Issues

Conference & Issues

Volume 28 (2022): Issue 3 (June 2022)

Volume 28 (2022): Issue 2 (June 2022)

Volume 28 (2022): Issue 1 (June 2022)

Volume 27 (2021): Issue 3 (June 2021)

Volume 27 (2021): Issue 2 (June 2021)

Volume 27 (2021): Issue 1 (June 2021)

Volume 26 (2020): Issue 3 (June 2020)

Volume 26 (2020): Issue 2 (June 2020)

Volume 26 (2020): Issue 1 (June 2020)

Volume 25 (2019): Issue 3 (June 2019)

Volume 25 (2019): Issue 2 (June 2019)

Volume 25 (2019): Issue 1 (June 2019)

Volume 24 (2018): Issue 3 (June 2018)

Volume 24 (2018): Issue 2 (June 2018)

Volume 24 (2018): Issue 1 (June 2018)

Volume 23 (2017): Issue 3 (June 2017)

Volume 23 (2017): Issue 2 (June 2017)

Volume 23 (2017): Issue 1 (June 2017)

Volume 22 (2016): Issue 3 (June 2016)

Volume 22 (2016): Issue 2 (June 2016)

Volume 22 (2016): Issue 1 (June 2016)

Volume 21 (2015): Issue 3 (June 2015)

Volume 21 (2015): Issue 2 (June 2015)

Volume 21 (2015): Issue 1 (June 2015)

Conference Details
Format
Conference
eISSN
2451-3113
ISSN
1843-6722
First Published
15 Dec 2015
Publication timeframe
3 times per year
Languages
English

Search

Volume 24 (2018): Issue 1 (June 2018)

Conference Details
Format
Conference
eISSN
2451-3113
ISSN
1843-6722
First Published
15 Dec 2015
Publication timeframe
3 times per year
Languages
English

Search

58 Articles
Open Access

Polish - Romanian Military Cooperation

Published Online: 26 Jul 2018
Page range: 9 - 18

Abstract

Abstract

Reborn after WWI, Poland needed to secure its borders properly against a potential enemy. As a result of the undertaken negotiations, the state strengthened the protection of its eastern border with a Polish-Romanian alliance. Before WWII, Romania was an important ally of Poland in the region and the only neighbour with whom Poland had a good relationship. Currently, both states are members of the EU and NATO, and their interests in security converge, especially in the face of deteriorating security in Eastern Europe. Closer military cooperation is also favoured by extensive political contacts and increasing expenditure on defence in both those states. In fact, Romania may well become the main ally of our country in the region within the next few years

Keywords

  • cooperation
  • military cooperation
  • Polish-Romanian alliance
Open Access

Fake News as a Threat to National Security

Published Online: 26 Jul 2018
Page range: 19 - 22

Abstract

Abstract

We are living in the so-called era of fake news in which cybercriminals have been delving into this phenomenon and turning it into a lucrative business. Fake and invented media websites are created to resemble legitimate media. Some criminals use methods such as modifying legitimate documents and distribute them as part of, for instance, disinformation campaigns. Propaganda is unequivocally bound to national security and it is a risk to it. Since fake news is a unique area where challenges appear to be very complicated, it should be dealt with via more and better usage of national security communications. It is, therefore, no coincidence that the Collins Dictionary has announced “fake news” as a word of 2017. Furthermore, the European Commissioner for Digital Economy and Society Mariya Gabriel considers that fake news is suppressing the media and society as a whole, calling for an EU-level analysis in order to assess the amount to which fake news menaces the EU and pinpoint whether it is likely to find a common solution regarding this issue

Keywords

  • fake news
  • security
  • Internet
  • social media
  • EU Commissioner Mariya Gabriel
  • digital economy
  • cybercrime
Open Access

The Superiority of Information and the Power of the Nation State

Published Online: 26 Jul 2018
Page range: 23 - 28

Abstract

Abstract

Access to valuable information has been, is and will continue to be the focus of all the nation states. The benefits of access to information cannot be questioned, but the volatile nature of this Power Information has shown over time that a state's inability to keep its secrets leads to the loss of this power. The present paper captures historical milestones of information gathering activity that have greatly changed the balance of power between the state actors involved

Keywords

  • espionage
  • motives
  • ideology
  • money
  • revenge
  • whistleblower
  • Rosenberg
  • Philby
  • Walker
  • Penkovsky
  • Ames
  • Snowden
Open Access

The Search for Classified Information – The Real Fight in the Cold War

Published Online: 26 Jul 2018
Page range: 29 - 37

Abstract

Abstract

The effort to get classified information from inside the adverse camp was the main objective of both super powers involved in the Cold War. Both the USA and the USSR tried, by all means at their disposal, to be one step ahead of the opponent by knowing their capabilities and adverse plans. This paper approaches the manner in which intelligence-gathering specialized structures from both camps were involved in collecting data and intelligence to win the information battle during the Cold War

Keywords

  • COLD WAR
  • tradecraft
  • technology
  • HUMINT
  • OSINT
  • SIGINT
  • GEOINT
Open Access

Security of Communications and Informatics Systems within the Modern Battle Space

Published Online: 26 Jul 2018
Page range: 38 - 42

Abstract

Abstract

A basic requirement for a modern communications system is the protection of the communications services provided and of the information transmitted through them. This consists of a set of security measures and procedures organized in accordance with the legal provisions in force within each military structure, for the protection of the stored, processed and transmitted information through communications and informatics systems against threats and actions/inactions that may affect their confidentiality, integrity, availability and authenticity or may affect the operation of communications and informatics systems. In these circumstances, the development of communications equipment and the growing integration of the related technical equipment is accompanied by the emergence of numerous means and processes whereby unauthorized access to classified information may be achieved, both by direct interception of the traffic - especially the one transmitted by electromagnetic waves and the unintended (parasite) radiation of the communications and computing equipment. Therefore, a secure communications system within the modern battle space cannot be concieved without technical equipment needed to protect classified information, mainly based on automatic encryption and on appropriate organizational measures

Keywords

  • security of communications and informatics systems
  • modern combat space
  • electromagnetic spectrum
  • electronic and electromagnetic threats
Open Access

The Influence of the Geographical Environment over the Military Operations in the Bârgău Mountains

Published Online: 26 Jul 2018
Page range: 43 - 49

Abstract

Abstract

The analysis of geographical spaces and the way in which physical-geographic elements influence the planning and conduct of military operations is related to military geography as a component of military science. From the military point of view, the parameters of the relief are of particular importance. In this respect, in the Bârgău Mountains, the mountainous landforms, with slopes leading to the lack of viability, then the high ridges and dominant points that offer wide views, the regime of the currents, the rain, the harshness of the climate in different seasons, the high temperature variations and atmospheric pressure, are elements that oppose or which, on the contrary, can be used as a real weapon against the enemy

Keywords

  • environment
  • military actions
  • military geography
  • planning
  • forecasting
Open Access

A2AD Concept in the Modern Security Environment

Published Online: 26 Jul 2018
Page range: 50 - 57

Abstract

Abstract

In the 21st century, the international scene witnesses major changes in the security environment. There are many actions aimed at redefining spheres of influence and reaffirming states as great powers. The international scene is dominated by two entities that were antagonistic during the Cold War: Russia and NATO. In recent years, Russia is trying to impose itself again as a global actor and is therefore trying to consolidate its power in Europe and the world, both by reforming its armed forces and by participating in various conflicts in the hot zones of the world. Russia perceives NATO as its main adversary, which is trying to get closer to its vital space, reduce its spheres of influence and isolate it. As a reaction, Russia initiated a series of complex actions aimed at both maintaining buffer zones and banning access and limiting NATO's freedom of movement in the immediate vicinity of its borders. To this end, Russia has developed a series of capabilities to prevent the opponent from entering a certain area and to reduce or even forbid him any freedom of action once he has entered the area, this approach of Russia being part of the A2AD (Anti-access, Area Denial) policy

Keywords

  • anti-access
  • area denial
  • NATO
  • Russia
  • security
Open Access

The Renewable Sources of Energy and the Romanian Energy Security

Published Online: 26 Jul 2018
Page range: 58 - 64

Abstract

Abstract

Energy security is a matter of particular importance to all the world's states, whether they are producers or consumers of energy resources. For a long time, fossil energy resources have been the only source of energy used on a planetary scale. When mankind realized that fossil energy resources are a finite source of energy and that their intensive use causes many environmental problems, the most important of which is related to global warming, they have tried to find alternative sources of energy. Thus, concerns have arisen about the use of renewable energy on a wider scale, with both individual concerns of states that have potential in this area and collective concerns, such as at EU level, which has proposed by 2020, the share of energy from renewable sources used by the Union states is at least 20% of total consumption. Renewable energy resources may be an alternative to fossil fuels, but at the same time it has a number of limitations and vulnerabilities. Ensuring energy security means a comprehensive approach, understanding of limitations and reducing vulnerabilities

Keywords

  • energy security
  • renewable energy
  • fossil
  • vulnerabilities
Open Access

Black Sea Region and European Security Policy

Published Online: 26 Jul 2018
Page range: 65 - 70

Abstract

Abstract

It is obvious that the beginning of the 21st century is marked by many new challenges, problems and risks, which in addition to changing the ideas, concepts and practice of organized violence, lead to a deficit of ideas, methods and means of protection from it. The need to adapt available security systems, tools and practices is adopted in Europe as a response to a conscious public need rather than as a strategically planned action in a time of changes. This led to a spontaneous emergence of a common attempt to aggregate and structure the available security knowledge and to create a common stable conceptual basis for national security systems in countries not only in Europe. Moreover, the enlargement of the Union has opened up new horizons for the development of the countries and, at the same time, has changed the significance and scope of European security, where the demarcation line between external and internal security has become more and more difficult to be determined. The discussions about our country's contribution to strategic security in the Black Sea region as part of European security are in the context of the scientific search of ours science school

Keywords

  • security and defense policy
  • European security policy
  • Black Sea region
  • Strategic Management
  • security management
Open Access

Explaining Reality by Sustaining Hobsbawm‘s Statement Regarding the Nation-State as the Failed Target of Globalization

Published Online: 26 Jul 2018
Page range: 71 - 76

Abstract

Abstract

The international security environment is deeply affected by the complex process of globalization, as well as by the nation-state’s permanent search for redefinition of its role as a sovereign political entity. A subject of international law, able to assume international rights and obligations, particularly because of its sovereignty, the state is also an actor whose existence, this time in the field of international relations, is fundamentally conditioned by a series of elements by which precisely the great variety of this form of political and social organization is expressed. External power and internal political organization, social structure and level of economic development, as well as other characteristics, make analysis of the interaction between nation-state and globalization generate highly diverse results with particular consequences on the ability to influence each other. This article therefore aims to put on debate how, at the end of the second decade of the 21st century, the democratic and developed nation-state manages to structure its national security and to found its national interest in the very challenging environment generated by the globalization process

Keywords

  • nation-state
  • globalization
  • sovereignty
  • power
Open Access

The Roman Army during the Regal Period

Published Online: 26 Jul 2018
Page range: 77 - 82

Abstract

Abstract

The intention of this article is to give a brief overview of how the military power was organised in Rome during the regal period. There is little information about the military organisation of the Romans between 753 and 509 BC. However, some written historical sources have enabled us to reconstruct some aspects of the military life in early Rome. The Indo-European studies and the comparative mythology of the Indo-European peoples also help to understand how the warrior function was valued in early Roman society. Like the other Indo-European peoples, the Romans structured their society in a system reflecting the ideology of the three functions represented, according to G. Dumézil, by the priests, warriors and herdsmen-cultivators. The same conception can be found at the theological level, within the triad Jupiter, Mars, Quirinus, the most important gods of Rome. Romulus, the founder of Rome, is the son of the god Mars, thereby consecrating the predominance of the warlike function within the trifunctional system. The army has always been the main instrument that assured the defence of Rome, but especially the expansion and preservation of its power over the conquered territories

Keywords

  • Regal Rome
  • Roman army
  • military organising
  • Romulus
  • Servius Tullius
Open Access

Leadership in the Military Organization in the Context of the Current Military Phenomenon

Published Online: 26 Jul 2018
Page range: 83 - 86

Abstract

Abstract

Military action is a specific type of human action which takes place in a particular physical, geographic and psychological environment. In this article we refer to the specific conditions in which military leadership is running. Also, we refer to the qualities of the military leader

Keywords

  • leadership
  • military organization
  • military phenomenon
  • leader
  • commander
Open Access

The Counter Insurgency Operating Environment

Published Online: 26 Jul 2018
Page range: 87 - 92

Abstract

Abstract

The basis for the successful use of the relevant power tools that produce the effects needed to accomplish the end state is to understand the operating environment. Operating environment represents a composite of the conditions, circumstances and influences that affect the employment of capabilities and bear on the decisions of the commander. This is an environment directly affected by the crisis. Each operating environment has its own character, a number of specific features resulting from a particular crisis. The intent of the article is by the analysis of the operational variables (Political, Military, Economic, Social, Information, Infrastructure, Physical, Time - PMESII-PT) to present the specifics of the operating environment that is affected by the insurgency

Keywords

  • Operating Environment
  • Operational Variables
  • Insurgency
  • Counterinsurgency
Open Access

North Atlantic Early Warning (Naεw) Εvolution in Maјor Сonflicts

Published Online: 26 Jul 2018
Page range: 93 - 97

Abstract

Abstract

The security of the regional and global environment is an issue of major concern for the political and military deciding factors, especially in the current security environment marked by profound and surprising changes at geopolitical and geostrategical level. In the early 1970s, different studies of NATO indicated that a system of airborne early warning (AEW) would considerably increase the defense of the air space of the Alliance. The Committee of Planning Defense of NATO (СΡD) signed a Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) on the acquisition and operational use of an Airborne Early Warning system. The Airbornе Warning & Сontrol Systеm (AWAСS) is a developed and well-organized system, which can be permanently improved and adapted to the present realities generated by the dynamics of regional and global security. The paper presents its evolution and benefits

Keywords

  • early warning
  • prevention
  • security
  • environment
  • defense
Open Access

Intercultural Communication in Military Multinational Operations

Published Online: 26 Jul 2018
Page range: 98 - 103

Abstract

Abstract

The dynamics and complexity of the current operational environment requires military forces, in general, and multinational forces, in particular, new adaptation, relational-communication and action capacities to enable them to identify and combat hypothetical adversaries whose elementary features are their ability to use conventional combat actions correlated with unconventional types of combat. In this context, intercultural communication, seen not only from an internal perspective as a standard of achievement at the level of national contingents, but also externally as an instrument of establishing positive relations with the regional partners, the local population and the other actors of the operational environment, becomes a requirement essential for the performance of multinational military forces in deploying the whole spectrum of operations

Keywords

  • intercultural communication
  • formal communication
  • informal communication
Open Access

Woman Integration in the Military Service. The Case of Bulgaria

Published Online: 26 Jul 2018
Page range: 104 - 107

Abstract

Abstract

According to most of the research papers there are good social psychological conditions, which influence the smooth integration of women into the military. Furthermore, the opinion of military men to women integration in it, is generally well accepted. Most of them except women as equal and treat them with respect. A considerable percentage of women in the army share that it is not necessary for them being privilege, compare to men. Additional studies suggest that higher ranking officials in the military, know well their subordinate’s issues and it is not their gender that defines their capabilities, but their experience and qualities

Keywords

  • gender
  • UNSC Resolution 1325
  • Bulgarian army
Open Access

Key Performance Indicators for the Nato Centres of Excellence

Published Online: 26 Jul 2018
Page range: 108 - 123

Abstract

Abstract

The NATO Centres of Excellence (COEs), entities involved in various fields of transformation in support of the Alliance, are subject of different levels of accreditation performed by NATO. An important aspect of such recognition comes with the NATO institutional accreditation for Quality Assurance (QA) in the case of the COEs involved in education and training delivery (alongside other NATO, National and Partner Education and Training Centres). The NATO QA seal is the trustworthy mark that a COE fulfils the expected quality requirements (based on a solid Quality Management System) in the educational process, and provides deliverables „fit for purpose” as solutions for the NATO education and training requirements. While the individual strategies of the COEs are pretty much different in this endeavour, we would outline the commonality of the standards they rely on. This paper focuses on institutional performance measurement as reference in the Quality Management System, trying to identify benchmarks for Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) based on the current experience at the COEs level - extended to the wider NATO Transformation Network - and shared best practice. DISCLAIMER: This paper expresses the views, interpretations, and independent position of the authors. It should not be regarded as an official document, nor expressing formal opinions or policies, of NATO or the HUMINT Centre of Excellence (HCOE)

Keywords

  • NATO
  • Centre of Excellence
  • Quality Assurance
  • Key Performance Indicators
Open Access

Analysis of Terrorism Motivation Determinants

Published Online: 26 Jul 2018
Page range: 124 - 129

Abstract

Abstract

In its essence, terrorism is a human destructive activity and as such it is characterized by certain motives, needs, etc. It is important for the researchers to analyze in detail the needs that underlie normal human functioning and those that determine terrorism and integration into a terrorist organization. It is quite possible that such a research approach leads to the conclusion that they are not principally, qualitatively different, rather the needs of the terrorist are hypertrophied basic human needs, and the differences are quantitative. The current paper presents some results of the analyses of the main determinants of motivation for terrorism - the need for power; belonging, recognition and self-realization as undoubted motivators of terrorist activity, etc

Keywords

  • terrorism
  • motivation
  • determinants
  • analysis
Open Access

Deployability of Armed Forces in Irregular Warfare

Published Online: 26 Jul 2018
Page range: 130 - 136

Abstract

Abstract

The use of a conventional military force is increasingly difficult in today's armed conflicts. “Complex” civil-military force, which is still suffering from the lack of cooperation, is generally preferred. So-called irregular warfare demands different skills of the military forces compared to conventional warfare. Preparation of armed forces to conditions of irregular surroundings requires new approaches to education, training and deployment

Keywords

  • capabilities
  • irregular environment
  • irregular warfare
Open Access

State Reserve and Wartime Stocks of the Republic of Bulgaria – Essence and Cost

Published Online: 26 Jul 2018
Page range: 137 - 141

Abstract

Abstract

This report presents the importance of the state reserve and the wartime stocks for the national security of our country. The State Reserve and Wartime Stocks State Agency is the object of our research, and the subject of the research is the agency's budget for the period 2015-2018. In this relation, the structure of the agency with its territorial directorates and the structure of costs are examined in detail. The role of the human factor in the agency and its importance for the management of the state reserve and the wartime stocks are presented. A comparative analysis of the individual costs by elements and budget programmes for the period 2015-2018 has been carried out, paying particular attention to the dynamics in their development over the period under review. Some key conclusions have been made concerning the improvement of the management of the state reserve and wartime stocks

Keywords

  • state reserve
  • wartime stocks and national security
Open Access

Cyprus, an Unresolved Issue of the European Union

Published Online: 26 Jul 2018
Page range: 142 - 147

Abstract

Abstract

The Republic of Cyprus is an island from the extreme north of the Mediterranean Sea, is situated at the intersection of Europe, Asia and Africa, 75 km south of Turkey, 105 km west of Syria, 300 km north of Egypt and 800 km east of Greece. As a state form, it is a presidential republic, and is part of the European Union (since May 2004) the Euro Zone (2008), the World Trade Organization - WTO (1995), the International Monetary Fund (1962) 1962), the Council of Europe (1961), the Commonwealth (1961). Cyprus has an unresolved internal situation for a long time

Keywords

  • violence-free conflict
  • british colony
  • independence
  • negotiation
  • war
Open Access

Non-Kinetic Warfare Challenges of the Information Ecosystem’s Phenomenology – The Pattern to a New Battleground

Published Online: 26 Jul 2018
Page range: 148 - 156

Abstract

Abstract

A new technological paradigm often leads to a new societal paradigm, and not vice versa. Challenges faced are not only related to technology, it is the human consciousness that determines the role and influences the outcome of these tools. A comprehensive approach is desirable to understand the regular and irregular interdependence between social ecosystems and information ecosystems. The phenomenon offers the facility to induce short-term attitudes, and long-term mutations from the perspective of societal security, informational actions shapes collective attitudes, and influences people's critical choices. Deciphering, exposing and counteracting information aggressions may be possible by developing a mechanism of processes understanding, based on a support of multidisciplinary acceptance. The present research paper, provides an overview by what method the relationship between Non-Kinetic warfare and information ecosystems can be approached

Keywords

  • Non-Kinetic
  • disinformation
  • intelligence
  • propaganda
  • cyber space
  • society
Open Access

Design of Military Actions in the Operational Environment Hybrid Type

Published Online: 26 Jul 2018
Page range: 157 - 162

Abstract

Abstract

Collective defense arrangements promoted by security-related institutions have generally proven that they can produce the deterrent effect of the armed conflict. However, hybrid warfare actions have challenged the capability of countering and threatening hybrid threats. The paper seeks a point of view on developments in the current operational environment, focusing on the review of the military operations typology in identifying potential measures to counteract the actions of the hybrid war and highlighting the need for a new approach to the construction of armed power in terms of new types risks, challenges and threats

Keywords

  • hybrid operating environment
  • multidimensional operational environment
  • comprehensive approach
  • military scenario
Open Access

Physiognomy of Military Operations Answer to Hybrid Threats

Published Online: 26 Jul 2018
Page range: 163 - 170

Abstract

Abstract

The widening of the spectrum, the diversity of forms of manifestation of hybrid threats, the influence of economic, political, diplomatic, informational and psychological aspects, now occupy, more than ever, a very important place in the architecture of military operations, but also the fact that the evolution of technology in the field of communications, informatics and cyber defense led to an exponential increase in the power of information. The timely and pertinent threat analysis of the hybrid warfare allows military decision-makers to identify, through an elaborate and pragmatic approach, the best solutions for preparing the armed forces for military response operations

Keywords

  • hybrid threats
  • combined capabilities
  • conventional operations
  • hybrid operations
  • asymmetric operations
Open Access

One Belt, One Road Initiative and Its Geostrategic Significance for Eastern Europe

Published Online: 26 Jul 2018
Page range: 171 - 179

Abstract

Abstract

China’s Belt and Road Initiative (BRI), as it was formally announced by President Xi Jinping in 2013, it is an engine for foreign policy, but it represents as well the driver force of China’s economic growth - and as such, it plays an important role in the domestic policy. China's foreign policy aims to support domestic growth and employment, must be aligned with the narratives of ‘rejuvenation’ and the ‘China Dream’. As such, the present paper discusses the origins and development of BRI; it analyses the mechanism in which BRI promotes China’s domestic agenda; as well as it regards at the geostrategic aims and difficulties of such an ambitions global project

Keywords

  • China,Belt
  • Road Initiative (BRI)
  • Eastern Europe
  • Romania
Open Access

France’s Military Importance for the European Union

Published Online: 26 Jul 2018
Page range: 180 - 184

Abstract

Abstract

A founding member of the European Union, France is nowadays still considered, alongside Germany, as one of the two „engines” of European integration. And this applies not only for the economic or social sphere, as France has also played a preeminent role in the historical process of European defence integration. Acknowledging the French contributions to the European defence project, in this paper we subject to analysis the military importance of France for the Union. Using the analysis of social documents and the case study method, we argue that this country’s high level of military integration in the European Union is not at all fortuitous, as is not due to impermanent favourable evolutions

Keywords

  • common defence
  • European Union
  • France
  • military integration
Open Access

Comprehensive Approach in the Full Spectrum of Conflict

Published Online: 26 Jul 2018
Page range: 185 - 191

Abstract

Abstract

The present paper identifies relevant issues and challenges connected to the comprehensive approach/holistic approach in the full spectrum of conflict. The Comprehensive Approach (CA) concept implemented by NATO, EU, UN and even state actors is to satisfy the need for proactive engagement, to foster cooperation, coordination and contribution of all actors, before and during a confrontation or crisis. Conflictuality management requires good governance, economic development, rule of law and local ownership, all this in addition to military security

Keywords

  • comprehensive approach
  • holistic
  • integration
  • spectrum of conflict
  • operational environment
Open Access

Romania’s Role in the Management of Security Organizations

Published Online: 26 Jul 2018
Page range: 192 - 197

Abstract

Abstract

The disappearance of bipolarity causes essential mutations in the international security environment, which highlights the need to rethink the defence concept. The analysis of new risks and threats to international security has led to a new perception of it and has imposed a new orientation in the field of defence. The formation of new partnerships and alliances greatly reduces the likelihood of a conflict between members, which contributes to supporting the common interest of countries to maintain and strengthen international peace and security. All countries of the world are, in principle, members of at least one regional or intergovernmental organization. Although traditionally regional organizations have been set up on the basis of political, economical or environmental objectives, they have also entered security in recent decades and have started to develop their own capabilities to prevent conflicts and support peacekeeping operations or post-conflict construction of states

Keywords

  • security environment
  • security organizations
  • alliances
  • The United Nations
  • European Union
Open Access

Strategic Communication as an Augumentativ Factor in Social Resilience

Published Online: 26 Jul 2018
Page range: 198 - 204

Abstract

Abstract

The society is in a turmoil neither because globalization, high technology or immigration crises, but rather from the race of regional (China and Russia) or world power (US) to develop a new strategies to influence the countries. Europe is not bypassed by these phenomena because Russia as a regional actor is trying to create new sphere of influence at its periphery (especially in Baltic States, Poland and Romania). Romania, as NATO and European Union member, is one of the Russia’s targets not only because geographically it is in the Russia’s proximity, but because it is an area of American’s interests. Russia is developing a real hybrid war, using all the line of effort: political, economical, but specially the social one. The social field is covered by propaganda, promoted by mass-media, as a tool of political power. To counter-attack Russia’s hybrid war, NATO decided, at the Warsaw Summit to develop some operational lines, one is being strategic communication and the second is related with social resilience. The political, administrative and educational institutions are asked to apply this strategy, to find the way to educate people (almost via mass-media) in what is resilience and more important how it works when it is realized

Keywords

  • hybrid war
  • strategic communication
  • resilience
  • education
  • state
Open Access

Termination of Collective Defense Treties – Procedures, Consequences and Modern State Practice

Published Online: 26 Jul 2018
Page range: 205 - 210

Abstract

Abstract

State practice has showed that geopolitical interests of nations are usually engaged either through diplomatic or military means. The mutual desire to avoid armed conflicts led to concluding multiple multilateral and bilateral international security and defence treaties. This process formed the basis of two major concepts -the Collective security and the collective defense. Both of them require a solid international legal basis, namely - a treaty that settles all forms of interpretations, disputes and actions. Since these treaties define international relations for a certain period, their eventual termination would have a major impact on the relations between different nations as seen numerously in the past decades. The contemporary world has completely different challenges to ensure collective security in the framework of international organizations. Currently major military actors are guarding the national sovereignty and aerospace borders of smaller states, thus making air policing a real diplomatic issue that should face an international legal framework. The institutional interaction between NATO and the EU as international organizations could lead to complete integration in terms of defense of the EU Member states in the near future. These issues could and should be met with the means of the main sources of the Law of treaties

Keywords

  • international treaties
  • termination procedure
  • collective defense
Open Access

Nato-Eu Cooperation

Published Online: 26 Jul 2018
Page range: 211 - 214

Abstract

Abstract

The current security situation is marked an increasing competition for power at global scale, the use of power politics, and the growth of the influence of the non-state actors in a changed resource and demographic landscape. NATO and EU seem to be out of sync with the developments in the world, situation which puts their very existence into questioning. However, a closer look shows that both organisations have displayed a very high degree of versatility, re-inventing themselves to adapt to the changing environment, and surviving all the evolution so far, while other peer organisations have become history. Therefore, the main question is whether NATO and EU will overcome the existing and future challenges and continue the current positive trend in their cooperation? When considering the common history, the trend and the most recent evolutions, one can only draw a positive answer. The most significant areas of recent cooperation which indicate a definite positive trend are the adaptation of the NATO Command Structure, the development of military capabilities, and the definition of the cyberspace as an operational domain

Keywords

  • NATO
  • EU
  • cooperation
  • defence
  • capabilities
Open Access

External and Internal Security Dimensions of Early Slavic Stathoods in the Territory of Slovakia

Published Online: 26 Jul 2018
Page range: 215 - 220

Abstract

Abstract

The article deals with basic characteriristic of external and internal security of first slavic tribes settled in Middle Europe. It describes struggle against external enemies which were Avarian nomadic tribes in the 7th century. It also describes defense against East Francia in the 9th century, importance of fortificated settlements. It characterizes warrior groups as main element of defence. Third part focuses on basic elements of Gret Moravian´s internal security such as law codex named “Law codex for people”

Keywords

  • Early slavic states
  • Great Moravia
  • Slavic tribes
  • Avars
  • Charlemagne
  • duke Svätopluk
  • early slavic law
  • slavic expansion
Open Access

Underground Facilities in Modern Conflicts

Published Online: 26 Jul 2018
Page range: 221 - 224

Abstract

Abstract

Knowledge of the nature and location of underground facilities is of great value to both the urban attacker and defender. To exploit the advantages of underground facilities, a thorough reconnaissance is required. This papers describes the role of underground facilities in military actions in urban areas

Keywords

  • subterranean operations
  • underground facilities
  • urban operations
Open Access

Cybercrime Evolution

Published Online: 26 Jul 2018
Page range: 225 - 229

Abstract

Abstract

Information as a structure has changed. Database architectures can hide executive models or constitute simple, manipulable packets form. The transmission of information has undergone mutations dictated by technological evolution, and intercepting methods have proven the capacity of adaptability and penetration. The term "cybercrime" may appear to be abused, but if we look more closely at the global phenomenon, we will understand that all levels of human society are affected without distinction. Starting from the environmental conditions that can be improved, the energy, industrial and transport sectors that can be much better coordinated and reaching the missile fields that can be hijacked, we understand that all depend to a greater extent or less of the aggressor's ability, the preventive and reactive measures implemented, and the degree of resilience that can be provided by defensive or offensive defense structures

Keywords

  • attack
  • vulnerability
  • cryptocurrency
  • infrastructures
  • globalization
Open Access

The Intercultural Dimension of Military Action for Combating Hypothetical Adversaries

Published Online: 26 Jul 2018
Page range: 230 - 234

Abstract

Abstract

Defining and analyzing the current typology of threats determines the military structures to operationally and, implicitly, organizationally adapt in order to ensure their ability to deter and combat hypothetical opponents in any operational environment. From the point of view of efficiency and effectiveness of action, it is no longer sufficient to engage the joint and multinational military structures alone, inter agency and intergovernmental action approaches being necessary. On these grounds, the intercultural dimension of the action of the military structures undergoes changes, moving from the internal plan, of the inter force relationships in the organic structure of the multinational military force into the external one, defined by the interactions between the latter and the structures/forces/elements within other agencies, intergovernmental organizations, to which the local population is added

Keywords

  • intercultural dimension
  • hypothetical opponents
  • JIIM type actions
  • cultural capability
Open Access

The Determinant Role of Misinformation in the Manifestation of the Principle of Operational Surprise

Published Online: 26 Jul 2018
Page range: 235 - 240

Abstract

Abstract

Surprising the opponent in the main areas of strategic confrontation - information, political, economic, technological, ideological, psychological, espionage/counter-intelligence, military - was a priority objective of the general policy of the states, regardless of the analyzed historical age. In this framework, the most active and effective component of taking by surprise - misinformation- has always been in the attention of decision-makers in order to determine a distorted perception of reality, diminishing alertness and reducing the ability of an opponent to act or react [1]

Keywords

  • surprising
  • misinformation
  • military operation
  • geopolitics
  • geostrategy
Open Access

Facts Concerning the Counteraction of Military Negotiating Partners, Fastidious and Unfair, in Crisis Situations and War Time

Published Online: 26 Jul 2018
Page range: 241 - 244

Abstract

Abstract

The applications highlighted the fact that, in crisis situations and war time, there were military negotiations, in which the partners have proven their unfairness and stiffness. The inflexibility and unfairness of the negotiator resides in the fact that he used incorrect tactics⦋1], especially subterfuges, for obtaining advantages. About this negotiating partner we would like to have the following discussion

Keywords

  • military negotiation
  • crisis
  • war
  • negotiating partner
Open Access

Arab Spring as a Background of Civil War in Syria

Published Online: 26 Jul 2018
Page range: 245 - 251

Abstract

Abstract

In the paper the reasons of outbreak of conflict in Syria at the background of social and political situation of the Arab world at the beginning of 21st century were presented. The influence of displeasure explosion against governments in Tunisia, Libya and Egypt, known as Arab Spring, on the situation in Syria was described. The attention on escalation of tensions between Bashar al-Assad’s government and opposition as a source of civil war in Syria was paid. The foreign players at the arena of Syrian conflict with special concern to United States and Russia activity, as a main contractors in the conflict were shown

Keywords

  • Arab Spring
  • Arab awakening
  • Middle East
  • civil war
  • democratisation
Open Access

Leading a Project Team when Developing a New Academic Programme

Published Online: 26 Jul 2018
Page range: 252 - 256

Abstract

Abstract

Within the transformation and modernization process of the Romanian Army the need for a better connection between the university specialization of the graduates and their military one emerged. In order to satisfy that need, a new programme is needed for the logistics officers and accountants. The new programme, the Accounting and Management Information Systems, is to develop a new category of professionals able to integrate much more easily on the work market, and also to exercise the officer position in a more performing manner

Keywords

  • manager
  • project team
  • methodology
  • risk
Open Access

Rationality and Subjectivity in Preliminary Analysis of Acquisition Options of Technical Systems

Published Online: 26 Jul 2018
Page range: 257 - 261

Abstract

Abstract

Modeling the acquisition decision and, consequently, managing the capabilities of technical systems involves multiple options that need to be optimized first, based on universal constraints such as time, quality, cost, etc. The criterion of use (private or institutional), according to which analyzes can evolve differently, is also important. Regardless of the way in which these considerations are taken, there is always a difference of approach given by the quantitative and / or qualitative tools used but also by biases, heuristics and mindsets. The article analyzes succinctly, on an example of calculation (based on a matrix used in the theory of decision to evaluate the different alternatives made available, when we have a basic model to be referred to), the universe of these analytical modalities, underlining the idea of making analyzes using a maximum level of objectivity and minimizing as much as possible subjectivism. It has been chosen as a way of applying the field of procurement of technical systems with the possibility of highlighting as many aspects as possible on the decisional criteria. Critical analysis of the robustness of the choices made by the human factor as a rational decision-maker is presented, as it is seen in the classical economic theory, but taking into account the limitations highlighted by modern theories in the fields of psychology and information theory

Keywords

  • option
  • model
  • technical system
  • rationality
  • subjectivism
Open Access

Knowledge Management of the Esp Class Using Technology

Published Online: 26 Jul 2018
Page range: 262 - 266

Abstract

Abstract

The present study aims at analyzing the benefits and drawbacks of knowledge management of the ESP class through the use of technology. Being in constant contact with technology, it is unavoidable to use it for teaching foreign languages. For this reason, both CALL (Computer Assisted Language Learning) and mobile apps prove useful in the demarche for better teaching and learning process. Nevertheless, managing blended learning ESP class implies a different approach to technology that goes beyond the classic use of Web 2.0 tools and proposes a new generation of mobile technology that facilitates and even simplifies the acquisition of all the four competencies (for ESP): reading, writing, listening and speaking for students ranging A2 to C1 (usually few students are absolute beginners and other few have native-like English level) in compliance with the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages whose guidance aids instructors prepare students for the competitive labor market

Keywords

  • knowledge management
  • ESP
  • technology
  • teaching/learning process
Open Access

Organisational Learning Improvement by Using Knowledge Management System

Published Online: 26 Jul 2018
Page range: 267 - 272

Abstract

Abstract

The only sustainable advantage an organization will have in the future is its ability to learn faster than its competitors. In the current environment characterized by globalization, competition and dynamism, the success of a firm depends on its ability to learn from its interactions with the environment, its internal dynamics and the experience of other firms, the knowledge and skills of its employees. Companies must provide the necessary conditions for creating and continuously updating knowledge and putting it into practice. The success of a company is therefore conditioned by the ability to acquire, encode and translate the knowledge as quickly as possible

Keywords

  • organisational learning
  • learning improvement
  • knowledge management
  • organizational knowledge
  • organizational competitiveness
Open Access

Competitiveness of Companies in the Competitive Environment - The Essential Question of Performance Management

Published Online: 26 Jul 2018
Page range: 273 - 278

Abstract

Abstract

Competitiveness is the ability of the company to compete with commodities that meet the needs of customers in terms of price, quality and diversity. It is possible to the extent that the firm has a competitive advantage and whose affirmation has its source in the internal conditions of the firm and which the economic environment, first of all the competitive one, can favor. In the field of management, the strategy is the art of conducting a set of devices in order to achieve a goal. M. Porter argues that the strategy is "the art of building competitive advantages that can be defended over a long period of time."

Keywords

  • competitiveness
  • competitive strategies
  • innovation
  • efficiency
Open Access

Criteria for Efficient Defence Product Life Cycle Management

Published Online: 26 Jul 2018
Page range: 279 - 282

Abstract

Abstract

The modern security environment, being dynamic and often unpredictable, hazardous and limited in resources, is a challenge itself for the member-countries of Euro-Atlantic structures. Respectively and as a consequence of our Armed Forces reforms prolonged for more than 20 years, which resulted in lack of personnel and unfulfilled modernization, there has been an intensifying discussion on the question whether the defence capabilities of our country, as part of the collective ones, are good enough to ensure the safety of the Bulgarian territory as well as our national and the international security and to reach the Capability Targets. When resolving this issue, not only the security environment factors should be considered, but also the security imperatives, one of them being the maintenance of defence products as an integral part of their life cycle management (LCM). In the search of a balance between resources and capabilities, our scientific attempts have focused on defining scientifically supported criteria for the increase of the efficiency of defence products life cycle management as part of the resource management for security and defence, which determines the goal of our scientific research and analyses in the present work

Keywords

  • security and defence
  • strategic management
  • security management
  • defence resources management
  • defence product life cycle management
Open Access

Planning and Time Management

Published Online: 26 Jul 2018
Page range: 283 - 288

Abstract

Abstract

For the fulfilment of any plan or task, the management decisions need time: from several hours to several years. Therefore a special place in planning takes time management, establishing effective use of the staff time and each employee, which is divided into business and personal time. Time is the only resource that is not reproduced, it can’t be overtaken, but you can lag behind it. The task that is not completed within the established timeframe must be completed in the next term, assigned for another task, or at the expense of personal time. Planning and time management or organizing time is a technology to organize and improve the effective use of time

Keywords

  • time
  • management
  • planning
  • organizing
Open Access

A Systemic View of International Projects with Virtual Teams

Published Online: 26 Jul 2018
Page range: 289 - 295

Abstract

Abstract

Systemic thinking is an instrument used in any field to understand the complexity of the changes and challenges that take place, and to discover the reciprocal links and conditions between the internal elements that determine the functioning of the system. Understanding how the international project with virtual project teams works as a system can help us better address the issues that arise in managing it, helping to increase the success rate. The international project with teams in the virtual environment, due to the diversity it embraces, in various aspects, especially at the cultural level, is considered a complex system, and can be seen as a system of systems. This term applies to systems in which interactions that could appear between different elements and deliverables are difficult to represent by a mathematical model or to be anticipated. In order to highlight the complexity of the international project system, we chose to represent project management in the virtual environment as a subsystem through the subsystems that compose it. This graphic representation can be used as a theoretical model of how to manage an international project with teams in the virtual environment

Keywords

  • international project management
  • virtual teams
  • systems
Open Access

Organization and Business Environment Collaborative Model to Increase the Innovation Capacity

Published Online: 26 Jul 2018
Page range: 296 - 301

Abstract

Abstract

The research aims to identify a modern Business Process Management solution to simulate integrated coordination mechanisms with impact on organization’s innovation. From a scientific and socio-economic perspective, the article is aligned with the European innovation trend that supports organizations' preoccupation to introduce innovation and upgrading processes, technologies and business models. The issues that the author has identified and sought to find answers are to identify that mild method of Business Process Management that can be correlated with the dimensions of organizational innovation in areas such as: the organization's infrastructure, partnership between business members, innovation "inside". The second issue is to limit current approaches by analyzing the current state of knowledge. The research has been included within the boundaries of modeling and simulation of business process flows with impact on organizational innovation vectors. Thus, the paper proposes and presents a set of integrated processes of collaboration between the organization and the business environment using Business Process Management as an integrated coordination mechanism of the organization's innovation

Keywords

  • collaborative process
  • business process modeling
  • innovation
Open Access

Research on the Motivation for Choosing the Military Career

Published Online: 26 Jul 2018
Page range: 302 - 307

Abstract

Abstract

The following article examines the structure of the motivation to choose the military career as well as the satisfaction from it. It analyses the main factors influencing on the choice of this profession as well as the interrelationships between them. The article sets out the specific reasons for a career in the Army and the results of the survey would contribute to the improvement of the attractiveness of the military career and attracting motivated military staff

Keywords

  • motivation
  • military career
  • choice
  • military staff
Open Access

Active Perspectives on the Motivation of Human Resources in Organization to Meet Objectives

Published Online: 26 Jul 2018
Page range: 308 - 313

Abstract

Abstract

In this study we began with the idea that the development and success of an organization depend on its resources, interaction between them and their functioning as a system. The main resource that can engage all the organization's resources so as the organization should achieve its goals, is the human resource. Therefore, once they become part of an organization, the employees will have to integrate into it and contribute to the smooth running of their activities. The managers have the mission to understand, motivate and actively involve the employees in achieving the organization's goals so as these should successfully fulfill their responsibilities. The conclusion of the study is that if employees are not motivated and actively involved in fulfilling their activities, they do not perform their tasks. Failure to perform tasks leads to conflicts with colleagues and superiors and failure to achieve the goals set in the organization

Keywords

  • human resources
  • motivation
  • organization
Open Access

Human Resources - Important Resources of the Contemporary Organization

Published Online: 26 Jul 2018
Page range: 314 - 318

Abstract

Abstract

In this paper we started from the idea that the most important strategic resource of an organization is people. Without people, the organization's other resources could not be operational, and the organization could not fulfill its established goals. Therefore, in order for an organization to grow and become competitive in the long run, it must invest in training the employees. It is true that this investment has high costs, but well-trained, creative, adaptable, motivated and involved employees in achieving the organization's goals generate positive changes in all its structures. Taken into consideration all the analyzed theories, we tried to demonstrate that an organization will become stronger, more adaptable to changes in both its internal and external environment and will meet its established goals becoming a successful organization

Keywords

  • human resource
  • organization
  • strategic resource
  • organization's success
Open Access

Particularities Relating to the Risk Management into the Military Decision-Making Process

Published Online: 26 Jul 2018
Page range: 319 - 323

Abstract

Abstract

Complex phenomenon and particularly challenging, the decision-making process in the military field is, perhaps, the place where the risk is defined and is found in “pure form”. The dynamics of actions, environmental factors, technical and tactical characteristics of military structures are just a few items that generate a range of risks which must be managed by each commander, both at the time of the decision, and during its implementation. For these reasons, and not only, we support the idea that risk management in the military field may be the key to success in any mission

Keywords

  • decision
  • risk
  • management
  • military action
Open Access

Opportunities for Achieving Effective Management in Season Tourist Sites

Published Online: 26 Jul 2018
Page range: 324 - 328

Abstract

Abstract

This study presents the specificity of season destinations and how to put into practice traditional and flexible opportunities for managing tourist sites in them. A distinction has been made between “hired” management and “timeshare” in tourism, as two of the main forms of flexible management. An online market survey was conducted to offer new flexible forms of management in the tourism business. Their advantages and disadvantages for the tourist sites are analyzed

Keywords

  • management
  • tourism business
  • season destinations
Open Access

A Comprehensive Approach to Education and Management in the System of Security

Published Online: 26 Jul 2018
Page range: 329 - 333

Abstract

Abstract

This report discusses the sensitive issue of the quality of decision-making in the security system, facing inevitable transition towards greater professionalism and technological maturity. While applying the basic principle of situational analysis in terms of „environmental scanning”, realized through a process of „breaking down” of the environment into certain factors, and gleaning information about their interplay in the direction of their impact, the authors elaborate on the formulation and the applicability of a novel, science-based, long-term state security and defense policy as well as a pertinent strategy for its implementation

Keywords

  • system of security
  • risk
  • education
Open Access

Using a Vector Swot - Analysis to Determine the Guidelines for the Training of Tracked Vehicles Driver in the Bulgarian Army

Published Online: 26 Jul 2018
Page range: 334 - 339

Abstract

Abstract

In the process of making strategic decisions and defining trends in process development, SWOT analysis is particularly important as a reliable prognosis tool. The results of the situational analysis allow to identify priorities and objectives on the one hand and to assist in the selection of development guidelines on the other. The purpose of the following report is to optimize the process of training the tracked vehicles driver in the Bulgarian Army by defining an indicated vector in a SWOT quadrant and identifying development strategies

Keywords

  • SWOT
  • analysis
  • training
  • tracked vehicles driver
  • situation model,
  • indicated vector
Open Access

Risk Management in Major Acquisition Programs

Published Online: 26 Jul 2018
Page range: 340 - 345

Abstract

Abstract

The paper analyses the particularities of risk management in major acquisition programs (acquisition of complex defence systems) and identifies technical risks. In the framework of risk management in major acquisition programs, the following elements were analysed: the relation between risk and the process of military acquisition; the acquisition process in the military acquisition and risk management phases; the risk and the characteristics of the acquisition process

Keywords

  • decision
  • risk management
  • acquisition management
  • military acquisition
  • program
Open Access

New Proposal on Reporting Intangible Resources on the Organizational Level

Published Online: 26 Jul 2018
Page range: 346 - 350

Abstract

Abstract

In recent years, it has become increasingly evident that existing information systems at the level of organizations do not allow for a performing management because they fail to capture a wide range of intangible resources, which represent one of the most important variables for the success and progress of any organization. As a result of the fact that the annual financial reporting cannot give a real basis for making accurate estimates of future cash flows that can be made by organizations, or of their associated risk, this article states the need to report intangible resources at the organizational level. The concept, content and advantages of an Intangible Resources Report (IRR) are presented, and in the final part of the article it is presented an example of IRR, detailed in a specific case for an intangible resource. This Intangible Resources Report has the advantage of providing a generous and documented framework for managing and disclosing intangible resource information for any type of organization. Through its implementation, it is possible to compare strengths and weaknesses in intangible resources for different organizations, becoming a good benchmark tool, thus facilitating the exchange of experience and learning in different areas of intangible resource management at the level organizations

Keywords

  • intangible resources report
Open Access

Methodology for Analysis and Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Using Outsourcing Services in the Bulgarian Armed Forces

Published Online: 26 Jul 2018
Page range: 351 - 356

Abstract

Abstract

The improvement of the outsourcing process is directly related to the planned ideas of the managing bodies of the Bulgarian Armed Forces and the initiatives to be implemented. This in turn determines the need to analyse and evaluate the efficiency of the performance of the outsourcing service. The objective is to identify possible deviations from the requirements of the client military unit and to take action to change or improve the outsourcing process. The analysis and evaluation of the efficiency of the used outsourcing services enables an overall vision of the outsourcing process and the fulfillment of the set goals. This article studies and analyses the possibilities for applying a methodology for analysis and evaluation of the effectiveness of the use of outsourcing services in the Bulgarian Armed Forces

Keywords

  • methodology
  • analysis
  • evaluation
  • efficiency
  • outsourcing services
Open Access

Conceptual Model for Evaluation of the Quality of Outsourcing Services

Published Online: 26 Jul 2018
Page range: 357 - 361

Abstract

Abstract

Increasing the effectivenss of outsourcing processes in military structures is part of their creation and use. The broadly popular perception of enhancing the effectivenss of a process as a whole is to increase its capabilities in some of its directions in order to make it more effective and to reduce costs. This is the reason for the focus on increasing the effectivenss of the outsourcing processes used in the Bulgarian Armed Forces. They should be considered not only as a transfer of certain services, but also as a process of management, control, constant monitoring and coordination with the modern, dynamic market that needs permanent optimisation in order to increase the effectivenss. This article studies and analyses the possibilities of evaluating the effectivenss of an outsourcing service and compiling a conceptual model for quality assessment

Keywords

  • effectiveness
  • model
  • evaluation
  • quality
  • outsourcing process
58 Articles
Open Access

Polish - Romanian Military Cooperation

Published Online: 26 Jul 2018
Page range: 9 - 18

Abstract

Abstract

Reborn after WWI, Poland needed to secure its borders properly against a potential enemy. As a result of the undertaken negotiations, the state strengthened the protection of its eastern border with a Polish-Romanian alliance. Before WWII, Romania was an important ally of Poland in the region and the only neighbour with whom Poland had a good relationship. Currently, both states are members of the EU and NATO, and their interests in security converge, especially in the face of deteriorating security in Eastern Europe. Closer military cooperation is also favoured by extensive political contacts and increasing expenditure on defence in both those states. In fact, Romania may well become the main ally of our country in the region within the next few years

Keywords

  • cooperation
  • military cooperation
  • Polish-Romanian alliance
Open Access

Fake News as a Threat to National Security

Published Online: 26 Jul 2018
Page range: 19 - 22

Abstract

Abstract

We are living in the so-called era of fake news in which cybercriminals have been delving into this phenomenon and turning it into a lucrative business. Fake and invented media websites are created to resemble legitimate media. Some criminals use methods such as modifying legitimate documents and distribute them as part of, for instance, disinformation campaigns. Propaganda is unequivocally bound to national security and it is a risk to it. Since fake news is a unique area where challenges appear to be very complicated, it should be dealt with via more and better usage of national security communications. It is, therefore, no coincidence that the Collins Dictionary has announced “fake news” as a word of 2017. Furthermore, the European Commissioner for Digital Economy and Society Mariya Gabriel considers that fake news is suppressing the media and society as a whole, calling for an EU-level analysis in order to assess the amount to which fake news menaces the EU and pinpoint whether it is likely to find a common solution regarding this issue

Keywords

  • fake news
  • security
  • Internet
  • social media
  • EU Commissioner Mariya Gabriel
  • digital economy
  • cybercrime
Open Access

The Superiority of Information and the Power of the Nation State

Published Online: 26 Jul 2018
Page range: 23 - 28

Abstract

Abstract

Access to valuable information has been, is and will continue to be the focus of all the nation states. The benefits of access to information cannot be questioned, but the volatile nature of this Power Information has shown over time that a state's inability to keep its secrets leads to the loss of this power. The present paper captures historical milestones of information gathering activity that have greatly changed the balance of power between the state actors involved

Keywords

  • espionage
  • motives
  • ideology
  • money
  • revenge
  • whistleblower
  • Rosenberg
  • Philby
  • Walker
  • Penkovsky
  • Ames
  • Snowden
Open Access

The Search for Classified Information – The Real Fight in the Cold War

Published Online: 26 Jul 2018
Page range: 29 - 37

Abstract

Abstract

The effort to get classified information from inside the adverse camp was the main objective of both super powers involved in the Cold War. Both the USA and the USSR tried, by all means at their disposal, to be one step ahead of the opponent by knowing their capabilities and adverse plans. This paper approaches the manner in which intelligence-gathering specialized structures from both camps were involved in collecting data and intelligence to win the information battle during the Cold War

Keywords

  • COLD WAR
  • tradecraft
  • technology
  • HUMINT
  • OSINT
  • SIGINT
  • GEOINT
Open Access

Security of Communications and Informatics Systems within the Modern Battle Space

Published Online: 26 Jul 2018
Page range: 38 - 42

Abstract

Abstract

A basic requirement for a modern communications system is the protection of the communications services provided and of the information transmitted through them. This consists of a set of security measures and procedures organized in accordance with the legal provisions in force within each military structure, for the protection of the stored, processed and transmitted information through communications and informatics systems against threats and actions/inactions that may affect their confidentiality, integrity, availability and authenticity or may affect the operation of communications and informatics systems. In these circumstances, the development of communications equipment and the growing integration of the related technical equipment is accompanied by the emergence of numerous means and processes whereby unauthorized access to classified information may be achieved, both by direct interception of the traffic - especially the one transmitted by electromagnetic waves and the unintended (parasite) radiation of the communications and computing equipment. Therefore, a secure communications system within the modern battle space cannot be concieved without technical equipment needed to protect classified information, mainly based on automatic encryption and on appropriate organizational measures

Keywords

  • security of communications and informatics systems
  • modern combat space
  • electromagnetic spectrum
  • electronic and electromagnetic threats
Open Access

The Influence of the Geographical Environment over the Military Operations in the Bârgău Mountains

Published Online: 26 Jul 2018
Page range: 43 - 49

Abstract

Abstract

The analysis of geographical spaces and the way in which physical-geographic elements influence the planning and conduct of military operations is related to military geography as a component of military science. From the military point of view, the parameters of the relief are of particular importance. In this respect, in the Bârgău Mountains, the mountainous landforms, with slopes leading to the lack of viability, then the high ridges and dominant points that offer wide views, the regime of the currents, the rain, the harshness of the climate in different seasons, the high temperature variations and atmospheric pressure, are elements that oppose or which, on the contrary, can be used as a real weapon against the enemy

Keywords

  • environment
  • military actions
  • military geography
  • planning
  • forecasting
Open Access

A2AD Concept in the Modern Security Environment

Published Online: 26 Jul 2018
Page range: 50 - 57

Abstract

Abstract

In the 21st century, the international scene witnesses major changes in the security environment. There are many actions aimed at redefining spheres of influence and reaffirming states as great powers. The international scene is dominated by two entities that were antagonistic during the Cold War: Russia and NATO. In recent years, Russia is trying to impose itself again as a global actor and is therefore trying to consolidate its power in Europe and the world, both by reforming its armed forces and by participating in various conflicts in the hot zones of the world. Russia perceives NATO as its main adversary, which is trying to get closer to its vital space, reduce its spheres of influence and isolate it. As a reaction, Russia initiated a series of complex actions aimed at both maintaining buffer zones and banning access and limiting NATO's freedom of movement in the immediate vicinity of its borders. To this end, Russia has developed a series of capabilities to prevent the opponent from entering a certain area and to reduce or even forbid him any freedom of action once he has entered the area, this approach of Russia being part of the A2AD (Anti-access, Area Denial) policy

Keywords

  • anti-access
  • area denial
  • NATO
  • Russia
  • security
Open Access

The Renewable Sources of Energy and the Romanian Energy Security

Published Online: 26 Jul 2018
Page range: 58 - 64

Abstract

Abstract

Energy security is a matter of particular importance to all the world's states, whether they are producers or consumers of energy resources. For a long time, fossil energy resources have been the only source of energy used on a planetary scale. When mankind realized that fossil energy resources are a finite source of energy and that their intensive use causes many environmental problems, the most important of which is related to global warming, they have tried to find alternative sources of energy. Thus, concerns have arisen about the use of renewable energy on a wider scale, with both individual concerns of states that have potential in this area and collective concerns, such as at EU level, which has proposed by 2020, the share of energy from renewable sources used by the Union states is at least 20% of total consumption. Renewable energy resources may be an alternative to fossil fuels, but at the same time it has a number of limitations and vulnerabilities. Ensuring energy security means a comprehensive approach, understanding of limitations and reducing vulnerabilities

Keywords

  • energy security
  • renewable energy
  • fossil
  • vulnerabilities
Open Access

Black Sea Region and European Security Policy

Published Online: 26 Jul 2018
Page range: 65 - 70

Abstract

Abstract

It is obvious that the beginning of the 21st century is marked by many new challenges, problems and risks, which in addition to changing the ideas, concepts and practice of organized violence, lead to a deficit of ideas, methods and means of protection from it. The need to adapt available security systems, tools and practices is adopted in Europe as a response to a conscious public need rather than as a strategically planned action in a time of changes. This led to a spontaneous emergence of a common attempt to aggregate and structure the available security knowledge and to create a common stable conceptual basis for national security systems in countries not only in Europe. Moreover, the enlargement of the Union has opened up new horizons for the development of the countries and, at the same time, has changed the significance and scope of European security, where the demarcation line between external and internal security has become more and more difficult to be determined. The discussions about our country's contribution to strategic security in the Black Sea region as part of European security are in the context of the scientific search of ours science school

Keywords

  • security and defense policy
  • European security policy
  • Black Sea region
  • Strategic Management
  • security management
Open Access

Explaining Reality by Sustaining Hobsbawm‘s Statement Regarding the Nation-State as the Failed Target of Globalization

Published Online: 26 Jul 2018
Page range: 71 - 76

Abstract

Abstract

The international security environment is deeply affected by the complex process of globalization, as well as by the nation-state’s permanent search for redefinition of its role as a sovereign political entity. A subject of international law, able to assume international rights and obligations, particularly because of its sovereignty, the state is also an actor whose existence, this time in the field of international relations, is fundamentally conditioned by a series of elements by which precisely the great variety of this form of political and social organization is expressed. External power and internal political organization, social structure and level of economic development, as well as other characteristics, make analysis of the interaction between nation-state and globalization generate highly diverse results with particular consequences on the ability to influence each other. This article therefore aims to put on debate how, at the end of the second decade of the 21st century, the democratic and developed nation-state manages to structure its national security and to found its national interest in the very challenging environment generated by the globalization process

Keywords

  • nation-state
  • globalization
  • sovereignty
  • power
Open Access

The Roman Army during the Regal Period

Published Online: 26 Jul 2018
Page range: 77 - 82

Abstract

Abstract

The intention of this article is to give a brief overview of how the military power was organised in Rome during the regal period. There is little information about the military organisation of the Romans between 753 and 509 BC. However, some written historical sources have enabled us to reconstruct some aspects of the military life in early Rome. The Indo-European studies and the comparative mythology of the Indo-European peoples also help to understand how the warrior function was valued in early Roman society. Like the other Indo-European peoples, the Romans structured their society in a system reflecting the ideology of the three functions represented, according to G. Dumézil, by the priests, warriors and herdsmen-cultivators. The same conception can be found at the theological level, within the triad Jupiter, Mars, Quirinus, the most important gods of Rome. Romulus, the founder of Rome, is the son of the god Mars, thereby consecrating the predominance of the warlike function within the trifunctional system. The army has always been the main instrument that assured the defence of Rome, but especially the expansion and preservation of its power over the conquered territories

Keywords

  • Regal Rome
  • Roman army
  • military organising
  • Romulus
  • Servius Tullius
Open Access

Leadership in the Military Organization in the Context of the Current Military Phenomenon

Published Online: 26 Jul 2018
Page range: 83 - 86

Abstract

Abstract

Military action is a specific type of human action which takes place in a particular physical, geographic and psychological environment. In this article we refer to the specific conditions in which military leadership is running. Also, we refer to the qualities of the military leader

Keywords

  • leadership
  • military organization
  • military phenomenon
  • leader
  • commander
Open Access

The Counter Insurgency Operating Environment

Published Online: 26 Jul 2018
Page range: 87 - 92

Abstract

Abstract

The basis for the successful use of the relevant power tools that produce the effects needed to accomplish the end state is to understand the operating environment. Operating environment represents a composite of the conditions, circumstances and influences that affect the employment of capabilities and bear on the decisions of the commander. This is an environment directly affected by the crisis. Each operating environment has its own character, a number of specific features resulting from a particular crisis. The intent of the article is by the analysis of the operational variables (Political, Military, Economic, Social, Information, Infrastructure, Physical, Time - PMESII-PT) to present the specifics of the operating environment that is affected by the insurgency

Keywords

  • Operating Environment
  • Operational Variables
  • Insurgency
  • Counterinsurgency
Open Access

North Atlantic Early Warning (Naεw) Εvolution in Maјor Сonflicts

Published Online: 26 Jul 2018
Page range: 93 - 97

Abstract

Abstract

The security of the regional and global environment is an issue of major concern for the political and military deciding factors, especially in the current security environment marked by profound and surprising changes at geopolitical and geostrategical level. In the early 1970s, different studies of NATO indicated that a system of airborne early warning (AEW) would considerably increase the defense of the air space of the Alliance. The Committee of Planning Defense of NATO (СΡD) signed a Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) on the acquisition and operational use of an Airborne Early Warning system. The Airbornе Warning & Сontrol Systеm (AWAСS) is a developed and well-organized system, which can be permanently improved and adapted to the present realities generated by the dynamics of regional and global security. The paper presents its evolution and benefits

Keywords

  • early warning
  • prevention
  • security
  • environment
  • defense
Open Access

Intercultural Communication in Military Multinational Operations

Published Online: 26 Jul 2018
Page range: 98 - 103

Abstract

Abstract

The dynamics and complexity of the current operational environment requires military forces, in general, and multinational forces, in particular, new adaptation, relational-communication and action capacities to enable them to identify and combat hypothetical adversaries whose elementary features are their ability to use conventional combat actions correlated with unconventional types of combat. In this context, intercultural communication, seen not only from an internal perspective as a standard of achievement at the level of national contingents, but also externally as an instrument of establishing positive relations with the regional partners, the local population and the other actors of the operational environment, becomes a requirement essential for the performance of multinational military forces in deploying the whole spectrum of operations

Keywords

  • intercultural communication
  • formal communication
  • informal communication
Open Access

Woman Integration in the Military Service. The Case of Bulgaria

Published Online: 26 Jul 2018
Page range: 104 - 107

Abstract

Abstract

According to most of the research papers there are good social psychological conditions, which influence the smooth integration of women into the military. Furthermore, the opinion of military men to women integration in it, is generally well accepted. Most of them except women as equal and treat them with respect. A considerable percentage of women in the army share that it is not necessary for them being privilege, compare to men. Additional studies suggest that higher ranking officials in the military, know well their subordinate’s issues and it is not their gender that defines their capabilities, but their experience and qualities

Keywords

  • gender
  • UNSC Resolution 1325
  • Bulgarian army
Open Access

Key Performance Indicators for the Nato Centres of Excellence

Published Online: 26 Jul 2018
Page range: 108 - 123

Abstract

Abstract

The NATO Centres of Excellence (COEs), entities involved in various fields of transformation in support of the Alliance, are subject of different levels of accreditation performed by NATO. An important aspect of such recognition comes with the NATO institutional accreditation for Quality Assurance (QA) in the case of the COEs involved in education and training delivery (alongside other NATO, National and Partner Education and Training Centres). The NATO QA seal is the trustworthy mark that a COE fulfils the expected quality requirements (based on a solid Quality Management System) in the educational process, and provides deliverables „fit for purpose” as solutions for the NATO education and training requirements. While the individual strategies of the COEs are pretty much different in this endeavour, we would outline the commonality of the standards they rely on. This paper focuses on institutional performance measurement as reference in the Quality Management System, trying to identify benchmarks for Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) based on the current experience at the COEs level - extended to the wider NATO Transformation Network - and shared best practice. DISCLAIMER: This paper expresses the views, interpretations, and independent position of the authors. It should not be regarded as an official document, nor expressing formal opinions or policies, of NATO or the HUMINT Centre of Excellence (HCOE)

Keywords

  • NATO
  • Centre of Excellence
  • Quality Assurance
  • Key Performance Indicators
Open Access

Analysis of Terrorism Motivation Determinants

Published Online: 26 Jul 2018
Page range: 124 - 129

Abstract

Abstract

In its essence, terrorism is a human destructive activity and as such it is characterized by certain motives, needs, etc. It is important for the researchers to analyze in detail the needs that underlie normal human functioning and those that determine terrorism and integration into a terrorist organization. It is quite possible that such a research approach leads to the conclusion that they are not principally, qualitatively different, rather the needs of the terrorist are hypertrophied basic human needs, and the differences are quantitative. The current paper presents some results of the analyses of the main determinants of motivation for terrorism - the need for power; belonging, recognition and self-realization as undoubted motivators of terrorist activity, etc

Keywords

  • terrorism
  • motivation
  • determinants
  • analysis
Open Access

Deployability of Armed Forces in Irregular Warfare

Published Online: 26 Jul 2018
Page range: 130 - 136

Abstract

Abstract

The use of a conventional military force is increasingly difficult in today's armed conflicts. “Complex” civil-military force, which is still suffering from the lack of cooperation, is generally preferred. So-called irregular warfare demands different skills of the military forces compared to conventional warfare. Preparation of armed forces to conditions of irregular surroundings requires new approaches to education, training and deployment

Keywords

  • capabilities
  • irregular environment
  • irregular warfare
Open Access

State Reserve and Wartime Stocks of the Republic of Bulgaria – Essence and Cost

Published Online: 26 Jul 2018
Page range: 137 - 141

Abstract

Abstract

This report presents the importance of the state reserve and the wartime stocks for the national security of our country. The State Reserve and Wartime Stocks State Agency is the object of our research, and the subject of the research is the agency's budget for the period 2015-2018. In this relation, the structure of the agency with its territorial directorates and the structure of costs are examined in detail. The role of the human factor in the agency and its importance for the management of the state reserve and the wartime stocks are presented. A comparative analysis of the individual costs by elements and budget programmes for the period 2015-2018 has been carried out, paying particular attention to the dynamics in their development over the period under review. Some key conclusions have been made concerning the improvement of the management of the state reserve and wartime stocks

Keywords

  • state reserve
  • wartime stocks and national security
Open Access

Cyprus, an Unresolved Issue of the European Union

Published Online: 26 Jul 2018
Page range: 142 - 147

Abstract

Abstract

The Republic of Cyprus is an island from the extreme north of the Mediterranean Sea, is situated at the intersection of Europe, Asia and Africa, 75 km south of Turkey, 105 km west of Syria, 300 km north of Egypt and 800 km east of Greece. As a state form, it is a presidential republic, and is part of the European Union (since May 2004) the Euro Zone (2008), the World Trade Organization - WTO (1995), the International Monetary Fund (1962) 1962), the Council of Europe (1961), the Commonwealth (1961). Cyprus has an unresolved internal situation for a long time

Keywords

  • violence-free conflict
  • british colony
  • independence
  • negotiation
  • war
Open Access

Non-Kinetic Warfare Challenges of the Information Ecosystem’s Phenomenology – The Pattern to a New Battleground

Published Online: 26 Jul 2018
Page range: 148 - 156

Abstract

Abstract

A new technological paradigm often leads to a new societal paradigm, and not vice versa. Challenges faced are not only related to technology, it is the human consciousness that determines the role and influences the outcome of these tools. A comprehensive approach is desirable to understand the regular and irregular interdependence between social ecosystems and information ecosystems. The phenomenon offers the facility to induce short-term attitudes, and long-term mutations from the perspective of societal security, informational actions shapes collective attitudes, and influences people's critical choices. Deciphering, exposing and counteracting information aggressions may be possible by developing a mechanism of processes understanding, based on a support of multidisciplinary acceptance. The present research paper, provides an overview by what method the relationship between Non-Kinetic warfare and information ecosystems can be approached

Keywords

  • Non-Kinetic
  • disinformation
  • intelligence
  • propaganda
  • cyber space
  • society
Open Access

Design of Military Actions in the Operational Environment Hybrid Type

Published Online: 26 Jul 2018
Page range: 157 - 162

Abstract

Abstract

Collective defense arrangements promoted by security-related institutions have generally proven that they can produce the deterrent effect of the armed conflict. However, hybrid warfare actions have challenged the capability of countering and threatening hybrid threats. The paper seeks a point of view on developments in the current operational environment, focusing on the review of the military operations typology in identifying potential measures to counteract the actions of the hybrid war and highlighting the need for a new approach to the construction of armed power in terms of new types risks, challenges and threats

Keywords

  • hybrid operating environment
  • multidimensional operational environment
  • comprehensive approach
  • military scenario
Open Access

Physiognomy of Military Operations Answer to Hybrid Threats

Published Online: 26 Jul 2018
Page range: 163 - 170

Abstract

Abstract

The widening of the spectrum, the diversity of forms of manifestation of hybrid threats, the influence of economic, political, diplomatic, informational and psychological aspects, now occupy, more than ever, a very important place in the architecture of military operations, but also the fact that the evolution of technology in the field of communications, informatics and cyber defense led to an exponential increase in the power of information. The timely and pertinent threat analysis of the hybrid warfare allows military decision-makers to identify, through an elaborate and pragmatic approach, the best solutions for preparing the armed forces for military response operations

Keywords

  • hybrid threats
  • combined capabilities
  • conventional operations
  • hybrid operations
  • asymmetric operations
Open Access

One Belt, One Road Initiative and Its Geostrategic Significance for Eastern Europe

Published Online: 26 Jul 2018
Page range: 171 - 179

Abstract

Abstract

China’s Belt and Road Initiative (BRI), as it was formally announced by President Xi Jinping in 2013, it is an engine for foreign policy, but it represents as well the driver force of China’s economic growth - and as such, it plays an important role in the domestic policy. China's foreign policy aims to support domestic growth and employment, must be aligned with the narratives of ‘rejuvenation’ and the ‘China Dream’. As such, the present paper discusses the origins and development of BRI; it analyses the mechanism in which BRI promotes China’s domestic agenda; as well as it regards at the geostrategic aims and difficulties of such an ambitions global project

Keywords

  • China,Belt
  • Road Initiative (BRI)
  • Eastern Europe
  • Romania
Open Access

France’s Military Importance for the European Union

Published Online: 26 Jul 2018
Page range: 180 - 184

Abstract

Abstract

A founding member of the European Union, France is nowadays still considered, alongside Germany, as one of the two „engines” of European integration. And this applies not only for the economic or social sphere, as France has also played a preeminent role in the historical process of European defence integration. Acknowledging the French contributions to the European defence project, in this paper we subject to analysis the military importance of France for the Union. Using the analysis of social documents and the case study method, we argue that this country’s high level of military integration in the European Union is not at all fortuitous, as is not due to impermanent favourable evolutions

Keywords

  • common defence
  • European Union
  • France
  • military integration
Open Access

Comprehensive Approach in the Full Spectrum of Conflict

Published Online: 26 Jul 2018
Page range: 185 - 191

Abstract

Abstract

The present paper identifies relevant issues and challenges connected to the comprehensive approach/holistic approach in the full spectrum of conflict. The Comprehensive Approach (CA) concept implemented by NATO, EU, UN and even state actors is to satisfy the need for proactive engagement, to foster cooperation, coordination and contribution of all actors, before and during a confrontation or crisis. Conflictuality management requires good governance, economic development, rule of law and local ownership, all this in addition to military security

Keywords

  • comprehensive approach
  • holistic
  • integration
  • spectrum of conflict
  • operational environment
Open Access

Romania’s Role in the Management of Security Organizations

Published Online: 26 Jul 2018
Page range: 192 - 197

Abstract

Abstract

The disappearance of bipolarity causes essential mutations in the international security environment, which highlights the need to rethink the defence concept. The analysis of new risks and threats to international security has led to a new perception of it and has imposed a new orientation in the field of defence. The formation of new partnerships and alliances greatly reduces the likelihood of a conflict between members, which contributes to supporting the common interest of countries to maintain and strengthen international peace and security. All countries of the world are, in principle, members of at least one regional or intergovernmental organization. Although traditionally regional organizations have been set up on the basis of political, economical or environmental objectives, they have also entered security in recent decades and have started to develop their own capabilities to prevent conflicts and support peacekeeping operations or post-conflict construction of states

Keywords

  • security environment
  • security organizations
  • alliances
  • The United Nations
  • European Union
Open Access

Strategic Communication as an Augumentativ Factor in Social Resilience

Published Online: 26 Jul 2018
Page range: 198 - 204

Abstract

Abstract

The society is in a turmoil neither because globalization, high technology or immigration crises, but rather from the race of regional (China and Russia) or world power (US) to develop a new strategies to influence the countries. Europe is not bypassed by these phenomena because Russia as a regional actor is trying to create new sphere of influence at its periphery (especially in Baltic States, Poland and Romania). Romania, as NATO and European Union member, is one of the Russia’s targets not only because geographically it is in the Russia’s proximity, but because it is an area of American’s interests. Russia is developing a real hybrid war, using all the line of effort: political, economical, but specially the social one. The social field is covered by propaganda, promoted by mass-media, as a tool of political power. To counter-attack Russia’s hybrid war, NATO decided, at the Warsaw Summit to develop some operational lines, one is being strategic communication and the second is related with social resilience. The political, administrative and educational institutions are asked to apply this strategy, to find the way to educate people (almost via mass-media) in what is resilience and more important how it works when it is realized

Keywords

  • hybrid war
  • strategic communication
  • resilience
  • education
  • state
Open Access

Termination of Collective Defense Treties – Procedures, Consequences and Modern State Practice

Published Online: 26 Jul 2018
Page range: 205 - 210

Abstract

Abstract

State practice has showed that geopolitical interests of nations are usually engaged either through diplomatic or military means. The mutual desire to avoid armed conflicts led to concluding multiple multilateral and bilateral international security and defence treaties. This process formed the basis of two major concepts -the Collective security and the collective defense. Both of them require a solid international legal basis, namely - a treaty that settles all forms of interpretations, disputes and actions. Since these treaties define international relations for a certain period, their eventual termination would have a major impact on the relations between different nations as seen numerously in the past decades. The contemporary world has completely different challenges to ensure collective security in the framework of international organizations. Currently major military actors are guarding the national sovereignty and aerospace borders of smaller states, thus making air policing a real diplomatic issue that should face an international legal framework. The institutional interaction between NATO and the EU as international organizations could lead to complete integration in terms of defense of the EU Member states in the near future. These issues could and should be met with the means of the main sources of the Law of treaties

Keywords

  • international treaties
  • termination procedure
  • collective defense
Open Access

Nato-Eu Cooperation

Published Online: 26 Jul 2018
Page range: 211 - 214

Abstract

Abstract

The current security situation is marked an increasing competition for power at global scale, the use of power politics, and the growth of the influence of the non-state actors in a changed resource and demographic landscape. NATO and EU seem to be out of sync with the developments in the world, situation which puts their very existence into questioning. However, a closer look shows that both organisations have displayed a very high degree of versatility, re-inventing themselves to adapt to the changing environment, and surviving all the evolution so far, while other peer organisations have become history. Therefore, the main question is whether NATO and EU will overcome the existing and future challenges and continue the current positive trend in their cooperation? When considering the common history, the trend and the most recent evolutions, one can only draw a positive answer. The most significant areas of recent cooperation which indicate a definite positive trend are the adaptation of the NATO Command Structure, the development of military capabilities, and the definition of the cyberspace as an operational domain

Keywords

  • NATO
  • EU
  • cooperation
  • defence
  • capabilities
Open Access

External and Internal Security Dimensions of Early Slavic Stathoods in the Territory of Slovakia

Published Online: 26 Jul 2018
Page range: 215 - 220

Abstract

Abstract

The article deals with basic characteriristic of external and internal security of first slavic tribes settled in Middle Europe. It describes struggle against external enemies which were Avarian nomadic tribes in the 7th century. It also describes defense against East Francia in the 9th century, importance of fortificated settlements. It characterizes warrior groups as main element of defence. Third part focuses on basic elements of Gret Moravian´s internal security such as law codex named “Law codex for people”

Keywords

  • Early slavic states
  • Great Moravia
  • Slavic tribes
  • Avars
  • Charlemagne
  • duke Svätopluk
  • early slavic law
  • slavic expansion
Open Access

Underground Facilities in Modern Conflicts

Published Online: 26 Jul 2018
Page range: 221 - 224

Abstract

Abstract

Knowledge of the nature and location of underground facilities is of great value to both the urban attacker and defender. To exploit the advantages of underground facilities, a thorough reconnaissance is required. This papers describes the role of underground facilities in military actions in urban areas

Keywords

  • subterranean operations
  • underground facilities
  • urban operations
Open Access

Cybercrime Evolution

Published Online: 26 Jul 2018
Page range: 225 - 229

Abstract

Abstract

Information as a structure has changed. Database architectures can hide executive models or constitute simple, manipulable packets form. The transmission of information has undergone mutations dictated by technological evolution, and intercepting methods have proven the capacity of adaptability and penetration. The term "cybercrime" may appear to be abused, but if we look more closely at the global phenomenon, we will understand that all levels of human society are affected without distinction. Starting from the environmental conditions that can be improved, the energy, industrial and transport sectors that can be much better coordinated and reaching the missile fields that can be hijacked, we understand that all depend to a greater extent or less of the aggressor's ability, the preventive and reactive measures implemented, and the degree of resilience that can be provided by defensive or offensive defense structures

Keywords

  • attack
  • vulnerability
  • cryptocurrency
  • infrastructures
  • globalization
Open Access

The Intercultural Dimension of Military Action for Combating Hypothetical Adversaries

Published Online: 26 Jul 2018
Page range: 230 - 234

Abstract

Abstract

Defining and analyzing the current typology of threats determines the military structures to operationally and, implicitly, organizationally adapt in order to ensure their ability to deter and combat hypothetical opponents in any operational environment. From the point of view of efficiency and effectiveness of action, it is no longer sufficient to engage the joint and multinational military structures alone, inter agency and intergovernmental action approaches being necessary. On these grounds, the intercultural dimension of the action of the military structures undergoes changes, moving from the internal plan, of the inter force relationships in the organic structure of the multinational military force into the external one, defined by the interactions between the latter and the structures/forces/elements within other agencies, intergovernmental organizations, to which the local population is added

Keywords

  • intercultural dimension
  • hypothetical opponents
  • JIIM type actions
  • cultural capability
Open Access

The Determinant Role of Misinformation in the Manifestation of the Principle of Operational Surprise

Published Online: 26 Jul 2018
Page range: 235 - 240

Abstract

Abstract

Surprising the opponent in the main areas of strategic confrontation - information, political, economic, technological, ideological, psychological, espionage/counter-intelligence, military - was a priority objective of the general policy of the states, regardless of the analyzed historical age. In this framework, the most active and effective component of taking by surprise - misinformation- has always been in the attention of decision-makers in order to determine a distorted perception of reality, diminishing alertness and reducing the ability of an opponent to act or react [1]

Keywords

  • surprising
  • misinformation
  • military operation
  • geopolitics
  • geostrategy
Open Access

Facts Concerning the Counteraction of Military Negotiating Partners, Fastidious and Unfair, in Crisis Situations and War Time

Published Online: 26 Jul 2018
Page range: 241 - 244

Abstract

Abstract

The applications highlighted the fact that, in crisis situations and war time, there were military negotiations, in which the partners have proven their unfairness and stiffness. The inflexibility and unfairness of the negotiator resides in the fact that he used incorrect tactics⦋1], especially subterfuges, for obtaining advantages. About this negotiating partner we would like to have the following discussion

Keywords

  • military negotiation
  • crisis
  • war
  • negotiating partner
Open Access

Arab Spring as a Background of Civil War in Syria

Published Online: 26 Jul 2018
Page range: 245 - 251

Abstract

Abstract

In the paper the reasons of outbreak of conflict in Syria at the background of social and political situation of the Arab world at the beginning of 21st century were presented. The influence of displeasure explosion against governments in Tunisia, Libya and Egypt, known as Arab Spring, on the situation in Syria was described. The attention on escalation of tensions between Bashar al-Assad’s government and opposition as a source of civil war in Syria was paid. The foreign players at the arena of Syrian conflict with special concern to United States and Russia activity, as a main contractors in the conflict were shown

Keywords

  • Arab Spring
  • Arab awakening
  • Middle East
  • civil war
  • democratisation
Open Access

Leading a Project Team when Developing a New Academic Programme

Published Online: 26 Jul 2018
Page range: 252 - 256

Abstract

Abstract

Within the transformation and modernization process of the Romanian Army the need for a better connection between the university specialization of the graduates and their military one emerged. In order to satisfy that need, a new programme is needed for the logistics officers and accountants. The new programme, the Accounting and Management Information Systems, is to develop a new category of professionals able to integrate much more easily on the work market, and also to exercise the officer position in a more performing manner

Keywords

  • manager
  • project team
  • methodology
  • risk
Open Access

Rationality and Subjectivity in Preliminary Analysis of Acquisition Options of Technical Systems

Published Online: 26 Jul 2018
Page range: 257 - 261

Abstract

Abstract

Modeling the acquisition decision and, consequently, managing the capabilities of technical systems involves multiple options that need to be optimized first, based on universal constraints such as time, quality, cost, etc. The criterion of use (private or institutional), according to which analyzes can evolve differently, is also important. Regardless of the way in which these considerations are taken, there is always a difference of approach given by the quantitative and / or qualitative tools used but also by biases, heuristics and mindsets. The article analyzes succinctly, on an example of calculation (based on a matrix used in the theory of decision to evaluate the different alternatives made available, when we have a basic model to be referred to), the universe of these analytical modalities, underlining the idea of making analyzes using a maximum level of objectivity and minimizing as much as possible subjectivism. It has been chosen as a way of applying the field of procurement of technical systems with the possibility of highlighting as many aspects as possible on the decisional criteria. Critical analysis of the robustness of the choices made by the human factor as a rational decision-maker is presented, as it is seen in the classical economic theory, but taking into account the limitations highlighted by modern theories in the fields of psychology and information theory

Keywords

  • option
  • model
  • technical system
  • rationality
  • subjectivism
Open Access

Knowledge Management of the Esp Class Using Technology

Published Online: 26 Jul 2018
Page range: 262 - 266

Abstract

Abstract

The present study aims at analyzing the benefits and drawbacks of knowledge management of the ESP class through the use of technology. Being in constant contact with technology, it is unavoidable to use it for teaching foreign languages. For this reason, both CALL (Computer Assisted Language Learning) and mobile apps prove useful in the demarche for better teaching and learning process. Nevertheless, managing blended learning ESP class implies a different approach to technology that goes beyond the classic use of Web 2.0 tools and proposes a new generation of mobile technology that facilitates and even simplifies the acquisition of all the four competencies (for ESP): reading, writing, listening and speaking for students ranging A2 to C1 (usually few students are absolute beginners and other few have native-like English level) in compliance with the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages whose guidance aids instructors prepare students for the competitive labor market

Keywords

  • knowledge management
  • ESP
  • technology
  • teaching/learning process
Open Access

Organisational Learning Improvement by Using Knowledge Management System

Published Online: 26 Jul 2018
Page range: 267 - 272

Abstract

Abstract

The only sustainable advantage an organization will have in the future is its ability to learn faster than its competitors. In the current environment characterized by globalization, competition and dynamism, the success of a firm depends on its ability to learn from its interactions with the environment, its internal dynamics and the experience of other firms, the knowledge and skills of its employees. Companies must provide the necessary conditions for creating and continuously updating knowledge and putting it into practice. The success of a company is therefore conditioned by the ability to acquire, encode and translate the knowledge as quickly as possible

Keywords

  • organisational learning
  • learning improvement
  • knowledge management
  • organizational knowledge
  • organizational competitiveness
Open Access

Competitiveness of Companies in the Competitive Environment - The Essential Question of Performance Management

Published Online: 26 Jul 2018
Page range: 273 - 278

Abstract

Abstract

Competitiveness is the ability of the company to compete with commodities that meet the needs of customers in terms of price, quality and diversity. It is possible to the extent that the firm has a competitive advantage and whose affirmation has its source in the internal conditions of the firm and which the economic environment, first of all the competitive one, can favor. In the field of management, the strategy is the art of conducting a set of devices in order to achieve a goal. M. Porter argues that the strategy is "the art of building competitive advantages that can be defended over a long period of time."

Keywords

  • competitiveness
  • competitive strategies
  • innovation
  • efficiency
Open Access

Criteria for Efficient Defence Product Life Cycle Management

Published Online: 26 Jul 2018
Page range: 279 - 282

Abstract

Abstract

The modern security environment, being dynamic and often unpredictable, hazardous and limited in resources, is a challenge itself for the member-countries of Euro-Atlantic structures. Respectively and as a consequence of our Armed Forces reforms prolonged for more than 20 years, which resulted in lack of personnel and unfulfilled modernization, there has been an intensifying discussion on the question whether the defence capabilities of our country, as part of the collective ones, are good enough to ensure the safety of the Bulgarian territory as well as our national and the international security and to reach the Capability Targets. When resolving this issue, not only the security environment factors should be considered, but also the security imperatives, one of them being the maintenance of defence products as an integral part of their life cycle management (LCM). In the search of a balance between resources and capabilities, our scientific attempts have focused on defining scientifically supported criteria for the increase of the efficiency of defence products life cycle management as part of the resource management for security and defence, which determines the goal of our scientific research and analyses in the present work

Keywords

  • security and defence
  • strategic management
  • security management
  • defence resources management
  • defence product life cycle management
Open Access

Planning and Time Management

Published Online: 26 Jul 2018
Page range: 283 - 288

Abstract

Abstract

For the fulfilment of any plan or task, the management decisions need time: from several hours to several years. Therefore a special place in planning takes time management, establishing effective use of the staff time and each employee, which is divided into business and personal time. Time is the only resource that is not reproduced, it can’t be overtaken, but you can lag behind it. The task that is not completed within the established timeframe must be completed in the next term, assigned for another task, or at the expense of personal time. Planning and time management or organizing time is a technology to organize and improve the effective use of time

Keywords

  • time
  • management
  • planning
  • organizing
Open Access

A Systemic View of International Projects with Virtual Teams

Published Online: 26 Jul 2018
Page range: 289 - 295

Abstract

Abstract

Systemic thinking is an instrument used in any field to understand the complexity of the changes and challenges that take place, and to discover the reciprocal links and conditions between the internal elements that determine the functioning of the system. Understanding how the international project with virtual project teams works as a system can help us better address the issues that arise in managing it, helping to increase the success rate. The international project with teams in the virtual environment, due to the diversity it embraces, in various aspects, especially at the cultural level, is considered a complex system, and can be seen as a system of systems. This term applies to systems in which interactions that could appear between different elements and deliverables are difficult to represent by a mathematical model or to be anticipated. In order to highlight the complexity of the international project system, we chose to represent project management in the virtual environment as a subsystem through the subsystems that compose it. This graphic representation can be used as a theoretical model of how to manage an international project with teams in the virtual environment

Keywords

  • international project management
  • virtual teams
  • systems
Open Access

Organization and Business Environment Collaborative Model to Increase the Innovation Capacity

Published Online: 26 Jul 2018
Page range: 296 - 301

Abstract

Abstract

The research aims to identify a modern Business Process Management solution to simulate integrated coordination mechanisms with impact on organization’s innovation. From a scientific and socio-economic perspective, the article is aligned with the European innovation trend that supports organizations' preoccupation to introduce innovation and upgrading processes, technologies and business models. The issues that the author has identified and sought to find answers are to identify that mild method of Business Process Management that can be correlated with the dimensions of organizational innovation in areas such as: the organization's infrastructure, partnership between business members, innovation "inside". The second issue is to limit current approaches by analyzing the current state of knowledge. The research has been included within the boundaries of modeling and simulation of business process flows with impact on organizational innovation vectors. Thus, the paper proposes and presents a set of integrated processes of collaboration between the organization and the business environment using Business Process Management as an integrated coordination mechanism of the organization's innovation

Keywords

  • collaborative process
  • business process modeling
  • innovation
Open Access

Research on the Motivation for Choosing the Military Career

Published Online: 26 Jul 2018
Page range: 302 - 307

Abstract

Abstract

The following article examines the structure of the motivation to choose the military career as well as the satisfaction from it. It analyses the main factors influencing on the choice of this profession as well as the interrelationships between them. The article sets out the specific reasons for a career in the Army and the results of the survey would contribute to the improvement of the attractiveness of the military career and attracting motivated military staff

Keywords

  • motivation
  • military career
  • choice
  • military staff
Open Access

Active Perspectives on the Motivation of Human Resources in Organization to Meet Objectives

Published Online: 26 Jul 2018
Page range: 308 - 313

Abstract

Abstract

In this study we began with the idea that the development and success of an organization depend on its resources, interaction between them and their functioning as a system. The main resource that can engage all the organization's resources so as the organization should achieve its goals, is the human resource. Therefore, once they become part of an organization, the employees will have to integrate into it and contribute to the smooth running of their activities. The managers have the mission to understand, motivate and actively involve the employees in achieving the organization's goals so as these should successfully fulfill their responsibilities. The conclusion of the study is that if employees are not motivated and actively involved in fulfilling their activities, they do not perform their tasks. Failure to perform tasks leads to conflicts with colleagues and superiors and failure to achieve the goals set in the organization

Keywords

  • human resources
  • motivation
  • organization
Open Access

Human Resources - Important Resources of the Contemporary Organization

Published Online: 26 Jul 2018
Page range: 314 - 318

Abstract

Abstract

In this paper we started from the idea that the most important strategic resource of an organization is people. Without people, the organization's other resources could not be operational, and the organization could not fulfill its established goals. Therefore, in order for an organization to grow and become competitive in the long run, it must invest in training the employees. It is true that this investment has high costs, but well-trained, creative, adaptable, motivated and involved employees in achieving the organization's goals generate positive changes in all its structures. Taken into consideration all the analyzed theories, we tried to demonstrate that an organization will become stronger, more adaptable to changes in both its internal and external environment and will meet its established goals becoming a successful organization

Keywords

  • human resource
  • organization
  • strategic resource
  • organization's success
Open Access

Particularities Relating to the Risk Management into the Military Decision-Making Process

Published Online: 26 Jul 2018
Page range: 319 - 323

Abstract

Abstract

Complex phenomenon and particularly challenging, the decision-making process in the military field is, perhaps, the place where the risk is defined and is found in “pure form”. The dynamics of actions, environmental factors, technical and tactical characteristics of military structures are just a few items that generate a range of risks which must be managed by each commander, both at the time of the decision, and during its implementation. For these reasons, and not only, we support the idea that risk management in the military field may be the key to success in any mission

Keywords

  • decision
  • risk
  • management
  • military action
Open Access

Opportunities for Achieving Effective Management in Season Tourist Sites

Published Online: 26 Jul 2018
Page range: 324 - 328

Abstract

Abstract

This study presents the specificity of season destinations and how to put into practice traditional and flexible opportunities for managing tourist sites in them. A distinction has been made between “hired” management and “timeshare” in tourism, as two of the main forms of flexible management. An online market survey was conducted to offer new flexible forms of management in the tourism business. Their advantages and disadvantages for the tourist sites are analyzed

Keywords

  • management
  • tourism business
  • season destinations
Open Access

A Comprehensive Approach to Education and Management in the System of Security

Published Online: 26 Jul 2018
Page range: 329 - 333

Abstract

Abstract

This report discusses the sensitive issue of the quality of decision-making in the security system, facing inevitable transition towards greater professionalism and technological maturity. While applying the basic principle of situational analysis in terms of „environmental scanning”, realized through a process of „breaking down” of the environment into certain factors, and gleaning information about their interplay in the direction of their impact, the authors elaborate on the formulation and the applicability of a novel, science-based, long-term state security and defense policy as well as a pertinent strategy for its implementation

Keywords

  • system of security
  • risk
  • education
Open Access

Using a Vector Swot - Analysis to Determine the Guidelines for the Training of Tracked Vehicles Driver in the Bulgarian Army

Published Online: 26 Jul 2018
Page range: 334 - 339

Abstract

Abstract

In the process of making strategic decisions and defining trends in process development, SWOT analysis is particularly important as a reliable prognosis tool. The results of the situational analysis allow to identify priorities and objectives on the one hand and to assist in the selection of development guidelines on the other. The purpose of the following report is to optimize the process of training the tracked vehicles driver in the Bulgarian Army by defining an indicated vector in a SWOT quadrant and identifying development strategies

Keywords

  • SWOT
  • analysis
  • training
  • tracked vehicles driver
  • situation model,
  • indicated vector
Open Access

Risk Management in Major Acquisition Programs

Published Online: 26 Jul 2018
Page range: 340 - 345

Abstract

Abstract

The paper analyses the particularities of risk management in major acquisition programs (acquisition of complex defence systems) and identifies technical risks. In the framework of risk management in major acquisition programs, the following elements were analysed: the relation between risk and the process of military acquisition; the acquisition process in the military acquisition and risk management phases; the risk and the characteristics of the acquisition process

Keywords

  • decision
  • risk management
  • acquisition management
  • military acquisition
  • program
Open Access

New Proposal on Reporting Intangible Resources on the Organizational Level

Published Online: 26 Jul 2018
Page range: 346 - 350

Abstract

Abstract

In recent years, it has become increasingly evident that existing information systems at the level of organizations do not allow for a performing management because they fail to capture a wide range of intangible resources, which represent one of the most important variables for the success and progress of any organization. As a result of the fact that the annual financial reporting cannot give a real basis for making accurate estimates of future cash flows that can be made by organizations, or of their associated risk, this article states the need to report intangible resources at the organizational level. The concept, content and advantages of an Intangible Resources Report (IRR) are presented, and in the final part of the article it is presented an example of IRR, detailed in a specific case for an intangible resource. This Intangible Resources Report has the advantage of providing a generous and documented framework for managing and disclosing intangible resource information for any type of organization. Through its implementation, it is possible to compare strengths and weaknesses in intangible resources for different organizations, becoming a good benchmark tool, thus facilitating the exchange of experience and learning in different areas of intangible resource management at the level organizations

Keywords

  • intangible resources report
Open Access

Methodology for Analysis and Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Using Outsourcing Services in the Bulgarian Armed Forces

Published Online: 26 Jul 2018
Page range: 351 - 356

Abstract

Abstract

The improvement of the outsourcing process is directly related to the planned ideas of the managing bodies of the Bulgarian Armed Forces and the initiatives to be implemented. This in turn determines the need to analyse and evaluate the efficiency of the performance of the outsourcing service. The objective is to identify possible deviations from the requirements of the client military unit and to take action to change or improve the outsourcing process. The analysis and evaluation of the efficiency of the used outsourcing services enables an overall vision of the outsourcing process and the fulfillment of the set goals. This article studies and analyses the possibilities for applying a methodology for analysis and evaluation of the effectiveness of the use of outsourcing services in the Bulgarian Armed Forces

Keywords

  • methodology
  • analysis
  • evaluation
  • efficiency
  • outsourcing services
Open Access

Conceptual Model for Evaluation of the Quality of Outsourcing Services

Published Online: 26 Jul 2018
Page range: 357 - 361

Abstract

Abstract

Increasing the effectivenss of outsourcing processes in military structures is part of their creation and use. The broadly popular perception of enhancing the effectivenss of a process as a whole is to increase its capabilities in some of its directions in order to make it more effective and to reduce costs. This is the reason for the focus on increasing the effectivenss of the outsourcing processes used in the Bulgarian Armed Forces. They should be considered not only as a transfer of certain services, but also as a process of management, control, constant monitoring and coordination with the modern, dynamic market that needs permanent optimisation in order to increase the effectivenss. This article studies and analyses the possibilities of evaluating the effectivenss of an outsourcing service and compiling a conceptual model for quality assessment

Keywords

  • effectiveness
  • model
  • evaluation
  • quality
  • outsourcing process

Plan your remote conference with Sciendo