Issues

Conference & Issues

Volume 28 (2022): Issue 3 (June 2022)

Volume 28 (2022): Issue 2 (June 2022)

Volume 28 (2022): Issue 1 (June 2022)

Volume 27 (2021): Issue 3 (June 2021)

Volume 27 (2021): Issue 2 (June 2021)

Volume 27 (2021): Issue 1 (June 2021)

Volume 26 (2020): Issue 3 (June 2020)

Volume 26 (2020): Issue 2 (June 2020)

Volume 26 (2020): Issue 1 (June 2020)

Volume 25 (2019): Issue 3 (June 2019)

Volume 25 (2019): Issue 2 (June 2019)

Volume 25 (2019): Issue 1 (June 2019)

Volume 24 (2018): Issue 3 (June 2018)

Volume 24 (2018): Issue 2 (June 2018)

Volume 24 (2018): Issue 1 (June 2018)

Volume 23 (2017): Issue 3 (June 2017)

Volume 23 (2017): Issue 2 (June 2017)

Volume 23 (2017): Issue 1 (June 2017)

Volume 22 (2016): Issue 3 (June 2016)

Volume 22 (2016): Issue 2 (June 2016)

Volume 22 (2016): Issue 1 (June 2016)

Volume 21 (2015): Issue 3 (June 2015)

Volume 21 (2015): Issue 2 (June 2015)

Volume 21 (2015): Issue 1 (June 2015)

Conference Details
Format
Conference
eISSN
2451-3113
ISSN
1843-6722
First Published
15 Dec 2015
Publication timeframe
3 times per year
Languages
English

Search

Volume 23 (2017): Issue 2 (June 2017)

Conference Details
Format
Conference
eISSN
2451-3113
ISSN
1843-6722
First Published
15 Dec 2015
Publication timeframe
3 times per year
Languages
English

Search

68 Articles
access type Open Access

State and Problems of Warehousing of Bulgarian Army

Published Online: 25 Jul 2017
Page range: 9 - 15

Abstract

Abstract

Storing material resources is a back-up function of military logistics, but its proper organization and successful improvement is a guarantee for effective and efficient realization of the whole logistics support process. For this reason it is advisable to elaborate the whole warehousing process in the Bulgarian Army (BA). The aim of this study is to analyze the state and problems of logistics and warehousing in the Bulgarian Army.

Keywords

  • logistics
  • logistic system
  • warehousing
access type Open Access

The Importance of European Funding on Public Finances in Romania - Implications for The General Consolidated Budget of The State

Published Online: 25 Jul 2017
Page range: 16 - 22

Abstract

Abstract

The "health" state of the economy which will receive European funding is a key element in the efficiency with which these funds can be used, the effects that the injection of foreign capital entails are being significant at the macroeconomic level, since a Member state of the European Union eligible to receive finance capital can absorb a flow of up to 4% of GDP. The manner of the allocation of these funds is also a key component of efficient use of European funds allocated under the multiannual financial programming period. Annual indicative allocation corresponding to the seven years of a programming period allows to identify specific priorities for investment of these funds and the co-financing obligation incumbent upon the recipient state has the role to lead to a more responsible and appropriate use of these funds. However, the gradual release of these cash flows in the national economy may lead to a delay in the occurrence of short-term positive results for the economy, given that the allocation is made after approval by the European Commission of some strategic documents that the recipient state assumes to follow according to common objectives. Beyond the effort that the recipient state must make to become eligible for European funding, the longterm effects of the injection of capital into the economy are significant and certainly favorable to the economic and social development as a whole. One of the controversial issues on the opportunity of accessing European funding is represented by the financing cost that this entails. The problematic issues that the injection of foreign capital flows have on fiscal policy and their implications on the general consolidated budget of the state are complex and are a subject of debate among researchers in economics.

Keywords

  • national budget
  • finances
  • deficit
  • European funds
access type Open Access

A Study on Improving The Distribution Processes. The Case of Miruna Internaţional Impex Ltd.Romania

Published Online: 25 Jul 2017
Page range: 23 - 28

Abstract

Abstract

Investing is a category of spending that engages the future most, depends on increasing and improving the productive potential of an enterprise (through expansion and modernization), the emergence of new production capacities. Because it is necessary to allocate large resources for the investment process, they are for a long time and the decision making process involves a lot of uncertainties. A decision on investment projects must be based on a careful analysis of all aspects of the context, the variables involved and their dynamics.

Keywords

  • investment
  • economic efficiency indicators
  • analysis
  • options
  • project
access type Open Access

The Legal Regime Applicable to Financial Audit in Army Units

Published Online: 25 Jul 2017
Page range: 29 - 35

Abstract

Abstract

Through the present paper, the authors propose to bring into the readers’ attention the most relevant legal aspects that relate to the organisation and exercise of activity of internal public audit in those entities that have a more special character, by being included in the national defence and security system. Also, we will also be referring to the ways of exercising the aforementioned activity, and to the weaknesses that still characterise the system, as shown by the external public audit reports, published by the Supreme Institute of Audit (The Romanian Court of Auditors, for the last verified exercise at the Ministry of Defence - 2015). The development of our proceedings is based on the legislation applicable in this domain, but also on reports, issued by prestigious institutions, that contain data and information that is both as recent as possible and absolutely credible.

Keywords

  • compartment of audit
  • risks
  • norms/standards
  • damage
  • legal liability/ compensation
access type Open Access

Instruments and Fianancial Performance Indicators or The Capitalization of Accounting Information from The Profit and Loss Account – Meanings Useful to Management

Published Online: 25 Jul 2017
Page range: 36 - 40

Abstract

Abstract

For the capitalization of accounting information in view of financial performance analysis of the company, management must operate at least based on intermediate management balance, the cash flow, breakeven point and earnings per share, indicators established, first, by using the information in the statement Profit and Loss Account. Based on these considerations, the paper addresses, by the exploratory research, the main constructions based on financial accounting information presented in the profit and loss account, the objective being to show the opportunities and limitations of information generated for management.

Keywords

  • accounting information
  • intermediate management balances
  • profitability
  • financial performance
  • management
access type Open Access

Features on Sale in Dual-Use Items

Published Online: 25 Jul 2017
Page range: 41 - 45

Abstract

Abstract

This study addresses a very special issue, i.e. the import-export of those products, goods and technology that normally have civilian uses, but which, because of their nature, may also have military applications. In our opinion, the subject is particularly interesting since these products are related to the development and production of weapons of mass destruction. Therefore, we aimed at highlighting the most important aspects of the marketing standards and practices for the control on dual-use items, with reference to the national and international legal systems in the field. We used the latest bibliography, focusing on documentary sources for certain credibility.

Keywords

  • dual-use items
  • security
  • export
  • civil and military
  • weapons proliferation
access type Open Access

Spatial Differentiation of Synthetic Measure of Economic Security of Local Government. Case Study of Financial Variables of The Cities in The Eastern Poland Macro-Region

Published Online: 25 Jul 2017
Page range: 46 - 52

Abstract

Abstract

In this article the authors focus on the element of security culture which is economic security. It is the ability of an economic system to use internal factors of development on a local level and international economic interdependence in such a way that it can guarantee its safe development. Stability and certainty of funding sources determine the scope and level of public services and tasks of a municipality that it fulfils. Economic security is a resulting category that allows to assess functioning of security culture from the perspective of local economy. The aim of the article is to provide determinants of shaping of economic security in Swietokrzyskie Voivodeship municipalities in the context of selected elements of financial management for 2010 and 2015. In the calculations the data of the Central Statistical Office (Local Data Bank) were used. The determined synthetic measure allows to arrange Swietokrzyskie Voivodeship municipalities according to the examined aspect. It gives the basis for evaluation of effectiveness of economic policy instruments that were applied in the past. They provide a comparative picture between the objects that were analysed, allow to indicate weaker and better areas of functioning of a unit.

Keywords

  • economic security
  • synthetic measure
  • finance
  • safety culture
access type Open Access

Local Security as an Element of Local Development. Case Study of Infrastructure and Environmental Variables of The Cities in The Eastern Poland Macro-Region

Published Online: 25 Jul 2017
Page range: 53 - 58

Abstract

Abstract

The authors in this article present performance of public administration which concerns a basic process developing in the context of dynamics of security culture phenomenon that involves the use of local potential (including infrastructure, natural environment, finance, human capital). The process of development of a region is multifaceted. It involves any changes that are implemented at different paces and with varying intensity in economic, social, technical and environmental areas. Local security is a resulting category that allows to assess functioning of local economy. The aim of the article is to provide determinants that shape security at the local level in the context of the selected elements of the region’s balance (infrastructure and environment aspects) by the case of Swietokrzyskie Voivodeship municipalities for 2010 and 2015. In the calculations the data of the Central Statistical Office (Local Data Bank) were used. The determined synthetic measure allows to make hierarchy according to the adopted variables. It supplies information on the examined category of objects. It provides a comparative picture between the objects that were analysed, allows to indicate weaker and better areas of functioning of a unit. As it is shown in the article it gives a basis for the assessment of the effectiveness of the instruments of local authorities policy that were used in the past. The carried out statistic studies confirm existence of disparities in financial condition (financial security) of municipalities.

Keywords

  • local security
  • synthetic measure
  • infrastructure
  • natural environment
  • city
access type Open Access

Public and Fiscality: Facts and Unknowns

Published Online: 25 Jul 2017
Page range: 59 - 64

Abstract

Abstract

Taxes on physical and juridical persons constitute a permanent source of income for the authorities, income that is used to cover public expenses. As the need for public financial resources is growing permanently, a decrease in the tax levels can cause confusion or even public controversy. However, changes brought in the current fiscal legislation have brought a series of decreases (theoretically substantial) of the fiscal obligations owed by the tax payers. Thus, it is natural to try and identify the potential benefits or consequences of the fiscal relaxation that has occurred. Moreover, it can be established if there is a possibility to replace eventual losses of resources from the targeted taxpayers with tax charges that affect other financial actors.

Keywords

  • fiscal policy
  • fiscal income
  • contributions
  • tax cuts
access type Open Access

Use of Linear Optimization Model in Defining The New Standards for The Preparation of Food for Servicemen in Preparation for Participation in Peacekeeping Operations

Published Online: 25 Jul 2017
Page range: 65 - 70

Abstract

Abstract

The role of providing ready-to-use food, regarded as a multiplicator of the combat force of the formations of the Bulgarian Army (BA) participating in peace keeping operations (PKO) is beyond doubt. The concept of the feeding of a battalion battle group (BBG), which is a potential participant in PKO should be sustainable under any conditions in different climatic zones and altitudes, providing for the specific needs of the personnel in accordance with their sex, age, health status, body mass index (BMI) and personal preferences. The energy needs of the servicemen in a BBG on a PKO in hot climates are equal to those in moderate climates - 3595 kcal per day. During combat operations this need rises to 4905 kcal per day.

Keywords

  • linear optimization
  • product sets
  • standards
  • feeding
access type Open Access

Modality of Determining The Risk Scores and Their Ranking for The Direct Acquisition Made in SEAP

Published Online: 25 Jul 2017
Page range: 71 - 75

Abstract

Abstract

In order to shape a representative economic model, meant to be used for the analysis of direct acquisitions conducted by the public institutions on the electronic platform called SEAP (Electronic System of Public Acquisitions) we need to make a series of calculations which can lead to the establishment of risk scores for this types of acquisitions or procurements and their ranking, This hierarchy shall provide the public institutions with valuable items of information for the awareness of direct acquisitions particularities.

Keywords

  • SEAP
  • direct acquisition
  • risk
  • public institution
access type Open Access

Generalization of Purchasing of Particular Materials within The Conditions of The Army of The Czech Republic

Published Online: 25 Jul 2017
Page range: 76 - 82

Abstract

Abstract

The paper deals with the way of central purchasing of office paper of various formats and with an assessment of opportunities to generalize processes for creation of acceptable solutions. The aim is to suggest and verify opportunity for generalized processes that can be utilised within the military conditions. Basic scientific methods and statistical analysis with implication of interval classification by Sturges rule were used within the research. The findings of the research are beneficial especially for generalizing purchasing processes of other materials. This process can be used for purchasing of furniture or spare parts and accessories for military vehicles.

Keywords

  • central purchasing
  • office paper
  • tender price
  • departmental system of awarding public contracts
access type Open Access

The Proposal to Create Provisions of Land Military Equipment in The Army of The Czech Republic

Published Online: 25 Jul 2017
Page range: 83 - 89

Abstract

Abstract

The paper deals with the proposed method of creating the reserves of land military equipment in the Army of the Czech Republic. The aim is to propose the classification of spare parts categories and their consumption quantities in a calendar year. The reserves optimization criteria and the Pareto ABC analysis have been employed, besides basic methods, in the submitted paper. The proposal is based on the purpose and delivery time of spare parts. The cost indicator is related to the operation of land military equipment within its life cycle, including the supply of spare parts. Under the above mentioned conditions the method was determined to create the reserves of spare parts for land military equipment necessary to ensure the ACR operability in peacetime.

Keywords

  • Pareto analysis
  • reserves
  • spare parts
access type Open Access

Aspects of Compatibility and Convergence of The Accounting Information Comprised in The Balance Sheet in The DKMT Euroregion (Danube-Criş-Mureş-Tisa)

Published Online: 25 Jul 2017
Page range: 90 - 94

Abstract

Abstract

In order to study the compatibility and convergence of accounting information between the Autonomous Region Vojvodina and the West Development Region of Romania and implicitly between Vojvodina and Hungarian counties of DKMT, it is necessary to study the compatibility and possible convergence between the Vojvodina Balance Sheet (Bilans Stanja) and the Romanian Abridged Balance Sheet. In order to reach the set goal we opted for the detailed presentation of the Bilans Stanja, with the highlighting of correspondences, indicators’ manner of calculation (when necessary) and the highlight of differences and complementarities.

Keywords

  • abridged balance sheet
  • bilans stanja
  • accounting information
  • DKMT Euroregion
access type Open Access

Theoretical Aspects Regarding Information Systems Auditing within The Military Organization

Published Online: 25 Jul 2017
Page range: 95 - 100

Abstract

Abstract

As part of the general effort to modernize the financial-economic system, in both private and public sectors, the concept of internal auditing is fairly recent. The development of information technology has significantly contributed to the integration of information systems into management related activities (economy, logistics, finance and accountancy, etc.). The integration of new information technology into the practice of processing, transferring and storing information has brought about a series of threats and vulnerabilities of the information system. Thus, auditing information systems has become a vital element for all domains and activities of organizations, including the military one.

Keywords

  • information system
  • auditing
  • risks
  • vulnerabilities
  • objectives
access type Open Access

Some Aspects Concerning The Communication in Multinational Corporations Existing on The Romanian Market

Published Online: 25 Jul 2017
Page range: 101 - 106

Abstract

Abstract

The proposed topic presents a high interest at least from two points of view. Economically speaking, the multinational corporations define to a considerable extent the economic performance of Romania. As communication, these corporations with entire or prevailing foreign capital could be considered as models for what it means intercultural communication and cultural adapting. The research of the aspects connected to communication in an intercultural framework allows the drawing of some pertinent conclusions concerning the role of communication as a key factor of success or on the contrary an important barrier. At the same time, the approach of communication process needs not only the study of communication itself but also the mentalities, the attitudes, and the behaviors. The present paper refers mostly to internal communication and less to promotional communication. In the same time, it refers to the way act the organizational cultures existing in those corporations, if there is a closed connection between communication and organizational culture.

Keywords

  • internal communication
  • multicultural
  • multinational corporations
access type Open Access

Czech Armed Forces and Some Aspects of Helicopters Acquisition

Published Online: 25 Jul 2017
Page range: 107 - 112

Abstract

Abstract

After several years of discussion and decision-making approaches Army of the Czech Republic to implement the purchase of multipurpose helicopters to replace the previously used, morally and physically obsolete attack helicopters Mi-24 / 34. The process of acquisition consists of many stages; it is not a simple matter and has its pitfalls. It is also a big, expensive and long-term acquisition in which the poor implementation can cause problems that are likely to affect the Army of the Czech Republic and its Air Force for many years. One of the decision-making process inputs is an estimate of Life Cycle Cost (LCC). For the estimation, many methods can be used. The paper deals with application of system dynamics to LCC estimation process. Partial models of utilization and support Life Cycle phases are presented, which can be further developed according to consecutive data availability. An influence of different helicopter operating modes on a Life Cycle Cost is demonstrated by means of simulation in Vensim application. The models, after verification and validation, can be used to support the acquisition process.

Keywords

  • Helicopters
  • System Dynamics
  • Life Cycle Cost
  • Life Cycle Model
  • Acquisition
access type Open Access

The Role of Internal Control in Managing The Risks Specific to The Financial Field

Published Online: 25 Jul 2017
Page range: 113 - 117

Abstract

Abstract

This article deals with a currently discussed topic, namely that of preventive financial control, a concept that has to ensure a reasonable use of public funds in a transparent, economical, efficient and effective manner. In this sense the issues related to public internal financial control are considered instruments that actively influence the organizational and managerial culture of the public entity in a positive manner by engaging in control actions that are meant to identify and stop the possible illegal activities or actions, fraudulent or uneconomical use of public funds. I further detail the concept of public financial control with the two principal branches, that is the preventive financial control and the preventive financial control proper. The preventive financial control proper, by exercising the control visa for every financial supporting document affecting public funds, is a cornerstone regarding the exercise of financial control activity.

Keywords

  • strategy of public internal control
  • internal control
  • internal control standards
  • preventive financial control
  • credit officer
access type Open Access

Causes of Fiscality Generating Economic and Social Effects in Romania

Published Online: 25 Jul 2017
Page range: 118 - 123

Abstract

Abstract

I think I am in the same line with the majority of finance and especially tax specialists in arguing that taxation is an economic and social phenomenon, i.e. a chain of actions and deeds which take place in time and space. The main argument in considering taxation in a broader sense, as an economic and social phenomenon, is that taxation should ensure the achievement of the economic and social objectives of the state. This phenomenon is caused by a complex of factors that are general and perpetual and whose actions breed measurable consequences. Like any economic and social phenomenon, taxation is characterized by generating causes, specific to the time and space framework of the event, vectors of influence of the intensity of the action (accelerators or reducers) and noticeable results (effects) on the surface of the economic reality. The economic and social causes of the phenomenon of taxation are not usually measurable given the continuous interaction of the vectors of influence, but the effects are real, reliable and quantifiable. Therefore, it is necessary to undertake in-depth studies in order to understand the lesser known side of the elements that trigger the emergence and development of the economic and social phenomena.

Keywords

  • tax
  • tax evasion
  • policy
  • cause
  • effect
access type Open Access

Theoretical and Empirical Research on The Analysis and The Assessment of The Stability of National Financial Systems. Romania’s Experience

Published Online: 25 Jul 2017
Page range: 124 - 129

Abstract

Abstract

The stability of the financial systems is an objective necessity for the sustainable development of each national economy. Within this framework, ensuring financial stability is a priority for the central banks and for the other macro-prudential supervisory and regulatory authorities. In order to ensure the stability and "the health" of the national financial system, the competent authorities should analyze, assess and adopt optimal and timely measures to eliminate potential imbalances. These and other aspects are the main objectives of our research.

Keywords

  • national financial system
  • financial stability
  • analysis and assessment
  • indicators of financial stability
access type Open Access

The Nature and Purpose of The General Meetings of The Supranational Economic Associations in The European Union

Published Online: 25 Jul 2017
Page range: 130 - 134

Abstract

Abstract

The general meeting is the supreme body of the European company as well as of the other European entities for economic association. It is a body forming and expressing the intention of a company. It is a specific forum for the free and voluntary expression of the intentions of its individual participants. The intentions can be expressed by an individual or a group, but they always express a specific attitude. A meeting collects, as a “funnel”, the expressed concerns, the suggestions supporting or rejecting the expressed theses, etc., with regard to the discussed issues. This forms the common will of the participating parties. The general meeting of shareholders is a legally established body of an European company. In view of its structure, the general meeting of shareholders is a collective body. It includes all shareholders entitled to vote. Therefore, it can be defined as a college because it approves all decisions as a college at in-person meetings or in absentia. Thus the meeting in question is the only legal means by which shareholders may exercise moral management rights: participation in management, right to vote, active and passive right to elect and be elected to the board of directors, management or supervisory board, etc. The legal framework of the general meeting of shareholders has hybrid nature.

Keywords

  • general meeting
  • European Economic Interest Grouping (EEIG)
  • European company (SE)
  • European Cooperative Society (SCE)
access type Open Access

Some Implications of Adopting New Codes - Tax and Fiscal Procedure - On SME Business

Published Online: 25 Jul 2017
Page range: 135 - 138

Abstract

Abstract

Given the entry into force of the new Tax Code and of the New Tax Procedure Code in 2016, our approach is aimed at addressing the most important issues of interest to SME entrepreneurship. Obviously, we are referring both to the rules of the respective codes that bring benefits to the shareholders/ entrepreneurs engaged in small business, but also to those designed to displease. Based on the Romanian and foreign literature, in the end, we also propose some solutions in order to improve this situation.

Keywords

  • SME business
  • taxes
access type Open Access

Use of Technical Means for Making The Tactics of Identification More Precise

Published Online: 25 Jul 2017
Page range: 139 - 143

Abstract

Abstract

The present article concerns the technical means that are used by the investigating authorities at the institute in relation to the identification and in order the same to emphasize on its evidential influence and importance.

Keywords

  • Identification
  • Investigation
  • witness
  • protocol
  • Technical Means
access type Open Access

A New Data Protection Development in The EU Judicial and Criminal Area

Published Online: 25 Jul 2017
Page range: 144 - 149

Abstract

Abstract

The following article is dedicated to a new data protection regime in the European Union, in particular the Directive (EU) 2016/680 of the European Parliament and the Council on the protection of natural persons regarding processing of personal data by authorities aiming at prevention, investigation, detection and prosecution of crime offences, including execution of criminal penalties. For this purpose, the authors look first at the data protection within the Prüm framework as well as at the relevant provisions of Lisbon Treaty. Тhe important cases of the European Court of Human Rights are analyzed. Whereas in 2014 EU Member states focused on the question whether or not to retain data, the 2016 conclusion was that in some aspects data retention is the most efficient measure to ensure national security, public safety and fighting across serious crimes. The terrorist attacks in Paris and Brussels call to better equip security authorities. The EU legislature made significant progress on the Data Protection regime. The Directive (EU) 2016/680, the so called the ‘Police and Criminal Justice Directive’, repeals the Council Framework Decision 2008/977/JHA and will enter into force on 6 May 2018.

Keywords

  • Prüm framework
  • DNA
  • data protection
  • new Police and Criminal Justice Directive
access type Open Access

Motive or Reason in Criminal Law

Published Online: 25 Jul 2017
Page range: 150 - 155

Abstract

Abstract

Guilt often encompasses volitional and intellectual mental processes and only in rare cases it will include affective processes. The motive and purpose are certain mental processes which the legislator sometimes introduces in the content of the offenses. The motive is the psychological causal support of human facts. The doctrine currently uses both the term of motive and that of reason, but the Criminal Code uses exclusively the term motive, which better communicates the conscious and rational character of these psychological processes. In the general section of the Criminal Code, mental processes of the motive are common among the general criteria of punishment individualization and also in listing the aggravating circumstances. In the special part of the Criminal Code mental processes of the motive can be found both for typical or special variants and aggravated or qualifying forms of certain crimes. Motive can be expressed explicitly by equivalent terms or by an implied manner, which entails the need for interpretation of the text.

Keywords

  • guilty
  • motive
  • purpose
  • crime content
access type Open Access

The Unaccompanied or Separated Minor In The Asylum Procedure

Published Online: 25 Jul 2017
Page range: 156 - 161

Abstract

Abstract

The unaccompanied or separated minor is, according to the European Union body of legislation regarding asylum and migration, one of the extremely vulnerable categories of persons, and the risk of vulnerability is amplified in the case of the unaccompanied or separated minor - asylum seeker. Ever since the EU pre-accession period Romanian legislation reconciled, according to the European model, the requirements of the rules on migration with humanism provisions in the field of child rights. The images in the media about the migratory flows in recent years have revealed a system that requires imperatively legislative changes, adapting procedures, innovative work tools, including the case of the unaccompanied minor asylum seeker. In this article I intend to analyze the existing legislative framework in Romania, highlighting the positive aspects of the law and those which I believe that should be reconsidered so that the interests of the minor in the asylum procedure to be properly protected.

Keywords

  • unaccompanied
  • minor
  • separated
  • asylum
  • migration
access type Open Access

The Referendum as an Instrument to Join International Organizations

Published Online: 25 Jul 2017
Page range: 162 - 166

Abstract

Abstract

The article scrutinizes the referendum as an instrument to join international organizations. It analyzes the interaction of the participants for achieving unanimity and consensus, not differences or attempts to impose a certain opinion. A conclusion is drawn that through direct democracy the citizens take responsibility for the future development of the state.

Keywords

  • referendum
  • democracy
  • international organizations
access type Open Access

Issues on The Enforcement of International Humanitarian Law to The Use of Drones in Armed Conflicts

Published Online: 25 Jul 2017
Page range: 167 - 170

Abstract

Abstract

Drones are new means and methods of warfare which, apparently, are similar to combat aircrafts. A big difference between the two categories is the human personnel involved. Compared with airplanes, carrying a human crew on board - this one carrying out combat operations from inside the aircraft - drones do not have inside human beings, being coordinated from the ground (or sea) - the military actions carrying out from the place where the operators are. So the question arises: what kind of rules of international humanitarian law are applicable to the use of drones in armed conflicts? Starting from the rule that legal rules apply to legal relationships between people (but not directly to objects or animals), I analyze to what extent these means and methods of warfare are subject to the rules of armed conflict on land, sea or air.

Keywords

  • land warfare
  • air warfare
  • drones
  • international humanitarian law
access type Open Access

The Free Movement of Services and The Right to Nondiscrimination

Published Online: 25 Jul 2017
Page range: 171 - 174

Abstract

Abstract

The present article will explore the free movement of services, which is one of the four fundamental freedoms of the citizens of the European Union. The reader's attention will be drawn to the violation of the right to non-discrimination in view of the unfavourable treatment of Bulgarian citizens in comparison with citizens of the European Union regarding the prices of package holidays on the Bulgarian Black Sea coast offered by Bulgarian travel agencies.

Keywords

  • the free movement of services
  • the right to non-discrimination
access type Open Access

On The Issue about The Moment of Incurrence of Right of Cassation Appeal on Civil Cases in Republic of Bulgaria

Published Online: 25 Jul 2017
Page range: 175 - 180

Abstract

Abstract

The right of the party concerned to a cassation appeal is result of specific inspection performed by the Supreme Court of Cassation where examined is the presence of conditions, foreseen in art. 280, par. 1 of Civil-Procedure Code. The right of cassation, however, shall incur from the presence of appellate judgment [1], and not from the specific inspection of Supreme Court of Cassation. The cassation appeal is submitted when the resolution is void, impermissible or inaccurate. This is why the right of cassation appeal is presented and guaranteed by the law opportunity of an individual to oblige Supreme Court of Cassation to rule on the first stage of cassation proceeding - the proceeding on allowing the cassation appeal estimating the statutory criteria in art. 280 of Civil-Procedure Code.

Keywords

  • term
  • cassation
  • appeal
  • grounds
  • right
  • permissibility
  • civil litigation
access type Open Access

Integrated Work Environment for People with Disabilities within The Context of The Bulgarian and European Legislation

Published Online: 25 Jul 2017
Page range: 181 - 186

Abstract

Abstract

People with disabilities are one of the socially vulnerable groups in the labor market. The main reason for this negative trend is the lack of integrated work environment that creates conditions for equal exercise of their right to work. At national level, the main piece of legislation which governs the right of an integrated work environment is the Law on Integration of People with Disabilities. The integration of the work environment is crucial for ensuring the opportunity for employment and professional realization of people with disabilities. Namely the professional realization of the labor market is one of the main mechanisms for the overall integration of this social group in various spheres of public life, which is set as a priority objective in the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities.

Keywords

  • integrated work environment
  • people with disabilities
  • employment
  • socially vulnerable groups
access type Open Access

National Law or EU Law

Published Online: 25 Jul 2017
Page range: 187 - 191

Abstract

Abstract

The article examines cases of conflict between the national law of the EU Member States and European Union Law. There is an analysis of the legal advantage of EU law over national law or vice versa. Conclusions have been drawn that the national law should maintain its advantage when the reason for it is contained in the Constitution of the respective state.

Keywords

  • European legislation
  • national law and EU law
  • a conflict between domestic and international law
  • the Constitution as a criterion for legal force
access type Open Access

The Indirect Intent in The International Criminal Case-Law

Published Online: 25 Jul 2017
Page range: 192 - 196

Abstract

Abstract

This study focuses on the analyse of the indirect intent in the international criminal caselaw. Traditionally, the Romanian Criminal Code defines the indirect intent through the pshychological position of the offender towards the result of the crime, which can lead, in some circumstances, to unfair result. Finding an appropriate definition has been a constant problem for the international courts of justice, especially taking into consideration the effort to reconcile this attempt with the national regulations and principles. The International Criminal Tribunal for Yugoslavia developed a new form of criminal participation in which it described the mens rea using the notion of `risk`. The Tadić case represents a significant step for the definition of indirect intent, in the way it is considered in our legal system.The international criminal court emphasizes the importance of the person`s position towards the risk that criminal acts could lead to relevant results and it outlines the standards of foreseeability of such risk.

Keywords

  • indirect intent
  • risk
  • joint criminal enterprise
  • result
  • mens rea
access type Open Access

Birth Certificate of Stillbirth and Succession

Published Online: 25 Jul 2017
Page range: 197 - 200

Abstract

Abstract

This article explores the subject of one question “de lege ferenda” which is related to the birth of stillbirths and the matters of succession that result from the amendment of the Civil Registration Act of 2015 and the establishment of a separate civil status certificate.

Keywords

  • succession
  • birth certificate
  • stillbirth
  • potential viability
  • legislation
access type Open Access

The Contemporary Countries in The Conditions of Migratory Multiculturalism

Published Online: 25 Jul 2017
Page range: 201 - 205

Abstract

Abstract

One of the characteristics in the early 21st century is the existence of different in intensities and content migration waves. This confronts the countries at a range of challenges. On one side, countries should protect the rights, freedoms and interests of its citizens, on the other - rights, freedoms and interests of persons, who form migratory pressure and are threatening the national security. In order to be guaranteed the rights, freedoms and interests, it is necessary first to be ensured a security, which means limiting the rights of persons, who represent a threat to the national security. The problems are further exacerbated by the enforced coexistence of different cultures with values different from those of the citizens in the respective countries, which are reflected in the current legal order. This, in turn, means a normative impossibility for the institutionalization of these values and the adoption of legislative consensual solutions, applicable as for the time of their stay in the respective countries, as well as in their eventual integration.

Keywords

  • multiculturalism
  • values
  • rights
  • conflict
  • integration
access type Open Access

The Problem of Recurrence in The New Criminal Code and The Impact of The New Changes to Criminogen Phenomenon in our Country

Published Online: 25 Jul 2017
Page range: 206 - 210

Abstract

Abstract

The present paper wants to emphasize the impact of the new amendments to the penal code in the magazine on the criminogenic phenomenon. The provisions of the new Criminal Code for Romanian recurrence brings new elements in both the definition of its terms and in terms of the punishment.

Keywords

  • recurrence
  • impact
  • criminogenic phenomenon the new Criminal Code
  • recidivism
access type Open Access

Legal Liability Regarding The Regime of Organization, Systematization and Signalization of Roads in Romania

Published Online: 25 Jul 2017
Page range: 211 - 220

Abstract

Abstract

People and society`s life can not be understood out of conduct rules that must be respected by everybody. Legal liability represents both a fundamental form of law and a basic component of the whole legal system. One of the fundamental principles of law is liability. Those who break legal rules alter laws and citizens` legal rights and interests. They disturb, sometimes in a serious way, public order and good going, thus, endangering the most important values of society. Either the frequency or severity of breaking laws or their negative impact on social balance and legal order oblige law makers to both set up accurately the limits of liability regarding these commitments and penalize them promptly. Road safety refers to the whole acts and measures submitted in order to improve people`s conduct, vehicles and road infrastructure. All these will generate safe conditions for everybody who uses public roads. In this way, the risk of being involved in car crashes with severe consequences will be diminished.

Keywords

  • liability
  • infringement
  • guilt
  • systematization
  • signalization
access type Open Access

Contravention Liability Concerning The Regime of Organization, Systematization and Signalization of Roads

Published Online: 25 Jul 2017
Page range: 221 - 226

Abstract

Abstract

The guideline explains how to prepare your paper in printer-ready format for the 23rd International Scientific Conference “Knowledge Based Organization” (KBO), so that its appearance is clear and consistent with the other papers in the proceedings. It includes guidance on layout, illustrations, text style and references, presented exactly as your paper should appear. It is highly advised to use KBO template and strictly follow the instructions to prepare your paper in Microsoft Word format (.DOC). The abstract portion is a narrative presentation without references. The abstract should give a concise and informative description of the paper, in 200 words, written to interest the reader as well as for information retrieval.

Keywords

  • liability
  • contravention
  • road safety
  • systematization
  • signalization
access type Open Access

Conflicts of Jurisdiction in Criminal Proceedings – Preconditions and Possible Solutions

Published Online: 25 Jul 2017
Page range: 227 - 232

Abstract

Abstract

The article examines issues, related to the conflicts of jurisdiction in criminal proceedings within the European area, where several countries simultaneously have the competence to conduct a criminal prosecution of the same facts. There have been studied several international legal instruments, postulating the compliance with the Ne bis in idem principle, respectively the prohibition of a second judgment towards the same person and for the same act. Discussed are various preconditions for conflicts of jurisdiction in criminal matters and possible solutions, according to the existing legal mechanisms in this field.

Keywords

  • jurisdiction
  • conflict
  • cross-border crimes
  • transfer
  • Ne bis in idem principle
access type Open Access

Designing a Legal English Course for Master of Laws Students

Published Online: 25 Jul 2017
Page range: 233 - 237

Abstract

Abstract

Over the last years, universities have diversified their educational offer, understanding and emphasizing the role of foreign languages in enhancing both personal and professional growth. Study programmes at undergraduate level have a mandatory foreign language component and there is a tendency to provide master’s programmes in foreign languages especially in the field of law, business, political sciences, international relations, etc. In this framework, the paper attempts to identify and present the steps to be taken in designing a legal English course for students who complete their Master of Laws (LLM) degree in Human Rights. The focus is on the development of such a course as an essential element of a syllabus. The paper discusses the subject content of the course, i.e. the areas within each topic meant to improve and expand the students’ specialist vocabulary which will further enable them to operate effectively in the field of human rights, the language content and the language skills which must be practised, while also analyzing subject-based materials and language materials.

Keywords

  • educational offer
  • syllabus and course design
  • LLM students
  • legal English course
  • human rights
access type Open Access

Multidimensional Diagnosis of Occupational Pressure Perception for The Medical Staff of an Intensive Care Unit (ICU)

Published Online: 25 Jul 2017
Page range: 238 - 244

Abstract

Abstract

Intensive Care Units (ICU) medical staff is frequently subject of great amount of psychological and physical occupational pressure. There are three main sources of pressure: professional responsability for the medical act, organizational requirements and interpersonal/intrapersonal relationships. Materials and method: The paper presents a study on the multidimensional diagnosis of occupational pressure/stress perception of the medical staff of an ICU (N=34). The romanian form of Pressure Management Indicator (PMI) [1][2][3][7] was applied to all participants. The instrument is designed for multidimensional evaluation of occupational stress. The objective was to identify specific indicators of occupational pressure and formulate predictions regarding the different variables. Results and conclusions: Data analysis showed, for example, that Influence and Control (as personality factors/individual differences) are good predictors for the resilience level in the studied ICU medical staff. We can conclude that individual differences regarding personality factors are the main variables that significantely influence the occupational stress coping for ICU medical staff. The PMI-RO diagnosed profile, resulted for the ICU medical staff showed many differences comparing with general population, including sources of pressure, coping strategies, personality factors, organisational satisfaction and self evaluation of performance. Further implications of the study and intervention strategies for medical personnel in ICU are discussed.

Keywords

  • Pressure Management
  • ICU medical staff
access type Open Access

Causal Reasoning in Mild Mental Disabled Children

Published Online: 25 Jul 2017
Page range: 245 - 250

Abstract

Abstract

This study is focused to analyze mild mental retardation children’s ability to make causal attributions from sparse data. The research method selected was that of an unifactorial experiment starting from the assumption that children with mild mental retardation should ask for help or explore the environment following the causal attribution they will do according to the statistical data they receive. This study was conducted on a sample of 23 mild mental retardation children (ages between 9 and 12). The participants were randomly divided into two experimental groups and they were asked to complete a specific task (press a button to scroll a set of images). The results obtained using Fisher’s Exact Test led to assuming the null assumption and rejecting the experimental assumption (p=,170; p<0,05). Although the statistical analysis did not highlight significant associations between the dependent and independent variable, the frequency table indicated that children in group one asked for help more frequent, while children in group two rather explored for solutions, as assumed in this study. Taken into account these results, this study emphasizes the need for educational and psychological intervention to reduce the problems that the mild mental retardation children are confronting regarding cognitive development in general.

Keywords

  • mild mental deficiencies
  • causal attributions
  • action strategies
access type Open Access

Compulsive Internet Use and Academic Procrastination: Significant Comparative, Correlative and Predicting Indicators in a Romanian Student Sample

Published Online: 25 Jul 2017
Page range: 251 - 255

Abstract

Abstract

The purpose of this study was to investigate significant measures between indicators / factors associated to compulsive Internet use and academic procrastination behaviors, for a sample of students, from Romanian education institutions. Previous transcultural findings indicate that compulsive Internet use and procrastination behaviours, but in most cases investigated separately, can interfere, distract, delay and / or have a negative impact on academic work / achievement (completing reading assignments, homework, studying for exams / academic failure), task performance and quality of life (personal and social obligations). Romanian participants were asked on a voluntary basis and with informed consent to complete demographic data and questionnaires about internet use (the Romanian translated and adapted version of The Compulsive Internet Use Scale, CIUS, developed by Meerkerk, G.-J., Van Den Eijnden, R. J. J. M., Vermulst, A. A., & Garretsen, H. F. L., 2009 [4] [5]) and procrastination behaviors (the Romanian translated and adapted version of The Procrastination Assessment Scale - for Students, PASS, designed by Solomon and Rothblum, 1984 [8] [9]). They also were informed that their responses are confidential: 211 valid surveys from 111 college undergraduates and 100 high-school students were collected for analysis. Results identified significant comparative data and correlative indicators of compulsive Internet use in predicting specific procrastination behaviors, for the 211 participants. Implications and future methodological research and coping strategies of this topic were discussed.

Keywords

  • Compulsive internet use
  • academic procrastination
  • indicators
  • Romanian students
access type Open Access

The Myth of Teamwork in The Military

Published Online: 25 Jul 2017
Page range: 256 - 260

Abstract

Abstract

Numerous studies have focused on identifying the relevant conditions and factors that can assure the effectiveness of a team. The purpose of this paper is to present an overview of some positive and negative aspects of the teamwork in the military, using as a starting point the components of a scientific instrument of research. Two of the particular features of the military organization were more detailed analyzed, due to the fact that they turn the potential strengths into weaknesses, and military leaders have to face with them: the formal power of the military leaders and the increased mobility of the military team members.

Keywords

  • team effectiveness
  • military team
access type Open Access

The Image of Ion I. C. Brătianu in The Foreign Press of 1916

Published Online: 25 Jul 2017
Page range: 261 - 264

Abstract

Abstract

Our paper aims to highlight the way Ion I. C. Brătianu was presented outside national borders in a fundamental moment of our national history, namely the integration of Romania into the operations of World War I in 1916. At that landmark moment, Ion I. C. Brătianu was Prime Minister of the country and was perceived abroad as the most powerful personality in the Romanian decisionmaking space, on whom the very decision to enter the war was hanging on. Foreign observers considered that Brătianu would not integrate with the war other than besides the military camp and in the moment that would definitely ensure their final victory. In order to sketch his image at international level we mainly used the information provided by the French press of the time (especially newspaper “Le Figaro”).

Keywords

  • Ion I. C. Brătianu
  • French press
access type Open Access

The International Image of Ion I. C. Brătianu in 1919

Published Online: 25 Jul 2017
Page range: 265 - 269

Abstract

Abstract

Our paper aims to present how Ion I. C. Brătianu was perceived outside national borders in a very important moment of the Romanian national history, namely the international recognition of the Great Union, within the Peace Conference at Paris-Versailles in 1919 -1920. Ion I. C. Brătianu was at that moment Prime Minister and the leader of the Romanian delegation at Versailles. Foreign countries perceived him as a very powerful personality, capable to influence other states with similar interests in Central and South Eastern Europe. Brătianu stoutly and patriotically defended the Romanian interests. Therefore, although his position was correct, it came into conflict with the interests of the great powers. Brătianu would not give up his principles and decided to leave the Peace Conference. French media was objective in their accounts and proved favourable to the Romanian position.

Keywords

  • Ion I. C. Brătianu
  • image abroad
access type Open Access

Mass-Media Communication in Romania

Published Online: 25 Jul 2017
Page range: 270 - 275

Abstract

Abstract

Over 1200 new publications have appeared in Romania since the fall of communism. Some of them don’t exist anymore, but there always appear new ones. The Romanian newspaper market comprises about 1500 publications most of which appear on a weekly basis and 200 daily newspapers. Television is the most familiar source of information. The radio landscape has changed considerably - similar to the television - since 1990. Besides the public broadcaster offering several programs, there are over 150 private local radio stations and various other channels. Despite the diversity of the Romanian press, we cannot yet speak of a completely free press (see the report of the Freedom House organization). The limitations of media freedom and freedom of speech are related to media ownership, but also with gaps in the national legislation. This study aims to contribute to the advancement in the conceptualization of qualitative journalism by proposing to analyze different situations of failure in investigative journalism and identifying factors that conduct to limitation of media freedom.

Keywords

  • freedom of the press
  • media landscape
  • Romania
  • qualitative journalism
access type Open Access

The Unwritten History in our Textbooks

Published Online: 25 Jul 2017
Page range: 276 - 280

Abstract

Abstract

In his book “The Dacians”, Hadrian Daicoviciu showed that “only a few pages have been preserved of the great book of this people’s ancient history; dozens of pages, undoubtedly among the most interesting, were lost forever and many, perhaps even more interesting, were never written by ancient authors”. There is a text that keeps coming to my mind very often, especially lately, because I have noticed that there is a tendency to remove or skip several pages of our history. The mission of a historian is to try to find out the historical truth with as many pages as possible. We should not overlook, we should not mitigate anything from our past. The lost or unwritten pages of history hinder this mission, it is true, but what should we do about the pages that were written and, deliberately, are not included in the history books?

Keywords

  • history
  • ancient
  • pages
  • textbooks
  • historical truth
access type Open Access

Ancient Greek Military Theory and Practice. Aeneas Tacticus (I)

Published Online: 25 Jul 2017
Page range: 281 - 286

Abstract

Abstract

The intention of this article is to present the oldest surviving work of military art of the Greek antiquity written in the mid-fourth century B.C. by of the author known today as Aeneas Tacticus. In 1609 Isaac Casaubon, its first editor, gave it the Latin title Commentarius de toleranda obsidione, How to Survive under Siege. Aeneas Tacticus was an experienced general on the battlefield, and had an equally solid theoretical training based on treatises of warfare which undoubtedly existed before his own, but were less fortunate and have not reached us. The study of this manual reveals that Aeneas Tacticus wrote or designed to write at least five books on military themes and information exists from other sources that he might have written three more books on the subject. Thus, all these works could have formed a Corpus Aeneanum, comparable in value to Clausewitz’s famous work On War. Aeneas’s work was highly appreciated and extremely useful for commanders and strategists of the Antiquity and the Middle Ages and was used and cited by all the authors of treatises on siege until the era of pre-modern warfare.

Keywords

  • Aeneas Tacticus
  • treatise
  • pre-modern warfare
  • siege
access type Open Access

Ancient Greek Military Theory And Practice. Aeneas Tacticus (II)

Published Online: 25 Jul 2017
Page range: 287 - 291

Abstract

Abstract

The attention still enjoyed today by Aeneas’ treatise on how to withstand a siege is not merely due to its antiquity. Many of the military principles and practical instructions it conveys are still valid. In addition to these, a closer examination opens a broader insight into the Greek city of the fourth century BC than that for which the manual was originally designed, for scholars found many interesting historical, political, social, ethnographic, and linguistic aspects scattered throughout the text. The aim of this paper is firstly, to emphasize the way in which the ideas and instructions of Aeneas Tacticus are articulated in a rigorous and clear plan and, secondly, to draw attention to some of the issues which are not specific to the military, but began to be considered relevant to the overall picture of the treatise.

Keywords

  • Aeneas Tacticus
  • military treatise
  • tactics
  • siege
  • ancient Greek city
access type Open Access

Researching The Influence of Online Social Networks on The Students’ Communication – 1St Part

Published Online: 25 Jul 2017
Page range: 292 - 297

Abstract

Abstract

The usage of online social networks (OSN) in the last decade has changed the manner in which the individuals and especially the young people / students communicate with each other. The aim of our research paper, which is a part of a larger study, is to identify the manner in which the online social networks influence the communication process of the students from Sibiu and Alba Counties of Romania. The present marketing research is a quantitative one, based on a questionnaire that provides a clear insight on what are the main OSN used by the students and it shows how or if the students use the OSN to express their feelings and emotions. The research also shows the influence in the communication process between students and teachers, it points out the main reasons for using such a communication tool and activities undertaken by the students on their preferred OSN.

Keywords

  • communication
  • social media marketing
  • social networks
  • students
access type Open Access

A Study of Nutrition and The Nutritional Status of Servicemen, Assessed on The Basis of Anthropometric Indicators

Published Online: 25 Jul 2017
Page range: 298 - 302

Abstract

Abstract

The modern food industry has the potential to produce and offers "unlimited" quantities of all sorts tempting foods in response to the expectations of consumers. The development of powerful marketing and promotional campaigns in pursuance of the objective to boost sales creates the perfect conditions for the modification of the eating patterns of the population. In addition, this makes it possible for foods, whose everyday use would increase the risk of non-communicable diseases, to permanently find their place on the menu in every household.

Keywords

  • overweight
  • foods
  • nutrient
  • status
  • energy
access type Open Access

The Communication Society and The Media Culture

Published Online: 25 Jul 2017
Page range: 303 - 307

Abstract

Abstract

Any knowledge is recorded, set in the culture and in the end, communicated. The communicative behaviors are found at the basis of humanization, of the spiritual, psychological and social development of people. To exist as a human being means to communicate, moreover communication is the major factor present in the constitution and transmission of the cultural values and of culture itself. The emergence of the new media confronts us with the challenge of abandoning the old means and of replacing the old values with those of the media culture. The communication society responds to the dream of mankind to create and live in a better world: it guarantees freedom of expression, free information, instantaneity, and all the attributes and illusions of a best possible world. On the other hand, the crisis of confidence faced by the media in the recent years is an important moment and an alarming signal for the media institutions. However, enthusiasm for the online media has increased, especially among the young people who, despite the inconveniences, access the virtual space in greater number year by year. Ultimately, regardless of the criticism surrounding the media culture, the purpose of the creators has always been to communicate the new created values, because only through communication the new forms of culture can emerge and establish themselves as culture.

Keywords

  • comunication
  • media culture
  • communication society
  • confidence crisis
access type Open Access

Human Target Selected by The Adverse Intelligence Services for Obtaining Classified Information

Published Online: 25 Jul 2017
Page range: 308 - 311

Abstract

Abstract

Generally, to be competitive, the intelligence services are required, by their status itself, to constantly assess the capacity and performance and also to anticipate the behaviour of potential adversaries in achieving and maintaining a superior informational advantage. Illegal access of adverse intelligence services to national information strategy is a well defined aim, involving carefully designed scenarios and continuous assessment, performed by specialized structures. In the economy of intelligence business, a logical condition is the selection of human intelligence sources, primarily among those whose professional duties involve access to valuable information, the disclosure of which may be established strategic advantages. The results are often negative immediate or medium-term consequences , unpredictable, both on national security and on a proper functioning of the state.

Keywords

  • intelligence services
  • human intelligence sources
  • classified information
  • disclosure
access type Open Access

A Preliminary Study of Empathy in Romanian College Students

Published Online: 25 Jul 2017
Page range: 312 - 317

Abstract

Keywords

The Interpersonal Reactivity Index is a self-report instrument used for assessing empathy. The theoretical model of empathy for IRI assumes that empathy is multidimensional in nature containing affective aspects (Empathic Concern and Personal Distress) and cognitive aspects (Perspective Taking and Fantasy). The objective of this study was to compare the level of empathy in Romanian college students to the level of empathy in American college students and to compare empathy in college students based on gender and field of study. The IRI was administered to a sample of 216 Romanian college students. We were interested only on Empathic Concern and Perspective Taking scales. The results revealed that Empathic Concern in Romanian college students is lower than in American college students, women score higher than men on the two scales used and students studying at humanities colleges have a higher Perspective Taking than students studying at science colleges. Our suggestion as a result of this study is to introduce more classes in the curriculum at the elementary school level to teach children empathy using diverse methods.

Keywords

  • empathy
  • empathic concern
  • perspective talking
  • college student
access type Open Access

Psychometric Evaluation of The Romanian Version of The Irrational Procrastination Scale in a Military Student Population

Published Online: 25 Jul 2017
Page range: 318 - 323

Abstract

Abstract

The present paper examines the psychometric properties of the Romanian version of the Irrational Procrastination Scale (IPS). The Principal Component Analysis for IPS revealed a two factors structure, but the second factor is loaded by an item that refers to postponing tasks and another item that actually expresses the opposite behavior. We therefore conclude that IPS is in fact a one-dimensional construct, as the author of the scale suggested. The IPS has good reliability. The correlation matrix indicated that the procrastination scale did correlate weakly with measures of selfefficiency and relf-regulation but it was higly correlated with factor H, factor O and global scale Q4 from Cattell’s 16 PF personality questionnaire. As a conclusion, the Romanian translation of the Irrational Procrastination Scale is a general measure of procrastination as irrational delay which can be successfully used in student populations.

Keywords

  • Irrational Procrastination Scale
  • Psychometric evaluation
access type Open Access

Vulnerabilities and Threats to Human Security Generated by an Ineffective Educational System

Published Online: 25 Jul 2017
Page range: 324 - 327

Abstract

Abstract

The present trend towards globalization has led to people changing their views on possible threats to their existence. Nowadays, we witness a diversification of vulnerabilities and threats to human security, as well as a progressive reduction of our resilience. The article attempts to correlate the 5 dimensions of national security, as identified by the Copenhagen School of Security, with the problems of the Romanian educational system, explaining how these problems can become threats to the security of Romanian citizens. It offers an overview of the problems of the Romanian educational system, and the threats and vulnerabilities derived from them towards human security. It also suggests solutions to problems and indicators for monitoring progress.

Keywords

  • human security
  • vulnerabilities
  • threats
  • education
access type Open Access

The Implementation and Studying of “Life Activity Safety” as a Basis of Modern Safety Culture

Published Online: 25 Jul 2017
Page range: 328 - 331

Abstract

Abstract

The implementation and studying of “Life Activity Safety” as an academic and scientific discipline will contribute to the formation in the individual and in the public of a world outlook on the values and goals for the safety of their life activity in the new post-industrial era through a complete review of human safety issues at different levels in this currently changed environment. The safety environment that will affect the state of our security will be characterized by numerous and asymmetric factors, high dynamics, indefiniteness, complex and difficult to predict processes, while the advancement of the higher education and of the research and scientific work form the basis for undertaking actions in the outlining and implementation of sector and common national policies for the development of the individual and the society. The overall concept of safety as an activity of people and their societies to study, prevent, diminish, eliminate, and deflect the dangers and threats that could destroy them and deprive them of fundamental values, inflict unacceptable damage and obstruct their progress are the rationale for the structure, subject-matter and content of the suggested discipline aiming at educating high school and university students in the underlying principles of life activity safety.

Keywords

  • Life Activity Safety
  • education
  • safety culture
access type Open Access

Communication and Their Role in The Preparation and Presentation of The Basketball Referee

Published Online: 25 Jul 2017
Page range: 332 - 337

Abstract

Abstract

The present paper wishes to start from the premise that we are preparing to express, namely that there is a correlation between the degree of preparation of the basketball referees and their results during the games, between their actual training and the performance we observe. The basketball referee is the person who judges all phases of the game, taking decisions in fractions of a second. For this the referee needs interdisciplinary training, yet not forgetting that he is often selftaught, learning and taking over from field specialists.

Keywords

  • communication
  • referee
  • language
  • preparation
  • basketball
access type Open Access

The Role of Culture in The Acquisition of Foreign Languages by Military Students

Published Online: 25 Jul 2017
Page range: 338 - 342

Abstract

Abstract

This paper highlights the importance of integrating culture in the teaching of foreign languages to military students. The first section of the paper offers some basic definitions of culture and key terms associated with it. The next part of the paper brings into discussion the relationship between culture and language acquisition. There is an intimate connection between language and culture; not only language is comprised in the definition of culture, but it also reflects culture, thus we cannot separate language teaching from culture. The final part of the paper focuses on the military students as future leaders that need to develop cross-cultural communication skills and be aware of the cultural differences in order to avoid potential failures during communication with soldiers from foreign militaries in theatres of operation or on other international missions that they are assigned.

Keywords

  • culture
  • language
  • military students
access type Open Access

The Importance of Developing The Writing Skill in The Military

Published Online: 25 Jul 2017
Page range: 343 - 348

Abstract

Abstract

The development of the four language skills has always been hard work for teachers as well as for students, the writing skill being a particularly challenging one. Writing in English for achieving various goals is certainly a major activity of all civilian and military higher education institutions throughout the world. In their daily activities, army leaders convey their intent, ideas, purpose and vision to superior echelons, peers and subordinates in oral or written form. Military officers perform many of their duties by means of intelligible, concise, coherent, and meaningful written messages. The need for writing correctly is an absolutely indispensable skill in itself. Therefore, teachers working in the military system of education should be concerned with developing, improving and practising the writing skill which is an important quality of leadership. Military work is very complex, the military system being based on officers’ ability to lead and manage military organizations. The paper focuses on the specific characteristics of military writing and provides some formats, with the respective writing tasks and assignments.

Keywords

  • improving writing skill
  • military English
  • military documents
  • devising tasks and assignments
access type Open Access

Foreign Languages and Cultural Awareness - A Must in The Education of The 21st Century European Military Leaders

Published Online: 25 Jul 2017
Page range: 349 - 354

Abstract

Abstract

Europe is characterized by both geographical and cultural diversity. At present, the European countries are under deep transformations due to the migratory trends. These special events need measures not only at the political level but also at the military, social and economic one. By being aware and accepting all these changes, mainly the cultural ones, we have to be open and adapt ourselves to the new context in which we have to be able to accept that our existence with its norms, values, customs and traditions is not unique. The language competences contribute to the mobility, employability and personal development of its citizens, in particular, the young people. As far as the military environment is concerned, we believe that it is of utmost importance not only to speak a common language but also to know the culture of the partners we cooperate with, as well as that of the local populations from various theatres of operations. At the level of our institutions, we tried to integrate into the curriculum topics that help our students, future military leaders, to be ready to efficiently answer to the new changes that they will face in a new military environment. In our paper, we will highlight the ways we can promote the development of our learners’ linguistic and cultural competencies.

Keywords

  • cultural and linguistic competence
  • awareness
  • attitude
  • knowledge
  • skills
access type Open Access

Motivation for Education and Learners' Satisfaction with The Choice of Military Specialisation or Civilian Specialty

Published Online: 25 Jul 2017
Page range: 355 - 360

Abstract

Abstract

This article presents a research on the motivation for education and training activities and their relation with the satisfaction of choosing a military specialisation or a civilian specialty, based on the example of cadets and students from the Vasil Levski National Military University in Bulgaria. Motivation for education and training activities is the main research subject of the study which is conducted in a real educational environment. The object of the study is cadets in the last year of their education in the Military Science professional field, specialising in Organisation and Management of Military Units at a Tactical Level at the National Military University in Bulgaria. The study includes students and cadets in the first year of education as control groups for comparison. The study launched in 2012. It continues to the present. It is supported by military experts from over 11 foreign military educational institutions - universities and academies from all across Europe.

Keywords

  • motivation
  • education
  • military
  • civil
access type Open Access

Study on Motivation for Education by Use of Control Groups for Comparison at The National Military University, Bulgaria

Published Online: 25 Jul 2017
Page range: 361 - 366

Abstract

Abstract

This article presents a study on motivation for education by use control groups for comparison at the National Military University, Bulgaria. The necessary information is collected through a combination of research methods. The basic scientific method, which was used, is empirical survey conducted in a real educational environment. The study is implemented in several stages: diagnostic stage, in which an analysis and assessment of the necessity of such a study is established and proved; basic stage which has been implemented since 2012; and a final stage which includes the development of a forecasting model for the future status of the levels of cadets’ and students’ satisfaction with their training.

Keywords

  • motivation
  • education
  • military
  • civil
access type Open Access

The Dacians, The Wolf Warriors

Published Online: 25 Jul 2017
Page range: 367 - 373

Abstract

Abstract

The Dacians, a very important Indo-European people of the ancient world, were, like all Indo-European peoples, highly trained in the art of war. The legends of the ancient world placed the worship of Ares/Mars, the god of war, in the world of the Thracians, the Dacians being the most important of the Thracians, by the creation of a state and by their remarkable civilization, where war generated rank. The Dacian leaders, military aristocrats, Tarabostes are similar to the Bharathi of the Aryans, therefore the accounts of Herodotus, the father of history, who called the Thracians (including the Dacians, the northern Thracians), “the most important of the Indo-Europeans, after the race of the Indians” (i.e. the Persians and the Aryans, their relatives), also have a military meaning. The totemic symbol of the wolf was much present in Europe, especially with Indo-European peoples, like the Spartans, the aristocrats of war, but mostly with the Romans, the gendarmes of the ancient world. But the Dacians honoured this majestic animal above all, not only as a symbol of the state, but also, apparently, as their eponym. As warriors, the Dacians lay under the sign of the wolf, their battle flag, and acted like real wolves against their enemies, whether they were Celts, during the reign of Burebista, or Romans, during the reign of Decebalus. The Dacians made history in the military art, being perfectly integrated, after the Roman conquest, in the largest and best trained army of the ancient world, the Roman army. Moreover, the wolf warriors, mastering the equestrian art, were a success in the special, though auxiliary troops of the famous equites singulares in the Roman army. If the Romans were the eagles of war, the Dacians were its wolves, these two symbols best illustrating the military art of all times.

Keywords

  • Dacians
  • art of war
  • symbol
  • Indo-Europeans
  • wolf
access type Open Access

Model of Methodology for Determining The Needs of Continuing Vocational Training of Social Work Specialists Providing Social Services

Published Online: 25 Jul 2017
Page range: 374 - 380

Abstract

Abstract

This study justifies the need for building a system for research, identification and monitoring of the needs of vocational training in compliance to the constantly changing needs of the labour market. When considered in a narrower sense this problem justifies and proves the need for this activity related to social work and social workers. A method for determining the need for continuing vocational training of specialists in social work is developed and an experimental model for its implementation is offered.

Keywords

  • social management
  • social activities
  • continuing vocational training
access type Open Access

Investigation on The Profile of Social Worker Occupation in Bulgaria

Published Online: 25 Jul 2017
Page range: 381 - 387

Abstract

Abstract

This paper presents the research interest to the occupation of the social worker in international scope and analyzes the essence of the social work in Bulgaria. The profile of the social worker rendering social services in Bulgaria is discussed and conclusions are made considering the need of building professional competences. The study poses important questions and puts the basics of further research in identification and monitoring of the needs of training of social activities experts.

Keywords

  • social worker
  • occupational training
  • social activities
access type Open Access

The Structure and Methods of Gruppe 6 E from German Secret Service During The Second World War

Published Online: 25 Jul 2017
Page range: 388 - 394

Abstract

Abstract

In this paper I present the general background picture of the development of Gruppe (group) 6 E from German Secret Service. As a result, for the personal interest of Ernst Kaltenbrunner in the work of the Gruppe, 6E developed a working basis which differs from the normal functioning of the other Laendergruppen (groups of countries), a tendency which became more marked after the transfer of the central office from Berlin to Vienna in 1943. A liaison officer only remained in Berlin. This paper presents the final structure of the Gruppe and the leading personnel, and it is under this final organization that the work of the Gruppe in the Balkan States. The Gruppe maintained liaison officers with the Herman Neubacher and Altenberg Dienststellen (Altenberg offices), these liaison officers being directly subordinated to the Gruppenleiter (Group leader). In common with the outside offices, with which he kept in personal contact, and an Auswerter (analyst) responsible for the evaluation and dissemination of information. The Referate (Abstrat) conducted their operation through the Hauptbeauftragte (Chief Comissioner) working in the various countries under suitable cover.

Keywords

  • Referate
  • Kaltenbrunner
  • Balkan states
  • Gruppe 6 E
68 Articles
access type Open Access

State and Problems of Warehousing of Bulgarian Army

Published Online: 25 Jul 2017
Page range: 9 - 15

Abstract

Abstract

Storing material resources is a back-up function of military logistics, but its proper organization and successful improvement is a guarantee for effective and efficient realization of the whole logistics support process. For this reason it is advisable to elaborate the whole warehousing process in the Bulgarian Army (BA). The aim of this study is to analyze the state and problems of logistics and warehousing in the Bulgarian Army.

Keywords

  • logistics
  • logistic system
  • warehousing
access type Open Access

The Importance of European Funding on Public Finances in Romania - Implications for The General Consolidated Budget of The State

Published Online: 25 Jul 2017
Page range: 16 - 22

Abstract

Abstract

The "health" state of the economy which will receive European funding is a key element in the efficiency with which these funds can be used, the effects that the injection of foreign capital entails are being significant at the macroeconomic level, since a Member state of the European Union eligible to receive finance capital can absorb a flow of up to 4% of GDP. The manner of the allocation of these funds is also a key component of efficient use of European funds allocated under the multiannual financial programming period. Annual indicative allocation corresponding to the seven years of a programming period allows to identify specific priorities for investment of these funds and the co-financing obligation incumbent upon the recipient state has the role to lead to a more responsible and appropriate use of these funds. However, the gradual release of these cash flows in the national economy may lead to a delay in the occurrence of short-term positive results for the economy, given that the allocation is made after approval by the European Commission of some strategic documents that the recipient state assumes to follow according to common objectives. Beyond the effort that the recipient state must make to become eligible for European funding, the longterm effects of the injection of capital into the economy are significant and certainly favorable to the economic and social development as a whole. One of the controversial issues on the opportunity of accessing European funding is represented by the financing cost that this entails. The problematic issues that the injection of foreign capital flows have on fiscal policy and their implications on the general consolidated budget of the state are complex and are a subject of debate among researchers in economics.

Keywords

  • national budget
  • finances
  • deficit
  • European funds
access type Open Access

A Study on Improving The Distribution Processes. The Case of Miruna Internaţional Impex Ltd.Romania

Published Online: 25 Jul 2017
Page range: 23 - 28

Abstract

Abstract

Investing is a category of spending that engages the future most, depends on increasing and improving the productive potential of an enterprise (through expansion and modernization), the emergence of new production capacities. Because it is necessary to allocate large resources for the investment process, they are for a long time and the decision making process involves a lot of uncertainties. A decision on investment projects must be based on a careful analysis of all aspects of the context, the variables involved and their dynamics.

Keywords

  • investment
  • economic efficiency indicators
  • analysis
  • options
  • project
access type Open Access

The Legal Regime Applicable to Financial Audit in Army Units

Published Online: 25 Jul 2017
Page range: 29 - 35

Abstract

Abstract

Through the present paper, the authors propose to bring into the readers’ attention the most relevant legal aspects that relate to the organisation and exercise of activity of internal public audit in those entities that have a more special character, by being included in the national defence and security system. Also, we will also be referring to the ways of exercising the aforementioned activity, and to the weaknesses that still characterise the system, as shown by the external public audit reports, published by the Supreme Institute of Audit (The Romanian Court of Auditors, for the last verified exercise at the Ministry of Defence - 2015). The development of our proceedings is based on the legislation applicable in this domain, but also on reports, issued by prestigious institutions, that contain data and information that is both as recent as possible and absolutely credible.

Keywords

  • compartment of audit
  • risks
  • norms/standards
  • damage
  • legal liability/ compensation
access type Open Access

Instruments and Fianancial Performance Indicators or The Capitalization of Accounting Information from The Profit and Loss Account – Meanings Useful to Management

Published Online: 25 Jul 2017
Page range: 36 - 40

Abstract

Abstract

For the capitalization of accounting information in view of financial performance analysis of the company, management must operate at least based on intermediate management balance, the cash flow, breakeven point and earnings per share, indicators established, first, by using the information in the statement Profit and Loss Account. Based on these considerations, the paper addresses, by the exploratory research, the main constructions based on financial accounting information presented in the profit and loss account, the objective being to show the opportunities and limitations of information generated for management.

Keywords

  • accounting information
  • intermediate management balances
  • profitability
  • financial performance
  • management
access type Open Access

Features on Sale in Dual-Use Items

Published Online: 25 Jul 2017
Page range: 41 - 45

Abstract

Abstract

This study addresses a very special issue, i.e. the import-export of those products, goods and technology that normally have civilian uses, but which, because of their nature, may also have military applications. In our opinion, the subject is particularly interesting since these products are related to the development and production of weapons of mass destruction. Therefore, we aimed at highlighting the most important aspects of the marketing standards and practices for the control on dual-use items, with reference to the national and international legal systems in the field. We used the latest bibliography, focusing on documentary sources for certain credibility.

Keywords

  • dual-use items
  • security
  • export
  • civil and military
  • weapons proliferation
access type Open Access

Spatial Differentiation of Synthetic Measure of Economic Security of Local Government. Case Study of Financial Variables of The Cities in The Eastern Poland Macro-Region

Published Online: 25 Jul 2017
Page range: 46 - 52

Abstract

Abstract

In this article the authors focus on the element of security culture which is economic security. It is the ability of an economic system to use internal factors of development on a local level and international economic interdependence in such a way that it can guarantee its safe development. Stability and certainty of funding sources determine the scope and level of public services and tasks of a municipality that it fulfils. Economic security is a resulting category that allows to assess functioning of security culture from the perspective of local economy. The aim of the article is to provide determinants of shaping of economic security in Swietokrzyskie Voivodeship municipalities in the context of selected elements of financial management for 2010 and 2015. In the calculations the data of the Central Statistical Office (Local Data Bank) were used. The determined synthetic measure allows to arrange Swietokrzyskie Voivodeship municipalities according to the examined aspect. It gives the basis for evaluation of effectiveness of economic policy instruments that were applied in the past. They provide a comparative picture between the objects that were analysed, allow to indicate weaker and better areas of functioning of a unit.

Keywords

  • economic security
  • synthetic measure
  • finance
  • safety culture
access type Open Access

Local Security as an Element of Local Development. Case Study of Infrastructure and Environmental Variables of The Cities in The Eastern Poland Macro-Region

Published Online: 25 Jul 2017
Page range: 53 - 58

Abstract

Abstract

The authors in this article present performance of public administration which concerns a basic process developing in the context of dynamics of security culture phenomenon that involves the use of local potential (including infrastructure, natural environment, finance, human capital). The process of development of a region is multifaceted. It involves any changes that are implemented at different paces and with varying intensity in economic, social, technical and environmental areas. Local security is a resulting category that allows to assess functioning of local economy. The aim of the article is to provide determinants that shape security at the local level in the context of the selected elements of the region’s balance (infrastructure and environment aspects) by the case of Swietokrzyskie Voivodeship municipalities for 2010 and 2015. In the calculations the data of the Central Statistical Office (Local Data Bank) were used. The determined synthetic measure allows to make hierarchy according to the adopted variables. It supplies information on the examined category of objects. It provides a comparative picture between the objects that were analysed, allows to indicate weaker and better areas of functioning of a unit. As it is shown in the article it gives a basis for the assessment of the effectiveness of the instruments of local authorities policy that were used in the past. The carried out statistic studies confirm existence of disparities in financial condition (financial security) of municipalities.

Keywords

  • local security
  • synthetic measure
  • infrastructure
  • natural environment
  • city
access type Open Access

Public and Fiscality: Facts and Unknowns

Published Online: 25 Jul 2017
Page range: 59 - 64

Abstract

Abstract

Taxes on physical and juridical persons constitute a permanent source of income for the authorities, income that is used to cover public expenses. As the need for public financial resources is growing permanently, a decrease in the tax levels can cause confusion or even public controversy. However, changes brought in the current fiscal legislation have brought a series of decreases (theoretically substantial) of the fiscal obligations owed by the tax payers. Thus, it is natural to try and identify the potential benefits or consequences of the fiscal relaxation that has occurred. Moreover, it can be established if there is a possibility to replace eventual losses of resources from the targeted taxpayers with tax charges that affect other financial actors.

Keywords

  • fiscal policy
  • fiscal income
  • contributions
  • tax cuts
access type Open Access

Use of Linear Optimization Model in Defining The New Standards for The Preparation of Food for Servicemen in Preparation for Participation in Peacekeeping Operations

Published Online: 25 Jul 2017
Page range: 65 - 70

Abstract

Abstract

The role of providing ready-to-use food, regarded as a multiplicator of the combat force of the formations of the Bulgarian Army (BA) participating in peace keeping operations (PKO) is beyond doubt. The concept of the feeding of a battalion battle group (BBG), which is a potential participant in PKO should be sustainable under any conditions in different climatic zones and altitudes, providing for the specific needs of the personnel in accordance with their sex, age, health status, body mass index (BMI) and personal preferences. The energy needs of the servicemen in a BBG on a PKO in hot climates are equal to those in moderate climates - 3595 kcal per day. During combat operations this need rises to 4905 kcal per day.

Keywords

  • linear optimization
  • product sets
  • standards
  • feeding
access type Open Access

Modality of Determining The Risk Scores and Their Ranking for The Direct Acquisition Made in SEAP

Published Online: 25 Jul 2017
Page range: 71 - 75

Abstract

Abstract

In order to shape a representative economic model, meant to be used for the analysis of direct acquisitions conducted by the public institutions on the electronic platform called SEAP (Electronic System of Public Acquisitions) we need to make a series of calculations which can lead to the establishment of risk scores for this types of acquisitions or procurements and their ranking, This hierarchy shall provide the public institutions with valuable items of information for the awareness of direct acquisitions particularities.

Keywords

  • SEAP
  • direct acquisition
  • risk
  • public institution
access type Open Access

Generalization of Purchasing of Particular Materials within The Conditions of The Army of The Czech Republic

Published Online: 25 Jul 2017
Page range: 76 - 82

Abstract

Abstract

The paper deals with the way of central purchasing of office paper of various formats and with an assessment of opportunities to generalize processes for creation of acceptable solutions. The aim is to suggest and verify opportunity for generalized processes that can be utilised within the military conditions. Basic scientific methods and statistical analysis with implication of interval classification by Sturges rule were used within the research. The findings of the research are beneficial especially for generalizing purchasing processes of other materials. This process can be used for purchasing of furniture or spare parts and accessories for military vehicles.

Keywords

  • central purchasing
  • office paper
  • tender price
  • departmental system of awarding public contracts
access type Open Access

The Proposal to Create Provisions of Land Military Equipment in The Army of The Czech Republic

Published Online: 25 Jul 2017
Page range: 83 - 89

Abstract

Abstract

The paper deals with the proposed method of creating the reserves of land military equipment in the Army of the Czech Republic. The aim is to propose the classification of spare parts categories and their consumption quantities in a calendar year. The reserves optimization criteria and the Pareto ABC analysis have been employed, besides basic methods, in the submitted paper. The proposal is based on the purpose and delivery time of spare parts. The cost indicator is related to the operation of land military equipment within its life cycle, including the supply of spare parts. Under the above mentioned conditions the method was determined to create the reserves of spare parts for land military equipment necessary to ensure the ACR operability in peacetime.

Keywords

  • Pareto analysis
  • reserves
  • spare parts
access type Open Access

Aspects of Compatibility and Convergence of The Accounting Information Comprised in The Balance Sheet in The DKMT Euroregion (Danube-Criş-Mureş-Tisa)

Published Online: 25 Jul 2017
Page range: 90 - 94

Abstract

Abstract

In order to study the compatibility and convergence of accounting information between the Autonomous Region Vojvodina and the West Development Region of Romania and implicitly between Vojvodina and Hungarian counties of DKMT, it is necessary to study the compatibility and possible convergence between the Vojvodina Balance Sheet (Bilans Stanja) and the Romanian Abridged Balance Sheet. In order to reach the set goal we opted for the detailed presentation of the Bilans Stanja, with the highlighting of correspondences, indicators’ manner of calculation (when necessary) and the highlight of differences and complementarities.

Keywords

  • abridged balance sheet
  • bilans stanja
  • accounting information
  • DKMT Euroregion
access type Open Access

Theoretical Aspects Regarding Information Systems Auditing within The Military Organization

Published Online: 25 Jul 2017
Page range: 95 - 100

Abstract

Abstract

As part of the general effort to modernize the financial-economic system, in both private and public sectors, the concept of internal auditing is fairly recent. The development of information technology has significantly contributed to the integration of information systems into management related activities (economy, logistics, finance and accountancy, etc.). The integration of new information technology into the practice of processing, transferring and storing information has brought about a series of threats and vulnerabilities of the information system. Thus, auditing information systems has become a vital element for all domains and activities of organizations, including the military one.

Keywords

  • information system
  • auditing
  • risks
  • vulnerabilities
  • objectives
access type Open Access

Some Aspects Concerning The Communication in Multinational Corporations Existing on The Romanian Market

Published Online: 25 Jul 2017
Page range: 101 - 106

Abstract

Abstract

The proposed topic presents a high interest at least from two points of view. Economically speaking, the multinational corporations define to a considerable extent the economic performance of Romania. As communication, these corporations with entire or prevailing foreign capital could be considered as models for what it means intercultural communication and cultural adapting. The research of the aspects connected to communication in an intercultural framework allows the drawing of some pertinent conclusions concerning the role of communication as a key factor of success or on the contrary an important barrier. At the same time, the approach of communication process needs not only the study of communication itself but also the mentalities, the attitudes, and the behaviors. The present paper refers mostly to internal communication and less to promotional communication. In the same time, it refers to the way act the organizational cultures existing in those corporations, if there is a closed connection between communication and organizational culture.

Keywords

  • internal communication
  • multicultural
  • multinational corporations
access type Open Access

Czech Armed Forces and Some Aspects of Helicopters Acquisition

Published Online: 25 Jul 2017
Page range: 107 - 112

Abstract

Abstract

After several years of discussion and decision-making approaches Army of the Czech Republic to implement the purchase of multipurpose helicopters to replace the previously used, morally and physically obsolete attack helicopters Mi-24 / 34. The process of acquisition consists of many stages; it is not a simple matter and has its pitfalls. It is also a big, expensive and long-term acquisition in which the poor implementation can cause problems that are likely to affect the Army of the Czech Republic and its Air Force for many years. One of the decision-making process inputs is an estimate of Life Cycle Cost (LCC). For the estimation, many methods can be used. The paper deals with application of system dynamics to LCC estimation process. Partial models of utilization and support Life Cycle phases are presented, which can be further developed according to consecutive data availability. An influence of different helicopter operating modes on a Life Cycle Cost is demonstrated by means of simulation in Vensim application. The models, after verification and validation, can be used to support the acquisition process.

Keywords

  • Helicopters
  • System Dynamics
  • Life Cycle Cost
  • Life Cycle Model
  • Acquisition
access type Open Access

The Role of Internal Control in Managing The Risks Specific to The Financial Field

Published Online: 25 Jul 2017
Page range: 113 - 117

Abstract

Abstract

This article deals with a currently discussed topic, namely that of preventive financial control, a concept that has to ensure a reasonable use of public funds in a transparent, economical, efficient and effective manner. In this sense the issues related to public internal financial control are considered instruments that actively influence the organizational and managerial culture of the public entity in a positive manner by engaging in control actions that are meant to identify and stop the possible illegal activities or actions, fraudulent or uneconomical use of public funds. I further detail the concept of public financial control with the two principal branches, that is the preventive financial control and the preventive financial control proper. The preventive financial control proper, by exercising the control visa for every financial supporting document affecting public funds, is a cornerstone regarding the exercise of financial control activity.

Keywords

  • strategy of public internal control
  • internal control
  • internal control standards
  • preventive financial control
  • credit officer
access type Open Access

Causes of Fiscality Generating Economic and Social Effects in Romania

Published Online: 25 Jul 2017
Page range: 118 - 123

Abstract

Abstract

I think I am in the same line with the majority of finance and especially tax specialists in arguing that taxation is an economic and social phenomenon, i.e. a chain of actions and deeds which take place in time and space. The main argument in considering taxation in a broader sense, as an economic and social phenomenon, is that taxation should ensure the achievement of the economic and social objectives of the state. This phenomenon is caused by a complex of factors that are general and perpetual and whose actions breed measurable consequences. Like any economic and social phenomenon, taxation is characterized by generating causes, specific to the time and space framework of the event, vectors of influence of the intensity of the action (accelerators or reducers) and noticeable results (effects) on the surface of the economic reality. The economic and social causes of the phenomenon of taxation are not usually measurable given the continuous interaction of the vectors of influence, but the effects are real, reliable and quantifiable. Therefore, it is necessary to undertake in-depth studies in order to understand the lesser known side of the elements that trigger the emergence and development of the economic and social phenomena.

Keywords

  • tax
  • tax evasion
  • policy
  • cause
  • effect
access type Open Access

Theoretical and Empirical Research on The Analysis and The Assessment of The Stability of National Financial Systems. Romania’s Experience

Published Online: 25 Jul 2017
Page range: 124 - 129

Abstract

Abstract

The stability of the financial systems is an objective necessity for the sustainable development of each national economy. Within this framework, ensuring financial stability is a priority for the central banks and for the other macro-prudential supervisory and regulatory authorities. In order to ensure the stability and "the health" of the national financial system, the competent authorities should analyze, assess and adopt optimal and timely measures to eliminate potential imbalances. These and other aspects are the main objectives of our research.

Keywords

  • national financial system
  • financial stability
  • analysis and assessment
  • indicators of financial stability
access type Open Access

The Nature and Purpose of The General Meetings of The Supranational Economic Associations in The European Union

Published Online: 25 Jul 2017
Page range: 130 - 134

Abstract

Abstract

The general meeting is the supreme body of the European company as well as of the other European entities for economic association. It is a body forming and expressing the intention of a company. It is a specific forum for the free and voluntary expression of the intentions of its individual participants. The intentions can be expressed by an individual or a group, but they always express a specific attitude. A meeting collects, as a “funnel”, the expressed concerns, the suggestions supporting or rejecting the expressed theses, etc., with regard to the discussed issues. This forms the common will of the participating parties. The general meeting of shareholders is a legally established body of an European company. In view of its structure, the general meeting of shareholders is a collective body. It includes all shareholders entitled to vote. Therefore, it can be defined as a college because it approves all decisions as a college at in-person meetings or in absentia. Thus the meeting in question is the only legal means by which shareholders may exercise moral management rights: participation in management, right to vote, active and passive right to elect and be elected to the board of directors, management or supervisory board, etc. The legal framework of the general meeting of shareholders has hybrid nature.

Keywords

  • general meeting
  • European Economic Interest Grouping (EEIG)
  • European company (SE)
  • European Cooperative Society (SCE)
access type Open Access

Some Implications of Adopting New Codes - Tax and Fiscal Procedure - On SME Business

Published Online: 25 Jul 2017
Page range: 135 - 138

Abstract

Abstract

Given the entry into force of the new Tax Code and of the New Tax Procedure Code in 2016, our approach is aimed at addressing the most important issues of interest to SME entrepreneurship. Obviously, we are referring both to the rules of the respective codes that bring benefits to the shareholders/ entrepreneurs engaged in small business, but also to those designed to displease. Based on the Romanian and foreign literature, in the end, we also propose some solutions in order to improve this situation.

Keywords

  • SME business
  • taxes
access type Open Access

Use of Technical Means for Making The Tactics of Identification More Precise

Published Online: 25 Jul 2017
Page range: 139 - 143

Abstract

Abstract

The present article concerns the technical means that are used by the investigating authorities at the institute in relation to the identification and in order the same to emphasize on its evidential influence and importance.

Keywords

  • Identification
  • Investigation
  • witness
  • protocol
  • Technical Means
access type Open Access

A New Data Protection Development in The EU Judicial and Criminal Area

Published Online: 25 Jul 2017
Page range: 144 - 149

Abstract

Abstract

The following article is dedicated to a new data protection regime in the European Union, in particular the Directive (EU) 2016/680 of the European Parliament and the Council on the protection of natural persons regarding processing of personal data by authorities aiming at prevention, investigation, detection and prosecution of crime offences, including execution of criminal penalties. For this purpose, the authors look first at the data protection within the Prüm framework as well as at the relevant provisions of Lisbon Treaty. Тhe important cases of the European Court of Human Rights are analyzed. Whereas in 2014 EU Member states focused on the question whether or not to retain data, the 2016 conclusion was that in some aspects data retention is the most efficient measure to ensure national security, public safety and fighting across serious crimes. The terrorist attacks in Paris and Brussels call to better equip security authorities. The EU legislature made significant progress on the Data Protection regime. The Directive (EU) 2016/680, the so called the ‘Police and Criminal Justice Directive’, repeals the Council Framework Decision 2008/977/JHA and will enter into force on 6 May 2018.

Keywords

  • Prüm framework
  • DNA
  • data protection
  • new Police and Criminal Justice Directive
access type Open Access

Motive or Reason in Criminal Law

Published Online: 25 Jul 2017
Page range: 150 - 155

Abstract

Abstract

Guilt often encompasses volitional and intellectual mental processes and only in rare cases it will include affective processes. The motive and purpose are certain mental processes which the legislator sometimes introduces in the content of the offenses. The motive is the psychological causal support of human facts. The doctrine currently uses both the term of motive and that of reason, but the Criminal Code uses exclusively the term motive, which better communicates the conscious and rational character of these psychological processes. In the general section of the Criminal Code, mental processes of the motive are common among the general criteria of punishment individualization and also in listing the aggravating circumstances. In the special part of the Criminal Code mental processes of the motive can be found both for typical or special variants and aggravated or qualifying forms of certain crimes. Motive can be expressed explicitly by equivalent terms or by an implied manner, which entails the need for interpretation of the text.

Keywords

  • guilty
  • motive
  • purpose
  • crime content
access type Open Access

The Unaccompanied or Separated Minor In The Asylum Procedure

Published Online: 25 Jul 2017
Page range: 156 - 161

Abstract

Abstract

The unaccompanied or separated minor is, according to the European Union body of legislation regarding asylum and migration, one of the extremely vulnerable categories of persons, and the risk of vulnerability is amplified in the case of the unaccompanied or separated minor - asylum seeker. Ever since the EU pre-accession period Romanian legislation reconciled, according to the European model, the requirements of the rules on migration with humanism provisions in the field of child rights. The images in the media about the migratory flows in recent years have revealed a system that requires imperatively legislative changes, adapting procedures, innovative work tools, including the case of the unaccompanied minor asylum seeker. In this article I intend to analyze the existing legislative framework in Romania, highlighting the positive aspects of the law and those which I believe that should be reconsidered so that the interests of the minor in the asylum procedure to be properly protected.

Keywords

  • unaccompanied
  • minor
  • separated
  • asylum
  • migration
access type Open Access

The Referendum as an Instrument to Join International Organizations

Published Online: 25 Jul 2017
Page range: 162 - 166

Abstract

Abstract

The article scrutinizes the referendum as an instrument to join international organizations. It analyzes the interaction of the participants for achieving unanimity and consensus, not differences or attempts to impose a certain opinion. A conclusion is drawn that through direct democracy the citizens take responsibility for the future development of the state.

Keywords

  • referendum
  • democracy
  • international organizations
access type Open Access

Issues on The Enforcement of International Humanitarian Law to The Use of Drones in Armed Conflicts

Published Online: 25 Jul 2017
Page range: 167 - 170

Abstract

Abstract

Drones are new means and methods of warfare which, apparently, are similar to combat aircrafts. A big difference between the two categories is the human personnel involved. Compared with airplanes, carrying a human crew on board - this one carrying out combat operations from inside the aircraft - drones do not have inside human beings, being coordinated from the ground (or sea) - the military actions carrying out from the place where the operators are. So the question arises: what kind of rules of international humanitarian law are applicable to the use of drones in armed conflicts? Starting from the rule that legal rules apply to legal relationships between people (but not directly to objects or animals), I analyze to what extent these means and methods of warfare are subject to the rules of armed conflict on land, sea or air.

Keywords

  • land warfare
  • air warfare
  • drones
  • international humanitarian law
access type Open Access

The Free Movement of Services and The Right to Nondiscrimination

Published Online: 25 Jul 2017
Page range: 171 - 174

Abstract

Abstract

The present article will explore the free movement of services, which is one of the four fundamental freedoms of the citizens of the European Union. The reader's attention will be drawn to the violation of the right to non-discrimination in view of the unfavourable treatment of Bulgarian citizens in comparison with citizens of the European Union regarding the prices of package holidays on the Bulgarian Black Sea coast offered by Bulgarian travel agencies.

Keywords

  • the free movement of services
  • the right to non-discrimination
access type Open Access

On The Issue about The Moment of Incurrence of Right of Cassation Appeal on Civil Cases in Republic of Bulgaria

Published Online: 25 Jul 2017
Page range: 175 - 180

Abstract

Abstract

The right of the party concerned to a cassation appeal is result of specific inspection performed by the Supreme Court of Cassation where examined is the presence of conditions, foreseen in art. 280, par. 1 of Civil-Procedure Code. The right of cassation, however, shall incur from the presence of appellate judgment [1], and not from the specific inspection of Supreme Court of Cassation. The cassation appeal is submitted when the resolution is void, impermissible or inaccurate. This is why the right of cassation appeal is presented and guaranteed by the law opportunity of an individual to oblige Supreme Court of Cassation to rule on the first stage of cassation proceeding - the proceeding on allowing the cassation appeal estimating the statutory criteria in art. 280 of Civil-Procedure Code.

Keywords

  • term
  • cassation
  • appeal
  • grounds
  • right
  • permissibility
  • civil litigation
access type Open Access

Integrated Work Environment for People with Disabilities within The Context of The Bulgarian and European Legislation

Published Online: 25 Jul 2017
Page range: 181 - 186

Abstract

Abstract

People with disabilities are one of the socially vulnerable groups in the labor market. The main reason for this negative trend is the lack of integrated work environment that creates conditions for equal exercise of their right to work. At national level, the main piece of legislation which governs the right of an integrated work environment is the Law on Integration of People with Disabilities. The integration of the work environment is crucial for ensuring the opportunity for employment and professional realization of people with disabilities. Namely the professional realization of the labor market is one of the main mechanisms for the overall integration of this social group in various spheres of public life, which is set as a priority objective in the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities.

Keywords

  • integrated work environment
  • people with disabilities
  • employment
  • socially vulnerable groups
access type Open Access

National Law or EU Law

Published Online: 25 Jul 2017
Page range: 187 - 191

Abstract

Abstract

The article examines cases of conflict between the national law of the EU Member States and European Union Law. There is an analysis of the legal advantage of EU law over national law or vice versa. Conclusions have been drawn that the national law should maintain its advantage when the reason for it is contained in the Constitution of the respective state.

Keywords

  • European legislation
  • national law and EU law
  • a conflict between domestic and international law
  • the Constitution as a criterion for legal force
access type Open Access

The Indirect Intent in The International Criminal Case-Law

Published Online: 25 Jul 2017
Page range: 192 - 196

Abstract

Abstract

This study focuses on the analyse of the indirect intent in the international criminal caselaw. Traditionally, the Romanian Criminal Code defines the indirect intent through the pshychological position of the offender towards the result of the crime, which can lead, in some circumstances, to unfair result. Finding an appropriate definition has been a constant problem for the international courts of justice, especially taking into consideration the effort to reconcile this attempt with the national regulations and principles. The International Criminal Tribunal for Yugoslavia developed a new form of criminal participation in which it described the mens rea using the notion of `risk`. The Tadić case represents a significant step for the definition of indirect intent, in the way it is considered in our legal system.The international criminal court emphasizes the importance of the person`s position towards the risk that criminal acts could lead to relevant results and it outlines the standards of foreseeability of such risk.

Keywords

  • indirect intent
  • risk
  • joint criminal enterprise
  • result
  • mens rea
access type Open Access

Birth Certificate of Stillbirth and Succession

Published Online: 25 Jul 2017
Page range: 197 - 200

Abstract

Abstract

This article explores the subject of one question “de lege ferenda” which is related to the birth of stillbirths and the matters of succession that result from the amendment of the Civil Registration Act of 2015 and the establishment of a separate civil status certificate.

Keywords

  • succession
  • birth certificate
  • stillbirth
  • potential viability
  • legislation
access type Open Access

The Contemporary Countries in The Conditions of Migratory Multiculturalism

Published Online: 25 Jul 2017
Page range: 201 - 205

Abstract

Abstract

One of the characteristics in the early 21st century is the existence of different in intensities and content migration waves. This confronts the countries at a range of challenges. On one side, countries should protect the rights, freedoms and interests of its citizens, on the other - rights, freedoms and interests of persons, who form migratory pressure and are threatening the national security. In order to be guaranteed the rights, freedoms and interests, it is necessary first to be ensured a security, which means limiting the rights of persons, who represent a threat to the national security. The problems are further exacerbated by the enforced coexistence of different cultures with values different from those of the citizens in the respective countries, which are reflected in the current legal order. This, in turn, means a normative impossibility for the institutionalization of these values and the adoption of legislative consensual solutions, applicable as for the time of their stay in the respective countries, as well as in their eventual integration.

Keywords

  • multiculturalism
  • values
  • rights
  • conflict
  • integration
access type Open Access

The Problem of Recurrence in The New Criminal Code and The Impact of The New Changes to Criminogen Phenomenon in our Country

Published Online: 25 Jul 2017
Page range: 206 - 210

Abstract

Abstract

The present paper wants to emphasize the impact of the new amendments to the penal code in the magazine on the criminogenic phenomenon. The provisions of the new Criminal Code for Romanian recurrence brings new elements in both the definition of its terms and in terms of the punishment.

Keywords

  • recurrence
  • impact
  • criminogenic phenomenon the new Criminal Code
  • recidivism
access type Open Access

Legal Liability Regarding The Regime of Organization, Systematization and Signalization of Roads in Romania

Published Online: 25 Jul 2017
Page range: 211 - 220

Abstract

Abstract

People and society`s life can not be understood out of conduct rules that must be respected by everybody. Legal liability represents both a fundamental form of law and a basic component of the whole legal system. One of the fundamental principles of law is liability. Those who break legal rules alter laws and citizens` legal rights and interests. They disturb, sometimes in a serious way, public order and good going, thus, endangering the most important values of society. Either the frequency or severity of breaking laws or their negative impact on social balance and legal order oblige law makers to both set up accurately the limits of liability regarding these commitments and penalize them promptly. Road safety refers to the whole acts and measures submitted in order to improve people`s conduct, vehicles and road infrastructure. All these will generate safe conditions for everybody who uses public roads. In this way, the risk of being involved in car crashes with severe consequences will be diminished.

Keywords

  • liability
  • infringement
  • guilt
  • systematization
  • signalization
access type Open Access

Contravention Liability Concerning The Regime of Organization, Systematization and Signalization of Roads

Published Online: 25 Jul 2017
Page range: 221 - 226

Abstract

Abstract

The guideline explains how to prepare your paper in printer-ready format for the 23rd International Scientific Conference “Knowledge Based Organization” (KBO), so that its appearance is clear and consistent with the other papers in the proceedings. It includes guidance on layout, illustrations, text style and references, presented exactly as your paper should appear. It is highly advised to use KBO template and strictly follow the instructions to prepare your paper in Microsoft Word format (.DOC). The abstract portion is a narrative presentation without references. The abstract should give a concise and informative description of the paper, in 200 words, written to interest the reader as well as for information retrieval.

Keywords

  • liability
  • contravention
  • road safety
  • systematization
  • signalization
access type Open Access

Conflicts of Jurisdiction in Criminal Proceedings – Preconditions and Possible Solutions

Published Online: 25 Jul 2017
Page range: 227 - 232

Abstract

Abstract

The article examines issues, related to the conflicts of jurisdiction in criminal proceedings within the European area, where several countries simultaneously have the competence to conduct a criminal prosecution of the same facts. There have been studied several international legal instruments, postulating the compliance with the Ne bis in idem principle, respectively the prohibition of a second judgment towards the same person and for the same act. Discussed are various preconditions for conflicts of jurisdiction in criminal matters and possible solutions, according to the existing legal mechanisms in this field.

Keywords

  • jurisdiction
  • conflict
  • cross-border crimes
  • transfer
  • Ne bis in idem principle
access type Open Access

Designing a Legal English Course for Master of Laws Students

Published Online: 25 Jul 2017
Page range: 233 - 237

Abstract

Abstract

Over the last years, universities have diversified their educational offer, understanding and emphasizing the role of foreign languages in enhancing both personal and professional growth. Study programmes at undergraduate level have a mandatory foreign language component and there is a tendency to provide master’s programmes in foreign languages especially in the field of law, business, political sciences, international relations, etc. In this framework, the paper attempts to identify and present the steps to be taken in designing a legal English course for students who complete their Master of Laws (LLM) degree in Human Rights. The focus is on the development of such a course as an essential element of a syllabus. The paper discusses the subject content of the course, i.e. the areas within each topic meant to improve and expand the students’ specialist vocabulary which will further enable them to operate effectively in the field of human rights, the language content and the language skills which must be practised, while also analyzing subject-based materials and language materials.

Keywords

  • educational offer
  • syllabus and course design
  • LLM students
  • legal English course
  • human rights
access type Open Access

Multidimensional Diagnosis of Occupational Pressure Perception for The Medical Staff of an Intensive Care Unit (ICU)

Published Online: 25 Jul 2017
Page range: 238 - 244

Abstract

Abstract

Intensive Care Units (ICU) medical staff is frequently subject of great amount of psychological and physical occupational pressure. There are three main sources of pressure: professional responsability for the medical act, organizational requirements and interpersonal/intrapersonal relationships. Materials and method: The paper presents a study on the multidimensional diagnosis of occupational pressure/stress perception of the medical staff of an ICU (N=34). The romanian form of Pressure Management Indicator (PMI) [1][2][3][7] was applied to all participants. The instrument is designed for multidimensional evaluation of occupational stress. The objective was to identify specific indicators of occupational pressure and formulate predictions regarding the different variables. Results and conclusions: Data analysis showed, for example, that Influence and Control (as personality factors/individual differences) are good predictors for the resilience level in the studied ICU medical staff. We can conclude that individual differences regarding personality factors are the main variables that significantely influence the occupational stress coping for ICU medical staff. The PMI-RO diagnosed profile, resulted for the ICU medical staff showed many differences comparing with general population, including sources of pressure, coping strategies, personality factors, organisational satisfaction and self evaluation of performance. Further implications of the study and intervention strategies for medical personnel in ICU are discussed.

Keywords

  • Pressure Management
  • ICU medical staff
access type Open Access

Causal Reasoning in Mild Mental Disabled Children

Published Online: 25 Jul 2017
Page range: 245 - 250

Abstract

Abstract

This study is focused to analyze mild mental retardation children’s ability to make causal attributions from sparse data. The research method selected was that of an unifactorial experiment starting from the assumption that children with mild mental retardation should ask for help or explore the environment following the causal attribution they will do according to the statistical data they receive. This study was conducted on a sample of 23 mild mental retardation children (ages between 9 and 12). The participants were randomly divided into two experimental groups and they were asked to complete a specific task (press a button to scroll a set of images). The results obtained using Fisher’s Exact Test led to assuming the null assumption and rejecting the experimental assumption (p=,170; p<0,05). Although the statistical analysis did not highlight significant associations between the dependent and independent variable, the frequency table indicated that children in group one asked for help more frequent, while children in group two rather explored for solutions, as assumed in this study. Taken into account these results, this study emphasizes the need for educational and psychological intervention to reduce the problems that the mild mental retardation children are confronting regarding cognitive development in general.

Keywords

  • mild mental deficiencies
  • causal attributions
  • action strategies
access type Open Access

Compulsive Internet Use and Academic Procrastination: Significant Comparative, Correlative and Predicting Indicators in a Romanian Student Sample

Published Online: 25 Jul 2017
Page range: 251 - 255

Abstract

Abstract

The purpose of this study was to investigate significant measures between indicators / factors associated to compulsive Internet use and academic procrastination behaviors, for a sample of students, from Romanian education institutions. Previous transcultural findings indicate that compulsive Internet use and procrastination behaviours, but in most cases investigated separately, can interfere, distract, delay and / or have a negative impact on academic work / achievement (completing reading assignments, homework, studying for exams / academic failure), task performance and quality of life (personal and social obligations). Romanian participants were asked on a voluntary basis and with informed consent to complete demographic data and questionnaires about internet use (the Romanian translated and adapted version of The Compulsive Internet Use Scale, CIUS, developed by Meerkerk, G.-J., Van Den Eijnden, R. J. J. M., Vermulst, A. A., & Garretsen, H. F. L., 2009 [4] [5]) and procrastination behaviors (the Romanian translated and adapted version of The Procrastination Assessment Scale - for Students, PASS, designed by Solomon and Rothblum, 1984 [8] [9]). They also were informed that their responses are confidential: 211 valid surveys from 111 college undergraduates and 100 high-school students were collected for analysis. Results identified significant comparative data and correlative indicators of compulsive Internet use in predicting specific procrastination behaviors, for the 211 participants. Implications and future methodological research and coping strategies of this topic were discussed.

Keywords

  • Compulsive internet use
  • academic procrastination
  • indicators
  • Romanian students
access type Open Access

The Myth of Teamwork in The Military

Published Online: 25 Jul 2017
Page range: 256 - 260

Abstract

Abstract

Numerous studies have focused on identifying the relevant conditions and factors that can assure the effectiveness of a team. The purpose of this paper is to present an overview of some positive and negative aspects of the teamwork in the military, using as a starting point the components of a scientific instrument of research. Two of the particular features of the military organization were more detailed analyzed, due to the fact that they turn the potential strengths into weaknesses, and military leaders have to face with them: the formal power of the military leaders and the increased mobility of the military team members.

Keywords

  • team effectiveness
  • military team
access type Open Access

The Image of Ion I. C. Brătianu in The Foreign Press of 1916

Published Online: 25 Jul 2017
Page range: 261 - 264

Abstract

Abstract

Our paper aims to highlight the way Ion I. C. Brătianu was presented outside national borders in a fundamental moment of our national history, namely the integration of Romania into the operations of World War I in 1916. At that landmark moment, Ion I. C. Brătianu was Prime Minister of the country and was perceived abroad as the most powerful personality in the Romanian decisionmaking space, on whom the very decision to enter the war was hanging on. Foreign observers considered that Brătianu would not integrate with the war other than besides the military camp and in the moment that would definitely ensure their final victory. In order to sketch his image at international level we mainly used the information provided by the French press of the time (especially newspaper “Le Figaro”).

Keywords

  • Ion I. C. Brătianu
  • French press
access type Open Access

The International Image of Ion I. C. Brătianu in 1919

Published Online: 25 Jul 2017
Page range: 265 - 269

Abstract

Abstract

Our paper aims to present how Ion I. C. Brătianu was perceived outside national borders in a very important moment of the Romanian national history, namely the international recognition of the Great Union, within the Peace Conference at Paris-Versailles in 1919 -1920. Ion I. C. Brătianu was at that moment Prime Minister and the leader of the Romanian delegation at Versailles. Foreign countries perceived him as a very powerful personality, capable to influence other states with similar interests in Central and South Eastern Europe. Brătianu stoutly and patriotically defended the Romanian interests. Therefore, although his position was correct, it came into conflict with the interests of the great powers. Brătianu would not give up his principles and decided to leave the Peace Conference. French media was objective in their accounts and proved favourable to the Romanian position.

Keywords

  • Ion I. C. Brătianu
  • image abroad
access type Open Access

Mass-Media Communication in Romania

Published Online: 25 Jul 2017
Page range: 270 - 275

Abstract

Abstract

Over 1200 new publications have appeared in Romania since the fall of communism. Some of them don’t exist anymore, but there always appear new ones. The Romanian newspaper market comprises about 1500 publications most of which appear on a weekly basis and 200 daily newspapers. Television is the most familiar source of information. The radio landscape has changed considerably - similar to the television - since 1990. Besides the public broadcaster offering several programs, there are over 150 private local radio stations and various other channels. Despite the diversity of the Romanian press, we cannot yet speak of a completely free press (see the report of the Freedom House organization). The limitations of media freedom and freedom of speech are related to media ownership, but also with gaps in the national legislation. This study aims to contribute to the advancement in the conceptualization of qualitative journalism by proposing to analyze different situations of failure in investigative journalism and identifying factors that conduct to limitation of media freedom.

Keywords

  • freedom of the press
  • media landscape
  • Romania
  • qualitative journalism
access type Open Access

The Unwritten History in our Textbooks

Published Online: 25 Jul 2017
Page range: 276 - 280

Abstract

Abstract

In his book “The Dacians”, Hadrian Daicoviciu showed that “only a few pages have been preserved of the great book of this people’s ancient history; dozens of pages, undoubtedly among the most interesting, were lost forever and many, perhaps even more interesting, were never written by ancient authors”. There is a text that keeps coming to my mind very often, especially lately, because I have noticed that there is a tendency to remove or skip several pages of our history. The mission of a historian is to try to find out the historical truth with as many pages as possible. We should not overlook, we should not mitigate anything from our past. The lost or unwritten pages of history hinder this mission, it is true, but what should we do about the pages that were written and, deliberately, are not included in the history books?

Keywords

  • history
  • ancient
  • pages
  • textbooks
  • historical truth
access type Open Access

Ancient Greek Military Theory and Practice. Aeneas Tacticus (I)

Published Online: 25 Jul 2017
Page range: 281 - 286

Abstract

Abstract

The intention of this article is to present the oldest surviving work of military art of the Greek antiquity written in the mid-fourth century B.C. by of the author known today as Aeneas Tacticus. In 1609 Isaac Casaubon, its first editor, gave it the Latin title Commentarius de toleranda obsidione, How to Survive under Siege. Aeneas Tacticus was an experienced general on the battlefield, and had an equally solid theoretical training based on treatises of warfare which undoubtedly existed before his own, but were less fortunate and have not reached us. The study of this manual reveals that Aeneas Tacticus wrote or designed to write at least five books on military themes and information exists from other sources that he might have written three more books on the subject. Thus, all these works could have formed a Corpus Aeneanum, comparable in value to Clausewitz’s famous work On War. Aeneas’s work was highly appreciated and extremely useful for commanders and strategists of the Antiquity and the Middle Ages and was used and cited by all the authors of treatises on siege until the era of pre-modern warfare.

Keywords

  • Aeneas Tacticus
  • treatise
  • pre-modern warfare
  • siege
access type Open Access

Ancient Greek Military Theory And Practice. Aeneas Tacticus (II)

Published Online: 25 Jul 2017
Page range: 287 - 291

Abstract

Abstract

The attention still enjoyed today by Aeneas’ treatise on how to withstand a siege is not merely due to its antiquity. Many of the military principles and practical instructions it conveys are still valid. In addition to these, a closer examination opens a broader insight into the Greek city of the fourth century BC than that for which the manual was originally designed, for scholars found many interesting historical, political, social, ethnographic, and linguistic aspects scattered throughout the text. The aim of this paper is firstly, to emphasize the way in which the ideas and instructions of Aeneas Tacticus are articulated in a rigorous and clear plan and, secondly, to draw attention to some of the issues which are not specific to the military, but began to be considered relevant to the overall picture of the treatise.

Keywords

  • Aeneas Tacticus
  • military treatise
  • tactics
  • siege
  • ancient Greek city
access type Open Access

Researching The Influence of Online Social Networks on The Students’ Communication – 1St Part

Published Online: 25 Jul 2017
Page range: 292 - 297

Abstract

Abstract

The usage of online social networks (OSN) in the last decade has changed the manner in which the individuals and especially the young people / students communicate with each other. The aim of our research paper, which is a part of a larger study, is to identify the manner in which the online social networks influence the communication process of the students from Sibiu and Alba Counties of Romania. The present marketing research is a quantitative one, based on a questionnaire that provides a clear insight on what are the main OSN used by the students and it shows how or if the students use the OSN to express their feelings and emotions. The research also shows the influence in the communication process between students and teachers, it points out the main reasons for using such a communication tool and activities undertaken by the students on their preferred OSN.

Keywords

  • communication
  • social media marketing
  • social networks
  • students
access type Open Access

A Study of Nutrition and The Nutritional Status of Servicemen, Assessed on The Basis of Anthropometric Indicators

Published Online: 25 Jul 2017
Page range: 298 - 302

Abstract

Abstract

The modern food industry has the potential to produce and offers "unlimited" quantities of all sorts tempting foods in response to the expectations of consumers. The development of powerful marketing and promotional campaigns in pursuance of the objective to boost sales creates the perfect conditions for the modification of the eating patterns of the population. In addition, this makes it possible for foods, whose everyday use would increase the risk of non-communicable diseases, to permanently find their place on the menu in every household.

Keywords

  • overweight
  • foods
  • nutrient
  • status
  • energy
access type Open Access

The Communication Society and The Media Culture

Published Online: 25 Jul 2017
Page range: 303 - 307

Abstract

Abstract

Any knowledge is recorded, set in the culture and in the end, communicated. The communicative behaviors are found at the basis of humanization, of the spiritual, psychological and social development of people. To exist as a human being means to communicate, moreover communication is the major factor present in the constitution and transmission of the cultural values and of culture itself. The emergence of the new media confronts us with the challenge of abandoning the old means and of replacing the old values with those of the media culture. The communication society responds to the dream of mankind to create and live in a better world: it guarantees freedom of expression, free information, instantaneity, and all the attributes and illusions of a best possible world. On the other hand, the crisis of confidence faced by the media in the recent years is an important moment and an alarming signal for the media institutions. However, enthusiasm for the online media has increased, especially among the young people who, despite the inconveniences, access the virtual space in greater number year by year. Ultimately, regardless of the criticism surrounding the media culture, the purpose of the creators has always been to communicate the new created values, because only through communication the new forms of culture can emerge and establish themselves as culture.

Keywords

  • comunication
  • media culture
  • communication society
  • confidence crisis
access type Open Access

Human Target Selected by The Adverse Intelligence Services for Obtaining Classified Information

Published Online: 25 Jul 2017
Page range: 308 - 311

Abstract

Abstract

Generally, to be competitive, the intelligence services are required, by their status itself, to constantly assess the capacity and performance and also to anticipate the behaviour of potential adversaries in achieving and maintaining a superior informational advantage. Illegal access of adverse intelligence services to national information strategy is a well defined aim, involving carefully designed scenarios and continuous assessment, performed by specialized structures. In the economy of intelligence business, a logical condition is the selection of human intelligence sources, primarily among those whose professional duties involve access to valuable information, the disclosure of which may be established strategic advantages. The results are often negative immediate or medium-term consequences , unpredictable, both on national security and on a proper functioning of the state.

Keywords

  • intelligence services
  • human intelligence sources
  • classified information
  • disclosure
access type Open Access

A Preliminary Study of Empathy in Romanian College Students

Published Online: 25 Jul 2017
Page range: 312 - 317

Abstract

Keywords

The Interpersonal Reactivity Index is a self-report instrument used for assessing empathy. The theoretical model of empathy for IRI assumes that empathy is multidimensional in nature containing affective aspects (Empathic Concern and Personal Distress) and cognitive aspects (Perspective Taking and Fantasy). The objective of this study was to compare the level of empathy in Romanian college students to the level of empathy in American college students and to compare empathy in college students based on gender and field of study. The IRI was administered to a sample of 216 Romanian college students. We were interested only on Empathic Concern and Perspective Taking scales. The results revealed that Empathic Concern in Romanian college students is lower than in American college students, women score higher than men on the two scales used and students studying at humanities colleges have a higher Perspective Taking than students studying at science colleges. Our suggestion as a result of this study is to introduce more classes in the curriculum at the elementary school level to teach children empathy using diverse methods.

Keywords

  • empathy
  • empathic concern
  • perspective talking
  • college student
access type Open Access

Psychometric Evaluation of The Romanian Version of The Irrational Procrastination Scale in a Military Student Population

Published Online: 25 Jul 2017
Page range: 318 - 323

Abstract

Abstract

The present paper examines the psychometric properties of the Romanian version of the Irrational Procrastination Scale (IPS). The Principal Component Analysis for IPS revealed a two factors structure, but the second factor is loaded by an item that refers to postponing tasks and another item that actually expresses the opposite behavior. We therefore conclude that IPS is in fact a one-dimensional construct, as the author of the scale suggested. The IPS has good reliability. The correlation matrix indicated that the procrastination scale did correlate weakly with measures of selfefficiency and relf-regulation but it was higly correlated with factor H, factor O and global scale Q4 from Cattell’s 16 PF personality questionnaire. As a conclusion, the Romanian translation of the Irrational Procrastination Scale is a general measure of procrastination as irrational delay which can be successfully used in student populations.

Keywords

  • Irrational Procrastination Scale
  • Psychometric evaluation
access type Open Access

Vulnerabilities and Threats to Human Security Generated by an Ineffective Educational System

Published Online: 25 Jul 2017
Page range: 324 - 327

Abstract

Abstract

The present trend towards globalization has led to people changing their views on possible threats to their existence. Nowadays, we witness a diversification of vulnerabilities and threats to human security, as well as a progressive reduction of our resilience. The article attempts to correlate the 5 dimensions of national security, as identified by the Copenhagen School of Security, with the problems of the Romanian educational system, explaining how these problems can become threats to the security of Romanian citizens. It offers an overview of the problems of the Romanian educational system, and the threats and vulnerabilities derived from them towards human security. It also suggests solutions to problems and indicators for monitoring progress.

Keywords

  • human security
  • vulnerabilities
  • threats
  • education
access type Open Access

The Implementation and Studying of “Life Activity Safety” as a Basis of Modern Safety Culture

Published Online: 25 Jul 2017
Page range: 328 - 331

Abstract

Abstract

The implementation and studying of “Life Activity Safety” as an academic and scientific discipline will contribute to the formation in the individual and in the public of a world outlook on the values and goals for the safety of their life activity in the new post-industrial era through a complete review of human safety issues at different levels in this currently changed environment. The safety environment that will affect the state of our security will be characterized by numerous and asymmetric factors, high dynamics, indefiniteness, complex and difficult to predict processes, while the advancement of the higher education and of the research and scientific work form the basis for undertaking actions in the outlining and implementation of sector and common national policies for the development of the individual and the society. The overall concept of safety as an activity of people and their societies to study, prevent, diminish, eliminate, and deflect the dangers and threats that could destroy them and deprive them of fundamental values, inflict unacceptable damage and obstruct their progress are the rationale for the structure, subject-matter and content of the suggested discipline aiming at educating high school and university students in the underlying principles of life activity safety.

Keywords

  • Life Activity Safety
  • education
  • safety culture
access type Open Access

Communication and Their Role in The Preparation and Presentation of The Basketball Referee

Published Online: 25 Jul 2017
Page range: 332 - 337

Abstract

Abstract

The present paper wishes to start from the premise that we are preparing to express, namely that there is a correlation between the degree of preparation of the basketball referees and their results during the games, between their actual training and the performance we observe. The basketball referee is the person who judges all phases of the game, taking decisions in fractions of a second. For this the referee needs interdisciplinary training, yet not forgetting that he is often selftaught, learning and taking over from field specialists.

Keywords

  • communication
  • referee
  • language
  • preparation
  • basketball
access type Open Access

The Role of Culture in The Acquisition of Foreign Languages by Military Students

Published Online: 25 Jul 2017
Page range: 338 - 342

Abstract

Abstract

This paper highlights the importance of integrating culture in the teaching of foreign languages to military students. The first section of the paper offers some basic definitions of culture and key terms associated with it. The next part of the paper brings into discussion the relationship between culture and language acquisition. There is an intimate connection between language and culture; not only language is comprised in the definition of culture, but it also reflects culture, thus we cannot separate language teaching from culture. The final part of the paper focuses on the military students as future leaders that need to develop cross-cultural communication skills and be aware of the cultural differences in order to avoid potential failures during communication with soldiers from foreign militaries in theatres of operation or on other international missions that they are assigned.

Keywords

  • culture
  • language
  • military students
access type Open Access

The Importance of Developing The Writing Skill in The Military

Published Online: 25 Jul 2017
Page range: 343 - 348

Abstract

Abstract

The development of the four language skills has always been hard work for teachers as well as for students, the writing skill being a particularly challenging one. Writing in English for achieving various goals is certainly a major activity of all civilian and military higher education institutions throughout the world. In their daily activities, army leaders convey their intent, ideas, purpose and vision to superior echelons, peers and subordinates in oral or written form. Military officers perform many of their duties by means of intelligible, concise, coherent, and meaningful written messages. The need for writing correctly is an absolutely indispensable skill in itself. Therefore, teachers working in the military system of education should be concerned with developing, improving and practising the writing skill which is an important quality of leadership. Military work is very complex, the military system being based on officers’ ability to lead and manage military organizations. The paper focuses on the specific characteristics of military writing and provides some formats, with the respective writing tasks and assignments.

Keywords

  • improving writing skill
  • military English
  • military documents
  • devising tasks and assignments
access type Open Access

Foreign Languages and Cultural Awareness - A Must in The Education of The 21st Century European Military Leaders

Published Online: 25 Jul 2017
Page range: 349 - 354

Abstract

Abstract

Europe is characterized by both geographical and cultural diversity. At present, the European countries are under deep transformations due to the migratory trends. These special events need measures not only at the political level but also at the military, social and economic one. By being aware and accepting all these changes, mainly the cultural ones, we have to be open and adapt ourselves to the new context in which we have to be able to accept that our existence with its norms, values, customs and traditions is not unique. The language competences contribute to the mobility, employability and personal development of its citizens, in particular, the young people. As far as the military environment is concerned, we believe that it is of utmost importance not only to speak a common language but also to know the culture of the partners we cooperate with, as well as that of the local populations from various theatres of operations. At the level of our institutions, we tried to integrate into the curriculum topics that help our students, future military leaders, to be ready to efficiently answer to the new changes that they will face in a new military environment. In our paper, we will highlight the ways we can promote the development of our learners’ linguistic and cultural competencies.

Keywords

  • cultural and linguistic competence
  • awareness
  • attitude
  • knowledge
  • skills
access type Open Access

Motivation for Education and Learners' Satisfaction with The Choice of Military Specialisation or Civilian Specialty

Published Online: 25 Jul 2017
Page range: 355 - 360

Abstract

Abstract

This article presents a research on the motivation for education and training activities and their relation with the satisfaction of choosing a military specialisation or a civilian specialty, based on the example of cadets and students from the Vasil Levski National Military University in Bulgaria. Motivation for education and training activities is the main research subject of the study which is conducted in a real educational environment. The object of the study is cadets in the last year of their education in the Military Science professional field, specialising in Organisation and Management of Military Units at a Tactical Level at the National Military University in Bulgaria. The study includes students and cadets in the first year of education as control groups for comparison. The study launched in 2012. It continues to the present. It is supported by military experts from over 11 foreign military educational institutions - universities and academies from all across Europe.

Keywords

  • motivation
  • education
  • military
  • civil
access type Open Access

Study on Motivation for Education by Use of Control Groups for Comparison at The National Military University, Bulgaria

Published Online: 25 Jul 2017
Page range: 361 - 366

Abstract

Abstract

This article presents a study on motivation for education by use control groups for comparison at the National Military University, Bulgaria. The necessary information is collected through a combination of research methods. The basic scientific method, which was used, is empirical survey conducted in a real educational environment. The study is implemented in several stages: diagnostic stage, in which an analysis and assessment of the necessity of such a study is established and proved; basic stage which has been implemented since 2012; and a final stage which includes the development of a forecasting model for the future status of the levels of cadets’ and students’ satisfaction with their training.

Keywords

  • motivation
  • education
  • military
  • civil
access type Open Access

The Dacians, The Wolf Warriors

Published Online: 25 Jul 2017
Page range: 367 - 373

Abstract

Abstract

The Dacians, a very important Indo-European people of the ancient world, were, like all Indo-European peoples, highly trained in the art of war. The legends of the ancient world placed the worship of Ares/Mars, the god of war, in the world of the Thracians, the Dacians being the most important of the Thracians, by the creation of a state and by their remarkable civilization, where war generated rank. The Dacian leaders, military aristocrats, Tarabostes are similar to the Bharathi of the Aryans, therefore the accounts of Herodotus, the father of history, who called the Thracians (including the Dacians, the northern Thracians), “the most important of the Indo-Europeans, after the race of the Indians” (i.e. the Persians and the Aryans, their relatives), also have a military meaning. The totemic symbol of the wolf was much present in Europe, especially with Indo-European peoples, like the Spartans, the aristocrats of war, but mostly with the Romans, the gendarmes of the ancient world. But the Dacians honoured this majestic animal above all, not only as a symbol of the state, but also, apparently, as their eponym. As warriors, the Dacians lay under the sign of the wolf, their battle flag, and acted like real wolves against their enemies, whether they were Celts, during the reign of Burebista, or Romans, during the reign of Decebalus. The Dacians made history in the military art, being perfectly integrated, after the Roman conquest, in the largest and best trained army of the ancient world, the Roman army. Moreover, the wolf warriors, mastering the equestrian art, were a success in the special, though auxiliary troops of the famous equites singulares in the Roman army. If the Romans were the eagles of war, the Dacians were its wolves, these two symbols best illustrating the military art of all times.

Keywords

  • Dacians
  • art of war
  • symbol
  • Indo-Europeans
  • wolf
access type Open Access

Model of Methodology for Determining The Needs of Continuing Vocational Training of Social Work Specialists Providing Social Services

Published Online: 25 Jul 2017
Page range: 374 - 380

Abstract

Abstract

This study justifies the need for building a system for research, identification and monitoring of the needs of vocational training in compliance to the constantly changing needs of the labour market. When considered in a narrower sense this problem justifies and proves the need for this activity related to social work and social workers. A method for determining the need for continuing vocational training of specialists in social work is developed and an experimental model for its implementation is offered.

Keywords

  • social management
  • social activities
  • continuing vocational training
access type Open Access

Investigation on The Profile of Social Worker Occupation in Bulgaria

Published Online: 25 Jul 2017
Page range: 381 - 387

Abstract

Abstract

This paper presents the research interest to the occupation of the social worker in international scope and analyzes the essence of the social work in Bulgaria. The profile of the social worker rendering social services in Bulgaria is discussed and conclusions are made considering the need of building professional competences. The study poses important questions and puts the basics of further research in identification and monitoring of the needs of training of social activities experts.

Keywords

  • social worker
  • occupational training
  • social activities
access type Open Access

The Structure and Methods of Gruppe 6 E from German Secret Service During The Second World War

Published Online: 25 Jul 2017
Page range: 388 - 394

Abstract

Abstract

In this paper I present the general background picture of the development of Gruppe (group) 6 E from German Secret Service. As a result, for the personal interest of Ernst Kaltenbrunner in the work of the Gruppe, 6E developed a working basis which differs from the normal functioning of the other Laendergruppen (groups of countries), a tendency which became more marked after the transfer of the central office from Berlin to Vienna in 1943. A liaison officer only remained in Berlin. This paper presents the final structure of the Gruppe and the leading personnel, and it is under this final organization that the work of the Gruppe in the Balkan States. The Gruppe maintained liaison officers with the Herman Neubacher and Altenberg Dienststellen (Altenberg offices), these liaison officers being directly subordinated to the Gruppenleiter (Group leader). In common with the outside offices, with which he kept in personal contact, and an Auswerter (analyst) responsible for the evaluation and dissemination of information. The Referate (Abstrat) conducted their operation through the Hauptbeauftragte (Chief Comissioner) working in the various countries under suitable cover.

Keywords

  • Referate
  • Kaltenbrunner
  • Balkan states
  • Gruppe 6 E

Plan your remote conference with Sciendo