  • military leadership
  • brain
  • language
  • cognitive development
access type Open Access

On the Use of Qualitative Research Methodology in the Military Organization

Published Online: 05 Jul 2022
Page range: 134 - 139

Abstract

Abstract

The paper identifies and analyse some features of qualitative social studies that, in the context of the military organization, could create difficulties in data collection process and could have a negative impact on the validity and reliability of the results. There are presented the main aspects of qualitative research and methodology, and highlighted how the main characteristics of the military organization could influence the conduct of this type of scientific research.

Keywords

  • qualitative research
  • data collection
  • data interpretation
  • military organization
access type Open Access

Challenges to the Military Education System When Training Representatives of Generations X, Y and Z

Published Online: 05 Jul 2022
Page range: 140 - 147

Abstract

Abstract

The world is changing, and transformations in turn affect all areas of society. Some seek to keep up with innovation, while others take a more conservative stance. The behavior strategy of each person often depends not only on their personal beliefs, but also on other factors such as social environment, upbringing and belonging to a particular generation. Generational differences in learning are most evident when changing perspectives during learning as a result of participation in the learning process. All this leads to the diversification of the educational approaches and to the adaptation of military education system to student’s diversity.

Keywords

  • generations X
  • Y and Z
  • diversity
access type Open Access

Oracy in the 21st Century – Developing Speaking Competence for Real World Interactions

Published Online: 05 Jul 2022
Page range: 148 - 153

Abstract

Abstract

Communication is a fundamental skill for the existence and survival of societies. In the learning of a foreign language, classroom practice should focus with priority on developing communicative skills. Oracy, a term coined by Andrew Wilkinson in 1965, is defined as the ability to express oneself efficiently, effectively, and fluently. Having strong oracy skills involves the capacity to structure one’s thoughts in a way that is comprehensible to others, and accurate control of both vocabulary and grammar, in order to transmit a clear message. In the same way that literacy is essential for reading and writing, oracy is necessary for becoming a good speaker and listener. This paper will define oracy as a language teaching strategy, establish an oracy framework, and detail on oracy subskills. The practical part takes a pedagogical approach to the concept of oracy and underlines its importance in the teaching of a foreign language by integrating oracy skills and sub-skills in an applied discussion exemplified by concrete classroom practice.

Keywords

  • oracy
  • communication
  • skills
  • foreign language teaching
access type Open Access

The Higher Education Institution Between Legal Norms and Ethical Rules

Published Online: 05 Jul 2022
Page range: 154 - 160

Abstract

Abstract

The activity within the higher education institutions has been and is the object of study and research for the specialists in the field of Academic Ethics. The key issues, which are being pursued, concern various aspects of the university environment. In this paper, we want to detail some aspects of the connection between the legal norms, which govern the field of university education, and those of an ethical nature, considering that there is an intrinsic link between the two categories of norms. Academic citizenship is defined as the service that academics provide for the benefit of the higher education institution they represent, including the moral obligation they have as a part of the academic system. The moral authority of the teacher is an authority based on fundamental principles or truths that exist independently of written laws, manifested with the purpose of modeling the moral behavior of the students, teaching them to abide by legal norms as well as other ethical norms. Furthermore, in this paper, the notions and principles regarding the ethical culture of the members of the academic community will be considered.

Keywords

  • university
  • higher education
  • academic citizenship
  • moral authority
  • legal norms
  • ethical rules
access type Open Access

Collaborative Teaching – A Bridge Building Towards Students’ Social and Academic Benefits

Published Online: 05 Jul 2022
Page range: 161 - 165

Abstract

Abstract

This article is the result of an analysis based on a 14-year observation of the academic and social evolution of students in different educational institutions, contexts and levels of English and French language study in both Canada and Romania. Collaboration has proven to be an effective concept necessary to be introduced in the curriculum. The focus of this project will be on some groups of students studying English and French within different science faculties within a university in Romania. Learning crises are identified as students feel reluctant to both attend and participate in these classes. Moreover, the low number of classes in the curriculum discourages students even more. There is also an overall lack of motivation resulting in the instructor’s conclusion that a linguistic context is badly needed both inside and outside of the class. Along with their progress during their language practice, students’ motivation will be enhanced if students are involved in extra-curricular activities. Coupled with a few innovative learning strategies, the craft of teaching and social contexts presented by some native speaker guests expert on topics appealing to the students could promote greater interest in the study of these two languages.

Keywords

  • EFL
  • collaborative
  • teaching
  • motivation
access type Open Access

On Types and Paradigms of Military Leadership

Published Online: 05 Jul 2022
Page range: 166 - 170

Abstract

Abstract

Leadership in the military entails making crucial decisions, frequently under intense pressure and with serious repercussions. Effective military leaders reason strategically to arrive at well-informed, actionable conclusions while they build and motivate teams. Within the complexity of such an approach that calls for a wide range of military, psychological, discursive and functional perspectives, this paper sets out to review the notion of leadership and to emphasize several military leadership literature approaches delineating the roles of a military leader that are context-dependable, multi-levelled and transformational in the army environment.

Keywords

  • leadership
  • military
  • leaders
  • roles
  • effectiveness
access type Open Access

Leaders Attributes in Modern Warfare

Published Online: 05 Jul 2022
Page range: 171 - 173

Abstract

Abstract

Modern leaders should display an entire array of qualities, very well structured in knowledge, abilities and will along with leader attributes. Leaders’ attributes help to understand the anatomy of a leader trough his character, presence and intellectual capacity, each features contributing to leader core competencies of leading, developing and achieving.

Keywords

  • character
  • presence
  • intellectual
  • attributes
access type Open Access

International Ideation for Hybrid ESP Teaching

Published Online: 05 Jul 2022
Page range: 174 - 179

Abstract

Abstract

The paper shares some of the experience gained in the ideation process of generating and designing tasks in Specialised Military English for a hybrid learning environment. The product of the ideation is targeted at military and security specialists and is the result of an international project under the EU’s Erasmus+ programme N 2020-1-BG01-KA203-079117. Definitions of ideation, interactive activity/learning, hybrid learning, and ESP are suggested. The main phases of the HELPSec international ideation process of the project partners are presented and some techniques of this process are exemplified.

Keywords

  • ideation
  • interactive activity
  • ESP
  • hybrid teaching/learning
  • HELPSec
access type Open Access

Online Audio-Video Content as Homework in English Language Teaching: A Classroom-Tested Application for Undergraduate Programs Designed During the Coronavirus Pandemic

Published Online: 05 Jul 2022
Page range: 180 - 185

Abstract

Abstract

The paper explores the potential permanent benefits of using online audio-video content as homework for undergraduate students in English Language Teaching (ELT), based on the author’s classroom experience with the application of the said strategy during the Coronavirus pandemic. The classroom-tested implementation analyzed in the article was focused on English Phonetics and Phonology related objectives. Furthermore, a similar, but adapted potential homework design model for teaching Aviation English (radiotelephony phraseology) to Air Force Academy cadets is explored. The main purposes of the present contribution are to describe the activities themselves, along with their intended purposes and results, to analyze student behavior in relation to the said use of technology, and ultimately to review the shortcomings and potential long-term benefits of permanent use for university-level education.

Keywords

  • audio/video content
  • phonetics and phonology
  • aviation English
  • higher education
  • online ELT
access type Open Access

Complaints, Requests and Petitions as Instruments of Social Control for Civil Society in a Democratic State of Law

Published Online: 05 Jul 2022
Page range: 186 - 190

Abstract

Abstract

The article deals with non-procedural means of social influence, such as complaints, requests and petitions, on the performance of public tasks by public authorities. Complaints, requests and petitions belong in Polish law to extra-procedural legal means which discipline bodies and institutions of public authority to perform public tasks in the best possible way. On the other hand, these extra-procedural legal remedies are a tool for civil society capable of becoming active in the social space. In this way, complaints, requests and petitions constitute an important manifestation of social control in a democratic state of law, based on the principles of cooperation between the citizen and the agent of authority. On the one hand, they constitute a kind of cooperation of civil society with the authorities, and on the other hand, they subordinate the directions of the authorities’ actions. The performance of public tasks should, after all, coincide to the highest degree with public expectations. Complainants and petitioners can, through these means, stimulate the activities of public bodies and institutions, and thus influence the spending of public funds. By activating actions of public authorities complaints, requests and petitions become human rights related to freedom, as no one should limit the activity of civil society. On the example of Polish legislation the author explicates these extra-procedural means of supporting civil society initiatives, indicating their importance not only in Polish constitutional and administrative law, but, above all, their general social significance.

Keywords

  • complaints
  • requests
  • petitions
  • social control
  • civil society
access type Open Access

Managing Different Generations in the Workplace

Published Online: 05 Jul 2022
Page range: 191 - 196

Abstract

Abstract

In an ageing society, intergenerational management is becoming increasingly important for organizations. The strategies used by managers in managing the work of the different generational groups working at a particular time in an organization must focus on reducing the differences between them while maintaining their diversity. Choosing the most effective strategies starts with knowing and understanding the characteristics of each generation; implementing them can be done both by exercising appropriate leadership styles and by incorporating them into organizational policies and practices. In this way, a climate of intergenerational cooperation can be built which can only support the achievement of organizational objectives.

Keywords

  • generations
  • management strategies
  • intergenerational cooperation
access type Open Access

Contingent Valuation of Built Cultural Heritage in a Small Town: Oraviţa (Romania)

Published Online: 05 Jul 2022
Page range: 197 - 202

Abstract

Abstract

The evaluation of the cultural heritage from the perspective of the optimal ways of use requires a complex analysis that must be related both to its multiple patrimonial values and to the economic value. In this context, the evaluation of cultural heritage is difficult due to its characteristics such as uniqueness, authenticity and irreversibility. The purpose of this study is to assess the value of non-use of cultural heritage buildings in a small Romanian town, Oraviţa. The evaluation was carried out using the contingent method that allowed to identify the perception of the local community on the cultural heritage and the concern regarding its conservation. The cultural objectives that the local population has selected, mentioning the desire to pay for their conservation, contribute to shaping the tourist attractiveness of Oraviţa.

Keywords

  • urban heritage
  • conservation
  • non-use value
  • cultural tourism
access type Open Access

The Impact of the Covid-19 Pandemic on the Valorization of Cultural Heritage. Case Study: Bucharest Municipality (Romania)

Published Online: 05 Jul 2022
Page range: 203 - 208

Abstract

Abstract

The COVID-19 pandemic has profoundly affected the conservation and capitalization of the tangible and intangible cultural heritage and limited the population’s participation in culture. The purpose of this study is to analyze the impact of the pandemic on the degree of capitalization of the elements of tangible and intangible cultural heritage within the capital city of Romania. The results of this study reflect the efforts of the representatives of cultural institutions to respond to the challenge of keeping in touch with different categories of audience. At the same time, solutions adapted to restrictions on social distancing have been identified, in order to facilitate the capitalization of the elements of cultural heritage by organizing temporary exhibitions and cultural events in the open air or online. It is also noticeable the organization of cultural events through the collaboration of public institutions in order to facilitate the access of the public to culture and increase the degree of capitalization of the cultural heritage.

Keywords

  • cultural institutions
  • social distancing
  • virtual experiences
  • online promotion
  • digitization
access type Open Access

Ways to Increase the Psychological Well-Being of Students During Online Courses

Published Online: 05 Jul 2022
Page range: 209 - 212

Abstract

Abstract

The Covid-19 pandemic, which has unprecedented proportions, has not only adversely affected the economies of all countries in the world, but has also led to a dramatic decline in the psychological well-being of most individuals, with experts particularly concerned about the level of stress manifested by children and young people. More and more studies in psychology and pedagogy are sounding the alarm about the decline in mental health that may occur in future generations and are looking for different solutions to reduce the stress that can make you sick or even deadly. Psychological well-being is generated by a series of factors, among which we mention: the fulfillment of basic needs, genetic factors, personality, age, income, but especially by the support relationships that a person has. We believe that these supportive relationships can also be created and strengthened during the online language classes taught. This paper aims to highlight a number of ways to increase the psychological well-being of students during online English classes, a well-being that has many benefits for both the student and society as a whole.

Keywords

  • psychological well-being
  • higher education
  • online
  • universities
access type Open Access

Of Battle and Business: Military Language in the Corporate Environment

Published Online: 05 Jul 2022
Page range: 213 - 218

Abstract

Abstract

As early as the second half of the 20th century, theoreticians and commentators in the field of business and corporate culture have started to increasingly make use of military and war metaphors when describing or analyzing business-related matters. This ongoing tendency can be explained by the fact that both military and business jargons have had similar historical trajectories and focus on similar goals and objectives. Military philosophy can furthermore offer valuable lessons and advice to any aspiring manager. To be aware of the symbiosis between military jargon and the language of business is to have a clearer overview of the impact of business practices and eventually to gain the upper hand in a domain where battle and the survival of the fittest are at the basis of all activities and endeavors. The aim of the present paper is to trace the similar trajectories in the evolution of military and business jargon and to analyze, by resorting to practical examples, the manifold similarities between the language of war and the one of business.

Keywords

  • military
  • language
  • business
  • corporate
  • jargon
  • war
  • management
access type Open Access

The Psychological Impact of the Public Interest Message on a Healthy Lifestyle

Published Online: 05 Jul 2022
Page range: 219 - 225

Abstract

Abstract

Media communication is one of the channels through which the message, in our case, of public interest, reaches the receiver and is perceived as such. In this context, the transmitted information is addressed to a particular segment of the population and contains a topic addressed in various situations, but it will always take into account psychologically the target group to which it is addressed. Thus, in the public interest message, which has as its subject the healthy lifestyle present within the television networks, the results show that the impact of such an educational sequence is aware of and accountable to the population to whom it is addressed, succeeding in a certain pedagogical time Change behavior, attitude, and even behavior in our case to reconsider our healthy lifestyle, taking into account its age peculiarities. Also, the triad: family - school - community manages to get involved in a concrete way when ignoring the importance of a healthy lifestyle can affect even the physio - psycho - pedo - social component of the individual that corresponds to the pattern of an evolutionary sequence of the human species In a certain given situation and not only.

Keywords

  • message
  • population
  • television
  • style
  • health
access type Open Access

Culture as a Vector of Intercultural Communication in Times of Crisis

Published Online: 05 Jul 2022
Page range: 226 - 232

Abstract

Abstract

Culture and communication are two tightly intertwined concepts. The process of communication, seen as social interaction, facilitates the transmission of messages between individuals of the same culture or belonging to different cultures. The process as a whole is influenced by the culture both the speaker and the listener/receptor belong to. When both participants in the communication process belong to different cultures, they automatically bring perceptual elements to the situation, as well as social and cultural traits and (verbal as well as non-verbal) means of communication characteristic of their respective cultures. Thus, differences between these elements, their recognition or the lack of acceptance towards them are often cause of difficulties or even conflicts which are the result of inefficient communication. The present paper examines, based on relevant secondary literature, the cultural variables which influence the communication between members of different cultural groups. In order to fulfil the desired objective, empirical research will be conducted based on observation and analysis. The research solution advanced in view of achieving efficient and authentic intercultural communication is based on an approach to situational subculture, namely the construction referred to as “third culture”.

Keywords

  • culture
  • intercultural communication
  • cultural variables
  • “third culture”
access type Open Access

The Role of Critical Thinking in Enhancing Military Professionals’ Leadership Skills Through Training in Foreign Language and Economics

Published Online: 05 Jul 2022
Page range: 233 - 237

Abstract

Abstract

The aim of the paper is to research the role of critical thinking in enhancing the leadership skills of military specialists during their foreign language and economics training. The authors explain the theory of critical thinking and its application in the acquisition of foreign language (English) and economics knowledge- subjects that are not a main part of the specialities but are inextricably linked with good quality education of the modern military leader.

Keywords

  • Critical thinking
  • Economics
  • Foreign language
  • Leadership skills
  • Military

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