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Volume 27 (2021): Issue 1 (June 2021)

Volume 26 (2020): Issue 3 (June 2020)

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Volume 26 (2020): Issue 1 (June 2020)

Volume 25 (2019): Issue 3 (June 2019)

Volume 25 (2019): Issue 2 (June 2019)

Volume 25 (2019): Issue 1 (June 2019)

Volume 24 (2018): Issue 3 (June 2018)

Volume 24 (2018): Issue 2 (June 2018)

Volume 24 (2018): Issue 1 (June 2018)

Volume 23 (2017): Issue 3 (June 2017)

Volume 23 (2017): Issue 2 (June 2017)

Volume 23 (2017): Issue 1 (June 2017)

Volume 22 (2016): Issue 3 (June 2016)

Volume 22 (2016): Issue 2 (June 2016)

Volume 22 (2016): Issue 1 (June 2016)

Volume 21 (2015): Issue 3 (June 2015)

Volume 21 (2015): Issue 2 (June 2015)

Volume 21 (2015): Issue 1 (June 2015)

Conference Details
Format
Conference
eISSN
2451-3113
ISSN
1843-6722
First Published
15 Dec 2015
Publication timeframe
3 times per year
Languages
English

Search

Volume 25 (2019): Issue 2 (June 2019)

Conference Details
Format
Conference
eISSN
2451-3113
ISSN
1843-6722
First Published
15 Dec 2015
Publication timeframe
3 times per year
Languages
English

Search

60 Articles
Open Access

Statistical Methods for Solving Transportation Problems

Published Online: 23 Jul 2019
Page range: 10 - 13

Abstract

Abstract

Transportation problem is one of the models of Linear Programming problem. It deals with the situation in which a commodity from several sources is shipped to different destinations with the main objective to minimize the total shipping cost. There are three well-known methods namely, North West Corner Method Least Cost Method, Vogel’s Approximation Method to find the initial basic feasible solution of a transportation problem. In this paper, we present some statistical methods for finding the initial basic feasible solution. We use three statistical tools: arithmetic and harmonic mean and median. We present numerical examples, and we compare these results with other classical methods.

Keywords

  • transportation problem
  • initial basic solution
  • statistical methods
Open Access

The State of Nominal Convergence in Romania in the Context of Joining the Euro Area

Published Online: 23 Jul 2019
Page range: 14 - 19

Abstract

Abstract

The repeated postponement of the deadlines set for Romania’s accession to the Eurozone as well as the challenges facing the nominal convergence criteria raised many questions among the European community regarding the competitiveness of the Romanian economy in relation to the economies of the European countries adopting the single currency. The present paper aims to present the current state of nominal convergence our country manages to achieve and to import compliance with these criteria by exemplifying the concept of optimal monetary areas. The adoption of the single currency must be achieved in the context of sustainable convergence that guarantees the minimization of costs caused by the renunciation of national monetary policy. To achieve this goal, the present paper presents the optimal context that Romania’s shift to the single currency should take into account in order to maximize its benefits from the beginning of this irreversible process.

Keywords

  • nominal convergence
  • real convergence
  • Eurozone
  • imbalances
Open Access

The Use of Accounting Information for Risk Analysis - Options in Central Region Entities

Published Online: 23 Jul 2019
Page range: 20 - 26

Abstract

Abstract

Every decision poses risks, and it is necessary for them to be known. Some may be avoided, others may be diminished, and with others the management will need to become accustomed and avoided and are predominantly related to the external environment. For this reason, the risk can be approached as a variation of the results under the pressure of the environment of the activity. Based on these considerations, the paper addresses the risk in terms of its definition based on the literature and presents some essential aspects regarding the fundamental categories of risks from the point of view of managerial utility. Based on a selective scientific research carried out on a sample of entities in the Centre Region, the paper captures the degree to which managers are interested in capitalizing the accounting information for knowing the risks.

Keywords

  • risk
  • accounting information
  • performance
  • bankruptcy
  • management
Open Access

The Economy of Romanian Naval Transports in the Period 1990 – 2000

Published Online: 23 Jul 2019
Page range: 27 - 31

Abstract

Abstract

This article analyses the restructuring and evolution of the most important elements of naval infrastructure which laid the base of The Economy of the Romanian Naval Transports, during the transition period: 1990 – 2000.

Also, this article attempts to determine the total value of assets on the main components of the system infrastructure, following the next issues:

• Ways of Communication on the Water;

• River and Sea Ports;

• Naval Industry;

• National Merchant Fleet-river, maritime and oceanic fishing fleet.

We mention that this article is the latest in a series of four articles that analyses, in a unitary conception, the formation and evolution of the main elements of the Naval Transportation System of the last century, at the level of four reference periods: the pre-war period (1900-1914); the interwar period (1919-1939); socialist period (1950-1990) and transition period (1990-2000).

Keywords

  • naval transport
  • riverine fleet
  • maritime fleet
  • naval industry
Open Access

Benefits for the Implementation of a Business Process Model Approach Inside Organizations

Published Online: 23 Jul 2019
Page range: 32 - 36

Abstract

Abstract

Currently organizations have evolved with the development of global economy and transformed from national players into regional or international actors. Decision makers and governing functions have been put in the situation to identify new ways to support their strategy and sustain organizational management. One of the modalities to accomplish these objectives has been to implement a Business Process Model Approach inside the organizations. The document will detail and highlight the benefits for a legal entity once such an approach is put in practice

Keywords

  • organization
  • business process
  • benefits
Open Access

Fiscal-Budgetary Policy as a Stimulation Tool of Economic Growth and of the Level of the Financial Resources of the State

Published Online: 23 Jul 2019
Page range: 37 - 45

Abstract

Abstract

The fiscal and budget policies developed over the last few years by policy makers emphasize fiscal relaxation measures in order to stimulate economic growth. Expected by employers and employees alike, they sometimes lead to results opposite to those pursued, especially if they do not take into account the particularities of the economic domains concerned and the social realities of the state. Due to the limited and often insufficient financial resources, it is necessary to stimulate those areas considered as generators of growth, and a good example in this sense is the research, development and innovation. In the context of the difficulties of ensuring an optimal level of public funding, it becomes increasingly obvious that legislative changes of fiscal and budgetary nature and how they can be implemented can be both a basis for the sustainability of public finances and for increasing competitiveness and a disturbing factor in the labor market and progress.

Keywords

  • fiscal-budgetary policy
  • economic growth
  • public income
  • public expenditure
  • tax revenue
Open Access

The Role and Place of Accounting Information in the Decision-Making System

Published Online: 23 Jul 2019
Page range: 46 - 51

Abstract

Abstract

The results and performance of an enterprise are the result of the decisions taken by the management of the entity, decisions which are the result of a complex procedure of processing and analyzing the relevant data and information provided by the information system available. In other words, appropriate and correct decisions that lead to the achievement of the objectives and attainment of higher performances are dependent on the quality and quantity of the information. Consequently, accurate information generates correct decisions. Due to of its qualities (relevance, intelligibility, credibility and comparability), accounting information occupies a very important place in the architecture of the economic information system, having the highest degree of certainty and providing the possibility of an accurate representation of economic phenomena and processes, both at micro, as well as at macroeconomic levels. Hence, we can say that the “final outcome of accounting”, namely accounting information, is one of the most important pillars of the elaboration, substantiation and decision-making process. Starting from this premise, this article aims to capture the main features of accounting information, which qualifies it as the object and the subject of the management system.

Keywords

  • information system
  • accounting information
  • management system
  • decision-making system
Open Access

Can Social Media Addiction Influence the Consumers’ Loyalty for a Certain Brand or Product?

Published Online: 23 Jul 2019
Page range: 52 - 56

Abstract

Abstract

The individuals and especially the young ones live in a certain online information and communication bubble. The aim of this paper is to present certain aspects related to social media, to the addiction of social media developed by young individuals that are becoming the main online consumers in today’s economy and to identify if a certain social media addiction can affect the consumers, the products that they buy and the brands that they acquire or use. The paper underlines the concept of brand loyalty; its main characteristics and we point out certain advantages and disadvantages in relation to social media and the addiction for the online environment.

Keywords

  • social media
  • addiction
  • brand loyalty
  • consumers
  • influence
Open Access

The Impact of Corruption on the Business in Bulgaria and Romania

Published Online: 23 Jul 2019
Page range: 57 - 62

Abstract

Abstract

Nowadays, the topic of corruption is extremely relevant, not only in terms of clarifying its nature and appearance, but also in terms of its impact on business development. Corruption as a phenomenon goes through constant changes from the past to the present. Its growing significance from a resource redistribution tool to a regulator of social mechanisms, plays the role of a risk factor for the economic development of each country. In this context, the role of corruption is crucial for the business. Its importance in the economic and business climate, on one hand limits the input of foreign capital investment and on other hand slows the development of the companies, leading to an incorrect redistribution of their assets. As a result, there are significant losses for the business, as well as there is a disturbance of the economic cycle of the country. At the same time, business is an area predisposed to corruption. There are numerous possibilities for committing crimes and unethical behavior in this area. It is therefore necessary to analyze the impact of corruption on business development. In this regard, the aim of this report is to make a comparative analysis of the impact of corruption on the business in Bulgaria and Romania.

Keywords

  • business
  • corruption
  • Bulgaria
  • Romania
Open Access

The Need for Determining and Assessing Risk in Economic Activity

Published Online: 23 Jul 2019
Page range: 63 - 68

Abstract

Abstract

In modern terms, risk management is a concept applicable to economic agents, which represent a factor that generates economic and financial performance. In this respect, I appreciate that it is obvious that risk management is a necessity in the activity of any organization regardless of the field of activity or its objectives. Additionally, observing the procedural elements specific to the identification, analysis, quantification and assessment of the economic risk will lead to the company being correctly diagnosed and facilitates the identification of solutions for its elimination, or mitigation within the parameters of a controllable area.

Keywords

  • economic activity
  • economic risk
  • risk management
  • risk factors
  • analysis and evaluation
Open Access

The Adjusted Net Asset, a Patrimonial Method to Determine the Value of Economic Entity

Published Online: 23 Jul 2019
Page range: 69 - 73

Abstract

Abstract

One of the goals of evaluation is applying the management based on value, in order to redirect the performances of different activities of the enterprise meaning when, how, and how much to extend the businesses that bring value, and which of the operational measures have the biggest potential to raise the value. The evaluation is based on balanced sheet, balance of accounts, and then the economic balance that includes both the patrimony of the economic entity in economic values and the turnover that the entity is able to achieve. The determination of the adjusted net asset is based on the achieved economic balance. The adjusted net asset is considered the most important patrimonial value because it takes into consideration the incident of various factors on the real value of the assets and on the liabilities or debts of the entity. The evaluation of the economic entity is essential in many moments of the existence of an enterprise, as acquisition, divesture, stock holdings, stock issued, issued shared, stock sales, absorptions, fusions, etc. The specialized literature mentions as essential patrimonial values: the active asset, the adjusted active asset, the active asset reduction. Taking into consideration only their own funds and equity as resource of financing the patrimonial assets of the economic entity, we can affirm that these values correspond to the seller’ view that considers that the economic entity is terminating its activity and his main concern is only the possible selling prices.

Keywords

  • economic entity
  • value
  • active asset
  • adjusted net asset
  • economic balance sheet

JEL Classification

  • D
Open Access

Analysis of the Use of Labor Force in a Patrimonial Entity

Published Online: 23 Jul 2019
Page range: 74 - 85

Abstract

Abstract

Under the conditions of the transition to a competitive economy, the human factor has a dominant role in the process of including the efficiency of the organization on a vibrating trajectory, hence the important significance of evaluating the performance of the personnel from the perspective of the utilization of human resources. Thus, it is fully justified to speak of the efficiency of the use of human resources as an essential component of the general concept of economic efficiency. If the efficiency of the use of human resources is sometimes reduced to the integral time of work in the specialized literature, the emphasis being placed on the quantitative side, a correction is demanded in the modern sense. The efficient use of human resources needs to keep pace with the qualitative aspect, which includes the totality of personnel operations: recruiting, selection, training, evaluation, promotion, social dialogue and motivational system.

Keywords

  • structure
  • resource
  • efficiency
  • indicators
  • analysis
Open Access

Study Regarding the Planning Stage of the Romanian Public Procurement Process

Published Online: 23 Jul 2019
Page range: 86 - 92

Abstract

Abstract

In order to award a public procurement contract for the acquisition of a product, work or service, the contracting authority must follow a succession of stages, which represent a public procurement process. As a stage of the public procurement process, planning represents all the activities carried out in public institutions that determine their main objectives, the manner in which they are achieved, and what resources will be used during the process. Planning the procurement process is crucial. Failure to properly implement it results in errors and problems during the process of awarding and implementing the contract. The general objective of the paper is to identify and solve the problems that arise during the process of planning the public procurement in Romania, by identifying and anticipating some directions leading to the improvement of the entire public procurement system.

Keywords

  • procurement
  • process
  • public
  • stage
  • needs
  • products
  • services
  • work
Open Access

Financial Stability - Fundamental Pillar of Macroeconomic Balance and Stability

Published Online: 23 Jul 2019
Page range: 93 - 97

Abstract

Abstract

The financial stability is a fundamental condition for ensuring and maintaining the balance and the stability at macroeconomic level. At the same time, ensuring the macroeconomic financial stability is a priority of the state’s economic security as well as of all the public authorities having responsibilities in the field of the macro-prudential regulation and supervision. In this context, our scientific approach aims at systematizing, deepening and developing this fundamental issue of the financial theory and practice.

Keywords

  • economic globalization
  • general economic equilibrium
  • macroeconomic stability
  • financial stability
  • national financial system
Open Access

Financing Alternatives of Micro Enterprises (II Practical Application)

Published Online: 23 Jul 2019
Page range: 98 - 103

Abstract

Abstract

One Micro-enterprises can benefit from state aid only when they demonstrate that, at the time of the on-line completion of the business plan, they meet cumulatively the eligibility criteria imposed by the funding authority. These criteria are minimal and binding for fund applicants and are conditioned as micro-enterprises: 1. to be organized either according to the Law on Commercial Companies no. 31/1990 or according to Law on co-operation no. 1/2005, republished; 2. are small and medium-sized enterprises; 3. are registered at the national trade registry office; 3. have integral private share capital; 4. have their registered office and / or working place; 5. the subject-matter of the activity is authorized and eligible according to the requirements of the aid scheme at the time of submitting the request for reimbursement; 6. the activity takes place in Romania; 7. does not have obligations to the consolidated budget of the state; 8. is not in bankruptcy, is not in dissolution, is not in judicial reorganization, is not in liquidation, is not subject to forced execution, is not in insolvency or bankruptcy, does not have temporary suspended activity or has operational closure.

Keywords

  • capital
  • financing
  • financing resources
  • financial efficiency
  • financial optimum
  • financing alternatives
  • micro-enterprise
  • financing policy
  • investment policy
  • European financing

JEL Classification

  • E 40
  • E 51
  • E 59
  • D 59
Open Access

Micro Enterprises Crediting. Practical Aspects

Published Online: 23 Jul 2019
Page range: 104 - 108

Abstract

Abstract

In a market economy, the credit assures a transfer of repayable value for a limited period of time in exchange for a price that is referred to as interest on credit. The role of the credit is to generate liquidity flows for its beneficiary in such a way as to enable him, on the one hand, to honour his obligations to the bank, namely the payment of the monthly rate of credit, interest, bank commissions as well as the insurance of the contracted loan and on the other hand to obtain a profit. In order to benefit from loans, micro-enterprises are analyzed by banks through methods, policies, tools and techniques of each bank. The credit decision will be taken by the bank only after it has ensured that potential borrowers are in line with the rules and lending regulations of the lending bank.

Keywords

  • credit
  • interest
  • bank fees
  • micro-enterprise
  • repayment schedule
  • refinancing
  • rescheduling

JEL Classification

  • E 40
  • E 51
  • E 59
  • D 59
Open Access

E-Health: Legal and Security Challenges

Published Online: 23 Jul 2019
Page range: 109 - 113

Abstract

Abstract

In accordance with the National Security Strategy of the Republic of Bulgaria, updated in 2018, the health of Bulgarian citizens is defined as a vital national interest. The analysis of the data on basic health-demographic indicators shows that our country is currently facing significant national security risks associated with a high level of total and premature mortality, high maternal and infant mortality, high level of disability and low life expectancy, as well as low indicators during the years of good health. The authors consider that improving the health of the nation is inextricably linked to the readiness of the national health system to respond and to provide adequate and continuous medical assistance of good quality. One of the major challenges for the contemporary globalized world is the rapid entering of information and communication technologies in healthcare. The article attempts to outline some of the legal and ethical issues that could arise when information and communication technologies are introduced into the healthcare system (e.g. the use of various applications for mobile devices, remote therapy and disease monitoring, etc.) from a point of view human rights doctrine and the protection of personal data.

Keywords

  • e-health
  • human rights
  • data protection
Open Access

Initiation/Commencement of Criminal Prosecution in the New Criminal Procedure Code

Published Online: 23 Jul 2019
Page range: 114 - 121

Abstract

Abstract

The initiation of criminal prosecution is always preceded by the notification of criminal investigation bodies (or the disclosure) about the commission of a crime, since it is not possible to start the criminal trial in the absence of such notification. Another (negative) condition is the nonexistence of any of the cases provided by art. 16 of the Criminal Procedure Code, otherwise they are closed prior to the commencement of criminal prosecution.The procedural act by which the prosecution is initiated, according to Article 305, paragraph 2, of the Criminal Procedure Code is the ordinance. The commencement of criminal prosecution is always ordered in respect of the offense, even if the person who committed the offense is indicated in the notice.

Keywords

  • criminal prosecution
  • referral
  • criminal trial
  • ordinance
  • criminal prosecution body
Open Access

Towards Coherent European Crime Victims Policies and Practices

Published Online: 23 Jul 2019
Page range: 122 - 127

Abstract

Abstract

This study explores the latest developments on the European scale of the policies and practices towards victims of crime. Due to many economic and political factors a lot of people are in movement and exposed to the risk of becoming victims of crime. During the last decade the statistics already records enhanced victimization of the global European society. These have provoked numerous legislative actions and practical initiatives in order to ensure safety, to prevent falling victims to crime and to protect better victim’s rights and needs. The European Protection Order Directive, Victims’ Directive and Convention against domestic violence, are among the most advanced legal acts worldwide. However, it is observed that their implementation in Europe is asymmetric and sometimes problematic. This paper explores the role of the national governments and specialized agencies and mainly the deficits in their activities leading to the non-usage of victims of all the existing opportunities. The newest supra-national acts aiming at the acceleration of transposition and ratification of these important for the building of victim-friendly environment documents, are discussed. Practical recommendations for a more effective victim protection are developed.

Keywords

  • crime victim
  • European Protection Order
  • violence against women
  • minimum standards
  • support
  • rights
Open Access

The Romanian Revolution of 1989 - An Armed Conflict?

Published Online: 23 Jul 2019
Page range: 128 - 134

Abstract

Abstract

The violent events of December 1989 in Romania, which led to the removal of the Communist regime from power are still shrouded in mystery today. The social disorder and the political chaos of those days overlapped with the violent use of the armed forces that used all kinds of weapons. During the armed confrontations, many casualties (military and civilian) and destruction of goods, including cultural ones, took place. In the years following these events a series of theories, hypotheses, controversies, and trials have emerged, but no one has clearly defined the legal nature of this social-political crisis. The purpose of this scientific approach is not to analyze the events and crimes committed in December 1989, but to determine whether and to what extent the international humanitarian law can be applied to these events.

Keywords

  • the 1989 Romanian Revolution
  • international humanitarian law
  • non-international armed conflict
Open Access

Appeal of Public Procurement Procedures

Published Online: 23 Jul 2019
Page range: 135 - 140

Abstract

Abstract

Public Procurement is an important element of the Internal Market and a basic method of public spending and ensuring the free movement of goods, services and works by domestic and foreign companies. Through the adoption and implementation in the national legislation of the Member States of a package of Directives 2014, a new Public Procurement regime is settled. The purpose of the new Directives is to exclude the risk of giving national tenderers an advantage. There are a number of issues, including the kind of legal protection contractors can expect in Public Procurement procedures. This article analyses one of the mechanisms for controlling Public Procurement - their appeal. It relates to the judicial control exercised by the relevant national institutions in the Member States and the conditions and procedures for appeal that are governed by the national laws, once the Directives have been transposed into national legal systems. Despite a limited number of cases, the Court of Justice of EU (CJEU) also exercises judicial review within the context of a reference for a preliminary ruling, where a national court hearing an appeal against a Public Procurement procedure, has referred a question to the CJEU.

Keywords

  • Public Procurement
  • appeal
  • national courts
  • Court of Justice of EU
Open Access

Contemporary Trends in the Development of the Anti-Corruption Legislation of Republic of Bulgaria

Published Online: 23 Jul 2019
Page range: 141 - 146

Abstract

Abstract

In 2000, the global policy against the phenomenon of “corruption“ was launched by the United Nations, and in 2003 the United Nations Convention against Corruption (UNCAC) was adopted, which Bulgaria ratified three years later. Two months after the adoption of this international convention, Bulgaria became part of the European Union. The accession was accompanied by the creation of “specific accompanying measures” aimed at correcting identified deficiencies in various areas, including measures against corruption. As a result of the annual reports of the European Commission on Bulgaria’s progress on the Co-operation and Verification Mechanism, anti-corruption law-making has begun to develop and improve. Serious progress in this direction is the creation of legislation in the area of “conflict of interest”, which is not exactly corruption but creates prerequisites for its development, especially in the public sphere. The paper presents the result of the analysis of the created anti-corruption legislation after the accession of the Republic of Bulgaria to the EU. Particular attention is paid to the law adopted in 2018 regulating anti-corruption measures, as well as the terms and procedure for the seizure of illegally acquired property for the benefit of the state.

Keywords

  • corruption
  • Bulgarian anti-corruption legislation
  • conflict of interests
  • bribe
Open Access

Competence Management and Image of Police Officers in Poland

Published Online: 23 Jul 2019
Page range: 147 - 152

Abstract

Abstract

Competence management is an issue that has become an area of particular interest not only for organisations from the business community, but also for public institutions, including institutions whose primary objective is to ensure security and public order. The group of such institutions includes, among others, the Polish Police. The level of competence available to officers, which is manifested through the prism of their behaviour, is at the same time the basis for the assessment of officers’ activities, which translates into their social image. The image of an organization and its employees influences the attitudes of the interested parties, including their approval manifested by support and understanding, or disapproval in the scope of the tasks performed. The quality of the image of police officers also affects the citizens’ sense of security. Bearing the above in mind, in the first part of the article, the process of managing the competences of police officers is presented as an action aimed at equipping officers with competences necessary for effective performance of official duties and fulfilling a servile role in relation to the society. In the second part of the article, the results of empirical research devoted to the issue of the image of police officers are presented.

Keywords

  • competence management
  • image
  • Police officers
Open Access

Child Protection When Travelling Abroad

Published Online: 23 Jul 2019
Page range: 153 - 157

Abstract

Abstract

The article examines child protection when travelling abroad with only one parent or someone who is not a parent or a guardian set by national and EU legislation. It analyzes cases when one of the parents does not allow their child to travel abroad with the other one. Methods of protecting the children’s best interests, as well as introducing the substitute consent have been presented. The development of the European Union’s legislation and case-law on the subject are scrutinized. The study also covers the national legislation of the Republic of Bulgaria in the field of protecting the child’s interests. The preconditions that have led to the legislative initiative on the adoption of Art. 127a of the Family Code referring to the court’s consent to a child travelling abroad with only one of the parents are analyzed. Next, there are prerequisites leading to the adoption of the Interpretative Decision No 1 of 03.07.2017 at a General Meeting of the Civil Division of the Supreme Court of Cassation of the Republic of Bulgaria, which develops the framework in the field of granting a court permit for child’s travelling. What is examined are the exact interests of the child that should be protected when the court gives the consent substituting the parental one. The case-law of the subject is followed in order to maximize its improvement in the protection of the rights and interests of the children living with one of their parents.

Keywords

  • protection
  • travelling
  • abroad
  • children
Open Access

Challenges Regarding the Implementation of MiFID II

Published Online: 23 Jul 2019
Page range: 158 - 162

Abstract

Abstract

Despite the positive effects that MiFID II has had in increasing transparency and the individual investor protection, most recent studies outline the difficulties experienced in practice by the European investment firms when trying to comply with the European regulation. The most recent survey realized by CFA Institute point out to the fact that the European investment services industry has suffered, due to the introduction of the new regulation. The big players might be the only ones for which it seems to be worth remaining on the market, the small investment companies being downsized or eliminated completely. In this paper, we aim at discussing the challenges that the introduction of MiFID has brought for the Romanian investment firms, while comparing this situation with the general situation at the European level.

Keywords

  • MiFID II
  • challenges
  • investment firm
  • compliance
Open Access

Organizational Behavior in the Central Public Institutions

Published Online: 23 Jul 2019
Page range: 163 - 168

Abstract

Abstract

Redefining recruitment systems and evaluating civil servants to take into account a number of general macroeconomic issues. Professionalization of the public function in order to identify future practical solutions to recruitment and evaluation processes is necessary to make a decision on several fundamental aspects of the public service system. Analysis of the relationship between the available human resources and the probable evolution of the quantitative and qualitative analysis of the existing resources as well as the design of future resources.

Keywords

  • human
  • resource
  • management
  • evolution
  • administration
Open Access

Short Profiles of Different European Investigation Order Domestic Regulations in the European Union

Published Online: 23 Jul 2019
Page range: 169 - 175

Abstract

Abstract

Тhe regulatory fragmentation and the excessive administrative formalities in the area of international legal assistance in investigation have created the need for a unitary mechanism. This article is focused on the relatively new instrument for international judicial cooperation in criminal matters – The European Investigation Order (EIO). Specifically, it examines the reflection of Directive 2014/41/EU in several Member States of the EU and provides an overview of the separate national systems. The analysis contained in this paper seeks to identify the issuing, the receiving and the executing authorities in each of the considered countries. Main aspects of the EIO’s regulation such as, for an example, its form and content, its transmission, proportionality assessment, deadlines and refusal grounds are seen from the perspective of different national legislations. Although the present study is not intended to be exhaustive, it could clarify to some extent whether an“one-size-fits all” solution in the area of evidence-gathering is an appropriate approach. Special attention is paid to the protection of the right to defence provided by the examined domestic regulations concerning the EIO.

Keywords

  • EIO
  • mutual recognition of judicial decisions
  • national legislation
  • evidence-gathering
  • EIO domestic regulation
Open Access

Streamlining Multinational Logistical Support from a Normative Point of View

Published Online: 23 Jul 2019
Page range: 176 - 181

Abstract

Abstract

Conceptual changes in the last period of time in terms of normative regulation of logistical support in post-conflict operations, highlights the fact that most often the conceptual plan takes place before The normative plan and the distances existing between the time of occurrence and implementation of concepts, definitions, summaries, deadlines and regulatory regulation, are becoming larger in particular because of the fluid way in which The aforementioned military actions and due to the involvement or non-involvement of NATO (EU) member States in the efforts of the two organisations.

Keywords

  • post-conflict operations
  • logistic support
  • normative
  • efficiency
Open Access

The Development of Legal Regulation of the Combating Corruption – Main Criteria for the Confirmation of Democratic Values in the European Society

Published Online: 23 Jul 2019
Page range: 182 - 188

Abstract

Abstract

Corruption poses a serious danger to the democratic foundations of each country. The need of an effective legal mechanism for combating corruption is increasingly being interpreted as key criteria for strengthening democratic institutions and introducing modern standards of transparency and democratic control into the governance of society. There are adopted a number of national, regional and international legal anticorruption acts which are particularly important, especially in the context of Bulgaria’s integration processes in the European area. In this connection, ensuring the democratic values in European society represents a big challenge for regulatory claims and capabilities of law with a view to the dynamic development of society. The current survey examines at the main type the development of anticorruption legal framework and aims to provide guidance for optimizing and improving the existing system of effective measures for the fighting against corruption and to clarify its place in the confirmation of democracy.

Keywords

  • corruption
  • anti-corruption legislation
  • democracy
  • values
  • European Union
Open Access

Creating and Maintaining a Secure and Safe Environment on a Challenged Civilian University Campus in Papua New Guinea

Published Online: 23 Jul 2019
Page range: 189 - 196

Abstract

Abstract

The article introduces the challenges of maintaining effective security (of both personnel and property) on a 220 hectare rural/suburban University campus, The Papua New Guinea University of Technology, located on the outskirts of Lae, the second-largest city in Papua New Guinea, serves as its main port and manufacturing hub. Since the Independence of Papua New Guinea in 1975, the city of Lae, the University (of approximately 3000 students, and 1500 academic, technical, and administrative and staff) and its surrounding communities have faced increasing pressing security issues, some caused by internal (on campus) and others by external (off campus) factors. After a long, politically motivated student boycott in 2016 (which ended up with destruction of varied University properties and the death of a student), the University has endeavoured to create a safe campus environment by employing quantitative modelling predictive techniques, cost-effective technologies and appropriate social-psychological insights aimed at transcending extant tribal mindsets (the country is noted for having over 800 tribes and languages across its widely space geography of 462,840 Km and approximately 7 million population). Tribal conflict is a constant concern for the police and governing authorities, an inhibitor of balanced social and economic development of the resource-rich country.

Keywords

  • Papua New Guinea
  • PNGUoT/(UNITECH)
  • security
  • quantitative predictive modelling
  • crime-fighting technology
Open Access

Cancellation and Termination of Assignment Contract of Patrimonial Rights of the Author

Published Online: 23 Jul 2019
Page range: 197 - 201

Abstract

Abstract

The present study offers the doctrine of the right of intellectual creation new perspectives on the study of the institution of termination of the assignment contract for the patrimonial rights resulting from the intellectual creation. We believe that the present study is rich in doctrinal contributions, formulating new theses and opening the prospect for new perspectives of scientific research. Last but not least, we appreciate that the proposals made in the present study contribute not only to the activity of opinionated in the field, but also to the work of practitioners and direct beneficiaries of the legal provisions on the assignment of patrimonial rights of authors.

Keywords

  • cancellation
  • termination
  • assignment contract
  • copyright
Open Access

Determining the Remuneration of the Copyright Holder and Terminating the Assignment Contract

Published Online: 23 Jul 2019
Page range: 202 - 205

Abstract

Abstract

Through this study we propose new visions of the legal norms establishing the social relations between the author and the assignee in the matter of determining the remuneration and judicial review of the assignment contract. In this respect, we propose a series of amendments lex ferenda of the Law no.8 / 1996 and formulate a series of doctrinal theories that we consider will contribute significantly to the science of rights resulting from intellectual creation.

Keywords

  • copyright
  • remuneration
  • assignment contract
Open Access

The Role of Ombudsman Institutions in Defending the Rights of Military Personnel

Published Online: 23 Jul 2019
Page range: 206 - 209

Abstract

Abstract

The Ombudsman type institutions are appointed to investigate individuals’ complaints against public authority and represent important actors in human rights protection system and in implementing democratic controls of the security system. These institutions have the task of interrupting human rights and the fundamental freedoms of armed force personnel, as well as ensuring the over-protection and prevention of defamation of armed forces. At the European level, the institutions of the Ombudsman are particularly important for ensuring the accountability of public authorities outside the contradictory environment of the courts. Ombudsman’s general institutions are mandated to receive complaints about all or almost all state organs, and their attributions concern all public services and government branches, including the armed forces. In addition, the ombudsman institutions with exclusive jurisdiction are independent and have exclusive jurisdiction over the armed forces, usually civilian and independent of the military command chain. Also, the Ombudsman institutions operating within the army can be identified and these are not completely independent, most often subordinated to the defense ministry and receive money from the defense budget.

Keywords

  • ombudsman
  • military
  • rights
  • institution
Open Access

Gender Equality Education in the European Military Universities

Published Online: 23 Jul 2019
Page range: 210 - 215

Abstract

Abstract

The report points the need of studying the gender equality topic as an element of leadership formation of the future officers in the European Armed Forces. The analysis of the approaches to the inclusion of the subject in different disciplines will help to increase the sensitivity and the understanding of the military personnel to the questions related to the implementation of the gender equality in a military environment. The equal treatment of the both sexes and the opportunities for successful realization, based on their professionalism, would contribute to the harmonization of the working environment as a part of modern European policies.

Keywords

  • gender equality
  • military education
  • European experience
Open Access

Adjusting the Military Educational Process to the Cyber Defence Domain

Published Online: 23 Jul 2019
Page range: 216 - 219

Abstract

Abstract

Threats, challenges and attacks are becoming more frequent, sophisticated and damaging within the new and unique environment, known today as cyber domain. The article presents the importance of cyber defence as a field of study and the tremendous efforts that are being made to continuously adapt the military educational process to this field. Concerning the education process in this domain, we can identify a strong need for improving the way we approach it and a striving call to fill the knowledge gaps for generating a credible cyber workforce. The aim was to analyze and present a few new cyber defence courses and the curriculum developed for both content and methods of education for officer career courses at military academies worldwide. The conclusion I have reached is that there are numerous modern methods that prove to be highly efficient in teaching this new subject matter and military educational institutions are investing into the skills and competence of their personnel.

Keywords

  • military education
  • training
  • cyber domain
  • cyber workforce
Open Access

Inductive Approach in Higher Education

Published Online: 23 Jul 2019
Page range: 220 - 224

Abstract

Abstract

Both during university studies and at the beginning of their careers in different jobs, it has often been found that students and young employees face difficulties when they need to use their theoretical knowledge to solve practical professional problems. A possible cause of this phenomenon is the fact that the academic disciplines are usually taught in a deductive manner. The courses are conducted with focus on the presentation and explanation of new concepts and theories, and finally give examples or resolve some practical applications. This paper presents several ways to teach university subjects to develop students’ abilities to effectively link the theories to practice. It is about the teaching in an inductive manner, which starts from the evocation of real professional situations in the professional environment and gives then theoretical support and practical suggestions to approach and solve problems

Keywords

  • inductive strategy
  • higher education
Open Access

Lieutenant-Colonel Constantin Apostol, A Glory of the Romanian Military Sport

Published Online: 23 Jul 2019
Page range: 225 - 229

Abstract

Abstract

Lieutenant Colonel Constantin Apostol (1903-1995) was born in a family of wealthy peasants from Săgeata commune, Buzău County. His studies were: primary school in his native town, high school in Buzău, followed by military studies, namely The Cavalry Officers School from Târgoviște, The Special Cavalry School and The Equestrian School in Sibiu. His military career evolved as follows: from a high school student (1924) to being a caporal, a sergeant and a plutonier (1925), a sub-lieutenant (1927), a lieutenant (1930), a captain (1938), a major (1943) and, at the end of his activity, a colonel lieutenant (1946). Constantin Apostol was considered one of the most prestigious representatives of the Romanian horse riding. He was an instructor and a teacher at the Equestrian School in Sibiu and at the Superior School of War. In the interwar period, Constantin Apostol represented Romania at numerous international equestrian contests, winning many awards, including the first prize in tournements such as those from Aachen (The Great Trophy), Brussels, Belgrade, Berlin, Duseldorf, London, Munich, Naples, Nice, Paris, Rome, Warsaw, Vienna, etc. For such results, his name was mentioned several times in the Day Order. Constantin Apostol remained active even after his retirement, when, while in reserve, he prepared the Romanian national team for the Olympics in Helsinki and Stockholm (1952, 1956) and was also the coach of Petrolul Ploiești Sports Club.

Keywords

  • Constantin Apostol
  • interwar horse riding
Open Access

Lieutenant-Colonel Constantin Apostol, From Glory To Unfair Humiliation

Published Online: 23 Jul 2019
Page range: 230 - 233

Abstract

Abstract

Constantin Apostol (1903-1995) was a prominent representative of the interwar Romanian horse riding [1]. He was born in Săgeata, Buzău County [2], attended primary school in his home town, high school in Buzău and military studies in Târgovişte and Sibiu. As far as his military career is concerned, C. Apostol advanced up to the rank of a lieutenant-colonel. He participated in various international competitions, winning many awards, including the first prize, in countries, such as: England, Austria, Belgium, Czechoslovakia, Yugoslavia, Germany, France, Italy, Poland. He took part in the military operations of World War II, both in the East and in the West, being decorated for his actions on both war fields. After the establishment of the communist regime, Constantin Apostol was continuosly humiliated, and finally imprisoned. In our work, the author aims to present, for the first time ever, precisely this final stage of his life.

Keywords

  • Constantin Apostol
  • champion
  • political prisoner
Open Access

The History of Pentathlon Competitions

Published Online: 23 Jul 2019
Page range: 234 - 239

Abstract

Abstract

The Pentathlon is a combined athletic discipline of the ancient Olympic Games. A detailed exploration of the ancient Olympic competitions in general and of the pentathlon, in particular, allow us to discover1200 years of sport history. The spectacle of the pentathlon contest, the method of determining a winner, the order of the five disciplines is simply fascinating. The modern Olympic Games redefined the pentathlon among the Olympic disciplines. Under the name of the modern pentathlon, it gradually regained its fame won in antiquity. The military pentathlon is a variant of the modern pentathlon deployed within the military organization and is considered the king of military sports. The evolution of the modern battlefield, strongly influenced by the modern combat technique, will surely change the pentathlon contest register. Even if respect for the Olympic spirit is desired, the pentathlon must take into account the evolution of the contemporary society to keep its attractiveness.

Keywords

  • pentathlon
  • ancient
  • mythology
  • history
  • sports
  • military
Open Access

Problem-Based Strategies for Teaching Military English

Published Online: 23 Jul 2019
Page range: 240 - 244

Abstract

Abstract

Educators generally concur to the idea that one of the most essential goals of schooling is to empower students to become efficient problem solvers for the knowledge-based society. Problem-based learning (PBL) is an instructional methodology mainly focused on developing students’ abilities to deal with solving realistic issues by employing team-oriented strategies. The present paper discusses the opportunities of integrating PBL in the teaching of English for specific purposes, starting from the firm belief that by putting students in the role of effective collaborators, critical thinkers, creative problem-solvers, and capable communicators, the proposed strategies efficiently prepare cadets for real-life environments, for the challenges of their professional careers, and for an active citizenship. Drawing on a solid theoretical conceptualization of problem-based instruction, the article outlines the advantages of PBL for both teachers and students and proposes a series of practical strategies that are intended to facilitate our cadets’ development in four key skills – critical thinking, creativity, communication and collaboration, –with the help of project-based learning.

Keywords

  • problem-based learning
  • foreign language instruction
  • military students
  • critical thinking skills
  • cooperative learning
Open Access

Theories Used in NLP for Motivation. 1st Part

Published Online: 23 Jul 2019
Page range: 245 - 250

Abstract

Abstract

Neuro-linguistic programming (international acronym: NLP) contains a series of principles designed to identify and analyze patterns/models resulting from the analysis of personal development theories and models, one of the NLP goals being to combine their different abilities. Therefore, it is more about an awareness of theories and models, which the individual can follow to get performance in what he does. The principle of reasoning is no exception to this rule. The most well-known theory of motivation is the one proposed by S. Freud (a neuropsychiatrist) through his “pleasure principle“, generically called “motivation direction” in NLP, considered in his time the main motivation mechanism. at the same time, it is very important to separate the concept of NLP, in terms of motivation, from the motivational theories and models that postulate that motivation is essentially of a mechanical nature and is programmed through a series of repetitions and external stimuli. Multiple studies meant to support motivational theories and models have failed to take into consideration the numerous phenomena that are independent of external stimuli. Motivational theories are based on the premise that the individual is animated by intrapsychic potentials which managers and leaders must identify and find a concrete way to emphasize them.

Keywords

  • Motivation
  • NLP
  • Transactional analysis
Open Access

Theories used in NLP for motivation. 2nd part

Published Online: 23 Jul 2019
Page range: 251 - 257

Abstract

Abstract

One of the purposes of Neuro-Linguistic Programming (international acronym: NLP) is to motivate different skills from specific methods, techniques, tools, processes, theories and models into a single coherent and very Effective when implemented. Most of the methods, techniques, tools, processes, theories and specific models of NLP were created through the process called “modeling”, which, in principle, involves decipting the way in which the mind and how we think (neuro) operates through analyzing language (linguistic) patterns and non-verbal communication, the results of the analysis being integrated step by step in a strategy (programming) that can be used to transfer the ability of other individuals. The most important aspect of NLP is perhaps the practical-pragmatic, tracksuit programs and NLP concepts focusing on the interactive side and experiential learning, precisely in order for these concepts and principles to be fair and fully perceived and understood.

Keywords

  • NLP
  • Value-based motivation
  • General Semantics
Open Access

Intercultural Communication Barriers. China and the USA, The Difficulties of a Dialogue

Published Online: 23 Jul 2019
Page range: 258 - 263

Abstract

Abstract

When people from different countries, cultures and backgrounds meet, they have to cope with the positive and the negative aspects of the intercultural exchange. Barriers such as anxiety, language, stereotypes, prejudice, ethnocentrism, and assumption of similarity instead of difference are the most significant ones to consider. This paper aims to discuss the main difficulties that individuals of various cultures and heritages may face during the intercultural communication process. In particular, this paper takes a closer look at the cultural differences between China and the USA, and at some of the current communication difficulties that the two countries face, caused by lack of mutual understanding, ethnocentrism, stereotypes, prejudice, language, differences of nonverbal indices, political and economic causes.

Keywords

  • intercultural communication
  • ethnocentrism
  • stereotype
  • prejudice
  • generalization
Open Access

The Intercultural Competence. Developing Effective Intercultural Communication Skills

Published Online: 23 Jul 2019
Page range: 264 - 268

Abstract

Abstract

Effective intercultural communication has become a priority today because of the importance it has gained in the understanding of the cultural diversity of the world. Immigration, urbanization, international employment, study exchange programs and ease of foreign travel are facilitating daily contact between people of different cultural backgrounds. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the importance of developing the attitudes and the communication skills necessary for multicultural exchange, in everyday life and within organizations. Learning about other cultures and developing intercultural communication competences and skills can help facilitate the multicultural encounter and can lead to more openness and tolerance towards the significant other.

Keywords

  • intercultural communication
  • globalization
  • intercultural competence
  • intercultural sensitivity
  • intercultural awareness
Open Access

A Study of the Family Structure in Relation to Emotional Intelligence of High School Students

Published Online: 23 Jul 2019
Page range: 269 - 275

Abstract

Abstract

The current study assessed and compared the emotional intelligence of 75 high school students who grew up with different family structures. High school students between the ages of 16-18 years were randomly selected from high schools in Bucharest, Romania. The General Emotional Intelligence Scale (GEIS) was used to measure the level of their emotional intelligence. In addition, a nonverbal test consisting of 20 face photoswith different facial expressions was used to measure a specific aspect of emotional intelligence, perceiving emotions. Results revealed that family structure does not influence emotional intelligence; however, when looking at the aspect of perceiving emotions, family structure influences this aspect of emotional intelligence.

Keywords

  • emotional intelligence
  • family structure
  • perceiving emotions
Open Access

Study on the Importance of Land-Centered Training for the Freestyle Swimming Technique for Military Students

Published Online: 23 Jul 2019
Page range: 276 - 282

Abstract

Abstract

Swimming is a very important component of the military training. This can be proven by the fact that swimming is a beneficial sport for the human body because the joints are not tensed like in running, increases heart rate, but also stimulates blood circulation. At the same time, while swimming, absolutely all muscle groups are involved, which means automatically shaping them and, over time, increasing the body’s resistance.

The study found the following:

• students’ results at the 50 m freestyle swimming test are positively influenced if an additional training program is respected;

• additional physical training leads to improved performance.

Keywords

  • swimming
  • freestyle
  • practice
  • to improve
Open Access

The Romanian Social Classes in Three Years in Romania by James William Ozanne

Published Online: 23 Jul 2019
Page range: 283 - 288

Abstract

Abstract

The paper analyses the image of the social classes existing in Romania in the second half of the 19th century as it emerges from the work of the English writer James William Ozanne, the first president of the Anglo-American Press Association in Paris, between 1882-1912. The Romanian society is seen through the eyes of a diplomat with a keen sense of observation, yet also subjective sometimes, who manages to create an accurate depiction of the society of a state which he did not consider to be among the first ranking ones. It is interesting to notice that he borrows “valuable information“ from other writers, especially Vaillant, Regnault and Obedenare, but, unlike other foreign travellers who wrote about the Romanians and their way of life, he is not ashamed to acknowledge this fact. J.W. Ozanne openly admits the fact that he liked the people among whom he had lived for three years, but his book is not a happy one. He did his duty of respecting the truth as much as possible, without entering into too many details, and the image of the social classes that he managed to create is one that enjoys the “right combination of light and shadows”.

Keywords

  • image
  • social
  • classes
  • Romania
  • 19 century
Open Access

A Romanian Heroine of British Origin — Maria Rosetti

Published Online: 23 Jul 2019
Page range: 289 - 292

Abstract

Abstract

The paper analyses the image of Maria Rosetti, the first female journalist in Romania, one of the personalities that played a crucial role for the outcome of the Revolution of 1848, and the way in which she remained in the public consciousness. Born in Guernsey, Scotland, the sister of the diplomat Effingham Grant and wife of the Romanian revolutionary Constantin Alexandru Rosetti “made the cause of Romania her own“. Despite being a foreigner, through everything she did, Maria Rosetti tried to help her adoptive country evolve and become a modern unitary state. Besides playing an active role in the escape of her husband and of other revolutionaries arrested by the Turks, she was also the mother of eight children (only four survived) in whom she instilled the most fervent patriotism. Last, but not least, the wife of C. A. Rosetti used her literary talent for pedagogical purposes in order to educate the younger generations according to the desiderata of a new Romanian society. Admired by her contemporaries and by her followers, her portrait was immortalized by C. D. Rosenthal in the famous painting “Revolutionary Romania”, becoming a symbol of the love and of the power of sacrifice for her country.

Keywords

  • Maria Rosetti
  • Revolution
  • 1848
  • Romania
Open Access

From Word to Idea: Freewriting

Published Online: 23 Jul 2019
Page range: 293 - 299

Abstract

Abstract

The aim of the article is to offer a variety of simple resources to foreign language teachers who consider their students’ creativity very important. The activities that we propose apply to all levels of the students and can be adapted to different grammatical structures and vocabulary according to the target students. We undertook research on freewriting in a foreign language class in sophomore cadet groups. At the center of this research, there are students’ products (free texts) and methods used in carrying out the writing activity (writing strategies and solutions for linguistic problems). Since writing has always been a difficult skill and an unpleasant task for most of the students, with this new approach they have found a way of enjoying their own pieces of writing.

Keywords

  • freewriting
  • creativity
  • foreign language class
  • linguistic problems
Open Access

Vocabulary Acquisition

Published Online: 23 Jul 2019
Page range: 300 - 304

Abstract

Abstract

Introducing vocabulary to students is not always an easy task. Due to music and movies that young people are exposed to today, vocabulary acquisition is more often not taken seriously. Young people can hum or repeat sentences from a movie that impress them and think that they are able to communicate in a foreign language. In an academic environment you realize that each new vocabulary word is like a brick needed to build up a whole wall; is a small step that help you enrich your abilities to speak, write and understand all the English you might need at a certain time in your professional life. Studies have shown that the more words you know in a foreign language the more you can use it in real life situations. In this study we will approach the theoretical studies related to vocabulary acquisition as well as some practical exercises that might be used in class.

Keywords

  • vocabulary development
  • meaning
  • lexical patterning
  • communication
Open Access

Globalization Trends in the Security Environment and Education of Military Professionals in the Slovak Armed Forces

Published Online: 23 Jul 2019
Page range: 305 - 315

Abstract

Abstract

The authors of the article highlight globalization trends in the current understanding of the security sector. They emphasize the mission and current requirements for the Slovak Armed Forces and preparation of future military experts in accordance with cosmopolitan policy of NATO and the EU. The authors also underline the need to address the key competences in terms of the relationship manager - leader and a professional soldier not only within the framework of university education, but also within the framework of lifelong and career education in the Slovak Republic.

Keywords

  • security environment
  • education and development of professional soldiers
  • human resources management
  • manager and leader
Open Access

The Reputation of the Military Leader Between Ego-Perception and Group Perception

Published Online: 23 Jul 2019
Page range: 316 - 323

Abstract

Abstract

Any organization is in a permanent search for reputable leaders. Leaders adopt a behaviour reflected by their professional training and ego-esteem. Ego-perception reflects how a person is seen as a genre (how is?), as an identity (who is?), as an image of his/her ego (what is?), as self-opinion (what has?) and as an object (what affects?). The perception of those around them revolves around the things that are known to themselves and to the others (such as the physical reflection), the things the person knows about but the others do not know (personalities not shown), the things others know about him/her own person, but about which he/she does not know (personality traits that are perceived differently) and things that neither the person nor the others know (the ones in the unconscious). To be effective, the leader needs to know himself/herself and the environment in which he/she is acting, and to constantly pursue the relationship between ego-perception and perception of others about him/her. The desired report is the one in which the personal perception is the same as that of the others. Any significant variation leads to under or overestimation and, implicitly, to negative effects on the leadership process.

Keywords

  • leader
  • ego-esteem
  • ego-perception
  • personality
  • relationship
Open Access

Legislative Measures Adopted at the International Level Against Fake News

Published Online: 23 Jul 2019
Page range: 324 - 330

Abstract

Abstract

Social media has become an informational decision-making vector due to the rapid transfer and permanent consumption of messages by the population. In this virtual environment, information changes its qualitative and quantitative form, from real, manipulated to a fabricated form. As information grows, it travels more rapidly, responding to the needs and expectations of individuals, and at the same time there are the dangers of its distortion and intoxication, affecting the perception of the receptors. Fake news is a phenomenon created by social media, in which the communication scheme is vicious, it occurs due to the lack of information of the users. Fake news produces confusion and distraction, leading to fragmented public opinion. At international level, the act of combating this phenomenon was implemented by the authorities on a legislative basis, adopting anti-fake news laws with drastic sanctions, which differ according to the form of government in each state. The first country in the world to introduce an anti-fake news law is Malaysia. And the first European democratic state to initiate two bills against false information is France.

Keywords

  • fake news
  • disinformation
  • social media
  • legislative measures
  • free speech
Open Access

Attitudes to Gender Roles in Romania

Published Online: 23 Jul 2019
Page range: 331 - 335

Abstract

Abstract

The paper analyses the attitude towards gender roles and their dynamics in Romania in the context of economic, social, political and cultural changes due to the transition from the traditional, modern to the postmodern society. In order to achieve this goal, we used the attitude measurement scale versus the gender roles used in two stages of the World Value Survey 2014, 2018.

Keywords

  • gender roles
  • attitudes towards gender roles
  • World Value Survey
Open Access

Couple Villages from the Făgăraş Land, with their History and Ethnographic Peculiarities

Published Online: 23 Jul 2019
Page range: 336 - 341

Abstract

Abstract

The Făgăraș Land is an old Romanian state formation on the territory of Transylvania. Geographically located between the Olt and the Meridional Carpathians, the Făgăraș Land is considered the starting point of the founders of Wallachia. It was caught between the interests and pride of the Hungarian Kingdom and those of the Romanian lords throughout the Middle Ages, and suffered invasions of the Tartars. The memory of the latter is preserved in the collective memory of the locals, especially in the legends about the rocks that girls chased by attackers have jumped off. Many of the villages of Fagaras are arranged in pairs, one in the Olt meadow and the other in the mountain. Over time, there have been differentiations in the folk garment and traditions between the couple villages, but also between neighbouring couple villages. These differences strenghten the community identity of the Făgăraș Land villagers and indicate the existence of significant intangible cultural heritage resources in the area.

Keywords

  • folk garment
  • community identity
  • Făgăraș Land
Open Access

The Evolution of the Romanian Traditional Garment in Făgăraş Land in the First Decades after the Great Union of 1918

Published Online: 23 Jul 2019
Page range: 342 - 347

Abstract

Abstract

In 1910 ASTRA, the Transylvanian Association for Romanian Literature and Culture initiated a campaign to photograph the traditional clothing of Făgăraș Land. A comparison between the outcome from the campaign that started in 1910 (owned by the Făgăraș LandMuseum“Valer Literat”) and the photographs taken in the 1930s in the communities of Făgăraș villages (kept in the same museum) shows modifications to the traditional clothing in the period following the Great Union. Causes for the changes include the economic evolution of the area, gradual reduction in hemp cultivation and the diversification of textiles on offer in fairs, a gradual rise in awareness of fashion in the female population, and last but not least, ASTRA’s influence. It encouraged, through its women’s organisations, the spread and adoption of the Sălişte costume, as an expression of national unity. The comparison between the two sets of photographs highlights a tendency to simplify the outfit, namely to remove the heavy and uncomfortable items and to partially replace fabrics woven at home with industrial fabrics. From a chromatic point of view, this tendency to simplify the garment is accompanied by a narrowing of the colour register..

Keywords

  • folk garment
  • national costume
  • Făgăraș Land
  • ASTRA
Open Access

Methodological Guidelines for the Technical Training of Judo Players in the Military System

Published Online: 23 Jul 2019
Page range: 348 - 354

Abstract

Abstract

Judo, a sport playing a vital role in the training of the military, leads to the achievement of positive, multiple and unique effects, both in terms of developing the motor skills, but also in the formation, consolidation and improvement of applicative skills and aptitudes specific to close combat. The paper highlights the fact that the methods and contents specific to combat sports represent a useful and effective way of meeting the formative objectives in the context of the current Romanian Army missions, facilitating the physical adaptation of the combatants to the new demands imposed by the modern battlefield, characteristic of the actions carried out by NATO military structures.

Keywords

  • sport
  • combat
  • judo
  • means
  • missions
Open Access

The School and the Community Towards the Prevention and Reduction of School Dropout

Published Online: 23 Jul 2019
Page range: 355 - 360

Abstract

Abstract

This paper aims to emphasize the importance of the partnership between school and community for preventing early school leaving and reducing the school dropout. In order to achieve a successful partnership, it is necessary to go through some steps of “exploration-evaluation-planning-training-initiation-achievement-checking-regulation-consolidation-action-implementation-assessment”. Thus, the four conditions for achieving this process need to be respected: communication, coordination, cooperation and partnership. The educational partnership is the form of communication, cooperation and collaboration offering the optimal support to the child at the level of the educational process. It involves a unity of requirements, options, decisions and educational actions between educational factors and it is carried out within the educational act. A successful partnership implies identifying goals and common interests useful for the partners and the community, finding the optimal way to organize and manage the available resources in order to achieve the purpose, identifying the competencies of those involved in these projects in order to achieve most of them and implementing changes for the benefit of the institution. Preventing the school dropout should be the highest priority assumed equally by the school and the community. Beyond national policies and strategies which are more or less applied, each community has its own characteristics and dropout causes have different values from one community to another. So, the two entities, the school and the community, need to find personalized and coherent solutions to prevent this phenomenon, which will surely define the structure of the future generations.

Keywords

  • partnership
  • school
  • community
  • school dropout
Open Access

Secular Trends in BMI and Waist Circumference and the Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity in Austrian Candidates for Conscription from 2007 To 2016

Published Online: 23 Jul 2019
Page range: 361 - 367

Abstract

Abstract

The increase of prevalence of overweight and obesity progressed worldwide and is associated with lifetime diseases. Operational readiness of armed forces is depending on anthropometric data and physical fitness of soldiers. The aim of the study was the investigation of temporal and regional trends of BMI and waist circumference of Austrian conscripts.Data came from the Ministry of Defence of Austria. Mean of body mass (BM, kg), body mass index (BMI, kg/m2,) and waist circumference (WC, cm) across age, urbanity and regions were analysed, effect size was checked by Cohen’s d and f eta. Significance was selected at p values <0.05.Mean of BM, BMI and WC showed significant differences, effect sizes were trivial. A significant high correlation was ascertained by BM (r = 0.78 – 0.82) and BMI (r = 0.77 – 0.81) to WC in all age cohorts. Regional differences were detected in BM, BMI and WC. The results show a significant increase of BM, BMI and WC in the years 2007 to 2010 and a stabilisation during the rest of investigation period. Prevalence of overweight and obesity in young men has reached a worrying level for public health in Austrian society.

Keywords

  • BMI
  • Waist circumference
  • prevalence of overweight of conscripts
Open Access

The Science We Need in Order to Achieve Progress in the Social Development

Published Online: 23 Jul 2019
Page range: 368 - 372

Abstract

Abstract

The aim of this study is to gather sufficient evidence and arguments in order to prove to society that during the process of change in thinking and especially in the effective practical implementation of such educational models, high levels of efficiency can be achieved at all hierarchical levels in key systems for the society and the state.

Keywords

  • science
  • criterion
  • publications
  • impact factor
60 Articles
Open Access

Statistical Methods for Solving Transportation Problems

Published Online: 23 Jul 2019
Page range: 10 - 13

Abstract

Abstract

Transportation problem is one of the models of Linear Programming problem. It deals with the situation in which a commodity from several sources is shipped to different destinations with the main objective to minimize the total shipping cost. There are three well-known methods namely, North West Corner Method Least Cost Method, Vogel’s Approximation Method to find the initial basic feasible solution of a transportation problem. In this paper, we present some statistical methods for finding the initial basic feasible solution. We use three statistical tools: arithmetic and harmonic mean and median. We present numerical examples, and we compare these results with other classical methods.

Keywords

  • transportation problem
  • initial basic solution
  • statistical methods
Open Access

The State of Nominal Convergence in Romania in the Context of Joining the Euro Area

Published Online: 23 Jul 2019
Page range: 14 - 19

Abstract

Abstract

The repeated postponement of the deadlines set for Romania’s accession to the Eurozone as well as the challenges facing the nominal convergence criteria raised many questions among the European community regarding the competitiveness of the Romanian economy in relation to the economies of the European countries adopting the single currency. The present paper aims to present the current state of nominal convergence our country manages to achieve and to import compliance with these criteria by exemplifying the concept of optimal monetary areas. The adoption of the single currency must be achieved in the context of sustainable convergence that guarantees the minimization of costs caused by the renunciation of national monetary policy. To achieve this goal, the present paper presents the optimal context that Romania’s shift to the single currency should take into account in order to maximize its benefits from the beginning of this irreversible process.

Keywords

  • nominal convergence
  • real convergence
  • Eurozone
  • imbalances
Open Access

The Use of Accounting Information for Risk Analysis - Options in Central Region Entities

Published Online: 23 Jul 2019
Page range: 20 - 26

Abstract

Abstract

Every decision poses risks, and it is necessary for them to be known. Some may be avoided, others may be diminished, and with others the management will need to become accustomed and avoided and are predominantly related to the external environment. For this reason, the risk can be approached as a variation of the results under the pressure of the environment of the activity. Based on these considerations, the paper addresses the risk in terms of its definition based on the literature and presents some essential aspects regarding the fundamental categories of risks from the point of view of managerial utility. Based on a selective scientific research carried out on a sample of entities in the Centre Region, the paper captures the degree to which managers are interested in capitalizing the accounting information for knowing the risks.

Keywords

  • risk
  • accounting information
  • performance
  • bankruptcy
  • management
Open Access

The Economy of Romanian Naval Transports in the Period 1990 – 2000

Published Online: 23 Jul 2019
Page range: 27 - 31

Abstract

Abstract

This article analyses the restructuring and evolution of the most important elements of naval infrastructure which laid the base of The Economy of the Romanian Naval Transports, during the transition period: 1990 – 2000.

Also, this article attempts to determine the total value of assets on the main components of the system infrastructure, following the next issues:

• Ways of Communication on the Water;

• River and Sea Ports;

• Naval Industry;

• National Merchant Fleet-river, maritime and oceanic fishing fleet.

We mention that this article is the latest in a series of four articles that analyses, in a unitary conception, the formation and evolution of the main elements of the Naval Transportation System of the last century, at the level of four reference periods: the pre-war period (1900-1914); the interwar period (1919-1939); socialist period (1950-1990) and transition period (1990-2000).

Keywords

  • naval transport
  • riverine fleet
  • maritime fleet
  • naval industry
Open Access

Benefits for the Implementation of a Business Process Model Approach Inside Organizations

Published Online: 23 Jul 2019
Page range: 32 - 36

Abstract

Abstract

Currently organizations have evolved with the development of global economy and transformed from national players into regional or international actors. Decision makers and governing functions have been put in the situation to identify new ways to support their strategy and sustain organizational management. One of the modalities to accomplish these objectives has been to implement a Business Process Model Approach inside the organizations. The document will detail and highlight the benefits for a legal entity once such an approach is put in practice

Keywords

  • organization
  • business process
  • benefits
Open Access

Fiscal-Budgetary Policy as a Stimulation Tool of Economic Growth and of the Level of the Financial Resources of the State

Published Online: 23 Jul 2019
Page range: 37 - 45

Abstract

Abstract

The fiscal and budget policies developed over the last few years by policy makers emphasize fiscal relaxation measures in order to stimulate economic growth. Expected by employers and employees alike, they sometimes lead to results opposite to those pursued, especially if they do not take into account the particularities of the economic domains concerned and the social realities of the state. Due to the limited and often insufficient financial resources, it is necessary to stimulate those areas considered as generators of growth, and a good example in this sense is the research, development and innovation. In the context of the difficulties of ensuring an optimal level of public funding, it becomes increasingly obvious that legislative changes of fiscal and budgetary nature and how they can be implemented can be both a basis for the sustainability of public finances and for increasing competitiveness and a disturbing factor in the labor market and progress.

Keywords

  • fiscal-budgetary policy
  • economic growth
  • public income
  • public expenditure
  • tax revenue
Open Access

The Role and Place of Accounting Information in the Decision-Making System

Published Online: 23 Jul 2019
Page range: 46 - 51

Abstract

Abstract

The results and performance of an enterprise are the result of the decisions taken by the management of the entity, decisions which are the result of a complex procedure of processing and analyzing the relevant data and information provided by the information system available. In other words, appropriate and correct decisions that lead to the achievement of the objectives and attainment of higher performances are dependent on the quality and quantity of the information. Consequently, accurate information generates correct decisions. Due to of its qualities (relevance, intelligibility, credibility and comparability), accounting information occupies a very important place in the architecture of the economic information system, having the highest degree of certainty and providing the possibility of an accurate representation of economic phenomena and processes, both at micro, as well as at macroeconomic levels. Hence, we can say that the “final outcome of accounting”, namely accounting information, is one of the most important pillars of the elaboration, substantiation and decision-making process. Starting from this premise, this article aims to capture the main features of accounting information, which qualifies it as the object and the subject of the management system.

Keywords

  • information system
  • accounting information
  • management system
  • decision-making system
Open Access

Can Social Media Addiction Influence the Consumers’ Loyalty for a Certain Brand or Product?

Published Online: 23 Jul 2019
Page range: 52 - 56

Abstract

Abstract

The individuals and especially the young ones live in a certain online information and communication bubble. The aim of this paper is to present certain aspects related to social media, to the addiction of social media developed by young individuals that are becoming the main online consumers in today’s economy and to identify if a certain social media addiction can affect the consumers, the products that they buy and the brands that they acquire or use. The paper underlines the concept of brand loyalty; its main characteristics and we point out certain advantages and disadvantages in relation to social media and the addiction for the online environment.

Keywords

  • social media
  • addiction
  • brand loyalty
  • consumers
  • influence
Open Access

The Impact of Corruption on the Business in Bulgaria and Romania

Published Online: 23 Jul 2019
Page range: 57 - 62

Abstract

Abstract

Nowadays, the topic of corruption is extremely relevant, not only in terms of clarifying its nature and appearance, but also in terms of its impact on business development. Corruption as a phenomenon goes through constant changes from the past to the present. Its growing significance from a resource redistribution tool to a regulator of social mechanisms, plays the role of a risk factor for the economic development of each country. In this context, the role of corruption is crucial for the business. Its importance in the economic and business climate, on one hand limits the input of foreign capital investment and on other hand slows the development of the companies, leading to an incorrect redistribution of their assets. As a result, there are significant losses for the business, as well as there is a disturbance of the economic cycle of the country. At the same time, business is an area predisposed to corruption. There are numerous possibilities for committing crimes and unethical behavior in this area. It is therefore necessary to analyze the impact of corruption on business development. In this regard, the aim of this report is to make a comparative analysis of the impact of corruption on the business in Bulgaria and Romania.

Keywords

  • business
  • corruption
  • Bulgaria
  • Romania
Open Access

The Need for Determining and Assessing Risk in Economic Activity

Published Online: 23 Jul 2019
Page range: 63 - 68

Abstract

Abstract

In modern terms, risk management is a concept applicable to economic agents, which represent a factor that generates economic and financial performance. In this respect, I appreciate that it is obvious that risk management is a necessity in the activity of any organization regardless of the field of activity or its objectives. Additionally, observing the procedural elements specific to the identification, analysis, quantification and assessment of the economic risk will lead to the company being correctly diagnosed and facilitates the identification of solutions for its elimination, or mitigation within the parameters of a controllable area.

Keywords

  • economic activity
  • economic risk
  • risk management
  • risk factors
  • analysis and evaluation
Open Access

The Adjusted Net Asset, a Patrimonial Method to Determine the Value of Economic Entity

Published Online: 23 Jul 2019
Page range: 69 - 73

Abstract

Abstract

One of the goals of evaluation is applying the management based on value, in order to redirect the performances of different activities of the enterprise meaning when, how, and how much to extend the businesses that bring value, and which of the operational measures have the biggest potential to raise the value. The evaluation is based on balanced sheet, balance of accounts, and then the economic balance that includes both the patrimony of the economic entity in economic values and the turnover that the entity is able to achieve. The determination of the adjusted net asset is based on the achieved economic balance. The adjusted net asset is considered the most important patrimonial value because it takes into consideration the incident of various factors on the real value of the assets and on the liabilities or debts of the entity. The evaluation of the economic entity is essential in many moments of the existence of an enterprise, as acquisition, divesture, stock holdings, stock issued, issued shared, stock sales, absorptions, fusions, etc. The specialized literature mentions as essential patrimonial values: the active asset, the adjusted active asset, the active asset reduction. Taking into consideration only their own funds and equity as resource of financing the patrimonial assets of the economic entity, we can affirm that these values correspond to the seller’ view that considers that the economic entity is terminating its activity and his main concern is only the possible selling prices.

Keywords

  • economic entity
  • value
  • active asset
  • adjusted net asset
  • economic balance sheet

JEL Classification

  • D
Open Access

Analysis of the Use of Labor Force in a Patrimonial Entity

Published Online: 23 Jul 2019
Page range: 74 - 85

Abstract

Abstract

Under the conditions of the transition to a competitive economy, the human factor has a dominant role in the process of including the efficiency of the organization on a vibrating trajectory, hence the important significance of evaluating the performance of the personnel from the perspective of the utilization of human resources. Thus, it is fully justified to speak of the efficiency of the use of human resources as an essential component of the general concept of economic efficiency. If the efficiency of the use of human resources is sometimes reduced to the integral time of work in the specialized literature, the emphasis being placed on the quantitative side, a correction is demanded in the modern sense. The efficient use of human resources needs to keep pace with the qualitative aspect, which includes the totality of personnel operations: recruiting, selection, training, evaluation, promotion, social dialogue and motivational system.

Keywords

  • structure
  • resource
  • efficiency
  • indicators
  • analysis
Open Access

Study Regarding the Planning Stage of the Romanian Public Procurement Process

Published Online: 23 Jul 2019
Page range: 86 - 92

Abstract

Abstract

In order to award a public procurement contract for the acquisition of a product, work or service, the contracting authority must follow a succession of stages, which represent a public procurement process. As a stage of the public procurement process, planning represents all the activities carried out in public institutions that determine their main objectives, the manner in which they are achieved, and what resources will be used during the process. Planning the procurement process is crucial. Failure to properly implement it results in errors and problems during the process of awarding and implementing the contract. The general objective of the paper is to identify and solve the problems that arise during the process of planning the public procurement in Romania, by identifying and anticipating some directions leading to the improvement of the entire public procurement system.

Keywords

  • procurement
  • process
  • public
  • stage
  • needs
  • products
  • services
  • work
Open Access

Financial Stability - Fundamental Pillar of Macroeconomic Balance and Stability

Published Online: 23 Jul 2019
Page range: 93 - 97

Abstract

Abstract

The financial stability is a fundamental condition for ensuring and maintaining the balance and the stability at macroeconomic level. At the same time, ensuring the macroeconomic financial stability is a priority of the state’s economic security as well as of all the public authorities having responsibilities in the field of the macro-prudential regulation and supervision. In this context, our scientific approach aims at systematizing, deepening and developing this fundamental issue of the financial theory and practice.

Keywords

  • economic globalization
  • general economic equilibrium
  • macroeconomic stability
  • financial stability
  • national financial system
Open Access

Financing Alternatives of Micro Enterprises (II Practical Application)

Published Online: 23 Jul 2019
Page range: 98 - 103

Abstract

Abstract

One Micro-enterprises can benefit from state aid only when they demonstrate that, at the time of the on-line completion of the business plan, they meet cumulatively the eligibility criteria imposed by the funding authority. These criteria are minimal and binding for fund applicants and are conditioned as micro-enterprises: 1. to be organized either according to the Law on Commercial Companies no. 31/1990 or according to Law on co-operation no. 1/2005, republished; 2. are small and medium-sized enterprises; 3. are registered at the national trade registry office; 3. have integral private share capital; 4. have their registered office and / or working place; 5. the subject-matter of the activity is authorized and eligible according to the requirements of the aid scheme at the time of submitting the request for reimbursement; 6. the activity takes place in Romania; 7. does not have obligations to the consolidated budget of the state; 8. is not in bankruptcy, is not in dissolution, is not in judicial reorganization, is not in liquidation, is not subject to forced execution, is not in insolvency or bankruptcy, does not have temporary suspended activity or has operational closure.

Keywords

  • capital
  • financing
  • financing resources
  • financial efficiency
  • financial optimum
  • financing alternatives
  • micro-enterprise
  • financing policy
  • investment policy
  • European financing

JEL Classification

  • E 40
  • E 51
  • E 59
  • D 59
Open Access

Micro Enterprises Crediting. Practical Aspects

Published Online: 23 Jul 2019
Page range: 104 - 108

Abstract

Abstract

In a market economy, the credit assures a transfer of repayable value for a limited period of time in exchange for a price that is referred to as interest on credit. The role of the credit is to generate liquidity flows for its beneficiary in such a way as to enable him, on the one hand, to honour his obligations to the bank, namely the payment of the monthly rate of credit, interest, bank commissions as well as the insurance of the contracted loan and on the other hand to obtain a profit. In order to benefit from loans, micro-enterprises are analyzed by banks through methods, policies, tools and techniques of each bank. The credit decision will be taken by the bank only after it has ensured that potential borrowers are in line with the rules and lending regulations of the lending bank.

Keywords

  • credit
  • interest
  • bank fees
  • micro-enterprise
  • repayment schedule
  • refinancing
  • rescheduling

JEL Classification

  • E 40
  • E 51
  • E 59
  • D 59
Open Access

E-Health: Legal and Security Challenges

Published Online: 23 Jul 2019
Page range: 109 - 113

Abstract

Abstract

In accordance with the National Security Strategy of the Republic of Bulgaria, updated in 2018, the health of Bulgarian citizens is defined as a vital national interest. The analysis of the data on basic health-demographic indicators shows that our country is currently facing significant national security risks associated with a high level of total and premature mortality, high maternal and infant mortality, high level of disability and low life expectancy, as well as low indicators during the years of good health. The authors consider that improving the health of the nation is inextricably linked to the readiness of the national health system to respond and to provide adequate and continuous medical assistance of good quality. One of the major challenges for the contemporary globalized world is the rapid entering of information and communication technologies in healthcare. The article attempts to outline some of the legal and ethical issues that could arise when information and communication technologies are introduced into the healthcare system (e.g. the use of various applications for mobile devices, remote therapy and disease monitoring, etc.) from a point of view human rights doctrine and the protection of personal data.

Keywords

  • e-health
  • human rights
  • data protection
Open Access

Initiation/Commencement of Criminal Prosecution in the New Criminal Procedure Code

Published Online: 23 Jul 2019
Page range: 114 - 121

Abstract

Abstract

The initiation of criminal prosecution is always preceded by the notification of criminal investigation bodies (or the disclosure) about the commission of a crime, since it is not possible to start the criminal trial in the absence of such notification. Another (negative) condition is the nonexistence of any of the cases provided by art. 16 of the Criminal Procedure Code, otherwise they are closed prior to the commencement of criminal prosecution.The procedural act by which the prosecution is initiated, according to Article 305, paragraph 2, of the Criminal Procedure Code is the ordinance. The commencement of criminal prosecution is always ordered in respect of the offense, even if the person who committed the offense is indicated in the notice.

Keywords

  • criminal prosecution
  • referral
  • criminal trial
  • ordinance
  • criminal prosecution body
Open Access

Towards Coherent European Crime Victims Policies and Practices

Published Online: 23 Jul 2019
Page range: 122 - 127

Abstract

Abstract

This study explores the latest developments on the European scale of the policies and practices towards victims of crime. Due to many economic and political factors a lot of people are in movement and exposed to the risk of becoming victims of crime. During the last decade the statistics already records enhanced victimization of the global European society. These have provoked numerous legislative actions and practical initiatives in order to ensure safety, to prevent falling victims to crime and to protect better victim’s rights and needs. The European Protection Order Directive, Victims’ Directive and Convention against domestic violence, are among the most advanced legal acts worldwide. However, it is observed that their implementation in Europe is asymmetric and sometimes problematic. This paper explores the role of the national governments and specialized agencies and mainly the deficits in their activities leading to the non-usage of victims of all the existing opportunities. The newest supra-national acts aiming at the acceleration of transposition and ratification of these important for the building of victim-friendly environment documents, are discussed. Practical recommendations for a more effective victim protection are developed.

Keywords

  • crime victim
  • European Protection Order
  • violence against women
  • minimum standards
  • support
  • rights
Open Access

The Romanian Revolution of 1989 - An Armed Conflict?

Published Online: 23 Jul 2019
Page range: 128 - 134

Abstract

Abstract

The violent events of December 1989 in Romania, which led to the removal of the Communist regime from power are still shrouded in mystery today. The social disorder and the political chaos of those days overlapped with the violent use of the armed forces that used all kinds of weapons. During the armed confrontations, many casualties (military and civilian) and destruction of goods, including cultural ones, took place. In the years following these events a series of theories, hypotheses, controversies, and trials have emerged, but no one has clearly defined the legal nature of this social-political crisis. The purpose of this scientific approach is not to analyze the events and crimes committed in December 1989, but to determine whether and to what extent the international humanitarian law can be applied to these events.

Keywords

  • the 1989 Romanian Revolution
  • international humanitarian law
  • non-international armed conflict
Open Access

Appeal of Public Procurement Procedures

Published Online: 23 Jul 2019
Page range: 135 - 140

Abstract

Abstract

Public Procurement is an important element of the Internal Market and a basic method of public spending and ensuring the free movement of goods, services and works by domestic and foreign companies. Through the adoption and implementation in the national legislation of the Member States of a package of Directives 2014, a new Public Procurement regime is settled. The purpose of the new Directives is to exclude the risk of giving national tenderers an advantage. There are a number of issues, including the kind of legal protection contractors can expect in Public Procurement procedures. This article analyses one of the mechanisms for controlling Public Procurement - their appeal. It relates to the judicial control exercised by the relevant national institutions in the Member States and the conditions and procedures for appeal that are governed by the national laws, once the Directives have been transposed into national legal systems. Despite a limited number of cases, the Court of Justice of EU (CJEU) also exercises judicial review within the context of a reference for a preliminary ruling, where a national court hearing an appeal against a Public Procurement procedure, has referred a question to the CJEU.

Keywords

  • Public Procurement
  • appeal
  • national courts
  • Court of Justice of EU
Open Access

Contemporary Trends in the Development of the Anti-Corruption Legislation of Republic of Bulgaria

Published Online: 23 Jul 2019
Page range: 141 - 146

Abstract

Abstract

In 2000, the global policy against the phenomenon of “corruption“ was launched by the United Nations, and in 2003 the United Nations Convention against Corruption (UNCAC) was adopted, which Bulgaria ratified three years later. Two months after the adoption of this international convention, Bulgaria became part of the European Union. The accession was accompanied by the creation of “specific accompanying measures” aimed at correcting identified deficiencies in various areas, including measures against corruption. As a result of the annual reports of the European Commission on Bulgaria’s progress on the Co-operation and Verification Mechanism, anti-corruption law-making has begun to develop and improve. Serious progress in this direction is the creation of legislation in the area of “conflict of interest”, which is not exactly corruption but creates prerequisites for its development, especially in the public sphere. The paper presents the result of the analysis of the created anti-corruption legislation after the accession of the Republic of Bulgaria to the EU. Particular attention is paid to the law adopted in 2018 regulating anti-corruption measures, as well as the terms and procedure for the seizure of illegally acquired property for the benefit of the state.

Keywords

  • corruption
  • Bulgarian anti-corruption legislation
  • conflict of interests
  • bribe
Open Access

Competence Management and Image of Police Officers in Poland

Published Online: 23 Jul 2019
Page range: 147 - 152

Abstract

Abstract

Competence management is an issue that has become an area of particular interest not only for organisations from the business community, but also for public institutions, including institutions whose primary objective is to ensure security and public order. The group of such institutions includes, among others, the Polish Police. The level of competence available to officers, which is manifested through the prism of their behaviour, is at the same time the basis for the assessment of officers’ activities, which translates into their social image. The image of an organization and its employees influences the attitudes of the interested parties, including their approval manifested by support and understanding, or disapproval in the scope of the tasks performed. The quality of the image of police officers also affects the citizens’ sense of security. Bearing the above in mind, in the first part of the article, the process of managing the competences of police officers is presented as an action aimed at equipping officers with competences necessary for effective performance of official duties and fulfilling a servile role in relation to the society. In the second part of the article, the results of empirical research devoted to the issue of the image of police officers are presented.

Keywords

  • competence management
  • image
  • Police officers
Open Access

Child Protection When Travelling Abroad

Published Online: 23 Jul 2019
Page range: 153 - 157

Abstract

Abstract

The article examines child protection when travelling abroad with only one parent or someone who is not a parent or a guardian set by national and EU legislation. It analyzes cases when one of the parents does not allow their child to travel abroad with the other one. Methods of protecting the children’s best interests, as well as introducing the substitute consent have been presented. The development of the European Union’s legislation and case-law on the subject are scrutinized. The study also covers the national legislation of the Republic of Bulgaria in the field of protecting the child’s interests. The preconditions that have led to the legislative initiative on the adoption of Art. 127a of the Family Code referring to the court’s consent to a child travelling abroad with only one of the parents are analyzed. Next, there are prerequisites leading to the adoption of the Interpretative Decision No 1 of 03.07.2017 at a General Meeting of the Civil Division of the Supreme Court of Cassation of the Republic of Bulgaria, which develops the framework in the field of granting a court permit for child’s travelling. What is examined are the exact interests of the child that should be protected when the court gives the consent substituting the parental one. The case-law of the subject is followed in order to maximize its improvement in the protection of the rights and interests of the children living with one of their parents.

Keywords

  • protection
  • travelling
  • abroad
  • children
Open Access

Challenges Regarding the Implementation of MiFID II

Published Online: 23 Jul 2019
Page range: 158 - 162

Abstract

Abstract

Despite the positive effects that MiFID II has had in increasing transparency and the individual investor protection, most recent studies outline the difficulties experienced in practice by the European investment firms when trying to comply with the European regulation. The most recent survey realized by CFA Institute point out to the fact that the European investment services industry has suffered, due to the introduction of the new regulation. The big players might be the only ones for which it seems to be worth remaining on the market, the small investment companies being downsized or eliminated completely. In this paper, we aim at discussing the challenges that the introduction of MiFID has brought for the Romanian investment firms, while comparing this situation with the general situation at the European level.

Keywords

  • MiFID II
  • challenges
  • investment firm
  • compliance
Open Access

Organizational Behavior in the Central Public Institutions

Published Online: 23 Jul 2019
Page range: 163 - 168

Abstract

Abstract

Redefining recruitment systems and evaluating civil servants to take into account a number of general macroeconomic issues. Professionalization of the public function in order to identify future practical solutions to recruitment and evaluation processes is necessary to make a decision on several fundamental aspects of the public service system. Analysis of the relationship between the available human resources and the probable evolution of the quantitative and qualitative analysis of the existing resources as well as the design of future resources.

Keywords

  • human
  • resource
  • management
  • evolution
  • administration
Open Access

Short Profiles of Different European Investigation Order Domestic Regulations in the European Union

Published Online: 23 Jul 2019
Page range: 169 - 175

Abstract

Abstract

Тhe regulatory fragmentation and the excessive administrative formalities in the area of international legal assistance in investigation have created the need for a unitary mechanism. This article is focused on the relatively new instrument for international judicial cooperation in criminal matters – The European Investigation Order (EIO). Specifically, it examines the reflection of Directive 2014/41/EU in several Member States of the EU and provides an overview of the separate national systems. The analysis contained in this paper seeks to identify the issuing, the receiving and the executing authorities in each of the considered countries. Main aspects of the EIO’s regulation such as, for an example, its form and content, its transmission, proportionality assessment, deadlines and refusal grounds are seen from the perspective of different national legislations. Although the present study is not intended to be exhaustive, it could clarify to some extent whether an“one-size-fits all” solution in the area of evidence-gathering is an appropriate approach. Special attention is paid to the protection of the right to defence provided by the examined domestic regulations concerning the EIO.

Keywords

  • EIO
  • mutual recognition of judicial decisions
  • national legislation
  • evidence-gathering
  • EIO domestic regulation
Open Access

Streamlining Multinational Logistical Support from a Normative Point of View

Published Online: 23 Jul 2019
Page range: 176 - 181

Abstract

Abstract

Conceptual changes in the last period of time in terms of normative regulation of logistical support in post-conflict operations, highlights the fact that most often the conceptual plan takes place before The normative plan and the distances existing between the time of occurrence and implementation of concepts, definitions, summaries, deadlines and regulatory regulation, are becoming larger in particular because of the fluid way in which The aforementioned military actions and due to the involvement or non-involvement of NATO (EU) member States in the efforts of the two organisations.

Keywords

  • post-conflict operations
  • logistic support
  • normative
  • efficiency
Open Access

The Development of Legal Regulation of the Combating Corruption – Main Criteria for the Confirmation of Democratic Values in the European Society

Published Online: 23 Jul 2019
Page range: 182 - 188

Abstract

Abstract

Corruption poses a serious danger to the democratic foundations of each country. The need of an effective legal mechanism for combating corruption is increasingly being interpreted as key criteria for strengthening democratic institutions and introducing modern standards of transparency and democratic control into the governance of society. There are adopted a number of national, regional and international legal anticorruption acts which are particularly important, especially in the context of Bulgaria’s integration processes in the European area. In this connection, ensuring the democratic values in European society represents a big challenge for regulatory claims and capabilities of law with a view to the dynamic development of society. The current survey examines at the main type the development of anticorruption legal framework and aims to provide guidance for optimizing and improving the existing system of effective measures for the fighting against corruption and to clarify its place in the confirmation of democracy.

Keywords

  • corruption
  • anti-corruption legislation
  • democracy
  • values
  • European Union
Open Access

Creating and Maintaining a Secure and Safe Environment on a Challenged Civilian University Campus in Papua New Guinea

Published Online: 23 Jul 2019
Page range: 189 - 196

Abstract

Abstract

The article introduces the challenges of maintaining effective security (of both personnel and property) on a 220 hectare rural/suburban University campus, The Papua New Guinea University of Technology, located on the outskirts of Lae, the second-largest city in Papua New Guinea, serves as its main port and manufacturing hub. Since the Independence of Papua New Guinea in 1975, the city of Lae, the University (of approximately 3000 students, and 1500 academic, technical, and administrative and staff) and its surrounding communities have faced increasing pressing security issues, some caused by internal (on campus) and others by external (off campus) factors. After a long, politically motivated student boycott in 2016 (which ended up with destruction of varied University properties and the death of a student), the University has endeavoured to create a safe campus environment by employing quantitative modelling predictive techniques, cost-effective technologies and appropriate social-psychological insights aimed at transcending extant tribal mindsets (the country is noted for having over 800 tribes and languages across its widely space geography of 462,840 Km and approximately 7 million population). Tribal conflict is a constant concern for the police and governing authorities, an inhibitor of balanced social and economic development of the resource-rich country.

Keywords

  • Papua New Guinea
  • PNGUoT/(UNITECH)
  • security
  • quantitative predictive modelling
  • crime-fighting technology
Open Access

Cancellation and Termination of Assignment Contract of Patrimonial Rights of the Author

Published Online: 23 Jul 2019
Page range: 197 - 201

Abstract

Abstract

The present study offers the doctrine of the right of intellectual creation new perspectives on the study of the institution of termination of the assignment contract for the patrimonial rights resulting from the intellectual creation. We believe that the present study is rich in doctrinal contributions, formulating new theses and opening the prospect for new perspectives of scientific research. Last but not least, we appreciate that the proposals made in the present study contribute not only to the activity of opinionated in the field, but also to the work of practitioners and direct beneficiaries of the legal provisions on the assignment of patrimonial rights of authors.

Keywords

  • cancellation
  • termination
  • assignment contract
  • copyright
Open Access

Determining the Remuneration of the Copyright Holder and Terminating the Assignment Contract

Published Online: 23 Jul 2019
Page range: 202 - 205

Abstract

Abstract

Through this study we propose new visions of the legal norms establishing the social relations between the author and the assignee in the matter of determining the remuneration and judicial review of the assignment contract. In this respect, we propose a series of amendments lex ferenda of the Law no.8 / 1996 and formulate a series of doctrinal theories that we consider will contribute significantly to the science of rights resulting from intellectual creation.

Keywords

  • copyright
  • remuneration
  • assignment contract
Open Access

The Role of Ombudsman Institutions in Defending the Rights of Military Personnel

Published Online: 23 Jul 2019
Page range: 206 - 209

Abstract

Abstract

The Ombudsman type institutions are appointed to investigate individuals’ complaints against public authority and represent important actors in human rights protection system and in implementing democratic controls of the security system. These institutions have the task of interrupting human rights and the fundamental freedoms of armed force personnel, as well as ensuring the over-protection and prevention of defamation of armed forces. At the European level, the institutions of the Ombudsman are particularly important for ensuring the accountability of public authorities outside the contradictory environment of the courts. Ombudsman’s general institutions are mandated to receive complaints about all or almost all state organs, and their attributions concern all public services and government branches, including the armed forces. In addition, the ombudsman institutions with exclusive jurisdiction are independent and have exclusive jurisdiction over the armed forces, usually civilian and independent of the military command chain. Also, the Ombudsman institutions operating within the army can be identified and these are not completely independent, most often subordinated to the defense ministry and receive money from the defense budget.

Keywords

  • ombudsman
  • military
  • rights
  • institution
Open Access

Gender Equality Education in the European Military Universities

Published Online: 23 Jul 2019
Page range: 210 - 215

Abstract

Abstract

The report points the need of studying the gender equality topic as an element of leadership formation of the future officers in the European Armed Forces. The analysis of the approaches to the inclusion of the subject in different disciplines will help to increase the sensitivity and the understanding of the military personnel to the questions related to the implementation of the gender equality in a military environment. The equal treatment of the both sexes and the opportunities for successful realization, based on their professionalism, would contribute to the harmonization of the working environment as a part of modern European policies.

Keywords

  • gender equality
  • military education
  • European experience
Open Access

Adjusting the Military Educational Process to the Cyber Defence Domain

Published Online: 23 Jul 2019
Page range: 216 - 219

Abstract

Abstract

Threats, challenges and attacks are becoming more frequent, sophisticated and damaging within the new and unique environment, known today as cyber domain. The article presents the importance of cyber defence as a field of study and the tremendous efforts that are being made to continuously adapt the military educational process to this field. Concerning the education process in this domain, we can identify a strong need for improving the way we approach it and a striving call to fill the knowledge gaps for generating a credible cyber workforce. The aim was to analyze and present a few new cyber defence courses and the curriculum developed for both content and methods of education for officer career courses at military academies worldwide. The conclusion I have reached is that there are numerous modern methods that prove to be highly efficient in teaching this new subject matter and military educational institutions are investing into the skills and competence of their personnel.

Keywords

  • military education
  • training
  • cyber domain
  • cyber workforce
Open Access

Inductive Approach in Higher Education

Published Online: 23 Jul 2019
Page range: 220 - 224

Abstract

Abstract

Both during university studies and at the beginning of their careers in different jobs, it has often been found that students and young employees face difficulties when they need to use their theoretical knowledge to solve practical professional problems. A possible cause of this phenomenon is the fact that the academic disciplines are usually taught in a deductive manner. The courses are conducted with focus on the presentation and explanation of new concepts and theories, and finally give examples or resolve some practical applications. This paper presents several ways to teach university subjects to develop students’ abilities to effectively link the theories to practice. It is about the teaching in an inductive manner, which starts from the evocation of real professional situations in the professional environment and gives then theoretical support and practical suggestions to approach and solve problems

Keywords

  • inductive strategy
  • higher education
Open Access

Lieutenant-Colonel Constantin Apostol, A Glory of the Romanian Military Sport

Published Online: 23 Jul 2019
Page range: 225 - 229

Abstract

Abstract

Lieutenant Colonel Constantin Apostol (1903-1995) was born in a family of wealthy peasants from Săgeata commune, Buzău County. His studies were: primary school in his native town, high school in Buzău, followed by military studies, namely The Cavalry Officers School from Târgoviște, The Special Cavalry School and The Equestrian School in Sibiu. His military career evolved as follows: from a high school student (1924) to being a caporal, a sergeant and a plutonier (1925), a sub-lieutenant (1927), a lieutenant (1930), a captain (1938), a major (1943) and, at the end of his activity, a colonel lieutenant (1946). Constantin Apostol was considered one of the most prestigious representatives of the Romanian horse riding. He was an instructor and a teacher at the Equestrian School in Sibiu and at the Superior School of War. In the interwar period, Constantin Apostol represented Romania at numerous international equestrian contests, winning many awards, including the first prize in tournements such as those from Aachen (The Great Trophy), Brussels, Belgrade, Berlin, Duseldorf, London, Munich, Naples, Nice, Paris, Rome, Warsaw, Vienna, etc. For such results, his name was mentioned several times in the Day Order. Constantin Apostol remained active even after his retirement, when, while in reserve, he prepared the Romanian national team for the Olympics in Helsinki and Stockholm (1952, 1956) and was also the coach of Petrolul Ploiești Sports Club.

Keywords

  • Constantin Apostol
  • interwar horse riding
Open Access

Lieutenant-Colonel Constantin Apostol, From Glory To Unfair Humiliation

Published Online: 23 Jul 2019
Page range: 230 - 233

Abstract

Abstract

Constantin Apostol (1903-1995) was a prominent representative of the interwar Romanian horse riding [1]. He was born in Săgeata, Buzău County [2], attended primary school in his home town, high school in Buzău and military studies in Târgovişte and Sibiu. As far as his military career is concerned, C. Apostol advanced up to the rank of a lieutenant-colonel. He participated in various international competitions, winning many awards, including the first prize, in countries, such as: England, Austria, Belgium, Czechoslovakia, Yugoslavia, Germany, France, Italy, Poland. He took part in the military operations of World War II, both in the East and in the West, being decorated for his actions on both war fields. After the establishment of the communist regime, Constantin Apostol was continuosly humiliated, and finally imprisoned. In our work, the author aims to present, for the first time ever, precisely this final stage of his life.

Keywords

  • Constantin Apostol
  • champion
  • political prisoner
Open Access

The History of Pentathlon Competitions

Published Online: 23 Jul 2019
Page range: 234 - 239

Abstract

Abstract

The Pentathlon is a combined athletic discipline of the ancient Olympic Games. A detailed exploration of the ancient Olympic competitions in general and of the pentathlon, in particular, allow us to discover1200 years of sport history. The spectacle of the pentathlon contest, the method of determining a winner, the order of the five disciplines is simply fascinating. The modern Olympic Games redefined the pentathlon among the Olympic disciplines. Under the name of the modern pentathlon, it gradually regained its fame won in antiquity. The military pentathlon is a variant of the modern pentathlon deployed within the military organization and is considered the king of military sports. The evolution of the modern battlefield, strongly influenced by the modern combat technique, will surely change the pentathlon contest register. Even if respect for the Olympic spirit is desired, the pentathlon must take into account the evolution of the contemporary society to keep its attractiveness.

Keywords

  • pentathlon
  • ancient
  • mythology
  • history
  • sports
  • military
Open Access

Problem-Based Strategies for Teaching Military English

Published Online: 23 Jul 2019
Page range: 240 - 244

Abstract

Abstract

Educators generally concur to the idea that one of the most essential goals of schooling is to empower students to become efficient problem solvers for the knowledge-based society. Problem-based learning (PBL) is an instructional methodology mainly focused on developing students’ abilities to deal with solving realistic issues by employing team-oriented strategies. The present paper discusses the opportunities of integrating PBL in the teaching of English for specific purposes, starting from the firm belief that by putting students in the role of effective collaborators, critical thinkers, creative problem-solvers, and capable communicators, the proposed strategies efficiently prepare cadets for real-life environments, for the challenges of their professional careers, and for an active citizenship. Drawing on a solid theoretical conceptualization of problem-based instruction, the article outlines the advantages of PBL for both teachers and students and proposes a series of practical strategies that are intended to facilitate our cadets’ development in four key skills – critical thinking, creativity, communication and collaboration, –with the help of project-based learning.

Keywords

  • problem-based learning
  • foreign language instruction
  • military students
  • critical thinking skills
  • cooperative learning
Open Access

Theories Used in NLP for Motivation. 1st Part

Published Online: 23 Jul 2019
Page range: 245 - 250

Abstract

Abstract

Neuro-linguistic programming (international acronym: NLP) contains a series of principles designed to identify and analyze patterns/models resulting from the analysis of personal development theories and models, one of the NLP goals being to combine their different abilities. Therefore, it is more about an awareness of theories and models, which the individual can follow to get performance in what he does. The principle of reasoning is no exception to this rule. The most well-known theory of motivation is the one proposed by S. Freud (a neuropsychiatrist) through his “pleasure principle“, generically called “motivation direction” in NLP, considered in his time the main motivation mechanism. at the same time, it is very important to separate the concept of NLP, in terms of motivation, from the motivational theories and models that postulate that motivation is essentially of a mechanical nature and is programmed through a series of repetitions and external stimuli. Multiple studies meant to support motivational theories and models have failed to take into consideration the numerous phenomena that are independent of external stimuli. Motivational theories are based on the premise that the individual is animated by intrapsychic potentials which managers and leaders must identify and find a concrete way to emphasize them.

Keywords

  • Motivation
  • NLP
  • Transactional analysis
Open Access

Theories used in NLP for motivation. 2nd part

Published Online: 23 Jul 2019
Page range: 251 - 257

Abstract

Abstract

One of the purposes of Neuro-Linguistic Programming (international acronym: NLP) is to motivate different skills from specific methods, techniques, tools, processes, theories and models into a single coherent and very Effective when implemented. Most of the methods, techniques, tools, processes, theories and specific models of NLP were created through the process called “modeling”, which, in principle, involves decipting the way in which the mind and how we think (neuro) operates through analyzing language (linguistic) patterns and non-verbal communication, the results of the analysis being integrated step by step in a strategy (programming) that can be used to transfer the ability of other individuals. The most important aspect of NLP is perhaps the practical-pragmatic, tracksuit programs and NLP concepts focusing on the interactive side and experiential learning, precisely in order for these concepts and principles to be fair and fully perceived and understood.

Keywords

  • NLP
  • Value-based motivation
  • General Semantics
Open Access

Intercultural Communication Barriers. China and the USA, The Difficulties of a Dialogue

Published Online: 23 Jul 2019
Page range: 258 - 263

Abstract

Abstract

When people from different countries, cultures and backgrounds meet, they have to cope with the positive and the negative aspects of the intercultural exchange. Barriers such as anxiety, language, stereotypes, prejudice, ethnocentrism, and assumption of similarity instead of difference are the most significant ones to consider. This paper aims to discuss the main difficulties that individuals of various cultures and heritages may face during the intercultural communication process. In particular, this paper takes a closer look at the cultural differences between China and the USA, and at some of the current communication difficulties that the two countries face, caused by lack of mutual understanding, ethnocentrism, stereotypes, prejudice, language, differences of nonverbal indices, political and economic causes.

Keywords

  • intercultural communication
  • ethnocentrism
  • stereotype
  • prejudice
  • generalization
Open Access

The Intercultural Competence. Developing Effective Intercultural Communication Skills

Published Online: 23 Jul 2019
Page range: 264 - 268

Abstract

Abstract

Effective intercultural communication has become a priority today because of the importance it has gained in the understanding of the cultural diversity of the world. Immigration, urbanization, international employment, study exchange programs and ease of foreign travel are facilitating daily contact between people of different cultural backgrounds. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the importance of developing the attitudes and the communication skills necessary for multicultural exchange, in everyday life and within organizations. Learning about other cultures and developing intercultural communication competences and skills can help facilitate the multicultural encounter and can lead to more openness and tolerance towards the significant other.

Keywords

  • intercultural communication
  • globalization
  • intercultural competence
  • intercultural sensitivity
  • intercultural awareness
Open Access

A Study of the Family Structure in Relation to Emotional Intelligence of High School Students

Published Online: 23 Jul 2019
Page range: 269 - 275

Abstract

Abstract

The current study assessed and compared the emotional intelligence of 75 high school students who grew up with different family structures. High school students between the ages of 16-18 years were randomly selected from high schools in Bucharest, Romania. The General Emotional Intelligence Scale (GEIS) was used to measure the level of their emotional intelligence. In addition, a nonverbal test consisting of 20 face photoswith different facial expressions was used to measure a specific aspect of emotional intelligence, perceiving emotions. Results revealed that family structure does not influence emotional intelligence; however, when looking at the aspect of perceiving emotions, family structure influences this aspect of emotional intelligence.

Keywords

  • emotional intelligence
  • family structure
  • perceiving emotions
Open Access

Study on the Importance of Land-Centered Training for the Freestyle Swimming Technique for Military Students

Published Online: 23 Jul 2019
Page range: 276 - 282

Abstract

Abstract

Swimming is a very important component of the military training. This can be proven by the fact that swimming is a beneficial sport for the human body because the joints are not tensed like in running, increases heart rate, but also stimulates blood circulation. At the same time, while swimming, absolutely all muscle groups are involved, which means automatically shaping them and, over time, increasing the body’s resistance.

The study found the following:

• students’ results at the 50 m freestyle swimming test are positively influenced if an additional training program is respected;

• additional physical training leads to improved performance.

Keywords

  • swimming
  • freestyle
  • practice
  • to improve
Open Access

The Romanian Social Classes in Three Years in Romania by James William Ozanne

Published Online: 23 Jul 2019
Page range: 283 - 288

Abstract

Abstract

The paper analyses the image of the social classes existing in Romania in the second half of the 19th century as it emerges from the work of the English writer James William Ozanne, the first president of the Anglo-American Press Association in Paris, between 1882-1912. The Romanian society is seen through the eyes of a diplomat with a keen sense of observation, yet also subjective sometimes, who manages to create an accurate depiction of the society of a state which he did not consider to be among the first ranking ones. It is interesting to notice that he borrows “valuable information“ from other writers, especially Vaillant, Regnault and Obedenare, but, unlike other foreign travellers who wrote about the Romanians and their way of life, he is not ashamed to acknowledge this fact. J.W. Ozanne openly admits the fact that he liked the people among whom he had lived for three years, but his book is not a happy one. He did his duty of respecting the truth as much as possible, without entering into too many details, and the image of the social classes that he managed to create is one that enjoys the “right combination of light and shadows”.

Keywords

  • image
  • social
  • classes
  • Romania
  • 19 century
Open Access

A Romanian Heroine of British Origin — Maria Rosetti

Published Online: 23 Jul 2019
Page range: 289 - 292

Abstract

Abstract

The paper analyses the image of Maria Rosetti, the first female journalist in Romania, one of the personalities that played a crucial role for the outcome of the Revolution of 1848, and the way in which she remained in the public consciousness. Born in Guernsey, Scotland, the sister of the diplomat Effingham Grant and wife of the Romanian revolutionary Constantin Alexandru Rosetti “made the cause of Romania her own“. Despite being a foreigner, through everything she did, Maria Rosetti tried to help her adoptive country evolve and become a modern unitary state. Besides playing an active role in the escape of her husband and of other revolutionaries arrested by the Turks, she was also the mother of eight children (only four survived) in whom she instilled the most fervent patriotism. Last, but not least, the wife of C. A. Rosetti used her literary talent for pedagogical purposes in order to educate the younger generations according to the desiderata of a new Romanian society. Admired by her contemporaries and by her followers, her portrait was immortalized by C. D. Rosenthal in the famous painting “Revolutionary Romania”, becoming a symbol of the love and of the power of sacrifice for her country.

Keywords

  • Maria Rosetti
  • Revolution
  • 1848
  • Romania
Open Access

From Word to Idea: Freewriting

Published Online: 23 Jul 2019
Page range: 293 - 299

Abstract

Abstract

The aim of the article is to offer a variety of simple resources to foreign language teachers who consider their students’ creativity very important. The activities that we propose apply to all levels of the students and can be adapted to different grammatical structures and vocabulary according to the target students. We undertook research on freewriting in a foreign language class in sophomore cadet groups. At the center of this research, there are students’ products (free texts) and methods used in carrying out the writing activity (writing strategies and solutions for linguistic problems). Since writing has always been a difficult skill and an unpleasant task for most of the students, with this new approach they have found a way of enjoying their own pieces of writing.

Keywords

  • freewriting
  • creativity
  • foreign language class
  • linguistic problems
Open Access

Vocabulary Acquisition

Published Online: 23 Jul 2019
Page range: 300 - 304

Abstract

Abstract

Introducing vocabulary to students is not always an easy task. Due to music and movies that young people are exposed to today, vocabulary acquisition is more often not taken seriously. Young people can hum or repeat sentences from a movie that impress them and think that they are able to communicate in a foreign language. In an academic environment you realize that each new vocabulary word is like a brick needed to build up a whole wall; is a small step that help you enrich your abilities to speak, write and understand all the English you might need at a certain time in your professional life. Studies have shown that the more words you know in a foreign language the more you can use it in real life situations. In this study we will approach the theoretical studies related to vocabulary acquisition as well as some practical exercises that might be used in class.

Keywords

  • vocabulary development
  • meaning
  • lexical patterning
  • communication
Open Access

Globalization Trends in the Security Environment and Education of Military Professionals in the Slovak Armed Forces

Published Online: 23 Jul 2019
Page range: 305 - 315

Abstract

Abstract

The authors of the article highlight globalization trends in the current understanding of the security sector. They emphasize the mission and current requirements for the Slovak Armed Forces and preparation of future military experts in accordance with cosmopolitan policy of NATO and the EU. The authors also underline the need to address the key competences in terms of the relationship manager - leader and a professional soldier not only within the framework of university education, but also within the framework of lifelong and career education in the Slovak Republic.

Keywords

  • security environment
  • education and development of professional soldiers
  • human resources management
  • manager and leader
Open Access

The Reputation of the Military Leader Between Ego-Perception and Group Perception

Published Online: 23 Jul 2019
Page range: 316 - 323

Abstract

Abstract

Any organization is in a permanent search for reputable leaders. Leaders adopt a behaviour reflected by their professional training and ego-esteem. Ego-perception reflects how a person is seen as a genre (how is?), as an identity (who is?), as an image of his/her ego (what is?), as self-opinion (what has?) and as an object (what affects?). The perception of those around them revolves around the things that are known to themselves and to the others (such as the physical reflection), the things the person knows about but the others do not know (personalities not shown), the things others know about him/her own person, but about which he/she does not know (personality traits that are perceived differently) and things that neither the person nor the others know (the ones in the unconscious). To be effective, the leader needs to know himself/herself and the environment in which he/she is acting, and to constantly pursue the relationship between ego-perception and perception of others about him/her. The desired report is the one in which the personal perception is the same as that of the others. Any significant variation leads to under or overestimation and, implicitly, to negative effects on the leadership process.

Keywords

  • leader
  • ego-esteem
  • ego-perception
  • personality
  • relationship
Open Access

Legislative Measures Adopted at the International Level Against Fake News

Published Online: 23 Jul 2019
Page range: 324 - 330

Abstract

Abstract

Social media has become an informational decision-making vector due to the rapid transfer and permanent consumption of messages by the population. In this virtual environment, information changes its qualitative and quantitative form, from real, manipulated to a fabricated form. As information grows, it travels more rapidly, responding to the needs and expectations of individuals, and at the same time there are the dangers of its distortion and intoxication, affecting the perception of the receptors. Fake news is a phenomenon created by social media, in which the communication scheme is vicious, it occurs due to the lack of information of the users. Fake news produces confusion and distraction, leading to fragmented public opinion. At international level, the act of combating this phenomenon was implemented by the authorities on a legislative basis, adopting anti-fake news laws with drastic sanctions, which differ according to the form of government in each state. The first country in the world to introduce an anti-fake news law is Malaysia. And the first European democratic state to initiate two bills against false information is France.

Keywords

  • fake news
  • disinformation
  • social media
  • legislative measures
  • free speech
Open Access

Attitudes to Gender Roles in Romania

Published Online: 23 Jul 2019
Page range: 331 - 335

Abstract

Abstract

The paper analyses the attitude towards gender roles and their dynamics in Romania in the context of economic, social, political and cultural changes due to the transition from the traditional, modern to the postmodern society. In order to achieve this goal, we used the attitude measurement scale versus the gender roles used in two stages of the World Value Survey 2014, 2018.

Keywords

  • gender roles
  • attitudes towards gender roles
  • World Value Survey
Open Access

Couple Villages from the Făgăraş Land, with their History and Ethnographic Peculiarities

Published Online: 23 Jul 2019
Page range: 336 - 341

Abstract

Abstract

The Făgăraș Land is an old Romanian state formation on the territory of Transylvania. Geographically located between the Olt and the Meridional Carpathians, the Făgăraș Land is considered the starting point of the founders of Wallachia. It was caught between the interests and pride of the Hungarian Kingdom and those of the Romanian lords throughout the Middle Ages, and suffered invasions of the Tartars. The memory of the latter is preserved in the collective memory of the locals, especially in the legends about the rocks that girls chased by attackers have jumped off. Many of the villages of Fagaras are arranged in pairs, one in the Olt meadow and the other in the mountain. Over time, there have been differentiations in the folk garment and traditions between the couple villages, but also between neighbouring couple villages. These differences strenghten the community identity of the Făgăraș Land villagers and indicate the existence of significant intangible cultural heritage resources in the area.

Keywords

  • folk garment
  • community identity
  • Făgăraș Land
Open Access

The Evolution of the Romanian Traditional Garment in Făgăraş Land in the First Decades after the Great Union of 1918

Published Online: 23 Jul 2019
Page range: 342 - 347

Abstract

Abstract

In 1910 ASTRA, the Transylvanian Association for Romanian Literature and Culture initiated a campaign to photograph the traditional clothing of Făgăraș Land. A comparison between the outcome from the campaign that started in 1910 (owned by the Făgăraș LandMuseum“Valer Literat”) and the photographs taken in the 1930s in the communities of Făgăraș villages (kept in the same museum) shows modifications to the traditional clothing in the period following the Great Union. Causes for the changes include the economic evolution of the area, gradual reduction in hemp cultivation and the diversification of textiles on offer in fairs, a gradual rise in awareness of fashion in the female population, and last but not least, ASTRA’s influence. It encouraged, through its women’s organisations, the spread and adoption of the Sălişte costume, as an expression of national unity. The comparison between the two sets of photographs highlights a tendency to simplify the outfit, namely to remove the heavy and uncomfortable items and to partially replace fabrics woven at home with industrial fabrics. From a chromatic point of view, this tendency to simplify the garment is accompanied by a narrowing of the colour register..

Keywords

  • folk garment
  • national costume
  • Făgăraș Land
  • ASTRA
Open Access

Methodological Guidelines for the Technical Training of Judo Players in the Military System

Published Online: 23 Jul 2019
Page range: 348 - 354

Abstract

Abstract

Judo, a sport playing a vital role in the training of the military, leads to the achievement of positive, multiple and unique effects, both in terms of developing the motor skills, but also in the formation, consolidation and improvement of applicative skills and aptitudes specific to close combat. The paper highlights the fact that the methods and contents specific to combat sports represent a useful and effective way of meeting the formative objectives in the context of the current Romanian Army missions, facilitating the physical adaptation of the combatants to the new demands imposed by the modern battlefield, characteristic of the actions carried out by NATO military structures.

Keywords

  • sport
  • combat
  • judo
  • means
  • missions
Open Access

The School and the Community Towards the Prevention and Reduction of School Dropout

Published Online: 23 Jul 2019
Page range: 355 - 360

Abstract

Abstract

This paper aims to emphasize the importance of the partnership between school and community for preventing early school leaving and reducing the school dropout. In order to achieve a successful partnership, it is necessary to go through some steps of “exploration-evaluation-planning-training-initiation-achievement-checking-regulation-consolidation-action-implementation-assessment”. Thus, the four conditions for achieving this process need to be respected: communication, coordination, cooperation and partnership. The educational partnership is the form of communication, cooperation and collaboration offering the optimal support to the child at the level of the educational process. It involves a unity of requirements, options, decisions and educational actions between educational factors and it is carried out within the educational act. A successful partnership implies identifying goals and common interests useful for the partners and the community, finding the optimal way to organize and manage the available resources in order to achieve the purpose, identifying the competencies of those involved in these projects in order to achieve most of them and implementing changes for the benefit of the institution. Preventing the school dropout should be the highest priority assumed equally by the school and the community. Beyond national policies and strategies which are more or less applied, each community has its own characteristics and dropout causes have different values from one community to another. So, the two entities, the school and the community, need to find personalized and coherent solutions to prevent this phenomenon, which will surely define the structure of the future generations.

Keywords

  • partnership
  • school
  • community
  • school dropout
Open Access

Secular Trends in BMI and Waist Circumference and the Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity in Austrian Candidates for Conscription from 2007 To 2016

Published Online: 23 Jul 2019
Page range: 361 - 367

Abstract

Abstract

The increase of prevalence of overweight and obesity progressed worldwide and is associated with lifetime diseases. Operational readiness of armed forces is depending on anthropometric data and physical fitness of soldiers. The aim of the study was the investigation of temporal and regional trends of BMI and waist circumference of Austrian conscripts.Data came from the Ministry of Defence of Austria. Mean of body mass (BM, kg), body mass index (BMI, kg/m2,) and waist circumference (WC, cm) across age, urbanity and regions were analysed, effect size was checked by Cohen’s d and f eta. Significance was selected at p values <0.05.Mean of BM, BMI and WC showed significant differences, effect sizes were trivial. A significant high correlation was ascertained by BM (r = 0.78 – 0.82) and BMI (r = 0.77 – 0.81) to WC in all age cohorts. Regional differences were detected in BM, BMI and WC. The results show a significant increase of BM, BMI and WC in the years 2007 to 2010 and a stabilisation during the rest of investigation period. Prevalence of overweight and obesity in young men has reached a worrying level for public health in Austrian society.

Keywords

  • BMI
  • Waist circumference
  • prevalence of overweight of conscripts
Open Access

The Science We Need in Order to Achieve Progress in the Social Development

Published Online: 23 Jul 2019
Page range: 368 - 372

Abstract

Abstract

The aim of this study is to gather sufficient evidence and arguments in order to prove to society that during the process of change in thinking and especially in the effective practical implementation of such educational models, high levels of efficiency can be achieved at all hierarchical levels in key systems for the society and the state.

Keywords

  • science
  • criterion
  • publications
  • impact factor

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