Issues

Conference & Issues

Volume 28 (2022): Issue 3 (June 2022)

Volume 28 (2022): Issue 2 (June 2022)

Volume 28 (2022): Issue 1 (June 2022)

Volume 27 (2021): Issue 3 (June 2021)

Volume 27 (2021): Issue 2 (June 2021)

Volume 27 (2021): Issue 1 (June 2021)

Volume 26 (2020): Issue 3 (June 2020)

Volume 26 (2020): Issue 2 (June 2020)

Volume 26 (2020): Issue 1 (June 2020)

Volume 25 (2019): Issue 3 (June 2019)

Volume 25 (2019): Issue 2 (June 2019)

Volume 25 (2019): Issue 1 (June 2019)

Volume 24 (2018): Issue 3 (June 2018)

Volume 24 (2018): Issue 2 (June 2018)

Volume 24 (2018): Issue 1 (June 2018)

Volume 23 (2017): Issue 3 (June 2017)

Volume 23 (2017): Issue 2 (June 2017)

Volume 23 (2017): Issue 1 (June 2017)

Volume 22 (2016): Issue 3 (June 2016)

Volume 22 (2016): Issue 2 (June 2016)

Volume 22 (2016): Issue 1 (June 2016)

Volume 21 (2015): Issue 3 (June 2015)

Volume 21 (2015): Issue 2 (June 2015)

Volume 21 (2015): Issue 1 (June 2015)

Conference Details
Format
Conference
eISSN
2451-3113
First Published
15 Dec 2015
Publication timeframe
3 times per year
Languages
English

Search

Volume 27 (2021): Issue 2 (June 2021)

Conference Details
Format
Conference
eISSN
2451-3113
First Published
15 Dec 2015
Publication timeframe
3 times per year
Languages
English

Search

42 Articles
Open Access

Military Supply Network at Risk

Published Online: 12 Jul 2021
Page range: 1 - 5

Abstract

Abstract

An efficient supply network is a basic building block of a globalized society and an essential element for maintaining the sustainability of armed forces in an operation. However, the increased optimization of supply chains, the integration of various partners and the resulting complexity increase the vulnerability of supply networks. The protection of internal and external supply chains is therefore important. In order to be better prepared for the future, it is therefore necessary to strengthen the resilience of the military supply network. To this end, risk management must be implemented at the appropriate military command levels in order to be able to take the right measures. Starting with the military strategic level and continuing to the operational and tactical level, a consistent, plausible and functioning instrument dealing with risk management planning, risk identification, risk analysis and evaluation, risk treatment, and risk monitoring must be introduced.

Keywords

  • Military Logistics
  • supply network
  • risk management
Open Access

Sustainability in the Contemporary Market Economy

Published Online: 12 Jul 2021
Page range: 6 - 11

Abstract

Abstract

Over time, the market economy has undergone many changes caused by the processes underlying its operation, and have focused on the scarcity of resources, interdependencies between economic agents, intensified exchanges, technical and scientific progress and computerization of economic systems. Given the many variables that act and ensure the functionality of the contemporary market economy, it is particularly important that the interdependencies between them be addressed in terms of sustainability. This paper addresses sustainability as a condition for supporting sustainable economic development, starting from the main links that support economic growth, namely production and consumption. Sustainable economic growth must be accompanied by measures to optimize the processes that characterize production and consumption, aiming at reducing resource waste, maximizing the intrinsic value of waste from economic activity and ensuring an infrastructure that makes it possible to move from the linear economy to the circular economy. Starting from the current stage of the steps taken to ensure sustainable economic development, the paper presents the main challenges faced by supply and demand, representing shortcomings in ensuring the road to circularity.

Keywords

  • sustainability
  • sustainable development
  • market economy
  • production
  • consumption
Open Access

The Historical Road Maria Theresia in the Călimani Mountains - Past, Present and Future

Published Online: 12 Jul 2021
Page range: 12 - 17

Abstract

Abstract

The Roman road Maria Theresia is known for its historical heritage; in the past, the troops of the Austro-Hungarian Empire housed weapons and food here. Built hundreds of years ago, the route crosses the Călimani mountains. In the elaboration of this article I applied as a research method the case study, which allowed me access to some historical and military information, namely the fact that the historical road had been designed since the time of Emperor Joseph II, but it was completed only in 1820, during the reign of Emperor Francis I of Austria. This study allowed me to collect certain data related to the way in which this road is valued and is attributed remarkable tourist values, and all this through the project undertaken by the Tășuleasa Social Association, which aims to arrange this route as thematic path, precisely to rediscover the imperial road with the value of a historical monument, but also to highlight the natural setting of the Călimani Mountains. Throughout the investigations and the documents studied, I found that many volunteers joined this great project, to keep a road with a distant history practicable. From this case study, it appears that this road has been so well valued that it manages to attract more and more tourists, eager to know both the history of these places, but also to participate in the organized marathon or for a simple hike.

Keywords

  • Călimani Mountains
  • Via Maria Theresia
  • mountain area
  • mountain marathon
  • active leisure
Open Access

Provision of Accounting Information from the Perspective of Accounting Professionals’ Receptivity and Transparency

Published Online: 12 Jul 2021
Page range: 18 - 23

Abstract

Abstract

Accounting information is found, in one form or another, in the management system of the organization regardless of its size or constitution. Accounting, through the information provided, has an active and decisive role in decision-making and provides the indispensable language for the analysis of activity and results, which is an objective necessary to be done in financial terms. From this perspective, based on the study of the literature, the paper presents the main categories of users of accounting information. The main objective of the selective research is to analyze the way of providing accounting information to interested users from the perspective of the receptivity of professional accountants and compliance with the principle of transparency).

Keywords

  • professional accountants
  • accounting information
  • transparency
  • information
  • users
Open Access

Study on the Evolution of Defense Expenses in Nato Member States for the Period 2010–2020. “Free Rider” behavior among Allies

Published Online: 12 Jul 2021
Page range: 24 - 30

Abstract

Abstract

This paper proposes a longitudinal study on the analysis of defense spending of NATO member states in the years 2010-2020. It also aims to identify the emergence of a possible “free-rider” behavior among alliance members. This behavior occurs when some members may be tempted to allocate a low level of defense spending. Defense spending is an important component of each state’s budget, which ensures a vital function of states, namely the national defense function. When the defense is carried out in military-type alliances, and the number of members is large, there is an increased possibility of observing a “free-rider” type behavior between the members of the alliances. To observe this behavior, we tried to identify the best evaluation indicator, which according to the literature could be “the share of defense spending in GDP.” The paper is divided into five parts as follows: the first point considers the introductory part of the paper and the setting of objectives; the second chapter describes the study database, as well as the research methodology and methods used in the study to obtain the results; in the third chapter is analyzed the literature with impact on the studied subject; in the fourth chapter the case study is carried out; and in the last chapter mentioned the conclusions of the study.

Keywords

  • defense expenses
  • NATO
  • free-rider
  • asymmetry coefficient
  • econometric study
Open Access

Fundamental Elements Regarding the Organization of Internal Financial Control in Public Entities in Romania

Published Online: 12 Jul 2021
Page range: 31 - 37

Abstract

Abstract

Financial control, as part of internal managerial control and economic control, is an activity of overwhelming importance for the efficient, effective and economical use of resources economic and financial institutions in public institutions and beyond.The profile literature in this field has outlined the conceptual aspects, the necessary classifications and other defining dimensions of financial control as a highly responsible activity, meant to prevent facts contrary to the good management of wealth elements in public institutions and private entities.Preventive financial control, with its two components (own and delegated), is designed and carried out in public institutions according to a very rigorous methodology, meant to grant a visa only to those public money expenditures that meet all the requirements entered in the checklist. inserts requirements regarding the existence of supporting documents, visas, certifications and approvals regarding the legality of operations, the inclusion of amounts in the allocations of budgetary appropriations and the existence of supporting documents specific tooperations.

Keywords

  • control
  • financial control
  • preventive financial control
  • own preventive financial control
  • delegated preventive financial control
  • preventive financial control visa
  • delegated controller
Open Access

Opinions on Modern Methods, Techniques and Procedures of Financial Control used in Entities of the Ministry of National Defence

Published Online: 12 Jul 2021
Page range: 38 - 45

Abstract

Abstract

Financial control, as part of the internal managerial control and economic control, is also for the entities from the Ministry of National Defence an activity of major importance for the efficient, effective and economical use of the resources allocated to them. The own preventive financial control is also carried out in entities of the Ministry of National Defence based on a customized normative framework, starting from the one established for all public institutions. The set of methods for performing own preventive financial control in army units brings together, according to the special normative act adopted for this ministry, the specific framework of operations subject to own preventive financial control, the circulation schedule of documents verified in this control, specialized organizational compartments / entities in which the operations subject to this control are initiated and carried out. The Coronavirus pandemic that started in 2020 and continues in 2021 suggested the idea of running in a computerized, digitized system of own preventive financial control, to avoid or minimize direct contact between controllers and controlled, which is why we proposed the establishment of an appropriate computer system for such a purpose.

Keywords

  • control
  • own preventive financial control
  • the specific framework of the operations subject to own preventive financial control
  • specialized compartments
  • control procedure
  • visa refusal
  • management information systems
Open Access

Theoretical Guidelines Regarding Performance Audit in the Military Organization

Published Online: 12 Jul 2021
Page range: 46 - 51

Abstract

Abstract

In the contemporary organizational environment, the internal public audit allows the management to develop its action capacity, thus ensuring that its strategy is correctly put in practice and the effects related to economy, efficiency and effectiveness are the expected ones. The implementation of the internal audit in the military organization represents a continuous and modern action that is part of the general effort to streamline the management of public institutions in Romania. The audit solutions must contribute to strengthening the stability of the military institution and to achieving its objectives, both domestically and internationally, in terms of anticipation and proper risk management, optimal use of the allocated resources and compliance with the existing legal framework.

Keywords

  • military organization
  • internal public audit
  • resources
  • performance
  • solutions
  • recommendations
Open Access

Unemployment – the Macroeconomic Imbalance

Published Online: 12 Jul 2021
Page range: 52 - 56

Abstract

Abstract

Through the socio-economic generated implications, unemployment is a very complex social phenomenon. The economic reality showed there is no single solution for unemployment. There are no pure and perfect solutions, only integrated programs in the anti-crisis political system. The phenomenon itself cannot be eliminated, it can only be addressed. Through the socio-economic generated implications, the unemployment is a very complex social phenomenon, being related with poverty. Unemployment induces a drastic decrease of the living standards. As a macroeconomic complex imbalance, it impacts all the compartments of the national economy. The economic history of our century reveals that unemployment has become a mass nature. The financial difficulties of the companies, inlet by covid-19 global crises, caused a mass disorder of all the economic activity, impacting the labour market and a concern of the government to find ideal solutions to increase employment.

Keywords

  • unemployment
  • natural unemployment rate
  • social phenomenon
  • global crises

JEL Classification

  • E
Open Access

Is De-Risking one of the Indications for an Emerging Competition between the Free Movement of Capital and the Anti-Money Laundering Regulations?

Published Online: 12 Jul 2021
Page range: 57 - 64

Abstract

Abstract

The report is dedicated to analysing the phenomenon of de-risking which may be considered as another indication for the arising competition between the regulatory effect of the anti-money laundering regulation and the deregulatory effect of the liberalization of capital movements within the European Union. The author’s attention is focused on the triggering events for both liberalization of capital movements and de-risking, definition of the phenomenon de-risking and its impact on the free movement of capital and payments.

Keywords

  • anti-money laundering
  • free movement of capital
  • de-risking
  • financial institutions
Open Access

Assurance of Subsistence Services for Mechanized Brigada in Operation

Published Online: 12 Jul 2021
Page range: 65 - 71

Abstract

Abstract

The field of campaign services is currently the most complex area of logistical support, as it covers a wide range of services, requires cooperation between military bodies and various institutions, entities involved in providing them and requests promptness from planning and logistical management bodies in immediately solving the various problems that may arise. As part of the campaign services, feeding the personnel and providing water, as subsistence services. in the quantity and quality standards provided by the instructions, directly influences the health of the military and contributes to maintaining a high morale of the military. In order to give a more accurate overview of the influence of this functional field on the actions of the mechanized brigade in the operation, we will detail for each subsistence services some theoretical and practical aspects that we consider important.

Keywords

  • logistical support
  • feeding
  • water provisioning
  • campaign services
Open Access

Possibilities of the Contracting Authority to Amend the Public Procurement Contract/Framework Agreement

Published Online: 12 Jul 2021
Page range: 72 - 77

Abstract

Abstract

The experience gained in the field of public procurement leads me to the statement that the activity of amending the public procurement contract / framework agreement is a challenging activity for the contracting authority. Maybe not from the perspective of elaborating the documents necessary to operate the change or changes that may be required during the development of the public procurement contract / framework agreement, but rather from the perspective of the solutions offered by the law, solutions that cover only certain areas. Starting from the normative acts in force, this paper aims to identify the situations and the way in which the contracting authority can modify the public procurement contract / framework agreement, the documents to be elaborated and the effects that the modifications might entail. In order to increase transparency, predictability and coherence in relation to the operation of contractual changes, contracting authorities should carry out analyses after each public procurement process as well as of the various practical situations encountered during the execution of contracts.

Keywords

  • public procurement contract
  • framework agreement
  • public procurement acquisition
  • clause review
  • price review
Open Access

Transforming Romania into a Knowledge Economy Through ICT - Current Developments

Published Online: 12 Jul 2021
Page range: 78 - 83

Abstract

Abstract

In a society dependent on information, knowledge seems to be the only power that guarantees socio-economic development and progress. The knowledge is considered to be the driving force of economic growth and a resource that can provide sustainable competitive advantage and for this reason generates a great interest in understanding knowledge, information, technology, learning and their role in social economic life.

In this society in which knowledge occupies an important place, information and communication technology represents an important pillar because without it the transmission of knowledge cannot be achieved. From this perspective, this paper tries to present the current stage of development of the ICT sector in Romania and to propose some solutions to improve it.

Keywords

  • Knowledge economy
  • digitalization
  • Romania
  • information and communications technologies
Open Access

Definitions Establishing the Scope of Harmonization in the Field of Consumer Credits. Comparative Aspects

Published Online: 12 Jul 2021
Page range: 84 - 88

Abstract

Abstract

The sphere of consumer loans implies protection, knowledge, anticipatory regulations, flexibility, adaptability leading to the elaboration of a modern, clear legislation and an efficient internal credit market. Clear, explicit and clear legislation contributes to increasing the trust of customers, consumers and effectively to their protection. The European Directive states that: “in order to ensure consumer confidence, it is important that the market provides them with a sufficient degree of protection” [1]. In this way, the demand and supply of loans can be achieved in optimal conditions, both for professionals who offer loans and for credit consumers. A sufficient degree of protection ensures the confidence of credit consumers. In this sense, the concept of complete harmonization, from the perspective of the European Directive is seen as necessary in order to achieve a high level of interest of consumers and professionals. Legislation easily understood by the parties involved in credit agreements, does not leave room for some interpretations. For this reason, we appreciate the fact that the presentation of the definitions, the transparency in the knowledge of their meaning represent one of the important measures of protection of the customers consuming loans.

Keywords

  • Harmonization
  • full harmonization
  • consumers
  • credit consumers
  • definitions of application of credit harmonization
Open Access

Theoretical and Practical Aspects Regarding the Cancellation of Abuse Clauses

Published Online: 12 Jul 2021
Page range: 89 - 93

Abstract

Abstract

Interest and commissions are important sources of revenue for credit institutions. Among the causes generating abusive clauses are the interest, interest rates and commissions charged to loans to customers by creditors. Theory and practice have shown that these abusive clauses are unlimited. Effective knowledge of abusive clauses is only one of the customer protection measures. Of course, only their knowledge does not completely solve the problem, but will determine the orientation of creditors in finding more subtle abusive clauses. From a multidisciplinary perspective, the Study is structured in two parts: Part I, follows aspects of concrete identification of the types of sources of abusive clauses on a specified case and Part II materializes in the technical-applicative presentation of the methods used to quantify the differences in the amounts paid by the client in addition, generated by the existence of abusive clauses in the credit agreement he concluded with the creditor. The results of the first part confirm: Hypothesis 1, regarding the existence of abusive clauses in the investigated case; Hypothesis 2, regarding the identification of the sources generating abusive clauses that materialize in the interest rate, interest and bank fees; Hypothesis3, referring to the analytical grouping by types of the sources causing abusive clauses.

Keywords

  • Credit
  • interest
  • interest rate
  • instrumentation commission
  • management commission
  • initial credit granting commission
  • early repayment commission
  • credit non-use commission
Open Access

Aspects Regarding a New Methodology for Active Portfolio Management of Hedge Funds Alternative in Emerging Markets-the Case of Romanian Capital Market in the Actual Context of Post-Crisis Recovery

Published Online: 12 Jul 2021
Page range: 94 - 99

Abstract

Abstract

In emerging markets, the processes in portfolio management should be adapted according to the typical constraints (market liquidity aspect and other market imperfections)that limits the use of alternative instruments / strategies and diversification capabilities. The aim is to develop a new way to understand and implement innovative solutions in real portfolio management in the case of Romanian capital market. The innovation is based on a scalable hedge-fund (HF) structure that capture different alternative instruments. This HF architecture represents a versatile dynamic AIF, equipped with capabilities to integrate the synergies between diversification based on alternative instruments but also the diversification based on alternative strategies and it integrates a core thematic sub-portfolio and 2-4 satellite rotating sub-portfolios capable to compensate the impossibility to use short sales and leverage strategies.

Keywords

  • active portfolio management
  • alternative investment funds (AIFs)
  • hedge fund (HF) architecture
  • sub-portfolio selection
  • post-crisis recovery
Open Access

Applications of Game- Theory in Active Strategic Portfolio Management- the Case of Hedge - Funds Adaptation for the Real Constraints in Romanian Capital Market

Published Online: 12 Jul 2021
Page range: 100 - 104

Abstract

Abstract

The application is focused on strategies for portfolio management in the case of hedge-funds for emerging markets taking into account the severe constraints for a real-world implementation. In the case of Romanian capital market, the design of a hedge-fund architecture should respond to the typical constraints for using alternative strategies. Beyond the liquidity problems there exits only a limited set of alternative instruments and strategies with impact on diversification, on the functionality and efficiency. The objective is to develop a better understanding of alternative actions and innovations for real adaptation of the architecture of a hedge-fund at these emerging market conditions, especially the lack of short and hedging instruments and the liquidity problems. Based on this new innovative framework that could capture the value of multiple rotating satellite sub-portfolio paradigm, as an active strategy, it is possible to build a different paradigm for active portfolio management in a dynamic manner. Based on an adequate dynamic of rotation of these sub-portfolios it results an optimal risk- return-liquidity profile for the whole hedge-fund portfolio, adaptable for different contexts.

Keywords

  • hedge-fund
  • game-theory
  • active strategic portfolio management (ASPM)
  • sub-portfolio dynamic rotation management (SPDRM)
Open Access

Legal, Political and Security aspects of the Pandemic Language

Published Online: 12 Jul 2021
Page range: 105 - 110

Abstract

Abstract

From spring onwards 2020 has been irrevocably interwoven with words such as “pandemic”, “emergency”, “crisis”, “urgent measures”, etc. The usage of the pandemic language to describe the outbreak of COVID-19 derives from the etymologies of these words. However, it could also be rooted in political motives. There are instances of how specific terms could be mobilized to support policy aims. This is the main reason why more attention should be paid to the strength of the language used and more awareness of the usage of particular terms within a political and security context. It could be considered necessary to take extraordinary “urgent” measures to save lives as a result of a global “pandemic”, but at the same time, it is vital to be careful how exactly these terms are used to justify political principles, which were in operation even before the outbreak of COVID-19.

Keywords

  • pandemic language
  • World Health Organization
  • Siracusa principles
Open Access

Considerations Regarding the Quality of Military Training Programs

Published Online: 12 Jul 2021
Page range: 111 - 115

Abstract

Abstract

In order to provide well-prepared specialists in the military field, the Army ensures the training of its own human resources through initial training programs and then continuous training within the military system and environment. The quality of these training programs, which consume a lot of time and resources, must be evaluated as a process not only as a product, in an authentic and realistic way, according to certain relevant aspects: components of the curricular structure of the training program, quality of adult pedagogy, quality of experiential approaches in teaching and learning, and the difference between the initial and final level of the graduates’ competencies. There are a number of issues that can be discussed related to training programs evaluation, and they can be overcome by raising awareness and conceiving the evaluation explicitly for the quality improvement purpose.

Keywords

  • military training
  • training program
  • quality evaluation
Open Access

Opinions on the Legal Significance of the Right to Health

Published Online: 12 Jul 2021
Page range: 116 - 120

Abstract

Abstract

The legal significance of the right to health care, in particular and of other fundamental rights in general, on the one hand unknown to citizens and on the other hand known, minimized or ignored by state authorities and institutions, will certainly lead to abuses of law coming from the latter, abuses that cannot be tolerated by the rule of law.

Keywords

  • legality
  • consent
  • medical act
  • abuse of rights
  • legal protection
Open Access

The Architectural Design of Successful Online English Classes

Published Online: 12 Jul 2021
Page range: 121 - 124

Abstract

Abstract

Various studies on the impact of online teaching and learning have shown the importance of a teacher’s presence in the classroom, in terms of the efficiency of conveying knowledge. With online teaching, students show that they still require their teacher’s involvement as well, demonstrating that his/her guidance and management of a class remains an important component of pedagogy. However, not all students decide to get equally involved in in-class activities, considering the issues that four groups of students in a university revealed during their online learning experience during the COVID-19 pandemic. Their need for better interaction with the teacher and their hesitancy to participate due to possible bullying, demonstrate that a teacher’s presence is necessary. The Peer-Review Approach and the Flipped Classroom Strategy were both helpful to the students as they were involved in activities under the teacher’s observation. The latter could check the students’ knowledge acquired before the start of the classes and monitor their learning process, which enhanced their feeling of self-confidence. As a result, the students could better concentrate and became more self-confident as they succeeded academically.

Keywords

  • Peer-Review
  • Covid-19
  • interaction
  • self-confidence
Open Access

Socio-Technical Challenge in the Selection of the Remote E-Learning Platform

Published Online: 12 Jul 2021
Page range: 125 - 132

Abstract

Abstract

The current pandemic context represents, without any doubt, the most serious challenge for all working environments, implicitly and educationally. Students and teachers alike are unwittingly deprived of such a natural meeting characteristic of the learning process in an amphitheatre or laboratory and thus put in the challenging situation of continuing their efforts to achieve the goal, by making the efficient use of the online environment in all its complexity (hardware infrastructure, educational platforms, accessibility to the internet connection). The article deals with the selection of the distance education platform by using a mathematical model of multi-criterial analysis of the factors involved. It is essential that education does not interrupt its course and continues to evolve, thus adding value to society. Moreover, our future, of all, depends on our ability to cope with the highest standards, the challenge created by distance education. By linking the skills of teachers and instructors, the potential of students and the optimization of IT resources, this desire is possible provided that each of the elements involved contributes to the achievement of the ultimate goal: preparing generations of young people for the uncertain future. The resilience of the public and private education system is dependent on the use of tools appropriate to the purposes assumed.

Keywords

  • remote learning
  • socio-technical system
  • educational platform
  • multi-criterial analysis
  • management performance
Open Access

Analysis of Adaptation Capacity in the Context of Building Resilience to Threats– Local Level

Published Online: 12 Jul 2021
Page range: 133 - 137

Abstract

Abstract

Adaptability is the base in the concept of adaptation, it activates social adaptation, have an impact on susceptibility reduction and on increasing of resilience to threats in communities at the local level. What is more, it allows to strengthen the economic opportunities of the society, uninterrupted social communication, social education process and social capital building, which is necessary in resilience building to threats. The subject of research in this article is adaptation capacities of the community at the local level. The main goal of the research was to identify the essence of adaptive abilities in building resilience to threats in communities at the local level. The research problem took the form of the following question: How important is adaptability in building resilience to threats in communities at the local level?

Keywords

  • local communities
  • adaptation capacity
  • adaptation
  • resilience
  • threats
Open Access

The Dialogical Attitude. the Priviledge of Dialogue in the Digital Age

Published Online: 12 Jul 2021
Page range: 138 - 143

Abstract

Abstract

The present paper aims to present some of the contradictions regarding the possibility of dialogue in the digital era. Communication ethics from a dialogic perspective emphasizes commitment to difference and alterity as key aspects of identity building, learning and critical thinking. A dialogical attitude is considered to be the foundation of any authentic communication, as being opposed to the monological arrogance, and as a first precondition of self-development. Despite the skepticism, internet communication can present dialogic characteristics. Social presence and media richness are two of the indicators of a dialogic digital interaction. Although some difficulties may occur, as the absent presence or the multitasking, researchers claim that difference will remain the fuel for the dialogic call of the 21th century communication, whether we will be ready to dialogically answer it or not.

Keywords

  • dialogic ethics
  • dialogical attitude
  • social presence
  • media richness
  • dialogic digital communication
Open Access

Communication Ethics. An Others-Centered Approach to Crisis Communication

Published Online: 12 Jul 2021
Page range: 144 - 149

Abstract

Abstract

The present paper envisages an approach to the field of communication ethics, stressing on the importance of human relationship as a source of moral obligation and learning, and as a precondition of ethical communication. The second part of the paper advances the concept of other-centeredness as a solution to contemporary crisis management. In times of crisis, it often happens that organizations exert pressure on the media and the stakeholders for the sake of defending their own interests. In such moments organizations have the responsibility to engage in ethical communication with its public, by adopting a crisis response strategy in which honesty, human support and good of the people are prioritized, a communication strategy that places others first.

Keywords

  • communication ethics
  • ethical principles
  • other-centeredness
  • crisis communication
Open Access

Trends in Modern Sports Training - Basis of Physical Training for the Cadets from the Combat Branch

Published Online: 12 Jul 2021
Page range: 150 - 154

Abstract

Abstract

The training process as well as the adaptation of the body is a multifactorial process. This means that the factors can vary from the morpho-functional and genetic characteristics of the subjects to the patterns of a selected training program, dosed and loaded by the person who leads the instructive-educational process. The body’s adaptation to these factors is directly related to the methods and means used. During the training process it is necessary to follow a series of principles and rules, which help and ensure the proper conduct of the training system for athletes.

Keywords

  • physical training
  • athletes
  • combat cadets
Open Access

The Beginnings of Modern Higher Education in England

Published Online: 12 Jul 2021
Page range: 155 - 159

Abstract

Abstract

Realizing that a people can not be entirely conquered unless it is educated to embrace the culture and civilization of the conquerors, the Romans established the first schools in Britain in order to ‘romanize the sons of native chieftains’ [1]. With the arrival of Christianity, associated with the mission of Augustine in 597 AD, the churches took upon themselves the mission of teaching reading, writing and some religious knowledge, but few men benefited from this. The schools in the cathedrals and monasteries gradually grew to become universities, their main objective being to make students understand and explain the truth of God. “After the year 1000, cathedral schools replaced monasteries as cultural centres, and new forms of learning emerged. The cathedral schools were in turn supplanted by the universities, which promoted a “Catholic” learning that was inspired, oddly enough, by the transmission of the work of Aristotle through Arab scholars.”[2]. The paper analyses in broad lines the lengthy and burdensome process the English universities went through until the beginning of the 20th century in order to reach the performance of forming people capable not only of doing research and of disseminating knowledge, but also of contributing to the development of the country.

Keywords

  • modern
  • higher education
  • England
  • universities
Open Access

Reflections on Teaching Speaking for EFL Students in an Online Environment

Published Online: 12 Jul 2021
Page range: 160 - 164

Abstract

Abstract

The health crisis due to the pandemic has greatly changed many aspects of our lives including the way we teach foreign languages. Online teaching has prevailed over the face-to-face one, and educators and learners alike had to adjust to this major shift. This article is meant to provide some of our findings based on our experience while teaching speaking on Moodle online platform. The first part discusses the benefits and the drawbacks of the online environment, then it presents some of the most important aspects of speaking, and in the end, it focuses on the challenges of online teaching while trying to enhance students’ speaking skills. Speaking is one of the most desirable skills because it enables students to communicate effectively, and teaching this ability online has been challenging but also rewarding.

Keywords

  • speaking
  • online environment
  • accuracy
  • fluency
Open Access

One Head, Multiple Hats – Lessons Learned from Online Teaching

Published Online: 12 Jul 2021
Page range: 165 - 170

Abstract

Abstract

The coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic has caused an unprecedented crisis in all areas of human activity. In the field of education, this new and unexpected situation has led to an extraordinary shift of paradigm, as a considerable amount of institutions and faculty have been forced to pivot from purely face-to-face lessons to wholly online contexts, despite minimal preparation time and training. This paper aims to analyse the implications of this turn, as well as some of the key lessons that can be garnered from it. The gauge of this article will be on lessons learned, from the perspective of the changes that occurred in role of the teacher in the online context and the ramifications these have on teachers’ role and responsibilities.

Keywords

  • lessons learned
  • teacher roles
  • teacher competencies
  • traditional versus online teaching
Open Access

Analysis of Factors Affecting on the Sense of Safety in Local Communities

Published Online: 12 Jul 2021
Page range: 171 - 175

Abstract

Abstract

The aim of the article was the analysis of the factors that may affect on the sense of safety in local communities. The method applied in the article was a diagnostic survey using questionnaires as a technique and a questionnaire which was used as a tool for collecting the empirical data. The obtained data made it possible to solve the research problem (presented in the article) and to demonstrate, in an innovative way, the relation between factors such as: contact with relevant services, information campaigns, preventive measures and the elimination of people at risk of social pathologies as those that affect on the safety of the local community. The results of the research show that respondents are aware of the presence of certain factors in their local environment as well as see their impact on the functioning in the local community and they know about factors which have a significant impact on their sense of security in the context of functioning in the local community.

Keywords

  • sense of security
  • local community
  • guards
Open Access

COVID-19, Psychosocial Effects and Fake News

Published Online: 12 Jul 2021
Page range: 176 - 179

Abstract

Abstract

2020 will be defined as crucial for the human race, as well as the year that marked the new era in human history and international development. In times of epidemic or pandemic, people tend to be afraid of being infected with the virus, resulting in feelings of stress, fear and depression Global health problems connected with COVID-19 have also highlighted the importance of combating disinformation that can cause high level of panic and social unrest. Fake news and COVID-19 have been going hand-in-hand since the very beginning. The WHO director-general has referred to it as “coronavirus infodemic” which is breeding fright and panic by laying out unchecked rumors or ‘sensational’ news.

Keywords

  • COVID-19
  • psychosocial effects
  • fake news
  • disinformation
Open Access

Resilience and Critical Educational Valences during the Pandemic

Published Online: 12 Jul 2021
Page range: 180 - 186

Abstract

Abstract

One year after the COVID-19 pandemic has become a public health emergency the health crisis is ongoing, as evidenced by the number of cases and deaths reported by countries worldwide. During this time, the educational process underwent a series of transformations, and all educational institutions aimed to maintain the educational process during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, using various means and tools. Thus, the existence of digital technologies and access to the Internet have significantly contributed to the continuation of teaching and research in a practical online learning environment. For this reason, online education together with teleworking, telemedicine, delivery services or internet banking are essential services to a society dependent on digital technology during the pandemic. Avoiding a major crisis in education was possible only through a sustained effort both organizationally, coming from states, authorities and educational institutions, and individually coming from teachers, support staff, students and parents. This article analyses the main critical valences of education from a social, economic and military perspective, as well as the resilience of education during the pandemic. Therefore, the educational process worldwide has managed to overcome the initial shock, and a year after the onset of the pandemic is still in the response stage specific to resilience.

Keywords

  • educational institutions
  • SARS-CoV-2 pandemic
  • e-learning
  • resilience of education
  • critical valences
Open Access

Efficiency of Communication in Perceiving Online Learning

Published Online: 12 Jul 2021
Page range: 187 - 192

Abstract

Abstract

Online learning in the pandemic took place as an emergency situation in which the quality and comfort of life were affected by loneliness, social distancing, risks, stress, fear, anxiety and automatically by a negative perception of the virtual environment. The Romanian education system has become aware of the need to resize the education process and a large number of students have gained knowledge through new online learning methods, which have prompted teachers to redesign their courses and teaching strategies to improve learning effectiveness. The article presents the general characteristics of online learning, which serve distance learning in this time of pandemic crisis. The research is applied to university education and highlights the advantages, challenges and limitations of online learning. The ultimate goal of the research is to identify the perception of participants in this type of virtual education and their participatory guidance through effective communication.

Keywords

  • online learning
  • interactive online education
  • efficient communication
  • feedback
  • coping
Open Access

Organizational Trust and Leadership

Published Online: 12 Jul 2021
Page range: 193 - 197

Abstract

Abstract

In this paper we analyzed organizational trust on an intentionality sample of military personnel, starting from one of the most used theoretical and empirical models in the literature, namely the scale of Mayer and Davis (1999), built on three dimensions: competence, benevolence and integrity of the leader. The analysis shows that the confidence in the leader in the military organization is high on all three dimensions.

Keywords

  • organizational trust
  • ability
  • benevolence
  • integrity
  • leadership
Open Access

Basic Conditions of Adoption Regarding the Person of the Adopted

Published Online: 12 Jul 2021
Page range: 198 - 202

Abstract

Abstract

At the level of society, adoption is a sensitive phenomenon, through the emotional burden it implies both on the adoptee and on the adoptive person or family. In domestic law, the legal regulation of adoption took different forms, all being influenced by the state of society at a certain moment and has evolved in close accordance with the international regulations in the field, having the form of the procedure regulated by the current normative framework, the legislator showing constant concern to create a legal framework that protects the rights and best interests of the child.

Keywords

  • legal
  • civil code
  • legislation
  • adoption
  • procedure
Open Access

Considerations on the Issues of Adoption from the Perspective of ECHR Reglementations

Published Online: 12 Jul 2021
Page range: 203 - 207

Abstract

Abstract

The legal issue of adoption has an obvious complex character, a circumstance that involves increasing the effort of in-depth analysis of regulations in the field, both for their correct interpretation and application, and for identifying possible inaccuracies or legislative gaps and substantiating relevant legislative proposals for their elimination. Since the entry into force of the current Civil Code (2011) until now, in the Romanian doctrine, one cannot identify a scientific paper with a monographic character in which the theoretical and practical issues of the legal regime of adoption in the Romanian system of law are analyzed and deepened. The paper presents a series of opinions on possible corrections in the legal regime of adoption from the perspective ofECHR regulations.

Keywords

  • legal
  • civil code
  • heritage
  • legislation
  • adoption
Open Access

Opinions Regarding the Efficiency of the Methodical Procedures for Developing the Coordinating Capacity of the Fighter’s Body

Published Online: 12 Jul 2021
Page range: 208 - 212

Abstract

Abstract

The military actions carried out throughout time strongly highlight the special importance that the level of motor capacity development has in the training of the fighter. A great number of research studies have underlined the effects of a regular participation in complex training programs that ensure an adequate level of development of the components of this training category. Therefore the identification of the optimal scientific methods for the development of the components of physical capacity is a priority in the training system. The paper points to the methodical aspects related to maximizing a basic component of the motor capacity of the fighter’s body, namely the coordination capacity which involves identifying the best methods and procedures for maximizing the effects of the body’s dexterity, mobility and suppleness.

Keywords

  • action
  • fighter
  • capacity
  • mobility
  • suppleness
Open Access

Opinions on the Contribution of the Bio-Psycho-Physical Component in Military Confrontations Carried Out in Extreme Conditions

Published Online: 12 Jul 2021
Page range: 213 - 218

Abstract

Abstract

The adaptation of the fighter to the combat situations within the different missions, as well as the need to face any request coming up during the confrontations, imposes an extremely complex training system. Having an essential role in combat, the fighter must acquire qualities both in terms of mental, biological and physical features. Due to the threats that hang over the fighters at any time in this type of conflicts, the emphasis in their training is aimed at training in conditions as close to the existing reality as possible, with a focus on the impact that the battlefield has on his psyche and physique, so that at the same time he can adapt his systems of action of the body to the requirements of any nature imposed by each mission. The paper highlights that the process of training this type of fighters includes, among the training pillars, physical and mental training as a support for exceptional training and effective exercise of roles and missions entrusted to the military organization in peacetime, in situations of crisis and especially at war. In the economics of the formative process, physical and mental training represents the essence of a high level of acquiring the qualities specific to the successful conduct of combat, a fact for which their development has been and will always remain a priority objective throughout the continuous training of fighters.

Keywords

  • combat
  • physical and mental training
  • modern battlefield
  • missions
  • fighters
Open Access

The Role of Lobbying in the Decision-Making Process in the European Union

Published Online: 12 Jul 2021
Page range: 219 - 224

Abstract

Abstract

Lobbying in the modern world is becoming part of decision-making processes at the local, state, supranational and global levels. The lobbying process is characterized by the use of various techniques and tools, which is why there are many definitions. In the European Union, it is perceived as a European representation of interests, through which different groups try to influence the decision-making process in the various institutions. Lobbying is often referred to when it is necessary to describe a particular political process, event or phenomenon that has not reached the general public or has remained opaque due to its specific nature. As lobbying becomes increasingly important, this article aims to clarify what lobbying is and what its legitimate and acceptable forms are. It is not without reason that there is a general distrust of the lobbying process and, in particular, of the real intentions of lobbyists. Therefore, many people believe that such activities distort the political process in terms of transparency, integrity and influence. Given the sensitive nature of the topic of lobbying, some good practices from existing lobbying rules at European level will also be considered.

Keywords

  • lobbying
  • influence
  • transparency
  • European Union
  • EU legislation
Open Access

Disinformation as a Threat to the Quality of Contemporary Information

Published Online: 12 Jul 2021
Page range: 225 - 228

Abstract

Abstract

Due to the intensification of local conflicts in the world, ensuring the quality of information is a pressing problem, which is complicated by the lack of a unified methodological framework that allows for an adequate assessment of information threats. Current methods often do not take into account the nature of the interaction of various negative factors and give an assessment only on a qualitative level. The difficulty of analyzing risks in the information sphere lies in the fact that in order to achieve adequate assessments it is necessary to take into account a large number of factors that are in a complex dependence on one another. This article describes the negative influence of disinformation on social and political processes in the state. For the study we use the experience of the United States and Great Britain during significant political events, the experience of information operations in social networks. We also agree that there are many threats to the quality of information in the modern world. One of these threats is disinformation, which inevitably manipulates reality and facts in order to cause harm or financial gain. The article states that disinformation breeds discontent, distrust of state institutions, undermines the legitimacy of power, generates unwarranted tension in the society, as well as curtails public debate and threatens the quality of information.

Keywords

  • disinformation
  • fake news
  • quality of information
  • propaganda
  • threat
Open Access

The Need To Promote Elitism In Education

Published Online: 12 Jul 2021
Page range: 229 - 236

Abstract

Abstract

The idea of elaborating this article came to me after reading over and over again the content of Art.2 paragraph (1) of the National Education Law no.1 / 2011, with subsequent amendments and completions, a very important normative act for the present, but especially for the future of Romania, according to which „The law aims to promote an education oriented on values, creativity, cognitive abilities, volitional abilities and action capacities, fundamental knowledge and competencies/skills and abilities of direct utility, in the professional life and in the society. Anyone who reads the content of Art.2 paragraph (1) is entitled to believe that the most efficient secondary and higher education in the world is taking place in Romania. Unfortunately, when reading and analyzing the content of Art.3, it can be seen quite easily that the principles governing secondary and higher education, as well as lifelong learning in Romania have a more declarative character, i.e. there is one thing written on paper and something else is happening in reality. I would like to continue to talk about this, with arguments, supported by my knowledge and experience in the field of education, starting with September 1979, when I first entered a classroom consisting of military students, from the highly flattering position of instructor and educator and until now, after a lifetime of working in classrooms, laboratories, amphitheatres and auditoriums of several military and civilian higher education institutions, in the honorary position of university professor doctor habilitat and chairman of the University Ethics Commission.

Keywords

  • vision
  • non-vision
  • secondary and higher education
  • principles
Open Access

The Membership in the Schengen Area as a Strategic Objective for the Republic of Bulgaria

Published Online: 12 Jul 2021
Page range: 237 - 243

Abstract

Abstract

Until the escalation of the Covid-19 pandemic, joining the Schengen area was between the major foreign policy priorities for Bulgaria and Romania. Now, when having more clear view of the way out of the crisis, it is time to reopen that issue. The accession to the Schengen area will be associated with both internal and external political consequences, as well as economic ones. Despite all the benefits and advantages, the Bulgaria and Romania, in their perspective of future members of the Schengen area, have a huge responsibility arising from the forthcoming assumption of functions at the external border to ensure the security not only of Bulgarian and Romanian, but also of all European countries.

Keywords

  • Schengen area
  • Accession
  • Bulgaria
  • Romania
  • Covid-19
42 Articles
Open Access

Military Supply Network at Risk

Published Online: 12 Jul 2021
Page range: 1 - 5

Abstract

Abstract

An efficient supply network is a basic building block of a globalized society and an essential element for maintaining the sustainability of armed forces in an operation. However, the increased optimization of supply chains, the integration of various partners and the resulting complexity increase the vulnerability of supply networks. The protection of internal and external supply chains is therefore important. In order to be better prepared for the future, it is therefore necessary to strengthen the resilience of the military supply network. To this end, risk management must be implemented at the appropriate military command levels in order to be able to take the right measures. Starting with the military strategic level and continuing to the operational and tactical level, a consistent, plausible and functioning instrument dealing with risk management planning, risk identification, risk analysis and evaluation, risk treatment, and risk monitoring must be introduced.

Keywords

  • Military Logistics
  • supply network
  • risk management
Open Access

Sustainability in the Contemporary Market Economy

Published Online: 12 Jul 2021
Page range: 6 - 11

Abstract

Abstract

Over time, the market economy has undergone many changes caused by the processes underlying its operation, and have focused on the scarcity of resources, interdependencies between economic agents, intensified exchanges, technical and scientific progress and computerization of economic systems. Given the many variables that act and ensure the functionality of the contemporary market economy, it is particularly important that the interdependencies between them be addressed in terms of sustainability. This paper addresses sustainability as a condition for supporting sustainable economic development, starting from the main links that support economic growth, namely production and consumption. Sustainable economic growth must be accompanied by measures to optimize the processes that characterize production and consumption, aiming at reducing resource waste, maximizing the intrinsic value of waste from economic activity and ensuring an infrastructure that makes it possible to move from the linear economy to the circular economy. Starting from the current stage of the steps taken to ensure sustainable economic development, the paper presents the main challenges faced by supply and demand, representing shortcomings in ensuring the road to circularity.

Keywords

  • sustainability
  • sustainable development
  • market economy
  • production
  • consumption
Open Access

The Historical Road Maria Theresia in the Călimani Mountains - Past, Present and Future

Published Online: 12 Jul 2021
Page range: 12 - 17

Abstract

Abstract

The Roman road Maria Theresia is known for its historical heritage; in the past, the troops of the Austro-Hungarian Empire housed weapons and food here. Built hundreds of years ago, the route crosses the Călimani mountains. In the elaboration of this article I applied as a research method the case study, which allowed me access to some historical and military information, namely the fact that the historical road had been designed since the time of Emperor Joseph II, but it was completed only in 1820, during the reign of Emperor Francis I of Austria. This study allowed me to collect certain data related to the way in which this road is valued and is attributed remarkable tourist values, and all this through the project undertaken by the Tășuleasa Social Association, which aims to arrange this route as thematic path, precisely to rediscover the imperial road with the value of a historical monument, but also to highlight the natural setting of the Călimani Mountains. Throughout the investigations and the documents studied, I found that many volunteers joined this great project, to keep a road with a distant history practicable. From this case study, it appears that this road has been so well valued that it manages to attract more and more tourists, eager to know both the history of these places, but also to participate in the organized marathon or for a simple hike.

Keywords

  • Călimani Mountains
  • Via Maria Theresia
  • mountain area
  • mountain marathon
  • active leisure
Open Access

Provision of Accounting Information from the Perspective of Accounting Professionals’ Receptivity and Transparency

Published Online: 12 Jul 2021
Page range: 18 - 23

Abstract

Abstract

Accounting information is found, in one form or another, in the management system of the organization regardless of its size or constitution. Accounting, through the information provided, has an active and decisive role in decision-making and provides the indispensable language for the analysis of activity and results, which is an objective necessary to be done in financial terms. From this perspective, based on the study of the literature, the paper presents the main categories of users of accounting information. The main objective of the selective research is to analyze the way of providing accounting information to interested users from the perspective of the receptivity of professional accountants and compliance with the principle of transparency).

Keywords

  • professional accountants
  • accounting information
  • transparency
  • information
  • users
Open Access

Study on the Evolution of Defense Expenses in Nato Member States for the Period 2010–2020. “Free Rider” behavior among Allies

Published Online: 12 Jul 2021
Page range: 24 - 30

Abstract

Abstract

This paper proposes a longitudinal study on the analysis of defense spending of NATO member states in the years 2010-2020. It also aims to identify the emergence of a possible “free-rider” behavior among alliance members. This behavior occurs when some members may be tempted to allocate a low level of defense spending. Defense spending is an important component of each state’s budget, which ensures a vital function of states, namely the national defense function. When the defense is carried out in military-type alliances, and the number of members is large, there is an increased possibility of observing a “free-rider” type behavior between the members of the alliances. To observe this behavior, we tried to identify the best evaluation indicator, which according to the literature could be “the share of defense spending in GDP.” The paper is divided into five parts as follows: the first point considers the introductory part of the paper and the setting of objectives; the second chapter describes the study database, as well as the research methodology and methods used in the study to obtain the results; in the third chapter is analyzed the literature with impact on the studied subject; in the fourth chapter the case study is carried out; and in the last chapter mentioned the conclusions of the study.

Keywords

  • defense expenses
  • NATO
  • free-rider
  • asymmetry coefficient
  • econometric study
Open Access

Fundamental Elements Regarding the Organization of Internal Financial Control in Public Entities in Romania

Published Online: 12 Jul 2021
Page range: 31 - 37

Abstract

Abstract

Financial control, as part of internal managerial control and economic control, is an activity of overwhelming importance for the efficient, effective and economical use of resources economic and financial institutions in public institutions and beyond.The profile literature in this field has outlined the conceptual aspects, the necessary classifications and other defining dimensions of financial control as a highly responsible activity, meant to prevent facts contrary to the good management of wealth elements in public institutions and private entities.Preventive financial control, with its two components (own and delegated), is designed and carried out in public institutions according to a very rigorous methodology, meant to grant a visa only to those public money expenditures that meet all the requirements entered in the checklist. inserts requirements regarding the existence of supporting documents, visas, certifications and approvals regarding the legality of operations, the inclusion of amounts in the allocations of budgetary appropriations and the existence of supporting documents specific tooperations.

Keywords

  • control
  • financial control
  • preventive financial control
  • own preventive financial control
  • delegated preventive financial control
  • preventive financial control visa
  • delegated controller
Open Access

Opinions on Modern Methods, Techniques and Procedures of Financial Control used in Entities of the Ministry of National Defence

Published Online: 12 Jul 2021
Page range: 38 - 45

Abstract

Abstract

Financial control, as part of the internal managerial control and economic control, is also for the entities from the Ministry of National Defence an activity of major importance for the efficient, effective and economical use of the resources allocated to them. The own preventive financial control is also carried out in entities of the Ministry of National Defence based on a customized normative framework, starting from the one established for all public institutions. The set of methods for performing own preventive financial control in army units brings together, according to the special normative act adopted for this ministry, the specific framework of operations subject to own preventive financial control, the circulation schedule of documents verified in this control, specialized organizational compartments / entities in which the operations subject to this control are initiated and carried out. The Coronavirus pandemic that started in 2020 and continues in 2021 suggested the idea of running in a computerized, digitized system of own preventive financial control, to avoid or minimize direct contact between controllers and controlled, which is why we proposed the establishment of an appropriate computer system for such a purpose.

Keywords

  • control
  • own preventive financial control
  • the specific framework of the operations subject to own preventive financial control
  • specialized compartments
  • control procedure
  • visa refusal
  • management information systems
Open Access

Theoretical Guidelines Regarding Performance Audit in the Military Organization

Published Online: 12 Jul 2021
Page range: 46 - 51

Abstract

Abstract

In the contemporary organizational environment, the internal public audit allows the management to develop its action capacity, thus ensuring that its strategy is correctly put in practice and the effects related to economy, efficiency and effectiveness are the expected ones. The implementation of the internal audit in the military organization represents a continuous and modern action that is part of the general effort to streamline the management of public institutions in Romania. The audit solutions must contribute to strengthening the stability of the military institution and to achieving its objectives, both domestically and internationally, in terms of anticipation and proper risk management, optimal use of the allocated resources and compliance with the existing legal framework.

Keywords

  • military organization
  • internal public audit
  • resources
  • performance
  • solutions
  • recommendations
Open Access

Unemployment – the Macroeconomic Imbalance

Published Online: 12 Jul 2021
Page range: 52 - 56

Abstract

Abstract

Through the socio-economic generated implications, unemployment is a very complex social phenomenon. The economic reality showed there is no single solution for unemployment. There are no pure and perfect solutions, only integrated programs in the anti-crisis political system. The phenomenon itself cannot be eliminated, it can only be addressed. Through the socio-economic generated implications, the unemployment is a very complex social phenomenon, being related with poverty. Unemployment induces a drastic decrease of the living standards. As a macroeconomic complex imbalance, it impacts all the compartments of the national economy. The economic history of our century reveals that unemployment has become a mass nature. The financial difficulties of the companies, inlet by covid-19 global crises, caused a mass disorder of all the economic activity, impacting the labour market and a concern of the government to find ideal solutions to increase employment.

Keywords

  • unemployment
  • natural unemployment rate
  • social phenomenon
  • global crises

JEL Classification

  • E
Open Access

Is De-Risking one of the Indications for an Emerging Competition between the Free Movement of Capital and the Anti-Money Laundering Regulations?

Published Online: 12 Jul 2021
Page range: 57 - 64

Abstract

Abstract

The report is dedicated to analysing the phenomenon of de-risking which may be considered as another indication for the arising competition between the regulatory effect of the anti-money laundering regulation and the deregulatory effect of the liberalization of capital movements within the European Union. The author’s attention is focused on the triggering events for both liberalization of capital movements and de-risking, definition of the phenomenon de-risking and its impact on the free movement of capital and payments.

Keywords

  • anti-money laundering
  • free movement of capital
  • de-risking
  • financial institutions
Open Access

Assurance of Subsistence Services for Mechanized Brigada in Operation

Published Online: 12 Jul 2021
Page range: 65 - 71

Abstract

Abstract

The field of campaign services is currently the most complex area of logistical support, as it covers a wide range of services, requires cooperation between military bodies and various institutions, entities involved in providing them and requests promptness from planning and logistical management bodies in immediately solving the various problems that may arise. As part of the campaign services, feeding the personnel and providing water, as subsistence services. in the quantity and quality standards provided by the instructions, directly influences the health of the military and contributes to maintaining a high morale of the military. In order to give a more accurate overview of the influence of this functional field on the actions of the mechanized brigade in the operation, we will detail for each subsistence services some theoretical and practical aspects that we consider important.

Keywords

  • logistical support
  • feeding
  • water provisioning
  • campaign services
Open Access

Possibilities of the Contracting Authority to Amend the Public Procurement Contract/Framework Agreement

Published Online: 12 Jul 2021
Page range: 72 - 77

Abstract

Abstract

The experience gained in the field of public procurement leads me to the statement that the activity of amending the public procurement contract / framework agreement is a challenging activity for the contracting authority. Maybe not from the perspective of elaborating the documents necessary to operate the change or changes that may be required during the development of the public procurement contract / framework agreement, but rather from the perspective of the solutions offered by the law, solutions that cover only certain areas. Starting from the normative acts in force, this paper aims to identify the situations and the way in which the contracting authority can modify the public procurement contract / framework agreement, the documents to be elaborated and the effects that the modifications might entail. In order to increase transparency, predictability and coherence in relation to the operation of contractual changes, contracting authorities should carry out analyses after each public procurement process as well as of the various practical situations encountered during the execution of contracts.

Keywords

  • public procurement contract
  • framework agreement
  • public procurement acquisition
  • clause review
  • price review
Open Access

Transforming Romania into a Knowledge Economy Through ICT - Current Developments

Published Online: 12 Jul 2021
Page range: 78 - 83

Abstract

Abstract

In a society dependent on information, knowledge seems to be the only power that guarantees socio-economic development and progress. The knowledge is considered to be the driving force of economic growth and a resource that can provide sustainable competitive advantage and for this reason generates a great interest in understanding knowledge, information, technology, learning and their role in social economic life.

In this society in which knowledge occupies an important place, information and communication technology represents an important pillar because without it the transmission of knowledge cannot be achieved. From this perspective, this paper tries to present the current stage of development of the ICT sector in Romania and to propose some solutions to improve it.

Keywords

  • Knowledge economy
  • digitalization
  • Romania
  • information and communications technologies
Open Access

Definitions Establishing the Scope of Harmonization in the Field of Consumer Credits. Comparative Aspects

Published Online: 12 Jul 2021
Page range: 84 - 88

Abstract

Abstract

The sphere of consumer loans implies protection, knowledge, anticipatory regulations, flexibility, adaptability leading to the elaboration of a modern, clear legislation and an efficient internal credit market. Clear, explicit and clear legislation contributes to increasing the trust of customers, consumers and effectively to their protection. The European Directive states that: “in order to ensure consumer confidence, it is important that the market provides them with a sufficient degree of protection” [1]. In this way, the demand and supply of loans can be achieved in optimal conditions, both for professionals who offer loans and for credit consumers. A sufficient degree of protection ensures the confidence of credit consumers. In this sense, the concept of complete harmonization, from the perspective of the European Directive is seen as necessary in order to achieve a high level of interest of consumers and professionals. Legislation easily understood by the parties involved in credit agreements, does not leave room for some interpretations. For this reason, we appreciate the fact that the presentation of the definitions, the transparency in the knowledge of their meaning represent one of the important measures of protection of the customers consuming loans.

Keywords

  • Harmonization
  • full harmonization
  • consumers
  • credit consumers
  • definitions of application of credit harmonization
Open Access

Theoretical and Practical Aspects Regarding the Cancellation of Abuse Clauses

Published Online: 12 Jul 2021
Page range: 89 - 93

Abstract

Abstract

Interest and commissions are important sources of revenue for credit institutions. Among the causes generating abusive clauses are the interest, interest rates and commissions charged to loans to customers by creditors. Theory and practice have shown that these abusive clauses are unlimited. Effective knowledge of abusive clauses is only one of the customer protection measures. Of course, only their knowledge does not completely solve the problem, but will determine the orientation of creditors in finding more subtle abusive clauses. From a multidisciplinary perspective, the Study is structured in two parts: Part I, follows aspects of concrete identification of the types of sources of abusive clauses on a specified case and Part II materializes in the technical-applicative presentation of the methods used to quantify the differences in the amounts paid by the client in addition, generated by the existence of abusive clauses in the credit agreement he concluded with the creditor. The results of the first part confirm: Hypothesis 1, regarding the existence of abusive clauses in the investigated case; Hypothesis 2, regarding the identification of the sources generating abusive clauses that materialize in the interest rate, interest and bank fees; Hypothesis3, referring to the analytical grouping by types of the sources causing abusive clauses.

Keywords

  • Credit
  • interest
  • interest rate
  • instrumentation commission
  • management commission
  • initial credit granting commission
  • early repayment commission
  • credit non-use commission
Open Access

Aspects Regarding a New Methodology for Active Portfolio Management of Hedge Funds Alternative in Emerging Markets-the Case of Romanian Capital Market in the Actual Context of Post-Crisis Recovery

Published Online: 12 Jul 2021
Page range: 94 - 99

Abstract

Abstract

In emerging markets, the processes in portfolio management should be adapted according to the typical constraints (market liquidity aspect and other market imperfections)that limits the use of alternative instruments / strategies and diversification capabilities. The aim is to develop a new way to understand and implement innovative solutions in real portfolio management in the case of Romanian capital market. The innovation is based on a scalable hedge-fund (HF) structure that capture different alternative instruments. This HF architecture represents a versatile dynamic AIF, equipped with capabilities to integrate the synergies between diversification based on alternative instruments but also the diversification based on alternative strategies and it integrates a core thematic sub-portfolio and 2-4 satellite rotating sub-portfolios capable to compensate the impossibility to use short sales and leverage strategies.

Keywords

  • active portfolio management
  • alternative investment funds (AIFs)
  • hedge fund (HF) architecture
  • sub-portfolio selection
  • post-crisis recovery
Open Access

Applications of Game- Theory in Active Strategic Portfolio Management- the Case of Hedge - Funds Adaptation for the Real Constraints in Romanian Capital Market

Published Online: 12 Jul 2021
Page range: 100 - 104

Abstract

Abstract

The application is focused on strategies for portfolio management in the case of hedge-funds for emerging markets taking into account the severe constraints for a real-world implementation. In the case of Romanian capital market, the design of a hedge-fund architecture should respond to the typical constraints for using alternative strategies. Beyond the liquidity problems there exits only a limited set of alternative instruments and strategies with impact on diversification, on the functionality and efficiency. The objective is to develop a better understanding of alternative actions and innovations for real adaptation of the architecture of a hedge-fund at these emerging market conditions, especially the lack of short and hedging instruments and the liquidity problems. Based on this new innovative framework that could capture the value of multiple rotating satellite sub-portfolio paradigm, as an active strategy, it is possible to build a different paradigm for active portfolio management in a dynamic manner. Based on an adequate dynamic of rotation of these sub-portfolios it results an optimal risk- return-liquidity profile for the whole hedge-fund portfolio, adaptable for different contexts.

Keywords

  • hedge-fund
  • game-theory
  • active strategic portfolio management (ASPM)
  • sub-portfolio dynamic rotation management (SPDRM)
Open Access

Legal, Political and Security aspects of the Pandemic Language

Published Online: 12 Jul 2021
Page range: 105 - 110

Abstract

Abstract

From spring onwards 2020 has been irrevocably interwoven with words such as “pandemic”, “emergency”, “crisis”, “urgent measures”, etc. The usage of the pandemic language to describe the outbreak of COVID-19 derives from the etymologies of these words. However, it could also be rooted in political motives. There are instances of how specific terms could be mobilized to support policy aims. This is the main reason why more attention should be paid to the strength of the language used and more awareness of the usage of particular terms within a political and security context. It could be considered necessary to take extraordinary “urgent” measures to save lives as a result of a global “pandemic”, but at the same time, it is vital to be careful how exactly these terms are used to justify political principles, which were in operation even before the outbreak of COVID-19.

Keywords

  • pandemic language
  • World Health Organization
  • Siracusa principles
Open Access

Considerations Regarding the Quality of Military Training Programs

Published Online: 12 Jul 2021
Page range: 111 - 115

Abstract

Abstract

In order to provide well-prepared specialists in the military field, the Army ensures the training of its own human resources through initial training programs and then continuous training within the military system and environment. The quality of these training programs, which consume a lot of time and resources, must be evaluated as a process not only as a product, in an authentic and realistic way, according to certain relevant aspects: components of the curricular structure of the training program, quality of adult pedagogy, quality of experiential approaches in teaching and learning, and the difference between the initial and final level of the graduates’ competencies. There are a number of issues that can be discussed related to training programs evaluation, and they can be overcome by raising awareness and conceiving the evaluation explicitly for the quality improvement purpose.

Keywords

  • military training
  • training program
  • quality evaluation
Open Access

Opinions on the Legal Significance of the Right to Health

Published Online: 12 Jul 2021
Page range: 116 - 120

Abstract

Abstract

The legal significance of the right to health care, in particular and of other fundamental rights in general, on the one hand unknown to citizens and on the other hand known, minimized or ignored by state authorities and institutions, will certainly lead to abuses of law coming from the latter, abuses that cannot be tolerated by the rule of law.

Keywords

  • legality
  • consent
  • medical act
  • abuse of rights
  • legal protection
Open Access

The Architectural Design of Successful Online English Classes

Published Online: 12 Jul 2021
Page range: 121 - 124

Abstract

Abstract

Various studies on the impact of online teaching and learning have shown the importance of a teacher’s presence in the classroom, in terms of the efficiency of conveying knowledge. With online teaching, students show that they still require their teacher’s involvement as well, demonstrating that his/her guidance and management of a class remains an important component of pedagogy. However, not all students decide to get equally involved in in-class activities, considering the issues that four groups of students in a university revealed during their online learning experience during the COVID-19 pandemic. Their need for better interaction with the teacher and their hesitancy to participate due to possible bullying, demonstrate that a teacher’s presence is necessary. The Peer-Review Approach and the Flipped Classroom Strategy were both helpful to the students as they were involved in activities under the teacher’s observation. The latter could check the students’ knowledge acquired before the start of the classes and monitor their learning process, which enhanced their feeling of self-confidence. As a result, the students could better concentrate and became more self-confident as they succeeded academically.

Keywords

  • Peer-Review
  • Covid-19
  • interaction
  • self-confidence
Open Access

Socio-Technical Challenge in the Selection of the Remote E-Learning Platform

Published Online: 12 Jul 2021
Page range: 125 - 132

Abstract

Abstract

The current pandemic context represents, without any doubt, the most serious challenge for all working environments, implicitly and educationally. Students and teachers alike are unwittingly deprived of such a natural meeting characteristic of the learning process in an amphitheatre or laboratory and thus put in the challenging situation of continuing their efforts to achieve the goal, by making the efficient use of the online environment in all its complexity (hardware infrastructure, educational platforms, accessibility to the internet connection). The article deals with the selection of the distance education platform by using a mathematical model of multi-criterial analysis of the factors involved. It is essential that education does not interrupt its course and continues to evolve, thus adding value to society. Moreover, our future, of all, depends on our ability to cope with the highest standards, the challenge created by distance education. By linking the skills of teachers and instructors, the potential of students and the optimization of IT resources, this desire is possible provided that each of the elements involved contributes to the achievement of the ultimate goal: preparing generations of young people for the uncertain future. The resilience of the public and private education system is dependent on the use of tools appropriate to the purposes assumed.

Keywords

  • remote learning
  • socio-technical system
  • educational platform
  • multi-criterial analysis
  • management performance
Open Access

Analysis of Adaptation Capacity in the Context of Building Resilience to Threats– Local Level

Published Online: 12 Jul 2021
Page range: 133 - 137

Abstract

Abstract

Adaptability is the base in the concept of adaptation, it activates social adaptation, have an impact on susceptibility reduction and on increasing of resilience to threats in communities at the local level. What is more, it allows to strengthen the economic opportunities of the society, uninterrupted social communication, social education process and social capital building, which is necessary in resilience building to threats. The subject of research in this article is adaptation capacities of the community at the local level. The main goal of the research was to identify the essence of adaptive abilities in building resilience to threats in communities at the local level. The research problem took the form of the following question: How important is adaptability in building resilience to threats in communities at the local level?

Keywords

  • local communities
  • adaptation capacity
  • adaptation
  • resilience
  • threats
Open Access

The Dialogical Attitude. the Priviledge of Dialogue in the Digital Age

Published Online: 12 Jul 2021
Page range: 138 - 143

Abstract

Abstract

The present paper aims to present some of the contradictions regarding the possibility of dialogue in the digital era. Communication ethics from a dialogic perspective emphasizes commitment to difference and alterity as key aspects of identity building, learning and critical thinking. A dialogical attitude is considered to be the foundation of any authentic communication, as being opposed to the monological arrogance, and as a first precondition of self-development. Despite the skepticism, internet communication can present dialogic characteristics. Social presence and media richness are two of the indicators of a dialogic digital interaction. Although some difficulties may occur, as the absent presence or the multitasking, researchers claim that difference will remain the fuel for the dialogic call of the 21th century communication, whether we will be ready to dialogically answer it or not.

Keywords

  • dialogic ethics
  • dialogical attitude
  • social presence
  • media richness
  • dialogic digital communication
Open Access

Communication Ethics. An Others-Centered Approach to Crisis Communication

Published Online: 12 Jul 2021
Page range: 144 - 149

Abstract

Abstract

The present paper envisages an approach to the field of communication ethics, stressing on the importance of human relationship as a source of moral obligation and learning, and as a precondition of ethical communication. The second part of the paper advances the concept of other-centeredness as a solution to contemporary crisis management. In times of crisis, it often happens that organizations exert pressure on the media and the stakeholders for the sake of defending their own interests. In such moments organizations have the responsibility to engage in ethical communication with its public, by adopting a crisis response strategy in which honesty, human support and good of the people are prioritized, a communication strategy that places others first.

Keywords

  • communication ethics
  • ethical principles
  • other-centeredness
  • crisis communication
Open Access

Trends in Modern Sports Training - Basis of Physical Training for the Cadets from the Combat Branch

Published Online: 12 Jul 2021
Page range: 150 - 154

Abstract

Abstract

The training process as well as the adaptation of the body is a multifactorial process. This means that the factors can vary from the morpho-functional and genetic characteristics of the subjects to the patterns of a selected training program, dosed and loaded by the person who leads the instructive-educational process. The body’s adaptation to these factors is directly related to the methods and means used. During the training process it is necessary to follow a series of principles and rules, which help and ensure the proper conduct of the training system for athletes.

Keywords

  • physical training
  • athletes
  • combat cadets
Open Access

The Beginnings of Modern Higher Education in England

Published Online: 12 Jul 2021
Page range: 155 - 159

Abstract

Abstract

Realizing that a people can not be entirely conquered unless it is educated to embrace the culture and civilization of the conquerors, the Romans established the first schools in Britain in order to ‘romanize the sons of native chieftains’ [1]. With the arrival of Christianity, associated with the mission of Augustine in 597 AD, the churches took upon themselves the mission of teaching reading, writing and some religious knowledge, but few men benefited from this. The schools in the cathedrals and monasteries gradually grew to become universities, their main objective being to make students understand and explain the truth of God. “After the year 1000, cathedral schools replaced monasteries as cultural centres, and new forms of learning emerged. The cathedral schools were in turn supplanted by the universities, which promoted a “Catholic” learning that was inspired, oddly enough, by the transmission of the work of Aristotle through Arab scholars.”[2]. The paper analyses in broad lines the lengthy and burdensome process the English universities went through until the beginning of the 20th century in order to reach the performance of forming people capable not only of doing research and of disseminating knowledge, but also of contributing to the development of the country.

Keywords

  • modern
  • higher education
  • England
  • universities
Open Access

Reflections on Teaching Speaking for EFL Students in an Online Environment

Published Online: 12 Jul 2021
Page range: 160 - 164

Abstract

Abstract

The health crisis due to the pandemic has greatly changed many aspects of our lives including the way we teach foreign languages. Online teaching has prevailed over the face-to-face one, and educators and learners alike had to adjust to this major shift. This article is meant to provide some of our findings based on our experience while teaching speaking on Moodle online platform. The first part discusses the benefits and the drawbacks of the online environment, then it presents some of the most important aspects of speaking, and in the end, it focuses on the challenges of online teaching while trying to enhance students’ speaking skills. Speaking is one of the most desirable skills because it enables students to communicate effectively, and teaching this ability online has been challenging but also rewarding.

Keywords

  • speaking
  • online environment
  • accuracy
  • fluency
Open Access

One Head, Multiple Hats – Lessons Learned from Online Teaching

Published Online: 12 Jul 2021
Page range: 165 - 170

Abstract

Abstract

The coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic has caused an unprecedented crisis in all areas of human activity. In the field of education, this new and unexpected situation has led to an extraordinary shift of paradigm, as a considerable amount of institutions and faculty have been forced to pivot from purely face-to-face lessons to wholly online contexts, despite minimal preparation time and training. This paper aims to analyse the implications of this turn, as well as some of the key lessons that can be garnered from it. The gauge of this article will be on lessons learned, from the perspective of the changes that occurred in role of the teacher in the online context and the ramifications these have on teachers’ role and responsibilities.

Keywords

  • lessons learned
  • teacher roles
  • teacher competencies
  • traditional versus online teaching
Open Access

Analysis of Factors Affecting on the Sense of Safety in Local Communities

Published Online: 12 Jul 2021
Page range: 171 - 175

Abstract

Abstract

The aim of the article was the analysis of the factors that may affect on the sense of safety in local communities. The method applied in the article was a diagnostic survey using questionnaires as a technique and a questionnaire which was used as a tool for collecting the empirical data. The obtained data made it possible to solve the research problem (presented in the article) and to demonstrate, in an innovative way, the relation between factors such as: contact with relevant services, information campaigns, preventive measures and the elimination of people at risk of social pathologies as those that affect on the safety of the local community. The results of the research show that respondents are aware of the presence of certain factors in their local environment as well as see their impact on the functioning in the local community and they know about factors which have a significant impact on their sense of security in the context of functioning in the local community.

Keywords

  • sense of security
  • local community
  • guards
Open Access

COVID-19, Psychosocial Effects and Fake News

Published Online: 12 Jul 2021
Page range: 176 - 179

Abstract

Abstract

2020 will be defined as crucial for the human race, as well as the year that marked the new era in human history and international development. In times of epidemic or pandemic, people tend to be afraid of being infected with the virus, resulting in feelings of stress, fear and depression Global health problems connected with COVID-19 have also highlighted the importance of combating disinformation that can cause high level of panic and social unrest. Fake news and COVID-19 have been going hand-in-hand since the very beginning. The WHO director-general has referred to it as “coronavirus infodemic” which is breeding fright and panic by laying out unchecked rumors or ‘sensational’ news.

Keywords

  • COVID-19
  • psychosocial effects
  • fake news
  • disinformation
Open Access

Resilience and Critical Educational Valences during the Pandemic

Published Online: 12 Jul 2021
Page range: 180 - 186

Abstract

Abstract

One year after the COVID-19 pandemic has become a public health emergency the health crisis is ongoing, as evidenced by the number of cases and deaths reported by countries worldwide. During this time, the educational process underwent a series of transformations, and all educational institutions aimed to maintain the educational process during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, using various means and tools. Thus, the existence of digital technologies and access to the Internet have significantly contributed to the continuation of teaching and research in a practical online learning environment. For this reason, online education together with teleworking, telemedicine, delivery services or internet banking are essential services to a society dependent on digital technology during the pandemic. Avoiding a major crisis in education was possible only through a sustained effort both organizationally, coming from states, authorities and educational institutions, and individually coming from teachers, support staff, students and parents. This article analyses the main critical valences of education from a social, economic and military perspective, as well as the resilience of education during the pandemic. Therefore, the educational process worldwide has managed to overcome the initial shock, and a year after the onset of the pandemic is still in the response stage specific to resilience.

Keywords

  • educational institutions
  • SARS-CoV-2 pandemic
  • e-learning
  • resilience of education
  • critical valences
Open Access

Efficiency of Communication in Perceiving Online Learning

Published Online: 12 Jul 2021
Page range: 187 - 192

Abstract

Abstract

Online learning in the pandemic took place as an emergency situation in which the quality and comfort of life were affected by loneliness, social distancing, risks, stress, fear, anxiety and automatically by a negative perception of the virtual environment. The Romanian education system has become aware of the need to resize the education process and a large number of students have gained knowledge through new online learning methods, which have prompted teachers to redesign their courses and teaching strategies to improve learning effectiveness. The article presents the general characteristics of online learning, which serve distance learning in this time of pandemic crisis. The research is applied to university education and highlights the advantages, challenges and limitations of online learning. The ultimate goal of the research is to identify the perception of participants in this type of virtual education and their participatory guidance through effective communication.

Keywords

  • online learning
  • interactive online education
  • efficient communication
  • feedback
  • coping
Open Access

Organizational Trust and Leadership

Published Online: 12 Jul 2021
Page range: 193 - 197

Abstract

Abstract

In this paper we analyzed organizational trust on an intentionality sample of military personnel, starting from one of the most used theoretical and empirical models in the literature, namely the scale of Mayer and Davis (1999), built on three dimensions: competence, benevolence and integrity of the leader. The analysis shows that the confidence in the leader in the military organization is high on all three dimensions.

Keywords

  • organizational trust
  • ability
  • benevolence
  • integrity
  • leadership
Open Access

Basic Conditions of Adoption Regarding the Person of the Adopted

Published Online: 12 Jul 2021
Page range: 198 - 202

Abstract

Abstract

At the level of society, adoption is a sensitive phenomenon, through the emotional burden it implies both on the adoptee and on the adoptive person or family. In domestic law, the legal regulation of adoption took different forms, all being influenced by the state of society at a certain moment and has evolved in close accordance with the international regulations in the field, having the form of the procedure regulated by the current normative framework, the legislator showing constant concern to create a legal framework that protects the rights and best interests of the child.

Keywords

  • legal
  • civil code
  • legislation
  • adoption
  • procedure
Open Access

Considerations on the Issues of Adoption from the Perspective of ECHR Reglementations

Published Online: 12 Jul 2021
Page range: 203 - 207

Abstract

Abstract

The legal issue of adoption has an obvious complex character, a circumstance that involves increasing the effort of in-depth analysis of regulations in the field, both for their correct interpretation and application, and for identifying possible inaccuracies or legislative gaps and substantiating relevant legislative proposals for their elimination. Since the entry into force of the current Civil Code (2011) until now, in the Romanian doctrine, one cannot identify a scientific paper with a monographic character in which the theoretical and practical issues of the legal regime of adoption in the Romanian system of law are analyzed and deepened. The paper presents a series of opinions on possible corrections in the legal regime of adoption from the perspective ofECHR regulations.

Keywords

  • legal
  • civil code
  • heritage
  • legislation
  • adoption
Open Access

Opinions Regarding the Efficiency of the Methodical Procedures for Developing the Coordinating Capacity of the Fighter’s Body

Published Online: 12 Jul 2021
Page range: 208 - 212

Abstract

Abstract

The military actions carried out throughout time strongly highlight the special importance that the level of motor capacity development has in the training of the fighter. A great number of research studies have underlined the effects of a regular participation in complex training programs that ensure an adequate level of development of the components of this training category. Therefore the identification of the optimal scientific methods for the development of the components of physical capacity is a priority in the training system. The paper points to the methodical aspects related to maximizing a basic component of the motor capacity of the fighter’s body, namely the coordination capacity which involves identifying the best methods and procedures for maximizing the effects of the body’s dexterity, mobility and suppleness.

Keywords

  • action
  • fighter
  • capacity
  • mobility
  • suppleness
Open Access

Opinions on the Contribution of the Bio-Psycho-Physical Component in Military Confrontations Carried Out in Extreme Conditions

Published Online: 12 Jul 2021
Page range: 213 - 218

Abstract

Abstract

The adaptation of the fighter to the combat situations within the different missions, as well as the need to face any request coming up during the confrontations, imposes an extremely complex training system. Having an essential role in combat, the fighter must acquire qualities both in terms of mental, biological and physical features. Due to the threats that hang over the fighters at any time in this type of conflicts, the emphasis in their training is aimed at training in conditions as close to the existing reality as possible, with a focus on the impact that the battlefield has on his psyche and physique, so that at the same time he can adapt his systems of action of the body to the requirements of any nature imposed by each mission. The paper highlights that the process of training this type of fighters includes, among the training pillars, physical and mental training as a support for exceptional training and effective exercise of roles and missions entrusted to the military organization in peacetime, in situations of crisis and especially at war. In the economics of the formative process, physical and mental training represents the essence of a high level of acquiring the qualities specific to the successful conduct of combat, a fact for which their development has been and will always remain a priority objective throughout the continuous training of fighters.

Keywords

  • combat
  • physical and mental training
  • modern battlefield
  • missions
  • fighters
Open Access

The Role of Lobbying in the Decision-Making Process in the European Union

Published Online: 12 Jul 2021
Page range: 219 - 224

Abstract

Abstract

Lobbying in the modern world is becoming part of decision-making processes at the local, state, supranational and global levels. The lobbying process is characterized by the use of various techniques and tools, which is why there are many definitions. In the European Union, it is perceived as a European representation of interests, through which different groups try to influence the decision-making process in the various institutions. Lobbying is often referred to when it is necessary to describe a particular political process, event or phenomenon that has not reached the general public or has remained opaque due to its specific nature. As lobbying becomes increasingly important, this article aims to clarify what lobbying is and what its legitimate and acceptable forms are. It is not without reason that there is a general distrust of the lobbying process and, in particular, of the real intentions of lobbyists. Therefore, many people believe that such activities distort the political process in terms of transparency, integrity and influence. Given the sensitive nature of the topic of lobbying, some good practices from existing lobbying rules at European level will also be considered.

Keywords

  • lobbying
  • influence
  • transparency
  • European Union
  • EU legislation
Open Access

Disinformation as a Threat to the Quality of Contemporary Information

Published Online: 12 Jul 2021
Page range: 225 - 228

Abstract

Abstract

Due to the intensification of local conflicts in the world, ensuring the quality of information is a pressing problem, which is complicated by the lack of a unified methodological framework that allows for an adequate assessment of information threats. Current methods often do not take into account the nature of the interaction of various negative factors and give an assessment only on a qualitative level. The difficulty of analyzing risks in the information sphere lies in the fact that in order to achieve adequate assessments it is necessary to take into account a large number of factors that are in a complex dependence on one another. This article describes the negative influence of disinformation on social and political processes in the state. For the study we use the experience of the United States and Great Britain during significant political events, the experience of information operations in social networks. We also agree that there are many threats to the quality of information in the modern world. One of these threats is disinformation, which inevitably manipulates reality and facts in order to cause harm or financial gain. The article states that disinformation breeds discontent, distrust of state institutions, undermines the legitimacy of power, generates unwarranted tension in the society, as well as curtails public debate and threatens the quality of information.

Keywords

  • disinformation
  • fake news
  • quality of information
  • propaganda
  • threat
Open Access

The Need To Promote Elitism In Education

Published Online: 12 Jul 2021
Page range: 229 - 236

Abstract

Abstract

The idea of elaborating this article came to me after reading over and over again the content of Art.2 paragraph (1) of the National Education Law no.1 / 2011, with subsequent amendments and completions, a very important normative act for the present, but especially for the future of Romania, according to which „The law aims to promote an education oriented on values, creativity, cognitive abilities, volitional abilities and action capacities, fundamental knowledge and competencies/skills and abilities of direct utility, in the professional life and in the society. Anyone who reads the content of Art.2 paragraph (1) is entitled to believe that the most efficient secondary and higher education in the world is taking place in Romania. Unfortunately, when reading and analyzing the content of Art.3, it can be seen quite easily that the principles governing secondary and higher education, as well as lifelong learning in Romania have a more declarative character, i.e. there is one thing written on paper and something else is happening in reality. I would like to continue to talk about this, with arguments, supported by my knowledge and experience in the field of education, starting with September 1979, when I first entered a classroom consisting of military students, from the highly flattering position of instructor and educator and until now, after a lifetime of working in classrooms, laboratories, amphitheatres and auditoriums of several military and civilian higher education institutions, in the honorary position of university professor doctor habilitat and chairman of the University Ethics Commission.

Keywords

  • vision
  • non-vision
  • secondary and higher education
  • principles
Open Access

The Membership in the Schengen Area as a Strategic Objective for the Republic of Bulgaria

Published Online: 12 Jul 2021
Page range: 237 - 243

Abstract

Abstract

Until the escalation of the Covid-19 pandemic, joining the Schengen area was between the major foreign policy priorities for Bulgaria and Romania. Now, when having more clear view of the way out of the crisis, it is time to reopen that issue. The accession to the Schengen area will be associated with both internal and external political consequences, as well as economic ones. Despite all the benefits and advantages, the Bulgaria and Romania, in their perspective of future members of the Schengen area, have a huge responsibility arising from the forthcoming assumption of functions at the external border to ensure the security not only of Bulgarian and Romanian, but also of all European countries.

Keywords

  • Schengen area
  • Accession
  • Bulgaria
  • Romania
  • Covid-19

Plan your remote conference with Sciendo