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Volume 28 (2022): Issue 3 (June 2022)

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Volume 28 (2022): Issue 1 (June 2022)

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Volume 27 (2021): Issue 2 (June 2021)

Volume 27 (2021): Issue 1 (June 2021)

Volume 26 (2020): Issue 3 (June 2020)

Volume 26 (2020): Issue 2 (June 2020)

Volume 26 (2020): Issue 1 (June 2020)

Volume 25 (2019): Issue 3 (June 2019)

Volume 25 (2019): Issue 2 (June 2019)

Volume 25 (2019): Issue 1 (June 2019)

Volume 24 (2018): Issue 3 (June 2018)

Volume 24 (2018): Issue 2 (June 2018)

Volume 24 (2018): Issue 1 (June 2018)

Volume 23 (2017): Issue 3 (June 2017)

Volume 23 (2017): Issue 2 (June 2017)

Volume 23 (2017): Issue 1 (June 2017)

Volume 22 (2016): Issue 3 (June 2016)

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Volume 22 (2016): Issue 1 (June 2016)

Volume 21 (2015): Issue 3 (June 2015)

Volume 21 (2015): Issue 2 (June 2015)

Volume 21 (2015): Issue 1 (June 2015)

Conference Details
Format
Conference
eISSN
2451-3113
First Published
15 Dec 2015
Publication timeframe
3 times per year
Languages
English

Search

Volume 21 (2015): Issue 2 (June 2015)

Conference Details
Format
Conference
eISSN
2451-3113
First Published
15 Dec 2015
Publication timeframe
3 times per year
Languages
English

Search

62 Articles
Open Access

The Ergonomic Elements On Investigating The Economic-Financial Frauds

Published Online: 24 Nov 2015
Page range: 288 - 293

Abstract

Abstract

The paper addresses an analysis of “natural environment” factors, mentioned in the literature, which could also be considered when investigating the economic-financial frauds, in order to ensure an optimal environment. The role of the specific (toned against the disturbing) factors in ensuring the optimal qualitative conditions for the spaces designed and established for the investigation activities undertaken by the workers of the operational structures of the General Inspectorate of the Romanian Police (I.G.P.R.) is emphasized in this paper.

Keywords

  • ergonomics
  • economic and financial fraud
  • investigation
  • „natural environment” factors
  • work stress
  • tonifying and disturbing factors
Open Access

Financial Provisioning - Basis Of Strategic Decisions Of Themanagement Of Resources For Security And Defence

Published Online: 24 Nov 2015
Page range: 294 - 299

Abstract

Abstract

The strategic decisions defining the defence capabilities that are necessary for our country in response to the dynamic changes in the security environment are directly related to the question “How much?” concerning the price that taxpayers should pay for the creation and development of those capabilities. Since security and defense constitute a public good whose creation is entirely dependent on the economic potential, on the GDP of the country, the manifestation of the price of that good is the budget of the Defence Ministry. This calls for the implementation of a system and tools, appropriate for budget resource management in order to ensure the increase of the added value of defence capabilities.

Keywords

  • management
  • resources
  • security
  • defence
  • finance
Open Access

Equal Pay As An Objective Of Gender Equality

Published Online: 24 Nov 2015
Page range: 300 - 307

Abstract

Abstract

The increasing attention granted to improving gender equality in all the economic and social sectors, on all levels, is manifested in concrete actions undertaken by both different international bodies and national authorities. Even though the majority of EU member states have adopted the necessary legislative framework to ensure gender equality, the practical application of wage equality still remains a real problem. Studies in the field show that in Romania, remuneration differences between men and women are much lower in comparison to other states, but the effects are fully felt due to the low level of wages present on the internal labor market.

Keywords

  • equal pay
  • regulation
  • occupational segregation
  • labour contracts
Open Access

Climate Change – Probable Socio-Economic Systems (SES) Implications And Impacts In The Anthropocene Epoch

Published Online: 24 Nov 2015
Page range: 308 - 317

Abstract

Abstract

It is vital for security experts to learn from the historical records of global climate change as to how the human society has been impacted by its consequences in the “new” Anthropocene Epoch. Some of these consequences of global climate change include the perishing of several human settlements in different parts of the globe at different times, e.g., in 1700 B.C., prolonged drought contributed to the demise of Harappan civilization in northwest India. In 1200 B.C., under a similar climatic extremity, the Mycenaean civilization in present-day Greece (as well as the Mill Creek culture of the northwestern part of the present-day US state of Iowa) perished. Why did some societies under such climatic events perish while others survived? Lack of preparedness of one society and its failure to anticipate and adapt to the extreme climatic events might have attributed to their extinction. The authors will also analyze the extinction of one European Norse society in Greenland during the Little Ice Age (about 600 years ago), as compared to the still-surviving Inuit society in the northern segment of Greenland, which faced even harsher climatic conditions during the Little Ice Age than the extinct Norsemen. This is how the adaptability and “expectation of the worst” matter for the survival of a particular community against climatic “black swan” events (Taleb, 2007). Similar impacts in terms of sea-level rise expected by the year 2100 whereby major human populations of many parts of the world are expected to lose their environmental evolutionary “niche” will be discussed. Rising temperature will not only complicate human health issues, but also will it take its toll on the staple food producing agricultural belts in some latitudinal expanse. It will also worsen the living condition of the populace living in areas where climate is marginal.

Through the Socio-Economic Systems Model provided by Vadineanu (2001), the authors will next consider the effect of extant policy-making “prisms” responding to climate change (such as the “Club of Rome” versus the “Club for Growth” visions) as concerns the ongoing process of globalization and survival of the nation-state.

Keywords

  • Climate Change
  • Anthropocene Era
  • “Black Swan” events
  • Human survival versus extinction (inputs/decisions/outcomes)
  • Socio-Economic Systems Analysis (Vadineanu)
  • Threat/Integry/Exchange Motivators (Boulding)
  • varied scenarios/outcomes vis-à-vis globalization processes
Open Access

Value Chain Analysis – Basic Element Of An Organization’s Competitive Advantage

Published Online: 24 Nov 2015
Page range: 318 - 324

Abstract

Abstract

Competitive advantage is a difference in relative prices or the relative costs and it results from differences in their work done. These differences may occur in two different ways, namely either the organization performs better the same types of activities, or it chooses different types of activities. To establish whether between an organization and other competitors in the same industry there are differences in terms of relative prices and relative costs, it is recommended to make use of Porter's value chain, the more so as these differences are determined by the activities of the organization. Value chain plays an important role in the diagnosis of an organization's competitive advantage because through it we can get an insight into the mode of action of costs and the influences they have on the strategy that the organization has taken. Also, through the value chain there can be identified the potential sources of differentiation of products or services offered by the organization.

Keywords

  • value chain
  • competitive advantage
  • profit margin
  • value added
  • cost analysis
Open Access

Audit Of The Adequacy Degree For The Principle Of Activity Continuity

Published Online: 24 Nov 2015
Page range: 325 - 330

Abstract

Abstract

Our entire research concerning audit of the adequacy degree for the principle of continuity in the activity of an entity is based on the personal experience in auditing the financial statements and mainly on looking for a plausible answer to the following question: „Does the auditor opinion expressed in an Audit Report totally support the credibility assessment of financial statements?” The answer for this question is that „the Auditor report supports the assessment of financial statements but is not a warranty regarding the future viability of the economic agent”. This warranty, if the timing is not too optimistic, is insured by the action undertaken by the auditor in the direction of auditing of the degree of adequacy of the principle of activity continuity.

Keywords

  • financial statement audit
  • the auditor's opinion
  • audit report
  • activity going concern
  • the auditor's responsibility
Open Access

The Monitoring Of Operating Costs Of The Vehicles In The Czech Army

Published Online: 24 Nov 2015
Page range: 331 - 337

Abstract

Abstract

The paper deals with monitoring of operating costs of the vehicles in the Czech Army. The cost reduction is realized through the methods of controling, improvement of field maintenance quality, modularization of the units, acquiring of new equipment, the options of reducing fuel consumption by additives, trends in the maintenance area and surveillance systems implemented for check of the vehicles operation. Significantly, we proceeded to the method of cost reduction by implementing new equipment. We have proved the method success. Especially with vehicles T 810 the demostrated savings were about 12.7% of motor diesel in 2008. Similarly, it was also proved in 2009, when that the savings for the same vehicle T 810 in seven modifications were about 11.9% of diesel. The total contribution for the selected military facility of Czech Army was shown by significant overall saving. In 2009, the selected military facility used a total of 9 pieces of new vehicles T 810. The saving of the replaced equipment meant a total fuel savings of 1862 liters, which amounted to 2.34% of the total consumption of diesel.

Keywords

  • saving costs
  • vehicles operating
  • reduction method
  • new equipment
Open Access

A Clustering Of Listed Companies Considering Corporate Governance And Financial Variables

Published Online: 24 Nov 2015
Page range: 338 - 343

Abstract

Abstract

The corporate governance quality has always been a decision criterion for investments, many recent studies trying to define metrics in order to help investors in their decision process. In this paper we investigate whether the clustering of companies’ information concerning their corporate governance politics and financial information could be mapped with the help of clustering. Our approach is to build clusters using machine learning techniques, based on corporate governance and financial variables from a number of 1400 listed companies. We evaluate the obtained clusters by matching them with the classes of two well-known indicators (Tobin’s Q and Altman Z-score), used to estimate the companies’ performance. We obtain partial matches of the benchmark variables and we compare the performances of the used algorithms.

Keywords

  • corporate governance
  • clustering
  • Tobin’s Q
  • Altman Z-Score
  • machine learning
Open Access

Value Investing - Essence And Ways Of Finding Undervalued Assets

Published Online: 24 Nov 2015
Page range: 344 - 348

Abstract

Abstract

Efficient market hypothesis considers that because many talented analysts constantly searching the market for the deals in a short period, after a certain point of time there are not so attractive deals. According to the hypothesis, successful investors owe their success more to luck than to their skills. The paper presents the Value investing. Value investing is an investment paradigm, which stems from the ideas of Benjamin Graham and David Dodd. The proponents, including the chairperson of Berkshire Hathaway Warren Buffett, argue that the essence of value investing is to buy shares at a price lower than their true value. The difference between the market price and intrinsic value of the stock Graham called the “margin of safety”.

Keywords

  • investment
  • value investing
  • undervalued assets
Open Access

The Management Of Procurement Of Goods At A Logistical Base

Published Online: 24 Nov 2015
Page range: 349 - 353

Abstract

Abstract

The logistical bases are large units of logistical support which are composed of specialized logistical units that can be in the subordination of infantry divisions and of the branches of the army/command units. One of the most important tasks assigned to the base is representd by procurement of goods, services and works in accordance with the legal competences, or delegated by the secondary credit release authority. At the level of a logistical base, the management of public acquisitions represents a complex process, coordinated by the commandant and run by the structure of acquisitions or the corresponding micro-structure within the logistical department, which aims at providing the functional, economic and judicial framework, necessary for initiating, carrying on and finalizing the organized procedures with a view to satisfying its own needs and of the assigned units.

Keywords

  • procurement
  • goods
  • logistics
  • main credit release authority
  • provision
Open Access

Short Considerations On The Integrated Defense Procurement Management System Of Romania

Published Online: 24 Nov 2015
Page range: 354 - 359

Abstract

Abstract

In the current context and along with the emergence and implementation of the Government Emergency Ordinance no. 114/2011 regarding the award of certain public contracts in the fields of defense and security, ordinance imposing the mandatory application of art. 288 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union concerning the transposition of the Union’s directives, both purchases of products, works and services and the purchase of military products are regulated. In order to implement this ordinance, the MoD is “asked” to rethink the whole system of defense procurement. In my opinion, the current Integrated Defense Procurement Management System (IDAMS) consists of Technical-Operational Requirements System, Planning, Programming, Budgeting and Evaluation System, and Integrated Procurement Management System even if it has introduced a series of instructions, policies, principles and procedures based on defense procurements and respond only partially to the current reality specifically referring to the purchase of arms and ammunition from their own production and less to their procurement from external suppliers. For this reason, we believe that IDAMS must be known and understood, which is exactly what the article below intends to de, and ultimately, this system should be changed, the by amending general and specific legislation.

Keywords

  • Integrated Defense Procurement Management System (IDAMS)
Open Access

Implementation Cost Calculation Using ABC Method

Published Online: 24 Nov 2015
Page range: 360 - 365

Abstract

Abstract

The cost information system plays an important role in every organization in the decision making process. An important task of management is to ensure control of the operations, processes, sectors of activity and not finally, on costs. Although the objectives of an organization contributes with more control systems (production control, quality control etc.), the cost information system is important because it monitors the results of others. The detailed analysis of costs, production cost calculation, quantification of losses, the work efficiency estimation provide a solid basis for financial control. Knowledge of cost is a decisive factor in taking decisions and planning future activities. Managers are concerned about the costs that will appear in the future, their level underpinning the supply and production decisions and pricing policies. An important factor is the cost efficiency of the information system so that the information provided by it is useful for decision support and planning the activities.

Keywords

  • the informational system of cost
  • production cost
  • allocation
  • financial control
Open Access

Influence Of The Exogenous Factors On The Market Policy

Published Online: 24 Nov 2015
Page range: 366 - 369

Abstract

Abstract

The company has to anticipate the reactions of each party and to prepare the decisional variants to make possible the achievement of the pursued goals. The external factors are difficult to control in the company and confer the exogenous variable character to the price. The most important of these factors are: demand, competition, distribution, legislation and inflation.

The demand for a certain good is influenced by its price, constituting the determinant factor and also the non-price factor that appears under the name of the demand conditions.

The inquiry of the secondary sources supposes the analysis of the records in regard with the sales and prices in previous period.

The secondary data can serve as starting point in performing simulations of sales for different price levels. This information should also refer to the total sales in the market level and the competitors’ prices not only in sales and the company’s prices.

On a competitive market, the main source to support profitability is the competitive advantage and not a held market share. The price must be a tool in supporting and functioning of the competitive advantage, leading to the idea that the price is the reflection of this advantage in the profit equation.

Keywords

  • competitors
  • consumers
  • the demand
  • prices
  • market
Open Access

Consumption And Demand For Goods

Published Online: 24 Nov 2015
Page range: 370 - 373

Abstract

Abstract

The free development of the economic activity imposes to establish a relation of subordination of the means by the purposes. The consumption appears both as triggering and simulating element of production, and as control element of this, being the one generating the quantitative and qualitative determinations, and also the sense and intensity of the rhythms where they develop and cyclically resume. The consumption, which is the level where people reach their material purposes generated by the economic interests, must be the fundamental element in conceiving and developing the economic activity.

The link between consumption and market is made through the demand for goods containing a large and complex bid of actions from the consumption field that is going to be performed in the market, making of this a barometer of economic and social development.

When following the internal evolution of consumption, it presents a high degree of interest to surprise the consumption habits and to project its future structures in order to define the evolutionary coordinates of the commercial activity, being the motor force of the production, signifying wear and destruction, involving the change of goods and services consumed with new created goods and services.

Keywords

  • consumption
  • the gross domestic product
  • goods
  • services
  • income
Open Access

Aspects On The Importance Of Electronic Processing Of Information In Calculating The Profit Tax

Published Online: 24 Nov 2015
Page range: 374 - 378

Abstract

Abstract

The profit, according to the definition given in the Explanatory Dictionary of the Romanian language (Dex), represents a “gain” obtained in a given period of time by taxpayers, legal entities and individuals, while the total revenue achieved by economic activities performed in order to obtain income, are greater than the costs incurred to obtain the respective income. According to the regulations in effect, this gain is subject to taxation by applying a rate of 16% on the tax base. The resulted amount, represents the income tax, sum which once listed and submitted with a tax return to the tax institution, becomes a tax receivable which the state is entitled to collect.

A special importance in determining the tax base for income tax calculation, it represented by a correct electronic processing of accounting data for obtaining information in order to determine the correct amounts owed to the state and the electronic preparation and submission of tax returns.

Keywords

  • information
  • income
  • expenses
  • taxable profit
  • net profit
Open Access

Application Of Modern Tools In The Effectiveness Evaluation Of Vehicles Operation

Published Online: 24 Nov 2015
Page range: 379 - 385

Abstract

Abstract

The authors reviewed the current traditional approaches to evaluating the operation effectiveness of ground military equipment. The article is focused on the role and possibilities of commanders and executives from traffic. The authors describe the experiences with the application a modern system in selected fleet of vehicles in ACR.

Research has shown the possibility to identify the causes of overconsumption. The vehicles were analyzed causes of exceeding the norm. The fundamental aspect of crossing the established standards were idle vehicles and irregular decrease of fuel.

Keywords

  • Efficiency
  • norm
  • fuel
  • operation of military equipment
  • vehicles
Open Access

Typology Of Regulations Related To Minorities In The National Legislations Of Certain States

Published Online: 24 Nov 2015
Page range: 386 - 391

Abstract

Abstract

The international regulations in the filed of minorities settle not only an international standard, but also a set of norms generally accepted by the states in this respect. Like in other domains of human rights, these norms represent a minimum of regulations beyond which one or several states, depending on their concrete situation and the international commitment they assume in the regional or bilateral plane, may apply more comprehensive norms and concepts. Such an approach corresponds also to the distinct situations of diverse minorities in the word: numerous or less numerous, compact or dispersed from the demographic point of view; some have been taken centuries to congregate, others have been formed recently, as a result of migration, whereas others have originated from native populations; some minorities are constituted according to ethnic criteria, others according to linguistic, cultural or religious criteria, and these elements are rarely encountered together.

Keywords

  • minorities
  • national identity
  • discrimination
  • international regulations
  • assumed obligations
  • protection
  • guarantee
Open Access

Policies Of Preservation And Protection Of The Culture And Identity Of Immigrants

Published Online: 24 Nov 2015
Page range: 392 - 397

Abstract

Abstract

This paper addresses the phenomenon of immigrant integration within a community in terms of what is currently called cultural integration, with landmarks such as government policies in the European community and the ways to implement in practice. This theme is approached from two angles: the way in which organizations can provide services that are more accessible to immigrants- and which help increase their sense of belonging and civic participation - which means employment of migrants to participate actively in society. The first angle of approach relates to the ways in which different institutions and organizations involved in the integration of immigrants (by providing social services to them) can develop the latter’s intercultural skills. The second angle of approach concerns the ways in which immigrants and non-immigrants can be mobilized around different facets of active citizenship or around religious dialogue. Realizing a synergy of the two angles of approach in terms of cultural integration of immigrants, an important aspect of this paper is to argue the issue of interpretation of the role of the media in this context.

Keywords

  • cultural integration
  • civic participation
  • intercultural skills
  • fairness
  • immigrants
Open Access

A Brief Analysis On Preventive Measures Involving Deprivation Of Liberty

Published Online: 24 Nov 2015
Page range: 398 - 402

Abstract

Abstract

Preventive measures are divided by the legislator in 2 categories: imprisonment (detention, house arrest, preventive arrest) and restrictive of rights (judicial review and judicial control on surety). An absolute novelty is the introduction of house arrest. There is some controversy concerning the conditions which must be fulfilled in order to be disposed by the judge of rights and freedoms, the judge of preliminary Chamber or Panel of judges either the house arrest or the measure of preventive arrest.

Whereas the establishment of preventive measures involves undermining the individual freedom, the national and the European laws have created a series of legal guarantees to prevent arbitrariness or abuse in making or extend/maintain them. There are also a number of provisions of a general nature, applicable to all preventive measures, namely, termination, revocation or replacement thereof. For all measures involving deprivation of liberty, general conditions must be fulfilled, stipulated by article 202, of the Code of Criminal Procedure, but for house arrest and detention in addition to the General conditions, special conditions should be fulfilled foreseen by article 223 of the Code of Criminal Procedure, conditions which must be cumulatively met.

Not fulfilling the cumulative criteria laid down in national and European norms cannot be replaced by other considerations of the judge.

Keywords

  • house arrest
  • detention
  • preventive arrest
  • termination
  • contestation
Open Access

Some Aspects Of International Offences: Offences/Crimes And Offences/Delicts

Published Online: 24 Nov 2015
Page range: 403 - 407

Abstract

Abstract

Generally, justifying the theme aims to analyse the two categories of international crimes, i.e. offences/delicts and offences/crimes emphasizing the similarities and the differences between them because on the basis of the conclusions which will result and the degree of danger we can argue the framing of some of the offences/delicts under the category of offences/crimes, what we think it could help to reduce the criminality.

The element of novelty of the study is characterized by the fact that it is intended to be a review of all aspects of the efficiency of international co-operation in preventing and combating international crime/offences, on all levels, respectively, political, legal, technical and operative, in the framework of the most important mechanisms developed and agreed by states in this area.

Committing such severe acts, which violates any international regulation, requires states to fight back entirely, punishing the guilty ones. The legislation in force and the doctrine, the jurisprudence recognizes the principle according to which the offense is the only basis of criminal liability.

The notion of „crime” in its sphere includes both offences committed with intent or negligence, and also the crimes of common or international law.

Keywords

  • infraction
  • tort
  • crime
  • responsibility
  • social danger
Open Access

Illegal Unreported And Unregulated Fishing In The Black Sea

Published Online: 24 Nov 2015
Page range: 408 - 412

Abstract

Abstract

The article examines the legal fight against the illegal, unreported and unregulated (IUU) fishing in the EU, particularly in the Black Sea. At international level the term was first mentioned in 1992, then in 2001 in the framework of FAO there was a broader definition adopted. The article pays attention to the EU secondary legislative acts, certification system and sanctions regime. The IUU fishing is a complex, multi-faceted and dynamic problem. Recent statistical data shows that the amount of money of the illegal, unreported and unregulated fishing is between 9 and 24 billion U.S. dollars per year. IUU fishing has serious biological, economic and social consequences. The author concludes that the fight against IUU fishing requires efforts of coastal States, efforts of regional organizations as well as efforts by the whole international community.

Keywords

  • IUU fishing
  • Black Sea
  • EU
Open Access

The Return Of The Property Clause In Donation Contracts – A Comparative Analysis In French And Romanian Legal Systems

Published Online: 24 Nov 2015
Page range: 413 - 417

Abstract

Abstract

In both French and Romanian legal systems, the special irrevocability which governs the field of donations presupposes that certain clauses cannot be stipulated in the donation contract. Such clauses, which are prohibited as incompatible with the principle of the irrevocability of donations, would allow the donor to unilaterally revoke the contract. This article is concerned, on the one hand, with the origin and the evolution of the special irrevocability of donations and, on the other hand, with the compatibility of the return of the donated good clause with the principle of irrevocability of donations. The return of the property clause will be analyzed in a comparative manner in French and Romanian legal systems by looking at the provisions of the French Civil Code, 1865 Romanian Civil Code and of the contemporary Romanian Civil Code, in order to put into perspective both similarities and differences between the civil regulations of the two legal systems, but also the changes within the Romanian civil law from the previous Civil Code to the current one.

Keywords

  • donation
  • irrevocability
  • return of the property clause
  • donner et retenir ne vaut rien
  • comparative law
Open Access

A Comparative Inquiry Into The Legal Regime Of Mortis Causa Donations In Some Continental-European And Common Law Legal Systems

Published Online: 24 Nov 2015
Page range: 418 - 423

Abstract

Abstract

The mortis causa donation is a particular form of donation, made in the anticipation of death. Its regime was subjected to particular different norms in some continental-European legal systems, such as the French and the Romanian ones, and in some common law legal systems, such as the English and the American ones. This article investigates in a comparative manner the different legal solutions regarding the status of mortis causa donations in French and Romanian legal systems, on one hand, and in the English and American legal systems, on the other. Although in the history of French law the donation mortis causa was recognized under the customary norms of the ancien droit, contemporary continental-European legal systems do not recognize an intermediary gratuitous act between testamentary provisions and donation contracts, while in the common law legal systems the mortis causa donation is recognized as a particular form of gratuitous transfer, but it has different legal effects in English and American legal systems.

Keywords

  • mortis causa donation
  • inter vivos donation
  • French law
  • English law
  • American law
Open Access

Comparative Aspects Regarding The Regulation Of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

Published Online: 24 Nov 2015
Page range: 424 - 429

Abstract

Abstract

The technology of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) has constantly developed in the last decade, becoming a key feature of the military programs and operations in Europe and the US, and the industry market has considerably grown. The vast majority of this growth is at the US level, whose military budget is bigger than of any other state in the world. On the other hand, with respect to the civil market, the sale of these kinds of aircrafts is in its initial stages, even though there are lots of fields in which it can be applied. In general, the states have begun to take legislative measures so that the unmanned flight of such an aircraft in areas open to civil aircrafts is controlled, so that any danger to the civil aircrafts should be avoided. The countries of the European Union that have not legislated this field are subject to Regulation 216/2008/EC regarding common norms in the civil aviation field and the Chicago Convention. Furthermore, all EU states are NATO members and thus apply in principle the norms established by the North-Atlantic Organization.

Keywords

  • aviation
  • drone
  • unmanned aerial vehicle-UAV
  • remotely piloted aircraft-RPA
  • compared legislation
Open Access

Some Aspects Of Technical And Criminalistic Assistance In Murder Criminal Case By Shooting

Published Online: 24 Nov 2015
Page range: 430 - 435

Abstract

Abstract

The role and importance in solving the crime scene investigation of offences against life resulting from forensic science that puts the reach of judicial bodies and the technical-scientific methods necessary for discovering, fixation, lifting, turning and examining traces of homicide, author and victim identification.

Forensic and technical assistance for the offence of murder committed by shooting, assumes that the technical, legal ballistic investigation is carried out on the basis of principles aimed at forensic identification, and using methods and procedures in other sciences related (physics, chemistry, biology, microscopy comparison, shooting invisible radiation, spectral analysis, etc.).

Therefore, complex issues and complex collection of evidence and material resources and the sample is treated from a multidisciplinary perspective.

Clarifying all the circumstances relating to the death of a person, and identifying and proving the guilt of infringing the right to life cannot be achieved today without the involvement of forensic experts and specialists and the usage of scientific-technical means they have.

In this regard, recent scientific findings adopted by the forensics of Romania (eg Motorola Printrak AFIS databases Bis, IBIS, IMAGETRAK database of genetic analysis laboratories physic-chemical micro traces), supplemented by professional criminologists decisively contribute to solving homicide by gunshot.

Keywords

  • firearm
  • spectral analysis
  • ballistics judicial databases
  • construction of firearms
  • seal
  • body
  • firing distance
  • main and secondary signs of withdrawal
Open Access

The Importance Of Enforcing The Fundamental Principles Of International Law During The Negotiation Process

Published Online: 24 Nov 2015
Page range: 436 - 441

Abstract

Abstract

Diplomatic negotiations represent the most frequently regulated and used method when it comes to states settling their international conflicts. The negotiation process can be influenced by many factors, such as: the characteristics of the conflict, the power balance, the relation between the parties in conflict. From the perspective of international law, a significant importance for the success of negotiations is held by the observance of some principles such as: sovereign equality of the parties, the absence of force or threat to use the force, good faith, lack of interference in internal affairs, abstention from committing any act capable to worsen the conflict. For a solid lengthy settlement of a conflict, no solution can be imposed by using the force or threatening to use it and, hence, transgressing the essential attribute of states – sovereignty. States must show a good faith attitude during negotiations and use this diplomatic method with the real intent of settling the conflict and not for other strategic reasons, like getting extra time or creating a good faith appearance in front of the public opinion as they were looking for a solution.

Keywords

  • diplomatic negotiations
  • principles of international law
Open Access

Computer Related Forgery, Between Concept And Reality

Published Online: 24 Nov 2015
Page range: 442 - 445

Abstract

Abstract

The reality today proves beyond any doubt a manifestation of an exacerbation of cybercrime in all its manifestations, the most common being those of unauthorized access to a computer system, theft of confidential data and their use for criminal purposes, modification of websites without permission from holders and others. Computer forgery is a criminal offense stipulated in the current Romanian Penal Code, the art. 325 and covers an area of specialized crime – acts committed in this context are likely to harm the production of materials, with very high costs and sometimes difficult to recover. In this case, combating or preventing the committing of such crimes represents a necessity of our days.

Keywords

  • computer forgery
  • computer crime
  • computer system
  • prevention
Open Access

Administrative Formalities Concerning The Members Of A Family Who Are Not Nationals Of A Member State

Published Online: 24 Nov 2015
Page range: 446 - 449

Abstract

Abstract

The member states issue a residence permit to the family members of a citizen of the European Union that are non-nationals of a member state, for the case that their planned residence exceeds three months. The deadline for presenting the request for granting a residence permit is at least three months from the arrival date. The disregard for requesting a residence permit may expose the person in question to indiscriminate and proportional sanctions. The residence right for family members of a Union citizen who are not nationals for a member state is confirmed by issuing a document entitled „Family member residence permit for a citizen of the Union”, in a timeframe of maximum six months from the date that his or her request is presented. A confirmation of filing the request for the residence permit is issued immediately.

Keywords

  • residence
  • family members
  • right
  • formalities
Open Access

Legislative And Administrative Measures For Implementation Of The United Nations Convention On The Rights Of The Child In The Republic Of Bulgaria

Published Online: 24 Nov 2015
Page range: 450 - 454

Abstract

Abstract

The United Nations Convention on the rights of the child is a part of the Bulgarian legislation since 1991. The main focus of the report is on the legislative measures for implementation of the standards established by the Convention in the legislation of the country. The assessment was made on the basis of regular reports on the fulfilment of the Convention obligations and on the recommendations of The Committee on the rights of the child. The national authority for child protection - The State agency on child protection - as well as its status and powers are introduced. Matters concerning the participation of the country in regional (European) initiatives concerning the rights of the child have also been discussed.

Keywords

  • child protection
  • UN Convention on the rights of the child
Open Access

Application Of International Law Principles By International Tribunals

Published Online: 24 Nov 2015
Page range: 455 - 459

Abstract

Abstract

The observance of fundamental rules of public international law could be ensured only by the strengthening of penal law. However, despite several precedents assuring the good foundation of international law development in this respect and of the future endeavours expected to confirm the international society’s adhesion to the penal repression requirements, the low convergence of public international law and criminal law reveals the difficulties that may occur in the way of a doctrine persuaded by the necessity to construct a new legal subject in the domain of peace. The legitimacy of constituting the International Tribunals was proved, but on the other hand they were reproached the very lack of legitimacy, being ad-hoc constituted jurisdictions instituted by the winners, made only by the representatives of the victor powers, which deprived them from a true international character and the fact that their legal foundation as regards the applicable law was shaky.

Keywords

  • principles
  • international penal courts
  • international tribunals
  • legitimacy
  • force
  • fundamental rights
Open Access

Specific Features Of The Consumer Credit Contract Enforcement

Published Online: 24 Nov 2015
Page range: 460 - 466

Abstract

Abstract

Consumers' demands for purchasing goods and services, which are more and more complex and different, have been and are insured, in the absence of the necessary or sufficient amounts of money, by means of credits granted for consumption; the field in question is generically named “consumer credit. This financial-legal mechanism which is widely spread and useful contains the consumer credit contract as key element, which has some specific features for private law, both in terms of its constitution and enforcement. Given its relatively recent existence within the Romanian legal system, the present work aims to carry out an analysis of the main rules governing the enforcement of the consumer credit contract, in the context of the national and European legislation.

Keywords

  • consumer credit
  • withdrawal right
  • credit reimbursement
  • assets restitution
  • assignment of rights
Open Access

Regional Politicy - The Main European Instrument For Strategic Investments

Published Online: 24 Nov 2015
Page range: 467 - 471

Abstract

Abstract

Regionalization can be translated into the desire to reach balance in economic development, through raising the level of developing areas and, in this respect, regionalism advocates for raising the region at decision level. Whether it is about regionalism or about regionalization, both would benefit from decentralization, which also yields the multi-level government process.

Keywords

  • regionalization
  • region
  • decentralization
  • deconcentration
  • local autonomy
  • multi-level governance
Open Access

The Contributions Of CJEU In The Name Of The Principle Of Balancing – A Test Of The Role Of The Court?

Published Online: 24 Nov 2015
Page range: 472 - 478

Abstract

Abstract

From the traditional functions of the general principles of the EU law – of interpretation, completion of the gaps and legality control, the principle of balancing seems to meet the most the exigencies of the first of these. The limits of the role of CJEU are certainly put to the test when it is called to settle conflicts between fundamental rights/fundamental freedoms. The trends formulated in Schmidberger (on the conflict between the free circulation of the commodities and the freedom of expression) or Promusicae (on the conflict between the right to the effective protection of the intellectual property and the right to the respect of the private life and the protection of the personal data) are more than illustrative. The doctrine assessments of the action of this principle reflect three fields in which the applicability thereof tends to reserve to the Court a role that is susceptible of creating controversies on its traditional extension. According to the authorized voice of Professor Norbert Reich, the balancing in the jurisprudence on the abusive clauses, the balancing for the avoidance of excessive protection and the balancing in social conflicts (making visible an aggravation of the conflict between fundamental rights and fundamental freedoms) are concerned.

Keywords

  • principle of balancing
  • fundamental rights
  • fundamental freedoms
  • unfair terms
Open Access

Again On The Constitutive Or Transferring Effect Of Property-Related Rights Of The Registration With The Land Book

Published Online: 24 Nov 2015
Page range: 479 - 485

Abstract

Abstract

Initially regulated by the provisions of art. 17 in the Decree – law no. 115/1938, subsequently dethroned by the provisions of Law no. 7/1996 and reaffirmed by the provisions of art. 885-886 in the new Civil Code, a lot was written about the principle of the constitutive or transferring effect of property-related rights of the registration with the land book. The principle of the opposability towards third parties of the registrations in the transcription and inscription registers vs. the principle of the constitutive or transferring effect of the registrations with the land book are the disjunctive categories representing the basis of the traditional dichotomy between the land recordation personal system and the real land recordation system. This study proposes a radiography of the theoretical and particularly the practical significances in terms of the content, the field of application and the exceptions from the principle of the constitutive effect in the regulation of the new Civil Code, not saving a comparative analysis with the opposability effect of the entries pursuant to Law no. 7/1996.

Keywords

  • the principle of the rights transferring effect or the constitutive effect
  • land books
  • the opposability toward third parties
Open Access

The Public Administrator-Judicial Status Of The Management Contract

Published Online: 24 Nov 2015
Page range: 486 - 491

Abstract

Abstract

Public administrator is a new function, which was introduced into the Romanian legislation by Law no. 286/2006 amending and supplementing Law no. 215/2001; the contract management, under which public administrators carry out their responsibilities, is not defined either by legislation or by doctrine, because there are various opinions in the specialty literature ranging from its qualification as a labor contract to the civil nature of this legal relationship. In this article, we try to provide a basis for the contractual administrative view about the management contract concluded between a public administrator and the executive public authority within an administrative territorial unit.

Keywords

  • public administrator
  • management contract
  • public authority
  • administrative territorial unit
  • appointment criteria and procedures
Open Access

Reflections About Public Property In The Romanian Constitutional System And Comparative Law – Selective Aspects

Published Online: 24 Nov 2015
Page range: 492 - 499

Abstract

Abstract

What seems relevant for the present study to highlight is the approach evolving reflections about public property in the Romanian constitutional system and comparative law.

The subject of the scientific endeavour will be circumscribed to the scientific analysis of its parts, as follows: 1) Introduction. 2) Identification of constitutional rules on public property in Romanian constitutional system and comparative law. 3) Highlights of Romanian doctrine and comparative law on public property. 4. Highlights of jurisprudence regarding public property. 5) Conclusions.

Keywords

  • public property
  • Romanian constitutional system
  • comparative law
  • highlights Romanian doctrine
  • Highlights jurisprudence
Open Access

Political Participation And Protest Regulations In The Republic Of Bulgaria In 2013

Published Online: 24 Nov 2015
Page range: 500 - 504

Abstract

Abstract

Holding a meeting or demonstration is a constitutional right (Art. 43 of the Constitution). The order is defined in the Law on gatherings, meetings and manifestations, and every municipal council shall issue an ordinance regulating the details for conducting such events in their country. However, the ongoing protests and counter-protests in Bulgaria have caused debates regarding the mass gatherings out in the open under the Bulgarian Law on gatherings, meetings and manifestations. Entered into force on 2.02.1990, the law does not seem a sufficient answer to the people's expectations for responsiveness to current conditions and dynamic public relations. The present article aims to indicate new practices in the forms of political participation in Bulgaria in 2013.

Keywords

  • political participation
  • protests
  • regulations
  • Law on gatherings
  • meetings and manifestations
Open Access

Modern-Day Slavery – Human Trafficking In The 21st Century

Published Online: 24 Nov 2015
Page range: 505 - 511

Abstract

Abstract

Human trafficking represents an extremely serious social phenomenon, which brings serious prejudices to the fundamental rights of men. Human trafficking (infringement that is regulated and incriminated by the current Penal Code in the Special Part, Title I – Infringements against the person, Chapter VII – The trafficking and the exploitation of the vulnerable persons, article 210) represents one of the modern forms of slavery, together with work exploitation and the traffic of organs. Due to the abolishing of slavery and the incrimination of its practices, this form of human denigration has continued to exist against all forms of rebutment. This situation may be explained through the theories mentioned. Still, one of the reasons for which slavery has resisted until nowadays is because it has changed its form, adapting to the new social and political requirements. As a result, the three forms of modern slavery have appeared, among which human trafficking.

Keywords

  • human trafficking
  • law
  • slavery
  • protection
  • legislation
Open Access

The Principle Of Legality, Principle Of Public Law

Published Online: 24 Nov 2015
Page range: 512 - 515

Abstract

Abstract

The principle of legality represents one of the most important principles of the state of law, which significantly contributes to defending the law order and the social balance. Established as a principle of the organization and functioning of the state public authorities at the Revolution of 1789 in France, the acknowledgement of the principle of legality in an act having a constitutional value marked the moment of foundation for the state based on law principles and represented a premise of creating a modern public administration. The principle is present at the level of each judiciary branch, which provides for its popularity due to its specificity. The paper aims at achieving a brief analysis of the role of the principle of legality in public law, presenting its importance in constitutional and administrative law.

Keywords

  • principle
  • legality
  • state
  • law
  • public
Open Access

Arbitration Clause In A Contract For Public Procurement

Published Online: 24 Nov 2015
Page range: 516 - 519

Abstract

Abstract

One of the essential issues in the field of public procurements are the disputes, arisen between the Assigning authority and the participant, selected for a contractor in pursuance of the implementation of the concluded contact for public procurement. The paper considers the possibility of looking at the disputes in a contract according to a public procurement of arbitration.

Keywords

  • public procurement
  • contract
  • arbitration
  • legislation
Open Access

Liberty Of Conscience, Natural Right And Essence Of Liberty Of Thinking

Published Online: 24 Nov 2015
Page range: 520 - 524

Abstract

Abstract

Liberty of thinking is an absolute characteristic of human rights manifested in our society and it has both an individual dimension - meaning having opinions and beliefs - and a social and political dimension - if we think at their development.

Liberty of thinking, conscience and religion represent some of the basic components of a democratic society. This also occurs as the most important elements of the identity of a nation and it contributes significantly to its proper development.

Human conscience can not and should not be directed by administrative means, but it should always be the result of its liberty of thinking and revealing thoughts. As it is regulated at the constitutional level, liberty of conscience has a complex content. It is one of the oldest citizen liberties, one of tradition, which is known under either its proper name or various aspects, such as liberty of speech, liberty of association and liberty of press.

Keywords

  • Liberty of Conscience
  • Natural Right
  • Liberty of Thinking
Open Access

Legal Aspects Of The Right To Respect Private And Family Life

Published Online: 24 Nov 2015
Page range: 525 - 531

Abstract

Abstract

Free development of human personality and dignity, which are values proclaimed by the Romanian Constitution, right in the Article 1, can not exist without respecting and protecting married, family and private life. The right to respect and protect married, family and private life is part of the list of fundamental rights and freedom, and has a complex content. Belonging to the legal category of fundamental rights clarifies the legal character of the right to respect private and family life, but even its definition is not as clear as such. The legal aspect of family is, at its turn, complex and can be divided into two major coordinates: protecting family as a social entity by establishing legal requirements to ensure access to such status and establishing mutual rights and duties of family members.

Keywords

  • private life
  • family
  • protection
  • secret
  • respect
Open Access

Comparison Of The Transfer Of Criminal Proceeding With Other Forms Of International Legal Cooperation In Criminal Matters

Published Online: 24 Nov 2015
Page range: 532 - 540

Abstract

Abstract

The article examines the current regulations of the transfer of criminal proceeding in the European legislation, indicating the differences from other forms of International legal cooperation in criminal matters, such as: transfer of sentenced persons and mutual recognition of judgments.

The study highlights the importance of the transfer of criminal proceeding for the International legal cooperation in criminal matters between the European countries. Its main objective is by preventing the conflicts of jurisdiction between the States concerned to ensure a more efficient, procedural economical and lawful prosecution of crimes.

Keywords

  • International legal cooperation
  • transfer
  • criminal proceeding
  • jurisdiction
  • judgments
Open Access

Is Maritime English The Key In Solving Communication Problems Within Multinational Crews?

Published Online: 24 Nov 2015
Page range: 541 - 544

Abstract

Abstract

In the present world of international shipping, where multinational and multicultural crews are the most common, communication between those on board and between ship and shore is increasingly important.

The present paper intention is to reveal, pinpoint and analyze different problems that emerge from the heterogeneous crews’ failure in communication. The basis of the analysis is given by a number of maritime accident reports in which lack of communication between crew members played a paramount role in the causal chain. The paper also intends to put an accent on the benefits of maritime English.

Keywords

  • communication
  • accidents
  • human error
Open Access

Text Messaging Vs Academic Writing - A Case Study

Published Online: 24 Nov 2015
Page range: 545 - 550

Abstract

Abstract

The paper aims to bring into discussion the relationship between informal e-communication and formal writing, focusing on the use of SMS language, which is in a constant evolution, particularly among the young generations. SMS language is also a controversial topic today: some linguists and teachers are concerned that this abbreviated language, with its carefree spelling, its poor punctuation and grammar and its paucity of vocabulary is a real menace to students’ quality of writing; others, on the contrary, consider it inspiring and useful as students with a good command of texting also possess a broader facility for language. But what do students have to say about the topic? In order to gain insight into how they view the role and impact of texting on their writing, a questionnaire was distributed to a group of army cadets. The answers show that although text messaging is widely used and is an important tool of communication among young people, students consider that it has a negligible impact on their overall writing abilities and they strongly appreciate the value of writing for their future career.

Keywords

  • abbreviations
  • acronyms
  • texting
  • writing
  • culture
Open Access

Methodological Suggestions For Developing The Moral Profile Of Military Students

Published Online: 24 Nov 2015
Page range: 551 - 559

Abstract

Abstract

The paper addresses some pedagogical problems that occur in the process of developing the moral profile of military students. A particular issue is that the educators (military instructors, officers or civilian teachers) have the official responsibility to build up the cadets’ ethics, but they have no special training in this field and they are not given specific tasks. It is challenging for educators to design and formalize the optimal routes, the appropriate methods and tools for approaching the moral education, and also to find the most efficient ways to assess the results of this process. In this paper we present some theoretical guidelines related to the education in the ethical domain, some relevant pedagogical experiences of Romanian and foreigner officers, and also some “lessons learned” by military trainers. In order to contribute to the improvement of the quality of the cadets’ forming process, we outline some teaching methods and pedagogical tools that have already proved their effectiveness in the development of the military moral profile, concurrently with their moral conscience and moral conduct.

Keywords

  • moral profile
  • ethic values
  • military students
  • teaching methods
Open Access

Directions To Modernize Teaching Methodology

Published Online: 24 Nov 2015
Page range: 560 - 564

Abstract

Abstract

Article presents the main directions of modernization of teaching methods, factor for modernization of education. Modernization of teaching methods is required by changes taking place in society today latter directly influencing the conduct of education.

Shift from teacher-centered education to student-centered learning and changing paradigms instructional, teaching methods require modernization and transformation of his conception of education.

Classical paradigm of teaching and learning profound changes, transforming the teaching learning, resulting in the need to change teacher.

Keywords

  • teaching methods
  • education
  • critical thinking
  • teacher
Open Access

A General Overview Of English As A Foreign Language In The Contemporary Romanian Higher Education

Published Online: 24 Nov 2015
Page range: 565 - 569

Abstract

Abstract

It goes without saying that the lingua franca’s significance in our day and age is fundamental. International and European integration, as well as the modern process of globalization have lead to the incremented usage of the English language. As a result, English as a foreign language has become a relevant subject taught for a minimum of one year within almost all bachelor programs in the Romanian higher educational system. As an integrated part of the European Union, Romania is constantly undergoing a process of delivering higher education – services at European standards; thus, EFL courses, seminars and practical courses in Universities are becoming an important mile stone in the European development of students.

Keywords

  • English
  • teaching
  • education
  • foreign language
Open Access

The Role Of Transformational Leadership In The Romanian Pre-University Education System In The Context Of The Knowledge Society

Published Online: 24 Nov 2015
Page range: 570 - 575

Abstract

Abstract

The obtaining, during the last few years, of poor performances at the baccalaureate in a large number of schools in Romania has been largely the result of an inefficient management, and of the lack of leaders able to efficiently influence the behavior of their subordinates. The improvement of the performance of the Romanian pre-university education system depends on the change of the mentality of the teaching staff and the promotion of transformational school leaders able to assume change and inspire and transform the mentality of the personnel in order to realize the goals of education. In this context, the present work approaches in an interdisciplinary manner the relation between leadership and the benefits of the knowledge society and has the purpose of identifying the factors specific of the knowledge society that can contribute to the creation of a transformational leadership in the Romanian pre-university education system.

Keywords

  • transformational leadership
  • transactional leadersip
  • emotional intelligence
  • knowledge society
  • pre-university education system
Open Access

Romanian University Governance In The Knowledge Society

Published Online: 24 Nov 2015
Page range: 576 - 581

Abstract

Abstract

The European strategies and policies on education aim to reform and increase the flexibility of the higher education systems, to better answer the society’s needs, in the context of the challenges raised by the knowledge society. In this context, the quality of higher education has become a matter of public responsibility, and universities, based on their autonomy, should institute efficient university governance mechanisms that would permit an efficient use of their resources. University governance, as a process, relies on a realistic evaluation of the available resources and on the taking on - based on the university autonomy - of a future development direction, in conditions of efficacy and efficiency. The specific demands of the internal managerial control systems make it necessary for the university management to asset - by means of the control function - the results’ deviations from the objectives, to analyze the causes that triggered them and to issue the necessary corrective or preventive measures. In this context, risk management represents an efficient instrument, specific for university governance, in the knowledge society, which contributes to the efficient use of the resources available to the universities.

Keywords

  • university governance
  • tertiary education
  • internal control
  • risk management
Open Access

The Nature And Solution Of Ethno-Political Conflicts. Bulgarian Experience

Published Online: 24 Nov 2015
Page range: 582 - 586

Abstract

Abstract

In the beginning of the 21st century, the international community tries to do its best in order to guarantee that our civilization, entering the new millennium, puts an end to any form of domination of one peoples over another, to the reasons for such domination, and to the whole idea of inequality. Ethno-political conflict appears to be a permanent form of social and political struggle in the modern world. No major region is free from it. In its more acute manifestation, it may turn into murderous, destructive violence. Bulgarian ethnic model is a concrete historical concept. This is a specific way to find a way out of the impasse of Interethnic relations in which the “revival process” was plunged the country. Bulgarian ethnic model is a transformation of the ethnic contradictions and conflicts in the political process, which neutralize them and makes it possible to restore good neighborly relations in the everyday life of Christians and Muslims before the start of the conflict situation.

Keywords

  • ethno-political conflict
  • conflict solution
  • conflict management
  • Bulgarian ethnic model
Open Access

Modality Expressed By Will And Would In Legal Texts And Their Equivalents In Romanian

Published Online: 24 Nov 2015
Page range: 587 - 591

Abstract

Abstract

Modality is influenced by different genres and finding the types of modality commonly found in legal texts is the goal of the present paper. Modals are very important because they involve communication about advice, about obligation or permission and they also help us to express our decisions about what we think, about what we know and how strongly we believe that our knowledge is correct. The present study deals with the uses of 'will' and 'would' in legal texts and the comparison with their Romanian counterparts in point of epistemic and deontic modalities.

Keywords

  • modality
  • epistemic
  • deontic
  • equivalence
  • translation
Open Access

Quality Of Education – A Guarantee Of Institutional Competitiveness

Published Online: 24 Nov 2015
Page range: 592 - 599

Abstract

Abstract

Starting from the three challenges in the field of the higher education: relevant character, quality and international cooperation (…), this work represents an analysis of the impact of quality culture on the increasing of Romanian universities competitiveness on the European market of education. Analyzing the literature in the branch, we find out that the main changes recorded at the level of the tertiary education are the diversification and the consistent development of education at a higher level, on the ground of the intensified difficulties as far as it regards insuring resources and an increased demand of responsibility. We are also witnesses, in present, of the development of a “consumption” view over the universities and passing from a higher education for elites, to a mass one, where the performance seems often to be uncertain. As far as it concerns as suring the quality in the higher education environment, it can be noticed that its implementation is made almost in a mechanical way, on the ground of a quality management that is not enough developed and a weak involvement of direct beneficiaries in the project of the quality system. In this regard, we recommend developping of a system of total quality management at university level, beginning from the student’s needs, identifying some new performance items in education and development of some effective instruments of ensuring higher education quality.

Keywords

  • higher education
  • stakeholders
  • quality culture
  • competitiveness
  • education requirement
Open Access

Proximal Outcomes Of Professional Socialization In Military Academies

Published Online: 24 Nov 2015
Page range: 600 - 607

Abstract

Abstract

In this paper we present the results of a study whose main objective is to identify proximal outcomes of student socialization of the Land Forces Academy in Sibiu. Based on the six dimensions of organizational socialization identified by Chao et al., we have built a questionnaire which lists the expected results of this process. Following the factor analysis, 23 results were detained which were grouped into seven factors. The factors identified as a result of analysis enroll in five of the six dimensions of socialization: performance proficiency, people, politics, language and organizational goals and values.

Keywords

  • organizational socialization
  • proximal outcomes
  • military
Open Access

Considerations On Recruiting And Retaining University Teachers

Published Online: 24 Nov 2015
Page range: 608 - 612

Abstract

Abstract

The university education in Romania is facing various challenges, from the pressure to reach a balance between teaching activities, research and services for the society, to little funds and a decrease of the interest of teachers with doctoral degrees in the teaching career. The quality of the learning the students receive is dependent on the quality of the teachers the university system employs. The right human resources for the right jobs means, in the long run, not only saving money, but also investing in the future of the Romanian society. The teachers working in the university system of education need to be not only highly skilled, but also extremely motivated. Our paper focuses on some of the things and changes that could be taken into account in order to retain and recruit the best teachers in whose training a lot of investments have already been made.

Keywords

  • recruiting
  • retaining
  • university teachers
Open Access

Evaluating The Students’ Communicative Abilities Through Projects

Published Online: 24 Nov 2015
Page range: 613 - 617

Abstract

Abstract

Until recently, the educational institutions were preoccupied, almost exclusively, with the teaching and learning processes and they interacted very little with other institutions. Nevertheless, the schools, high schools and universities have started to play an increasingly active role in the communities they belong to, they have become part of these communities. The project also has an important function: the recognition of the fact that education is not just a theoretical issue, but a practical one too. Our paper aims to present how the English communicative abilities of students can be evaluated by means of projects and some conclusions regarding the utility of such a demarche.

Keywords

  • evaluation
  • communicative abilities
  • projects
Open Access

Teacher Control In The Second Language Classes

Published Online: 24 Nov 2015
Page range: 618 - 623

Abstract

Abstract

An important aspect taken into consideration in making the distinction between the traditional and the modern methodologies used in teaching a second language is related to the control exercised by the teacher in managing the foreign language environment. The traditional methodology is largely teacher-centred, with the teacher playing a very dominant role as the organizer and the controller of all classroom activities, as well as the evaluator of the learners’ performance. The modern methodology is learner-centred, allowing students to take centre stage and get a hands-on practical experience of using the language for communicative purposes. Nevertheless, this distinction should not lead to the diminishing of the teacher’s power and authority since making the shift from the teacher as total controller of all that happens in the class to mediator/facilitator supposes a multitude of roles that he/she has to assume within the classroom. The efficiency of a foreign language teacher can be determined by the level of development of the language competences as mirrored in the learners’ listening, reading, writing and speaking skills. The necessity and importance of classroom teaching control must be emphasized, as well as the roles a teacher plays in achieving the objectives proposed for each lesson.

Keywords

  • control
  • communication
  • classroom environment
  • emphasis on the learner
  • freedom of the students
Open Access

Communicative Competences

Published Online: 24 Nov 2015
Page range: 624 - 629

Abstract

Abstract

In the last decades communicative competences in a foreign language have become a necessity. You need to speak a foreign language either to study abroad, to find a job or just watch a movie or understand the music you listen to. Learners are taught to be communicators. You do not simply become a communicator if you acquire vocabulary and grammar rules. Language learning is complex and difficult, especially when the language is acquired later in life as a second language. The learning process consists of acquiring a language system, rather than learning a series of disconnected components. Receptive comprehension becomes increasingly important with each grade level because students are required to do more reading and to integrate the information acquired with new knowledge presented by the teacher who has to find the best strategies to help students advance to more complex language structures.

Keywords

  • learning process
  • disconnected components
  • language structures
Open Access

Organisational Theatre In The ESP Classroom: A Romanian Account

Published Online: 24 Nov 2015
Page range: 630 - 635

Abstract

Abstract

This paper draws on our work with the 2nd year students at the Faculty of Economics and Business Administration, Alexandru Ioan Cuza University of Iasi, Romania; in our Business English seminars, we brought into play the speeches of Shakespeare’s characters, namely King Henry’s in Henry V as played by Kenneth Branagh on screen and Mark Anthony’s in Julius Caesar by Marlon Brandon, respectively. Overviewing international and national perspectives on organisational theatre and establishing a relation with CLT, in general and ESP, in particular, we will tackle the activities meant to help our pre-experience learners (Ellis and Johnson, 1994; Frendo, 2005) develop their presentation and public speaking skills with the help of the two speeches mentioned above, i.e. the persuasion and the motivational one as coined by literature (Sharma et al., 2010).

Keywords

  • CLT
  • Business English
  • organizational theatre
  • Shakespearean speeches
  • public speaking skills
Open Access

Translation And Agency – A Knowledge-Based Organisation

Published Online: 24 Nov 2015
Page range: 636 - 639

Abstract

Abstract

This paper purports to give an overview of translators as agents and their agency which should be viewed as a knowledge-based organisation in today’s globalized world. In our approach we will draw on Translation Studies (Baker and Saldanha, 2009), in general, and the situation of the profession in Romania with its recent developments, in particular (namely the proposal for a new controversial law which all legal translators and their agencies should obey). Last but not least, our aim is to account for translators as agents and translation agency in our country in the context of ethical practice and the increasingly stressful, demanding challenges of the job which is constantly frowned upon by the general public in the era of google translation.

Keywords

  • TS
  • translation agency
  • agents in translating
  • ethical practice
  • translation in Romania
Open Access

Military Units Resilience Growth Activity Designs In The Current Operational Environment

Published Online: 24 Nov 2015
Page range: 640 - 649

Abstract

Abstract

Resilience is particularly important for companies and organizations, but particularly for the military organization, in terms of protecting and maintaining the health of the organization's leaders and members as well as their ability to respond in a competent way to the inquiries of a given situation given shock, risk and uncertainty.

This article focuses on understanding the factors that influence military structures resilience and how to design specific activities to increase their resilience in military actions. Addressing the concept of military structures resilience is particularly useful for the defence policy and military culture because the concept can identify key elements needed by the military and military units to overcome difficult situations specific to international missions and current military conflicts.

Keywords

  • resilience
  • organizational resilience
  • influencing factors
  • intervention strategy
  • design
  • influencing process
Open Access

The Punic Wars: A “Clash Of Civilizations” In Antiquity

Published Online: 24 Nov 2015
Page range: 650 - 655

Abstract

Abstract

The conflict that opposed the Carthaginians, called puny by the Romans, and the Eternal City, was one of epic proportions, similar to the Iliad, because, just as in the Iliad one of the combatants was removed forever, not only from the political game of the region, but also from history. The Punic Wars lasted long, the reason/stake was actually the control of the Mediterranean Sea, one of the most important spheres of influence in Antiquity.

These military clashes followed the patterns of a genuine “clash of civilizations”, there was a confrontation of two civilizations with their military blocks, interests, mentalities, technologies, logistics, strategies and manner of belligerence. The two civilizations, one of money, the other of pragmatism, opposed once again, after the Iliad and the Greco-Persian wars, the Orient (and North Africa) with the West, thus redrawing the map of the world power.

The winner in this “clash” was Rome, by the perseverance, tenacity and national unity of its army to the detriment of Carthage, a civilization of money, equally pragmatic, but lacking national political unity. So the West was victorious, changing the Roman winners in the super-power of the ancient world, a sort of gendarme of the world around the Mediterranean Sea which was turned into a Roman lake (Mare Nostrum.)

Keywords

  • Mediterranean Sea
  • “clash of civilizations”
  • wars
  • Rome
  • Carthage
62 Articles
Open Access

The Ergonomic Elements On Investigating The Economic-Financial Frauds

Published Online: 24 Nov 2015
Page range: 288 - 293

Abstract

Abstract

The paper addresses an analysis of “natural environment” factors, mentioned in the literature, which could also be considered when investigating the economic-financial frauds, in order to ensure an optimal environment. The role of the specific (toned against the disturbing) factors in ensuring the optimal qualitative conditions for the spaces designed and established for the investigation activities undertaken by the workers of the operational structures of the General Inspectorate of the Romanian Police (I.G.P.R.) is emphasized in this paper.

Keywords

  • ergonomics
  • economic and financial fraud
  • investigation
  • „natural environment” factors
  • work stress
  • tonifying and disturbing factors
Open Access

Financial Provisioning - Basis Of Strategic Decisions Of Themanagement Of Resources For Security And Defence

Published Online: 24 Nov 2015
Page range: 294 - 299

Abstract

Abstract

The strategic decisions defining the defence capabilities that are necessary for our country in response to the dynamic changes in the security environment are directly related to the question “How much?” concerning the price that taxpayers should pay for the creation and development of those capabilities. Since security and defense constitute a public good whose creation is entirely dependent on the economic potential, on the GDP of the country, the manifestation of the price of that good is the budget of the Defence Ministry. This calls for the implementation of a system and tools, appropriate for budget resource management in order to ensure the increase of the added value of defence capabilities.

Keywords

  • management
  • resources
  • security
  • defence
  • finance
Open Access

Equal Pay As An Objective Of Gender Equality

Published Online: 24 Nov 2015
Page range: 300 - 307

Abstract

Abstract

The increasing attention granted to improving gender equality in all the economic and social sectors, on all levels, is manifested in concrete actions undertaken by both different international bodies and national authorities. Even though the majority of EU member states have adopted the necessary legislative framework to ensure gender equality, the practical application of wage equality still remains a real problem. Studies in the field show that in Romania, remuneration differences between men and women are much lower in comparison to other states, but the effects are fully felt due to the low level of wages present on the internal labor market.

Keywords

  • equal pay
  • regulation
  • occupational segregation
  • labour contracts
Open Access

Climate Change – Probable Socio-Economic Systems (SES) Implications And Impacts In The Anthropocene Epoch

Published Online: 24 Nov 2015
Page range: 308 - 317

Abstract

Abstract

It is vital for security experts to learn from the historical records of global climate change as to how the human society has been impacted by its consequences in the “new” Anthropocene Epoch. Some of these consequences of global climate change include the perishing of several human settlements in different parts of the globe at different times, e.g., in 1700 B.C., prolonged drought contributed to the demise of Harappan civilization in northwest India. In 1200 B.C., under a similar climatic extremity, the Mycenaean civilization in present-day Greece (as well as the Mill Creek culture of the northwestern part of the present-day US state of Iowa) perished. Why did some societies under such climatic events perish while others survived? Lack of preparedness of one society and its failure to anticipate and adapt to the extreme climatic events might have attributed to their extinction. The authors will also analyze the extinction of one European Norse society in Greenland during the Little Ice Age (about 600 years ago), as compared to the still-surviving Inuit society in the northern segment of Greenland, which faced even harsher climatic conditions during the Little Ice Age than the extinct Norsemen. This is how the adaptability and “expectation of the worst” matter for the survival of a particular community against climatic “black swan” events (Taleb, 2007). Similar impacts in terms of sea-level rise expected by the year 2100 whereby major human populations of many parts of the world are expected to lose their environmental evolutionary “niche” will be discussed. Rising temperature will not only complicate human health issues, but also will it take its toll on the staple food producing agricultural belts in some latitudinal expanse. It will also worsen the living condition of the populace living in areas where climate is marginal.

Through the Socio-Economic Systems Model provided by Vadineanu (2001), the authors will next consider the effect of extant policy-making “prisms” responding to climate change (such as the “Club of Rome” versus the “Club for Growth” visions) as concerns the ongoing process of globalization and survival of the nation-state.

Keywords

  • Climate Change
  • Anthropocene Era
  • “Black Swan” events
  • Human survival versus extinction (inputs/decisions/outcomes)
  • Socio-Economic Systems Analysis (Vadineanu)
  • Threat/Integry/Exchange Motivators (Boulding)
  • varied scenarios/outcomes vis-à-vis globalization processes
Open Access

Value Chain Analysis – Basic Element Of An Organization’s Competitive Advantage

Published Online: 24 Nov 2015
Page range: 318 - 324

Abstract

Abstract

Competitive advantage is a difference in relative prices or the relative costs and it results from differences in their work done. These differences may occur in two different ways, namely either the organization performs better the same types of activities, or it chooses different types of activities. To establish whether between an organization and other competitors in the same industry there are differences in terms of relative prices and relative costs, it is recommended to make use of Porter's value chain, the more so as these differences are determined by the activities of the organization. Value chain plays an important role in the diagnosis of an organization's competitive advantage because through it we can get an insight into the mode of action of costs and the influences they have on the strategy that the organization has taken. Also, through the value chain there can be identified the potential sources of differentiation of products or services offered by the organization.

Keywords

  • value chain
  • competitive advantage
  • profit margin
  • value added
  • cost analysis
Open Access

Audit Of The Adequacy Degree For The Principle Of Activity Continuity

Published Online: 24 Nov 2015
Page range: 325 - 330

Abstract

Abstract

Our entire research concerning audit of the adequacy degree for the principle of continuity in the activity of an entity is based on the personal experience in auditing the financial statements and mainly on looking for a plausible answer to the following question: „Does the auditor opinion expressed in an Audit Report totally support the credibility assessment of financial statements?” The answer for this question is that „the Auditor report supports the assessment of financial statements but is not a warranty regarding the future viability of the economic agent”. This warranty, if the timing is not too optimistic, is insured by the action undertaken by the auditor in the direction of auditing of the degree of adequacy of the principle of activity continuity.

Keywords

  • financial statement audit
  • the auditor's opinion
  • audit report
  • activity going concern
  • the auditor's responsibility
Open Access

The Monitoring Of Operating Costs Of The Vehicles In The Czech Army

Published Online: 24 Nov 2015
Page range: 331 - 337

Abstract

Abstract

The paper deals with monitoring of operating costs of the vehicles in the Czech Army. The cost reduction is realized through the methods of controling, improvement of field maintenance quality, modularization of the units, acquiring of new equipment, the options of reducing fuel consumption by additives, trends in the maintenance area and surveillance systems implemented for check of the vehicles operation. Significantly, we proceeded to the method of cost reduction by implementing new equipment. We have proved the method success. Especially with vehicles T 810 the demostrated savings were about 12.7% of motor diesel in 2008. Similarly, it was also proved in 2009, when that the savings for the same vehicle T 810 in seven modifications were about 11.9% of diesel. The total contribution for the selected military facility of Czech Army was shown by significant overall saving. In 2009, the selected military facility used a total of 9 pieces of new vehicles T 810. The saving of the replaced equipment meant a total fuel savings of 1862 liters, which amounted to 2.34% of the total consumption of diesel.

Keywords

  • saving costs
  • vehicles operating
  • reduction method
  • new equipment
Open Access

A Clustering Of Listed Companies Considering Corporate Governance And Financial Variables

Published Online: 24 Nov 2015
Page range: 338 - 343

Abstract

Abstract

The corporate governance quality has always been a decision criterion for investments, many recent studies trying to define metrics in order to help investors in their decision process. In this paper we investigate whether the clustering of companies’ information concerning their corporate governance politics and financial information could be mapped with the help of clustering. Our approach is to build clusters using machine learning techniques, based on corporate governance and financial variables from a number of 1400 listed companies. We evaluate the obtained clusters by matching them with the classes of two well-known indicators (Tobin’s Q and Altman Z-score), used to estimate the companies’ performance. We obtain partial matches of the benchmark variables and we compare the performances of the used algorithms.

Keywords

  • corporate governance
  • clustering
  • Tobin’s Q
  • Altman Z-Score
  • machine learning
Open Access

Value Investing - Essence And Ways Of Finding Undervalued Assets

Published Online: 24 Nov 2015
Page range: 344 - 348

Abstract

Abstract

Efficient market hypothesis considers that because many talented analysts constantly searching the market for the deals in a short period, after a certain point of time there are not so attractive deals. According to the hypothesis, successful investors owe their success more to luck than to their skills. The paper presents the Value investing. Value investing is an investment paradigm, which stems from the ideas of Benjamin Graham and David Dodd. The proponents, including the chairperson of Berkshire Hathaway Warren Buffett, argue that the essence of value investing is to buy shares at a price lower than their true value. The difference between the market price and intrinsic value of the stock Graham called the “margin of safety”.

Keywords

  • investment
  • value investing
  • undervalued assets
Open Access

The Management Of Procurement Of Goods At A Logistical Base

Published Online: 24 Nov 2015
Page range: 349 - 353

Abstract

Abstract

The logistical bases are large units of logistical support which are composed of specialized logistical units that can be in the subordination of infantry divisions and of the branches of the army/command units. One of the most important tasks assigned to the base is representd by procurement of goods, services and works in accordance with the legal competences, or delegated by the secondary credit release authority. At the level of a logistical base, the management of public acquisitions represents a complex process, coordinated by the commandant and run by the structure of acquisitions or the corresponding micro-structure within the logistical department, which aims at providing the functional, economic and judicial framework, necessary for initiating, carrying on and finalizing the organized procedures with a view to satisfying its own needs and of the assigned units.

Keywords

  • procurement
  • goods
  • logistics
  • main credit release authority
  • provision
Open Access

Short Considerations On The Integrated Defense Procurement Management System Of Romania

Published Online: 24 Nov 2015
Page range: 354 - 359

Abstract

Abstract

In the current context and along with the emergence and implementation of the Government Emergency Ordinance no. 114/2011 regarding the award of certain public contracts in the fields of defense and security, ordinance imposing the mandatory application of art. 288 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union concerning the transposition of the Union’s directives, both purchases of products, works and services and the purchase of military products are regulated. In order to implement this ordinance, the MoD is “asked” to rethink the whole system of defense procurement. In my opinion, the current Integrated Defense Procurement Management System (IDAMS) consists of Technical-Operational Requirements System, Planning, Programming, Budgeting and Evaluation System, and Integrated Procurement Management System even if it has introduced a series of instructions, policies, principles and procedures based on defense procurements and respond only partially to the current reality specifically referring to the purchase of arms and ammunition from their own production and less to their procurement from external suppliers. For this reason, we believe that IDAMS must be known and understood, which is exactly what the article below intends to de, and ultimately, this system should be changed, the by amending general and specific legislation.

Keywords

  • Integrated Defense Procurement Management System (IDAMS)
Open Access

Implementation Cost Calculation Using ABC Method

Published Online: 24 Nov 2015
Page range: 360 - 365

Abstract

Abstract

The cost information system plays an important role in every organization in the decision making process. An important task of management is to ensure control of the operations, processes, sectors of activity and not finally, on costs. Although the objectives of an organization contributes with more control systems (production control, quality control etc.), the cost information system is important because it monitors the results of others. The detailed analysis of costs, production cost calculation, quantification of losses, the work efficiency estimation provide a solid basis for financial control. Knowledge of cost is a decisive factor in taking decisions and planning future activities. Managers are concerned about the costs that will appear in the future, their level underpinning the supply and production decisions and pricing policies. An important factor is the cost efficiency of the information system so that the information provided by it is useful for decision support and planning the activities.

Keywords

  • the informational system of cost
  • production cost
  • allocation
  • financial control
Open Access

Influence Of The Exogenous Factors On The Market Policy

Published Online: 24 Nov 2015
Page range: 366 - 369

Abstract

Abstract

The company has to anticipate the reactions of each party and to prepare the decisional variants to make possible the achievement of the pursued goals. The external factors are difficult to control in the company and confer the exogenous variable character to the price. The most important of these factors are: demand, competition, distribution, legislation and inflation.

The demand for a certain good is influenced by its price, constituting the determinant factor and also the non-price factor that appears under the name of the demand conditions.

The inquiry of the secondary sources supposes the analysis of the records in regard with the sales and prices in previous period.

The secondary data can serve as starting point in performing simulations of sales for different price levels. This information should also refer to the total sales in the market level and the competitors’ prices not only in sales and the company’s prices.

On a competitive market, the main source to support profitability is the competitive advantage and not a held market share. The price must be a tool in supporting and functioning of the competitive advantage, leading to the idea that the price is the reflection of this advantage in the profit equation.

Keywords

  • competitors
  • consumers
  • the demand
  • prices
  • market
Open Access

Consumption And Demand For Goods

Published Online: 24 Nov 2015
Page range: 370 - 373

Abstract

Abstract

The free development of the economic activity imposes to establish a relation of subordination of the means by the purposes. The consumption appears both as triggering and simulating element of production, and as control element of this, being the one generating the quantitative and qualitative determinations, and also the sense and intensity of the rhythms where they develop and cyclically resume. The consumption, which is the level where people reach their material purposes generated by the economic interests, must be the fundamental element in conceiving and developing the economic activity.

The link between consumption and market is made through the demand for goods containing a large and complex bid of actions from the consumption field that is going to be performed in the market, making of this a barometer of economic and social development.

When following the internal evolution of consumption, it presents a high degree of interest to surprise the consumption habits and to project its future structures in order to define the evolutionary coordinates of the commercial activity, being the motor force of the production, signifying wear and destruction, involving the change of goods and services consumed with new created goods and services.

Keywords

  • consumption
  • the gross domestic product
  • goods
  • services
  • income
Open Access

Aspects On The Importance Of Electronic Processing Of Information In Calculating The Profit Tax

Published Online: 24 Nov 2015
Page range: 374 - 378

Abstract

Abstract

The profit, according to the definition given in the Explanatory Dictionary of the Romanian language (Dex), represents a “gain” obtained in a given period of time by taxpayers, legal entities and individuals, while the total revenue achieved by economic activities performed in order to obtain income, are greater than the costs incurred to obtain the respective income. According to the regulations in effect, this gain is subject to taxation by applying a rate of 16% on the tax base. The resulted amount, represents the income tax, sum which once listed and submitted with a tax return to the tax institution, becomes a tax receivable which the state is entitled to collect.

A special importance in determining the tax base for income tax calculation, it represented by a correct electronic processing of accounting data for obtaining information in order to determine the correct amounts owed to the state and the electronic preparation and submission of tax returns.

Keywords

  • information
  • income
  • expenses
  • taxable profit
  • net profit
Open Access

Application Of Modern Tools In The Effectiveness Evaluation Of Vehicles Operation

Published Online: 24 Nov 2015
Page range: 379 - 385

Abstract

Abstract

The authors reviewed the current traditional approaches to evaluating the operation effectiveness of ground military equipment. The article is focused on the role and possibilities of commanders and executives from traffic. The authors describe the experiences with the application a modern system in selected fleet of vehicles in ACR.

Research has shown the possibility to identify the causes of overconsumption. The vehicles were analyzed causes of exceeding the norm. The fundamental aspect of crossing the established standards were idle vehicles and irregular decrease of fuel.

Keywords

  • Efficiency
  • norm
  • fuel
  • operation of military equipment
  • vehicles
Open Access

Typology Of Regulations Related To Minorities In The National Legislations Of Certain States

Published Online: 24 Nov 2015
Page range: 386 - 391

Abstract

Abstract

The international regulations in the filed of minorities settle not only an international standard, but also a set of norms generally accepted by the states in this respect. Like in other domains of human rights, these norms represent a minimum of regulations beyond which one or several states, depending on their concrete situation and the international commitment they assume in the regional or bilateral plane, may apply more comprehensive norms and concepts. Such an approach corresponds also to the distinct situations of diverse minorities in the word: numerous or less numerous, compact or dispersed from the demographic point of view; some have been taken centuries to congregate, others have been formed recently, as a result of migration, whereas others have originated from native populations; some minorities are constituted according to ethnic criteria, others according to linguistic, cultural or religious criteria, and these elements are rarely encountered together.

Keywords

  • minorities
  • national identity
  • discrimination
  • international regulations
  • assumed obligations
  • protection
  • guarantee
Open Access

Policies Of Preservation And Protection Of The Culture And Identity Of Immigrants

Published Online: 24 Nov 2015
Page range: 392 - 397

Abstract

Abstract

This paper addresses the phenomenon of immigrant integration within a community in terms of what is currently called cultural integration, with landmarks such as government policies in the European community and the ways to implement in practice. This theme is approached from two angles: the way in which organizations can provide services that are more accessible to immigrants- and which help increase their sense of belonging and civic participation - which means employment of migrants to participate actively in society. The first angle of approach relates to the ways in which different institutions and organizations involved in the integration of immigrants (by providing social services to them) can develop the latter’s intercultural skills. The second angle of approach concerns the ways in which immigrants and non-immigrants can be mobilized around different facets of active citizenship or around religious dialogue. Realizing a synergy of the two angles of approach in terms of cultural integration of immigrants, an important aspect of this paper is to argue the issue of interpretation of the role of the media in this context.

Keywords

  • cultural integration
  • civic participation
  • intercultural skills
  • fairness
  • immigrants
Open Access

A Brief Analysis On Preventive Measures Involving Deprivation Of Liberty

Published Online: 24 Nov 2015
Page range: 398 - 402

Abstract

Abstract

Preventive measures are divided by the legislator in 2 categories: imprisonment (detention, house arrest, preventive arrest) and restrictive of rights (judicial review and judicial control on surety). An absolute novelty is the introduction of house arrest. There is some controversy concerning the conditions which must be fulfilled in order to be disposed by the judge of rights and freedoms, the judge of preliminary Chamber or Panel of judges either the house arrest or the measure of preventive arrest.

Whereas the establishment of preventive measures involves undermining the individual freedom, the national and the European laws have created a series of legal guarantees to prevent arbitrariness or abuse in making or extend/maintain them. There are also a number of provisions of a general nature, applicable to all preventive measures, namely, termination, revocation or replacement thereof. For all measures involving deprivation of liberty, general conditions must be fulfilled, stipulated by article 202, of the Code of Criminal Procedure, but for house arrest and detention in addition to the General conditions, special conditions should be fulfilled foreseen by article 223 of the Code of Criminal Procedure, conditions which must be cumulatively met.

Not fulfilling the cumulative criteria laid down in national and European norms cannot be replaced by other considerations of the judge.

Keywords

  • house arrest
  • detention
  • preventive arrest
  • termination
  • contestation
Open Access

Some Aspects Of International Offences: Offences/Crimes And Offences/Delicts

Published Online: 24 Nov 2015
Page range: 403 - 407

Abstract

Abstract

Generally, justifying the theme aims to analyse the two categories of international crimes, i.e. offences/delicts and offences/crimes emphasizing the similarities and the differences between them because on the basis of the conclusions which will result and the degree of danger we can argue the framing of some of the offences/delicts under the category of offences/crimes, what we think it could help to reduce the criminality.

The element of novelty of the study is characterized by the fact that it is intended to be a review of all aspects of the efficiency of international co-operation in preventing and combating international crime/offences, on all levels, respectively, political, legal, technical and operative, in the framework of the most important mechanisms developed and agreed by states in this area.

Committing such severe acts, which violates any international regulation, requires states to fight back entirely, punishing the guilty ones. The legislation in force and the doctrine, the jurisprudence recognizes the principle according to which the offense is the only basis of criminal liability.

The notion of „crime” in its sphere includes both offences committed with intent or negligence, and also the crimes of common or international law.

Keywords

  • infraction
  • tort
  • crime
  • responsibility
  • social danger
Open Access

Illegal Unreported And Unregulated Fishing In The Black Sea

Published Online: 24 Nov 2015
Page range: 408 - 412

Abstract

Abstract

The article examines the legal fight against the illegal, unreported and unregulated (IUU) fishing in the EU, particularly in the Black Sea. At international level the term was first mentioned in 1992, then in 2001 in the framework of FAO there was a broader definition adopted. The article pays attention to the EU secondary legislative acts, certification system and sanctions regime. The IUU fishing is a complex, multi-faceted and dynamic problem. Recent statistical data shows that the amount of money of the illegal, unreported and unregulated fishing is between 9 and 24 billion U.S. dollars per year. IUU fishing has serious biological, economic and social consequences. The author concludes that the fight against IUU fishing requires efforts of coastal States, efforts of regional organizations as well as efforts by the whole international community.

Keywords

  • IUU fishing
  • Black Sea
  • EU
Open Access

The Return Of The Property Clause In Donation Contracts – A Comparative Analysis In French And Romanian Legal Systems

Published Online: 24 Nov 2015
Page range: 413 - 417

Abstract

Abstract

In both French and Romanian legal systems, the special irrevocability which governs the field of donations presupposes that certain clauses cannot be stipulated in the donation contract. Such clauses, which are prohibited as incompatible with the principle of the irrevocability of donations, would allow the donor to unilaterally revoke the contract. This article is concerned, on the one hand, with the origin and the evolution of the special irrevocability of donations and, on the other hand, with the compatibility of the return of the donated good clause with the principle of irrevocability of donations. The return of the property clause will be analyzed in a comparative manner in French and Romanian legal systems by looking at the provisions of the French Civil Code, 1865 Romanian Civil Code and of the contemporary Romanian Civil Code, in order to put into perspective both similarities and differences between the civil regulations of the two legal systems, but also the changes within the Romanian civil law from the previous Civil Code to the current one.

Keywords

  • donation
  • irrevocability
  • return of the property clause
  • donner et retenir ne vaut rien
  • comparative law
Open Access

A Comparative Inquiry Into The Legal Regime Of Mortis Causa Donations In Some Continental-European And Common Law Legal Systems

Published Online: 24 Nov 2015
Page range: 418 - 423

Abstract

Abstract

The mortis causa donation is a particular form of donation, made in the anticipation of death. Its regime was subjected to particular different norms in some continental-European legal systems, such as the French and the Romanian ones, and in some common law legal systems, such as the English and the American ones. This article investigates in a comparative manner the different legal solutions regarding the status of mortis causa donations in French and Romanian legal systems, on one hand, and in the English and American legal systems, on the other. Although in the history of French law the donation mortis causa was recognized under the customary norms of the ancien droit, contemporary continental-European legal systems do not recognize an intermediary gratuitous act between testamentary provisions and donation contracts, while in the common law legal systems the mortis causa donation is recognized as a particular form of gratuitous transfer, but it has different legal effects in English and American legal systems.

Keywords

  • mortis causa donation
  • inter vivos donation
  • French law
  • English law
  • American law
Open Access

Comparative Aspects Regarding The Regulation Of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

Published Online: 24 Nov 2015
Page range: 424 - 429

Abstract

Abstract

The technology of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) has constantly developed in the last decade, becoming a key feature of the military programs and operations in Europe and the US, and the industry market has considerably grown. The vast majority of this growth is at the US level, whose military budget is bigger than of any other state in the world. On the other hand, with respect to the civil market, the sale of these kinds of aircrafts is in its initial stages, even though there are lots of fields in which it can be applied. In general, the states have begun to take legislative measures so that the unmanned flight of such an aircraft in areas open to civil aircrafts is controlled, so that any danger to the civil aircrafts should be avoided. The countries of the European Union that have not legislated this field are subject to Regulation 216/2008/EC regarding common norms in the civil aviation field and the Chicago Convention. Furthermore, all EU states are NATO members and thus apply in principle the norms established by the North-Atlantic Organization.

Keywords

  • aviation
  • drone
  • unmanned aerial vehicle-UAV
  • remotely piloted aircraft-RPA
  • compared legislation
Open Access

Some Aspects Of Technical And Criminalistic Assistance In Murder Criminal Case By Shooting

Published Online: 24 Nov 2015
Page range: 430 - 435

Abstract

Abstract

The role and importance in solving the crime scene investigation of offences against life resulting from forensic science that puts the reach of judicial bodies and the technical-scientific methods necessary for discovering, fixation, lifting, turning and examining traces of homicide, author and victim identification.

Forensic and technical assistance for the offence of murder committed by shooting, assumes that the technical, legal ballistic investigation is carried out on the basis of principles aimed at forensic identification, and using methods and procedures in other sciences related (physics, chemistry, biology, microscopy comparison, shooting invisible radiation, spectral analysis, etc.).

Therefore, complex issues and complex collection of evidence and material resources and the sample is treated from a multidisciplinary perspective.

Clarifying all the circumstances relating to the death of a person, and identifying and proving the guilt of infringing the right to life cannot be achieved today without the involvement of forensic experts and specialists and the usage of scientific-technical means they have.

In this regard, recent scientific findings adopted by the forensics of Romania (eg Motorola Printrak AFIS databases Bis, IBIS, IMAGETRAK database of genetic analysis laboratories physic-chemical micro traces), supplemented by professional criminologists decisively contribute to solving homicide by gunshot.

Keywords

  • firearm
  • spectral analysis
  • ballistics judicial databases
  • construction of firearms
  • seal
  • body
  • firing distance
  • main and secondary signs of withdrawal
Open Access

The Importance Of Enforcing The Fundamental Principles Of International Law During The Negotiation Process

Published Online: 24 Nov 2015
Page range: 436 - 441

Abstract

Abstract

Diplomatic negotiations represent the most frequently regulated and used method when it comes to states settling their international conflicts. The negotiation process can be influenced by many factors, such as: the characteristics of the conflict, the power balance, the relation between the parties in conflict. From the perspective of international law, a significant importance for the success of negotiations is held by the observance of some principles such as: sovereign equality of the parties, the absence of force or threat to use the force, good faith, lack of interference in internal affairs, abstention from committing any act capable to worsen the conflict. For a solid lengthy settlement of a conflict, no solution can be imposed by using the force or threatening to use it and, hence, transgressing the essential attribute of states – sovereignty. States must show a good faith attitude during negotiations and use this diplomatic method with the real intent of settling the conflict and not for other strategic reasons, like getting extra time or creating a good faith appearance in front of the public opinion as they were looking for a solution.

Keywords

  • diplomatic negotiations
  • principles of international law
Open Access

Computer Related Forgery, Between Concept And Reality

Published Online: 24 Nov 2015
Page range: 442 - 445

Abstract

Abstract

The reality today proves beyond any doubt a manifestation of an exacerbation of cybercrime in all its manifestations, the most common being those of unauthorized access to a computer system, theft of confidential data and their use for criminal purposes, modification of websites without permission from holders and others. Computer forgery is a criminal offense stipulated in the current Romanian Penal Code, the art. 325 and covers an area of specialized crime – acts committed in this context are likely to harm the production of materials, with very high costs and sometimes difficult to recover. In this case, combating or preventing the committing of such crimes represents a necessity of our days.

Keywords

  • computer forgery
  • computer crime
  • computer system
  • prevention
Open Access

Administrative Formalities Concerning The Members Of A Family Who Are Not Nationals Of A Member State

Published Online: 24 Nov 2015
Page range: 446 - 449

Abstract

Abstract

The member states issue a residence permit to the family members of a citizen of the European Union that are non-nationals of a member state, for the case that their planned residence exceeds three months. The deadline for presenting the request for granting a residence permit is at least three months from the arrival date. The disregard for requesting a residence permit may expose the person in question to indiscriminate and proportional sanctions. The residence right for family members of a Union citizen who are not nationals for a member state is confirmed by issuing a document entitled „Family member residence permit for a citizen of the Union”, in a timeframe of maximum six months from the date that his or her request is presented. A confirmation of filing the request for the residence permit is issued immediately.

Keywords

  • residence
  • family members
  • right
  • formalities
Open Access

Legislative And Administrative Measures For Implementation Of The United Nations Convention On The Rights Of The Child In The Republic Of Bulgaria

Published Online: 24 Nov 2015
Page range: 450 - 454

Abstract

Abstract

The United Nations Convention on the rights of the child is a part of the Bulgarian legislation since 1991. The main focus of the report is on the legislative measures for implementation of the standards established by the Convention in the legislation of the country. The assessment was made on the basis of regular reports on the fulfilment of the Convention obligations and on the recommendations of The Committee on the rights of the child. The national authority for child protection - The State agency on child protection - as well as its status and powers are introduced. Matters concerning the participation of the country in regional (European) initiatives concerning the rights of the child have also been discussed.

Keywords

  • child protection
  • UN Convention on the rights of the child
Open Access

Application Of International Law Principles By International Tribunals

Published Online: 24 Nov 2015
Page range: 455 - 459

Abstract

Abstract

The observance of fundamental rules of public international law could be ensured only by the strengthening of penal law. However, despite several precedents assuring the good foundation of international law development in this respect and of the future endeavours expected to confirm the international society’s adhesion to the penal repression requirements, the low convergence of public international law and criminal law reveals the difficulties that may occur in the way of a doctrine persuaded by the necessity to construct a new legal subject in the domain of peace. The legitimacy of constituting the International Tribunals was proved, but on the other hand they were reproached the very lack of legitimacy, being ad-hoc constituted jurisdictions instituted by the winners, made only by the representatives of the victor powers, which deprived them from a true international character and the fact that their legal foundation as regards the applicable law was shaky.

Keywords

  • principles
  • international penal courts
  • international tribunals
  • legitimacy
  • force
  • fundamental rights
Open Access

Specific Features Of The Consumer Credit Contract Enforcement

Published Online: 24 Nov 2015
Page range: 460 - 466

Abstract

Abstract

Consumers' demands for purchasing goods and services, which are more and more complex and different, have been and are insured, in the absence of the necessary or sufficient amounts of money, by means of credits granted for consumption; the field in question is generically named “consumer credit. This financial-legal mechanism which is widely spread and useful contains the consumer credit contract as key element, which has some specific features for private law, both in terms of its constitution and enforcement. Given its relatively recent existence within the Romanian legal system, the present work aims to carry out an analysis of the main rules governing the enforcement of the consumer credit contract, in the context of the national and European legislation.

Keywords

  • consumer credit
  • withdrawal right
  • credit reimbursement
  • assets restitution
  • assignment of rights
Open Access

Regional Politicy - The Main European Instrument For Strategic Investments

Published Online: 24 Nov 2015
Page range: 467 - 471

Abstract

Abstract

Regionalization can be translated into the desire to reach balance in economic development, through raising the level of developing areas and, in this respect, regionalism advocates for raising the region at decision level. Whether it is about regionalism or about regionalization, both would benefit from decentralization, which also yields the multi-level government process.

Keywords

  • regionalization
  • region
  • decentralization
  • deconcentration
  • local autonomy
  • multi-level governance
Open Access

The Contributions Of CJEU In The Name Of The Principle Of Balancing – A Test Of The Role Of The Court?

Published Online: 24 Nov 2015
Page range: 472 - 478

Abstract

Abstract

From the traditional functions of the general principles of the EU law – of interpretation, completion of the gaps and legality control, the principle of balancing seems to meet the most the exigencies of the first of these. The limits of the role of CJEU are certainly put to the test when it is called to settle conflicts between fundamental rights/fundamental freedoms. The trends formulated in Schmidberger (on the conflict between the free circulation of the commodities and the freedom of expression) or Promusicae (on the conflict between the right to the effective protection of the intellectual property and the right to the respect of the private life and the protection of the personal data) are more than illustrative. The doctrine assessments of the action of this principle reflect three fields in which the applicability thereof tends to reserve to the Court a role that is susceptible of creating controversies on its traditional extension. According to the authorized voice of Professor Norbert Reich, the balancing in the jurisprudence on the abusive clauses, the balancing for the avoidance of excessive protection and the balancing in social conflicts (making visible an aggravation of the conflict between fundamental rights and fundamental freedoms) are concerned.

Keywords

  • principle of balancing
  • fundamental rights
  • fundamental freedoms
  • unfair terms
Open Access

Again On The Constitutive Or Transferring Effect Of Property-Related Rights Of The Registration With The Land Book

Published Online: 24 Nov 2015
Page range: 479 - 485

Abstract

Abstract

Initially regulated by the provisions of art. 17 in the Decree – law no. 115/1938, subsequently dethroned by the provisions of Law no. 7/1996 and reaffirmed by the provisions of art. 885-886 in the new Civil Code, a lot was written about the principle of the constitutive or transferring effect of property-related rights of the registration with the land book. The principle of the opposability towards third parties of the registrations in the transcription and inscription registers vs. the principle of the constitutive or transferring effect of the registrations with the land book are the disjunctive categories representing the basis of the traditional dichotomy between the land recordation personal system and the real land recordation system. This study proposes a radiography of the theoretical and particularly the practical significances in terms of the content, the field of application and the exceptions from the principle of the constitutive effect in the regulation of the new Civil Code, not saving a comparative analysis with the opposability effect of the entries pursuant to Law no. 7/1996.

Keywords

  • the principle of the rights transferring effect or the constitutive effect
  • land books
  • the opposability toward third parties
Open Access

The Public Administrator-Judicial Status Of The Management Contract

Published Online: 24 Nov 2015
Page range: 486 - 491

Abstract

Abstract

Public administrator is a new function, which was introduced into the Romanian legislation by Law no. 286/2006 amending and supplementing Law no. 215/2001; the contract management, under which public administrators carry out their responsibilities, is not defined either by legislation or by doctrine, because there are various opinions in the specialty literature ranging from its qualification as a labor contract to the civil nature of this legal relationship. In this article, we try to provide a basis for the contractual administrative view about the management contract concluded between a public administrator and the executive public authority within an administrative territorial unit.

Keywords

  • public administrator
  • management contract
  • public authority
  • administrative territorial unit
  • appointment criteria and procedures
Open Access

Reflections About Public Property In The Romanian Constitutional System And Comparative Law – Selective Aspects

Published Online: 24 Nov 2015
Page range: 492 - 499

Abstract

Abstract

What seems relevant for the present study to highlight is the approach evolving reflections about public property in the Romanian constitutional system and comparative law.

The subject of the scientific endeavour will be circumscribed to the scientific analysis of its parts, as follows: 1) Introduction. 2) Identification of constitutional rules on public property in Romanian constitutional system and comparative law. 3) Highlights of Romanian doctrine and comparative law on public property. 4. Highlights of jurisprudence regarding public property. 5) Conclusions.

Keywords

  • public property
  • Romanian constitutional system
  • comparative law
  • highlights Romanian doctrine
  • Highlights jurisprudence
Open Access

Political Participation And Protest Regulations In The Republic Of Bulgaria In 2013

Published Online: 24 Nov 2015
Page range: 500 - 504

Abstract

Abstract

Holding a meeting or demonstration is a constitutional right (Art. 43 of the Constitution). The order is defined in the Law on gatherings, meetings and manifestations, and every municipal council shall issue an ordinance regulating the details for conducting such events in their country. However, the ongoing protests and counter-protests in Bulgaria have caused debates regarding the mass gatherings out in the open under the Bulgarian Law on gatherings, meetings and manifestations. Entered into force on 2.02.1990, the law does not seem a sufficient answer to the people's expectations for responsiveness to current conditions and dynamic public relations. The present article aims to indicate new practices in the forms of political participation in Bulgaria in 2013.

Keywords

  • political participation
  • protests
  • regulations
  • Law on gatherings
  • meetings and manifestations
Open Access

Modern-Day Slavery – Human Trafficking In The 21st Century

Published Online: 24 Nov 2015
Page range: 505 - 511

Abstract

Abstract

Human trafficking represents an extremely serious social phenomenon, which brings serious prejudices to the fundamental rights of men. Human trafficking (infringement that is regulated and incriminated by the current Penal Code in the Special Part, Title I – Infringements against the person, Chapter VII – The trafficking and the exploitation of the vulnerable persons, article 210) represents one of the modern forms of slavery, together with work exploitation and the traffic of organs. Due to the abolishing of slavery and the incrimination of its practices, this form of human denigration has continued to exist against all forms of rebutment. This situation may be explained through the theories mentioned. Still, one of the reasons for which slavery has resisted until nowadays is because it has changed its form, adapting to the new social and political requirements. As a result, the three forms of modern slavery have appeared, among which human trafficking.

Keywords

  • human trafficking
  • law
  • slavery
  • protection
  • legislation
Open Access

The Principle Of Legality, Principle Of Public Law

Published Online: 24 Nov 2015
Page range: 512 - 515

Abstract

Abstract

The principle of legality represents one of the most important principles of the state of law, which significantly contributes to defending the law order and the social balance. Established as a principle of the organization and functioning of the state public authorities at the Revolution of 1789 in France, the acknowledgement of the principle of legality in an act having a constitutional value marked the moment of foundation for the state based on law principles and represented a premise of creating a modern public administration. The principle is present at the level of each judiciary branch, which provides for its popularity due to its specificity. The paper aims at achieving a brief analysis of the role of the principle of legality in public law, presenting its importance in constitutional and administrative law.

Keywords

  • principle
  • legality
  • state
  • law
  • public
Open Access

Arbitration Clause In A Contract For Public Procurement

Published Online: 24 Nov 2015
Page range: 516 - 519

Abstract

Abstract

One of the essential issues in the field of public procurements are the disputes, arisen between the Assigning authority and the participant, selected for a contractor in pursuance of the implementation of the concluded contact for public procurement. The paper considers the possibility of looking at the disputes in a contract according to a public procurement of arbitration.

Keywords

  • public procurement
  • contract
  • arbitration
  • legislation
Open Access

Liberty Of Conscience, Natural Right And Essence Of Liberty Of Thinking

Published Online: 24 Nov 2015
Page range: 520 - 524

Abstract

Abstract

Liberty of thinking is an absolute characteristic of human rights manifested in our society and it has both an individual dimension - meaning having opinions and beliefs - and a social and political dimension - if we think at their development.

Liberty of thinking, conscience and religion represent some of the basic components of a democratic society. This also occurs as the most important elements of the identity of a nation and it contributes significantly to its proper development.

Human conscience can not and should not be directed by administrative means, but it should always be the result of its liberty of thinking and revealing thoughts. As it is regulated at the constitutional level, liberty of conscience has a complex content. It is one of the oldest citizen liberties, one of tradition, which is known under either its proper name or various aspects, such as liberty of speech, liberty of association and liberty of press.

Keywords

  • Liberty of Conscience
  • Natural Right
  • Liberty of Thinking
Open Access

Legal Aspects Of The Right To Respect Private And Family Life

Published Online: 24 Nov 2015
Page range: 525 - 531

Abstract

Abstract

Free development of human personality and dignity, which are values proclaimed by the Romanian Constitution, right in the Article 1, can not exist without respecting and protecting married, family and private life. The right to respect and protect married, family and private life is part of the list of fundamental rights and freedom, and has a complex content. Belonging to the legal category of fundamental rights clarifies the legal character of the right to respect private and family life, but even its definition is not as clear as such. The legal aspect of family is, at its turn, complex and can be divided into two major coordinates: protecting family as a social entity by establishing legal requirements to ensure access to such status and establishing mutual rights and duties of family members.

Keywords

  • private life
  • family
  • protection
  • secret
  • respect
Open Access

Comparison Of The Transfer Of Criminal Proceeding With Other Forms Of International Legal Cooperation In Criminal Matters

Published Online: 24 Nov 2015
Page range: 532 - 540

Abstract

Abstract

The article examines the current regulations of the transfer of criminal proceeding in the European legislation, indicating the differences from other forms of International legal cooperation in criminal matters, such as: transfer of sentenced persons and mutual recognition of judgments.

The study highlights the importance of the transfer of criminal proceeding for the International legal cooperation in criminal matters between the European countries. Its main objective is by preventing the conflicts of jurisdiction between the States concerned to ensure a more efficient, procedural economical and lawful prosecution of crimes.

Keywords

  • International legal cooperation
  • transfer
  • criminal proceeding
  • jurisdiction
  • judgments
Open Access

Is Maritime English The Key In Solving Communication Problems Within Multinational Crews?

Published Online: 24 Nov 2015
Page range: 541 - 544

Abstract

Abstract

In the present world of international shipping, where multinational and multicultural crews are the most common, communication between those on board and between ship and shore is increasingly important.

The present paper intention is to reveal, pinpoint and analyze different problems that emerge from the heterogeneous crews’ failure in communication. The basis of the analysis is given by a number of maritime accident reports in which lack of communication between crew members played a paramount role in the causal chain. The paper also intends to put an accent on the benefits of maritime English.

Keywords

  • communication
  • accidents
  • human error
Open Access

Text Messaging Vs Academic Writing - A Case Study

Published Online: 24 Nov 2015
Page range: 545 - 550

Abstract

Abstract

The paper aims to bring into discussion the relationship between informal e-communication and formal writing, focusing on the use of SMS language, which is in a constant evolution, particularly among the young generations. SMS language is also a controversial topic today: some linguists and teachers are concerned that this abbreviated language, with its carefree spelling, its poor punctuation and grammar and its paucity of vocabulary is a real menace to students’ quality of writing; others, on the contrary, consider it inspiring and useful as students with a good command of texting also possess a broader facility for language. But what do students have to say about the topic? In order to gain insight into how they view the role and impact of texting on their writing, a questionnaire was distributed to a group of army cadets. The answers show that although text messaging is widely used and is an important tool of communication among young people, students consider that it has a negligible impact on their overall writing abilities and they strongly appreciate the value of writing for their future career.

Keywords

  • abbreviations
  • acronyms
  • texting
  • writing
  • culture
Open Access

Methodological Suggestions For Developing The Moral Profile Of Military Students

Published Online: 24 Nov 2015
Page range: 551 - 559

Abstract

Abstract

The paper addresses some pedagogical problems that occur in the process of developing the moral profile of military students. A particular issue is that the educators (military instructors, officers or civilian teachers) have the official responsibility to build up the cadets’ ethics, but they have no special training in this field and they are not given specific tasks. It is challenging for educators to design and formalize the optimal routes, the appropriate methods and tools for approaching the moral education, and also to find the most efficient ways to assess the results of this process. In this paper we present some theoretical guidelines related to the education in the ethical domain, some relevant pedagogical experiences of Romanian and foreigner officers, and also some “lessons learned” by military trainers. In order to contribute to the improvement of the quality of the cadets’ forming process, we outline some teaching methods and pedagogical tools that have already proved their effectiveness in the development of the military moral profile, concurrently with their moral conscience and moral conduct.

Keywords

  • moral profile
  • ethic values
  • military students
  • teaching methods
Open Access

Directions To Modernize Teaching Methodology

Published Online: 24 Nov 2015
Page range: 560 - 564

Abstract

Abstract

Article presents the main directions of modernization of teaching methods, factor for modernization of education. Modernization of teaching methods is required by changes taking place in society today latter directly influencing the conduct of education.

Shift from teacher-centered education to student-centered learning and changing paradigms instructional, teaching methods require modernization and transformation of his conception of education.

Classical paradigm of teaching and learning profound changes, transforming the teaching learning, resulting in the need to change teacher.

Keywords

  • teaching methods
  • education
  • critical thinking
  • teacher
Open Access

A General Overview Of English As A Foreign Language In The Contemporary Romanian Higher Education

Published Online: 24 Nov 2015
Page range: 565 - 569

Abstract

Abstract

It goes without saying that the lingua franca’s significance in our day and age is fundamental. International and European integration, as well as the modern process of globalization have lead to the incremented usage of the English language. As a result, English as a foreign language has become a relevant subject taught for a minimum of one year within almost all bachelor programs in the Romanian higher educational system. As an integrated part of the European Union, Romania is constantly undergoing a process of delivering higher education – services at European standards; thus, EFL courses, seminars and practical courses in Universities are becoming an important mile stone in the European development of students.

Keywords

  • English
  • teaching
  • education
  • foreign language
Open Access

The Role Of Transformational Leadership In The Romanian Pre-University Education System In The Context Of The Knowledge Society

Published Online: 24 Nov 2015
Page range: 570 - 575

Abstract

Abstract

The obtaining, during the last few years, of poor performances at the baccalaureate in a large number of schools in Romania has been largely the result of an inefficient management, and of the lack of leaders able to efficiently influence the behavior of their subordinates. The improvement of the performance of the Romanian pre-university education system depends on the change of the mentality of the teaching staff and the promotion of transformational school leaders able to assume change and inspire and transform the mentality of the personnel in order to realize the goals of education. In this context, the present work approaches in an interdisciplinary manner the relation between leadership and the benefits of the knowledge society and has the purpose of identifying the factors specific of the knowledge society that can contribute to the creation of a transformational leadership in the Romanian pre-university education system.

Keywords

  • transformational leadership
  • transactional leadersip
  • emotional intelligence
  • knowledge society
  • pre-university education system
Open Access

Romanian University Governance In The Knowledge Society

Published Online: 24 Nov 2015
Page range: 576 - 581

Abstract

Abstract

The European strategies and policies on education aim to reform and increase the flexibility of the higher education systems, to better answer the society’s needs, in the context of the challenges raised by the knowledge society. In this context, the quality of higher education has become a matter of public responsibility, and universities, based on their autonomy, should institute efficient university governance mechanisms that would permit an efficient use of their resources. University governance, as a process, relies on a realistic evaluation of the available resources and on the taking on - based on the university autonomy - of a future development direction, in conditions of efficacy and efficiency. The specific demands of the internal managerial control systems make it necessary for the university management to asset - by means of the control function - the results’ deviations from the objectives, to analyze the causes that triggered them and to issue the necessary corrective or preventive measures. In this context, risk management represents an efficient instrument, specific for university governance, in the knowledge society, which contributes to the efficient use of the resources available to the universities.

Keywords

  • university governance
  • tertiary education
  • internal control
  • risk management
Open Access

The Nature And Solution Of Ethno-Political Conflicts. Bulgarian Experience

Published Online: 24 Nov 2015
Page range: 582 - 586

Abstract

Abstract

In the beginning of the 21st century, the international community tries to do its best in order to guarantee that our civilization, entering the new millennium, puts an end to any form of domination of one peoples over another, to the reasons for such domination, and to the whole idea of inequality. Ethno-political conflict appears to be a permanent form of social and political struggle in the modern world. No major region is free from it. In its more acute manifestation, it may turn into murderous, destructive violence. Bulgarian ethnic model is a concrete historical concept. This is a specific way to find a way out of the impasse of Interethnic relations in which the “revival process” was plunged the country. Bulgarian ethnic model is a transformation of the ethnic contradictions and conflicts in the political process, which neutralize them and makes it possible to restore good neighborly relations in the everyday life of Christians and Muslims before the start of the conflict situation.

Keywords

  • ethno-political conflict
  • conflict solution
  • conflict management
  • Bulgarian ethnic model
Open Access

Modality Expressed By Will And Would In Legal Texts And Their Equivalents In Romanian

Published Online: 24 Nov 2015
Page range: 587 - 591

Abstract

Abstract

Modality is influenced by different genres and finding the types of modality commonly found in legal texts is the goal of the present paper. Modals are very important because they involve communication about advice, about obligation or permission and they also help us to express our decisions about what we think, about what we know and how strongly we believe that our knowledge is correct. The present study deals with the uses of 'will' and 'would' in legal texts and the comparison with their Romanian counterparts in point of epistemic and deontic modalities.

Keywords

  • modality
  • epistemic
  • deontic
  • equivalence
  • translation
Open Access

Quality Of Education – A Guarantee Of Institutional Competitiveness

Published Online: 24 Nov 2015
Page range: 592 - 599

Abstract

Abstract

Starting from the three challenges in the field of the higher education: relevant character, quality and international cooperation (…), this work represents an analysis of the impact of quality culture on the increasing of Romanian universities competitiveness on the European market of education. Analyzing the literature in the branch, we find out that the main changes recorded at the level of the tertiary education are the diversification and the consistent development of education at a higher level, on the ground of the intensified difficulties as far as it regards insuring resources and an increased demand of responsibility. We are also witnesses, in present, of the development of a “consumption” view over the universities and passing from a higher education for elites, to a mass one, where the performance seems often to be uncertain. As far as it concerns as suring the quality in the higher education environment, it can be noticed that its implementation is made almost in a mechanical way, on the ground of a quality management that is not enough developed and a weak involvement of direct beneficiaries in the project of the quality system. In this regard, we recommend developping of a system of total quality management at university level, beginning from the student’s needs, identifying some new performance items in education and development of some effective instruments of ensuring higher education quality.

Keywords

  • higher education
  • stakeholders
  • quality culture
  • competitiveness
  • education requirement
Open Access

Proximal Outcomes Of Professional Socialization In Military Academies

Published Online: 24 Nov 2015
Page range: 600 - 607

Abstract

Abstract

In this paper we present the results of a study whose main objective is to identify proximal outcomes of student socialization of the Land Forces Academy in Sibiu. Based on the six dimensions of organizational socialization identified by Chao et al., we have built a questionnaire which lists the expected results of this process. Following the factor analysis, 23 results were detained which were grouped into seven factors. The factors identified as a result of analysis enroll in five of the six dimensions of socialization: performance proficiency, people, politics, language and organizational goals and values.

Keywords

  • organizational socialization
  • proximal outcomes
  • military
Open Access

Considerations On Recruiting And Retaining University Teachers

Published Online: 24 Nov 2015
Page range: 608 - 612

Abstract

Abstract

The university education in Romania is facing various challenges, from the pressure to reach a balance between teaching activities, research and services for the society, to little funds and a decrease of the interest of teachers with doctoral degrees in the teaching career. The quality of the learning the students receive is dependent on the quality of the teachers the university system employs. The right human resources for the right jobs means, in the long run, not only saving money, but also investing in the future of the Romanian society. The teachers working in the university system of education need to be not only highly skilled, but also extremely motivated. Our paper focuses on some of the things and changes that could be taken into account in order to retain and recruit the best teachers in whose training a lot of investments have already been made.

Keywords

  • recruiting
  • retaining
  • university teachers
Open Access

Evaluating The Students’ Communicative Abilities Through Projects

Published Online: 24 Nov 2015
Page range: 613 - 617

Abstract

Abstract

Until recently, the educational institutions were preoccupied, almost exclusively, with the teaching and learning processes and they interacted very little with other institutions. Nevertheless, the schools, high schools and universities have started to play an increasingly active role in the communities they belong to, they have become part of these communities. The project also has an important function: the recognition of the fact that education is not just a theoretical issue, but a practical one too. Our paper aims to present how the English communicative abilities of students can be evaluated by means of projects and some conclusions regarding the utility of such a demarche.

Keywords

  • evaluation
  • communicative abilities
  • projects
Open Access

Teacher Control In The Second Language Classes

Published Online: 24 Nov 2015
Page range: 618 - 623

Abstract

Abstract

An important aspect taken into consideration in making the distinction between the traditional and the modern methodologies used in teaching a second language is related to the control exercised by the teacher in managing the foreign language environment. The traditional methodology is largely teacher-centred, with the teacher playing a very dominant role as the organizer and the controller of all classroom activities, as well as the evaluator of the learners’ performance. The modern methodology is learner-centred, allowing students to take centre stage and get a hands-on practical experience of using the language for communicative purposes. Nevertheless, this distinction should not lead to the diminishing of the teacher’s power and authority since making the shift from the teacher as total controller of all that happens in the class to mediator/facilitator supposes a multitude of roles that he/she has to assume within the classroom. The efficiency of a foreign language teacher can be determined by the level of development of the language competences as mirrored in the learners’ listening, reading, writing and speaking skills. The necessity and importance of classroom teaching control must be emphasized, as well as the roles a teacher plays in achieving the objectives proposed for each lesson.

Keywords

  • control
  • communication
  • classroom environment
  • emphasis on the learner
  • freedom of the students
Open Access

Communicative Competences

Published Online: 24 Nov 2015
Page range: 624 - 629

Abstract

Abstract

In the last decades communicative competences in a foreign language have become a necessity. You need to speak a foreign language either to study abroad, to find a job or just watch a movie or understand the music you listen to. Learners are taught to be communicators. You do not simply become a communicator if you acquire vocabulary and grammar rules. Language learning is complex and difficult, especially when the language is acquired later in life as a second language. The learning process consists of acquiring a language system, rather than learning a series of disconnected components. Receptive comprehension becomes increasingly important with each grade level because students are required to do more reading and to integrate the information acquired with new knowledge presented by the teacher who has to find the best strategies to help students advance to more complex language structures.

Keywords

  • learning process
  • disconnected components
  • language structures
Open Access

Organisational Theatre In The ESP Classroom: A Romanian Account

Published Online: 24 Nov 2015
Page range: 630 - 635

Abstract

Abstract

This paper draws on our work with the 2nd year students at the Faculty of Economics and Business Administration, Alexandru Ioan Cuza University of Iasi, Romania; in our Business English seminars, we brought into play the speeches of Shakespeare’s characters, namely King Henry’s in Henry V as played by Kenneth Branagh on screen and Mark Anthony’s in Julius Caesar by Marlon Brandon, respectively. Overviewing international and national perspectives on organisational theatre and establishing a relation with CLT, in general and ESP, in particular, we will tackle the activities meant to help our pre-experience learners (Ellis and Johnson, 1994; Frendo, 2005) develop their presentation and public speaking skills with the help of the two speeches mentioned above, i.e. the persuasion and the motivational one as coined by literature (Sharma et al., 2010).

Keywords

  • CLT
  • Business English
  • organizational theatre
  • Shakespearean speeches
  • public speaking skills
Open Access

Translation And Agency – A Knowledge-Based Organisation

Published Online: 24 Nov 2015
Page range: 636 - 639

Abstract

Abstract

This paper purports to give an overview of translators as agents and their agency which should be viewed as a knowledge-based organisation in today’s globalized world. In our approach we will draw on Translation Studies (Baker and Saldanha, 2009), in general, and the situation of the profession in Romania with its recent developments, in particular (namely the proposal for a new controversial law which all legal translators and their agencies should obey). Last but not least, our aim is to account for translators as agents and translation agency in our country in the context of ethical practice and the increasingly stressful, demanding challenges of the job which is constantly frowned upon by the general public in the era of google translation.

Keywords

  • TS
  • translation agency
  • agents in translating
  • ethical practice
  • translation in Romania
Open Access

Military Units Resilience Growth Activity Designs In The Current Operational Environment

Published Online: 24 Nov 2015
Page range: 640 - 649

Abstract

Abstract

Resilience is particularly important for companies and organizations, but particularly for the military organization, in terms of protecting and maintaining the health of the organization's leaders and members as well as their ability to respond in a competent way to the inquiries of a given situation given shock, risk and uncertainty.

This article focuses on understanding the factors that influence military structures resilience and how to design specific activities to increase their resilience in military actions. Addressing the concept of military structures resilience is particularly useful for the defence policy and military culture because the concept can identify key elements needed by the military and military units to overcome difficult situations specific to international missions and current military conflicts.

Keywords

  • resilience
  • organizational resilience
  • influencing factors
  • intervention strategy
  • design
  • influencing process
Open Access

The Punic Wars: A “Clash Of Civilizations” In Antiquity

Published Online: 24 Nov 2015
Page range: 650 - 655

Abstract

Abstract

The conflict that opposed the Carthaginians, called puny by the Romans, and the Eternal City, was one of epic proportions, similar to the Iliad, because, just as in the Iliad one of the combatants was removed forever, not only from the political game of the region, but also from history. The Punic Wars lasted long, the reason/stake was actually the control of the Mediterranean Sea, one of the most important spheres of influence in Antiquity.

These military clashes followed the patterns of a genuine “clash of civilizations”, there was a confrontation of two civilizations with their military blocks, interests, mentalities, technologies, logistics, strategies and manner of belligerence. The two civilizations, one of money, the other of pragmatism, opposed once again, after the Iliad and the Greco-Persian wars, the Orient (and North Africa) with the West, thus redrawing the map of the world power.

The winner in this “clash” was Rome, by the perseverance, tenacity and national unity of its army to the detriment of Carthage, a civilization of money, equally pragmatic, but lacking national political unity. So the West was victorious, changing the Roman winners in the super-power of the ancient world, a sort of gendarme of the world around the Mediterranean Sea which was turned into a Roman lake (Mare Nostrum.)

Keywords

  • Mediterranean Sea
  • “clash of civilizations”
  • wars
  • Rome
  • Carthage

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