Issues

Conference & Issues

Volume 28 (2022): Issue 3 (June 2022)

Volume 28 (2022): Issue 2 (June 2022)

Volume 28 (2022): Issue 1 (June 2022)

Volume 27 (2021): Issue 3 (June 2021)

Volume 27 (2021): Issue 2 (June 2021)

Volume 27 (2021): Issue 1 (June 2021)

Volume 26 (2020): Issue 3 (June 2020)

Volume 26 (2020): Issue 2 (June 2020)

Volume 26 (2020): Issue 1 (June 2020)

Volume 25 (2019): Issue 3 (June 2019)

Volume 25 (2019): Issue 2 (June 2019)

Volume 25 (2019): Issue 1 (June 2019)

Volume 24 (2018): Issue 3 (June 2018)

Volume 24 (2018): Issue 2 (June 2018)

Volume 24 (2018): Issue 1 (June 2018)

Volume 23 (2017): Issue 3 (June 2017)

Volume 23 (2017): Issue 2 (June 2017)

Volume 23 (2017): Issue 1 (June 2017)

Volume 22 (2016): Issue 3 (June 2016)

Volume 22 (2016): Issue 2 (June 2016)

Volume 22 (2016): Issue 1 (June 2016)

Volume 21 (2015): Issue 3 (June 2015)

Volume 21 (2015): Issue 2 (June 2015)

Volume 21 (2015): Issue 1 (June 2015)

Conference Details
Format
Conference
eISSN
2451-3113
First Published
15 Dec 2015
Publication timeframe
3 times per year
Languages
English

Search

Volume 28 (2022): Issue 1 (June 2022)

Conference Details
Format
Conference
eISSN
2451-3113
First Published
15 Dec 2015
Publication timeframe
3 times per year
Languages
English

Search

39 Articles
access type Open Access

The Barcelona Attack as an Example of a New Way of Carrying Out a Terrorist Attempt in an Urban Space Using a Vehicle Ramming a Crowd of Pedestrians

Published Online: 05 Jul 2022
Page range: 1 - 6

Abstract

Abstract

In this article the author presents problems related to the use of a new way of carrying out attacks by terrorists and terrorist groups, which is the use of vehicles to ram people in crowded areas of urban space. This method is presented based on the 2017 attacks in Barcelona and Cambrils, Spain. The text presents the course of the attack, the actions of the services, as well as a detailed analysis of these attacks. The material on which the article was based was taken from Spanish press and from communications made available by the services responsible for state security. In the conclusion the author draws particular attention to the increasing use of the method of ramming people with vehicles by terrorists and the ways in which this should be counteracted.

Keywords

  • attack
  • terrorist groups
  • crowded area
  • state security
access type Open Access

Challenges to European and Euro-Atlantic Security

Published Online: 05 Jul 2022
Page range: 7 - 14

Abstract

Abstract

The current security environment is characterized by uncertainty and multiple transformations in all areas. Mankind as a whole enjoys an extremely favorable context and an indisputable climate of security. However, security challenges are becoming more and more difficult to anticipate. The last few years have brought a new pandemic challenge to all states, which has put all systems to the test. In addition to the pandemic challenge, European and Euro-Atlantic countries face a military challenge that has the potential to directly affect regional and global security and cause shock waves in all areas, especially in the economic, political, diplomatic and military field. To these major challenges are added the challenges that have now faded into the background, such as climate change, the impact of natural disasters, organized crime, terrorism, and so on. In order to meet these new challenges, the European and Euro-Atlantic states must demonstrate cohesion and determination and take effective and decisive action to protect their interests and ensure the security and stability of their allies.

Keywords

  • security
  • challenge
  • threat
  • tensions
  • conflict
access type Open Access

The Modernization of the Bulgarian Army - A Factor for its Readiness

Published Online: 05 Jul 2022
Page range: 15 - 20

Abstract

Abstract

Bulgaria’s accession to Euro-Atlantic structures put the modernization of the Bulgarian Army and Armed Forces on the agenda. After years of reforms prior to the pre-accession period, they have been reduced as a matter of priority to reductions in structures and personnel and the release of obsolete property, weapons and equipment. Thus, under the pretext that modernization and supply of new equipment, systems and armaments compatible with those of NATO member states is forthcoming, the Bulgarian Army and its armed forces are deprived of key armaments and equipment for protection of national security and satisfactory. declared abilities. Over the years, modernization has been at the center of a number of regulations and documents, plans and programs with long-term and medium-term scope, according to the role, missions, goals and objectives of the Bulgarian Army and Armed Forces, whose implementation remains a good wish. And now, when the challenges of the security environment, whose dynamics and uncertainty are becoming increasingly difficult to predict, our country and its security are facing serious challenges. These circumstances unequivocally provoke our scientific research to study the reasons for the failed modernization of the Bulgarian Army and its armed forces.

Keywords

  • security
  • defense
  • modernization
  • defense capabilities
  • combat capability
access type Open Access

Nato’s Nordic Expansion, A Decision at Stake. Consequences Upon the European Security Landscape

Published Online: 05 Jul 2022
Page range: 21 - 28

Abstract

Abstract

The international security environment, particularly the European one, is at a significant turning point, leading to substantial, long-term structural changes. From this point of view, the perspective of Finland and Sweden joining NATO under unfavorable European security conditions has a critical impact on the strategic environment. Without any certainty at the time of writing this research, the analyzed extension is approached as a possibility with a high degree of fulfillment, given the approving elements displayed a month before the NATO Summit in Madrid, June 28-30, when a new strategic concept will be launched. The accession of the two Nordic states represents, from an unquestionable standpoint, a return to the specifics of the Cold War period, characterized by ideological and political clashes between the West and the East, between the United States of America and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. More specifically, we are witnessing a maneuver to contain Russia, with the Baltic Sea becoming a NATO Sea and looking at the launch of a new deterrence policy by expanding the European security zone under the power of collective defense. Although, de facto, Finland and Sweden could be assimilated into the circle of the allied states, given the military cooperation between them and the Alliance that has been going on for almost three decades, de jure membership gives weight to the adherence process, including by the political symbolism of Article 5.

Keywords

  • expansion
  • collective defence
  • security landscape
  • neutrality
access type Open Access

Conceptual Framework - Basis of Successful Tactical Actions

Published Online: 05 Jul 2022
Page range: 29 - 36

Abstract

Abstract

Throughout history, the ability to command and control military forces has been a critical component of success. In military operations today, this requirement is hampered and complicated by a myriad of factors, including evolving technology, diversity of forces, geographical division, and dynamic threats. In now days planning staff and their commander are responsible for the success of any operation or tactical action. Years ago George Marshall esteemed innate qualities [common sense, professional knowledge, physical fitness and stamina, loyalty, determination, optimism, and the ability to work within a group].” is this enough now and what is new that is needed? Planning as part of the operational process still have their place in whole scope of military successful operations and tactical activities.

Keywords

  • planning process
  • frameworks
  • tactical activities
  • operations
access type Open Access

Technology – Military Art Connections in the Military Training Process

Published Online: 05 Jul 2022
Page range: 37 - 45

Abstract

Abstract

The issue of the technological revolution and its impact on military operations and, implicitly, on the force training process, in the current conditions, is a highly timely, interdisciplinary research topic at the confluence of technical, military, and economic sciences. The increasing complexity of weapons systems under the technological evolutions generates the need to adapt training processes both in terms of the learning methods and of the techniques used, but above all, in terms of the technologies applicable to force training where, a multitude of opportunities have been generates by the advent of the computer. The new technologies have led to a compression of time and a widening of the area of confrontation and a diversification of tactics, techniques, and procedures used in military conflicts, which requires an appropriate response in the area of military operations training. The essence of this paper is to find the most effective ways of training military forces by studying the impact advanced technologies have on this phenomenon.

Keywords

  • technology
  • simulation
  • training process
  • military art
access type Open Access

The Strategic Determinations of the Gherasimov Doctrine on the Military Actions and the Protection of the Critical Infrastructure in the Russian-Ukrainian War

Published Online: 05 Jul 2022
Page range: 46 - 50

Abstract

Abstract

Sun Tzu stated that “if you know the enemy and you know yourself, you should not fear the results of a hundred fights.” It seems, however, that in the last period of time, this maxim of the famous Chinese general has been forgotten and the results of international relations are marked by many and frequent strategic surprises. The most recent of these, the invasion or special military operation of the Russian Federation in Ukraine comes to show us that the opponent can only be counteracted if you know how he thinks and acts or will act in the future. This article brings into focus the correlation between Russian strategic thinking and the actional reality of the Russian-Ukrainian war. The article also contains new ideas on the real undeclared purpose of the war, namely the control of the critical infrastructures of Russian European interest.

Keywords

  • strategy
  • Gherasimov doctrine
  • critical infrastructure
  • hybrid warfare
  • energy
  • economic warfare
access type Open Access

The Meaning of the Term Noncombatant in International Humanitarian Law – Interpretation of the Provision of Article 37/1/c of the Additional Protocol I of Geneva of 1977

Published Online: 05 Jul 2022
Page range: 51 - 56

Abstract

Abstract

Fundamental to the correct application of the rules of international humanitarian law are the understanding and implementation of the principle of distinction between combatants and civilians (and other protected persons). This principle has evolved over time, from strict rules of differentiation (wearing a uniform or a fixed distinctive sign; carrying the arms openly), to a minimalistic reformulation of the conditions for recognition of combatant status and the right to be a prisoner of war, by the provisions of art. 44 of the Additional Protocol I of 1977 (carrying his arms openly when the combatant is preparing or participating in military actions and is in sight of the opponent, even if he does not wear distinctive signs). These provisions are very important for the correct definition of the notions of combatant, non-combatant and civilian and for the proper identification of cases of perfidy which represent war crimes. The biggest problem in the application of these norms, for the Romanian armed forces, is the legal translation and interpretation of international treaties when the Romanian legislator adopts them. We find such a situation in the case of Article 37/1/c of the Additional Protocol I of Geneva of 1977 regarding the prohibition of perfidy in connection with the use of the notions of civilian and non-combatant.

Keywords

  • international humanitarian law
  • combatant
  • non-combatant
  • civilian
  • perfidy
access type Open Access

Lessons Learned from the Modern Armed Forces Strategic Deployment in Operations

Published Online: 05 Jul 2022
Page range: 57 - 65

Abstract

Abstract

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the deployment of forces in expeditionary operations, in relation to the operations performed in the past by the modern armed forces. Thus, the intention is to approach the deployment of forces by identifying the most important actions, practical and decisional landmarks, which have decisively influenced the strategic maneuver, reception, staging and onward movement processes, in order to integrate forces in the contemporary theaters of operations. Going straight for the stated objectives, I conducted a multiple-case study, based on reviewing the relevant available literature, in order to efficiently access all the elements in the concerned field of interest.

Keywords

  • deployment
  • strategic movement
  • reception
  • staging
  • force protection
access type Open Access

Trends in Radicalization Processes and Terrorist Activities After Covid-19

Published Online: 05 Jul 2022
Page range: 66 - 71

Abstract

Abstract

This report provides a detailed overview of trends in the development of radicalization and terrorism worldwide as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic. The short-lived changes in the way of life during and after the pandemic give rise to the possibility of new models of terrorism and radicalization in the coming years. Also this report aims to trace how COVID-19 has influenced and changed modern terrorism. On the other hand, the established structural organization of terrorist groups requires from us an in-depth analysis of the direction of their progressive development. Terrorists are increasingly trying to adapt to society in one form or another. Attempts are being made to penetrate them into the social activities of modern society. It was the pandemic that opened up many opportunities for a more concentrated psychological impact on “poorer” societies but the more problematic is that the long-term economic damage caused by the pandemic could reduce the resources available to fight terrorism and radicalization for several years. In the other hand the governments that have seen their coffers run out and their gross national product shrink will face difficult choices about where to spend their reduced revenues, and despite their genuine counter-terrorism commitment, may be forced to feed their populations and revitalize their economies at the expense of defence spending, including funding to fight terrorism and radicalization.

Keywords

  • Terrorism
  • counterterrorism
  • radicalization
  • trends
  • COVID-19
  • changes
  • new model
access type Open Access

Shooting Training with Light Infantry Weapons, an Essential Dimension of Individual and Collective Training

Published Online: 05 Jul 2022
Page range: 72 - 77

Abstract

Abstract

Shooting with the available weapons is a determining and defining element of armed combat, and the mysteries, practice, art and, above all, the science of shooting are learnt during shooting training, a discipline of overwhelming importance in the process of training troops and, implicitly, their preparation for combat. Nowadays, the construction of (fire) weapons has reached unprecedented technical and technological levels, with lethal and destructive accuracy and capability that were unimaginable a few decades ago. In this context, the maximum exploitation of the characteristics of the available weapons and the training of instictual shooting is an indispensable requirement coming from the reality of the military conflicts in which the Romanian military have taken part, a reality that has generated the need to develop the existing training facilities in order to create the best conditions for training the necessary skills. This development can be done either by purchasing training systems incorporating state-of-the-art technologies, at high cost, or by modernizing the existing ones at relatively lower costs and bringing them to the level of the accepted training requirements.

Keywords

  • shooting
  • weapons
  • instruction
  • combat
  • warfare
access type Open Access

The Expansion of the North Atlantic Alliance and its Relationship with Russia

Published Online: 05 Jul 2022
Page range: 78 - 82

Abstract

Abstract

The present study is intended to be an argument answer to a number of questions connected with the structure of the North Atlantic Alliance, about how it has evolved since its formation in 1949 to date, especially on its eastern flank where the Russian-Ukrainian conflict is in full progress. What is the link between the North Atlantic Alliance and this conflict, whether it has implications for the Alliance’s expansion policy, whether there are changes in the rules for addressing new challenges, and especially how it intends to respond to pressures the Russian Federation, are the research directions we have followed.

Keywords

  • Expansion policy
  • sovereign states
  • masters of their own destinies
access type Open Access

The Actual Security Climate in the Black Sea Basin

Published Online: 05 Jul 2022
Page range: 83 - 93

Abstract

Abstract

This paper analyses the context of security in the Black Sea basin area and its connections with the strategic, military, and economic aims of the main factors contributing to the region’s stability and security. The work debuted with some geographical and physical features of the maritime basin, switching the analysis to security actors. The article portrays the EU (European Union) and NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization) regarding the actual and past actions taken to enhance the region’s security and stability. Further, the article investigates the six riparian states through the military and strategic-oriented approach. The concluding part of the work exhibits a sharp insight beyond the sea basin area, and the work is closed by short concluding remarks.

Keywords

  • Black Sea
  • security
  • contested
  • conflict
  • military
access type Open Access

Evolution of Conflicts, Strategies, and High-Precision Weapon Systems

Published Online: 05 Jul 2022
Page range: 94 - 99

Abstract

Abstract

It’s been a few decades since military operations success has become difficult to define. During the Cold War, the outcome of a war between relatively symmetrical forces was predictable and the adversary was forced to admit defeat. In recent decades, the paradigm has changed radically in the political, diplomatic, and military domains, against the background of a geopolitical context characterized by complexity and instability, where the competitive struggle for hegemony between states is fierce and the proliferation of new risks, asymmetric, and hybrid threats requires the adaptation of strategies and capabilities to the new operational environment. New high-precision search-and-rescue, missile, communications and computing systems are a clear technological opportunity, and their ownership and usage is a real prerequisite for success in military operations. These sophisticated, integrated and synchronised technologies are, and will remain in the future, vectors of strategic deterrence because of their ability to detect and engage targets with maximum accuracy and effectiveness.

Keywords

  • effects
  • missiles
  • war
  • strategies
  • technology
access type Open Access

Environmental Impact of Wars and Armed Conflicts

Published Online: 05 Jul 2022
Page range: 100 - 104

Abstract

Abstract

The article presents the consequences of wars for the natural environment. Research and experience with more and more modern combat equipment are always associated with losses incurred by nature. Subsequent armed conflicts cause that new substances, dangerous for nature and man, enter the ecosystem. Warfare not only destroys the environment, but also frustrates and prevents any action to protect it. After some time, the conflicts that begin are resolved, and the restoration of degraded environments is very difficult, and often even impossible. Wars not only kill soldiers and civilians with weapons, but also put lives at risk by destroying natural resources, impoverishing land and making it impossible to use them for agricultural purposes.

Keywords

  • armed conflicts
  • war
  • environment
access type Open Access

Trends in Current Military Conflicts Operational Environments

Published Online: 05 Jul 2022
Page range: 105 - 111

Abstract

Abstract

Current and future military confrontations require adaptive forces, moving rapidly from specific, lethal and high-intensity combat operations to stabilization and reconstruction operations or, conversely, from stability operations to kinetic ones. In fact, many times, military actions will take place simultaneously, at several levels of intensity and along the spectrum of the conflict. Thus, this article presents aspects that show that the current operational environment is the space of “military competition”, which will be marked by confrontations in a gray area, between “war and peace”, and in this area the military forces must have the necessary capabilities to carry out several and various types of missions.

Keywords

  • operational environment
  • hybrid conflict
  • VUCA characteristics
  • artificial intelligence (AI) Anti-Access/Area Denial (A2/AD)
access type Open Access

Resistance Combat — The Best Defence of Small States Against an Invasion

Published Online: 05 Jul 2022
Page range: 112 - 118

Abstract

Abstract

The topic addressed in this article is a current one due to the political-military situation in the vicinity of Europe and the numerous analyses and comments that it will cause in the future. First, the authors present the general framework of the resistance combat beginning with the operational requirements necessary for conducting such operations, and then it analyzes the perspectives that such operations have in future military operations and proposes directions of action necessary to prepare Romania for defence.

Keywords

  • resilience
  • armed resistance
  • resistance combat
access type Open Access

Issues Regarding the Use of ISR Structures in Conventional Operations in the Context of National Resilience

Published Online: 05 Jul 2022
Page range: 119 - 122

Abstract

Abstract

Addressing the use of ISR structures in conventional operations in the context of national resilience, in an era of unpredictability of the security environment and the current presence of a regional conflict, inevitably becomes a mandatory concern for both support and decision-makers at all hierarchical levels and from all categories of troops. The development of a national defense position can be achieved through a flexible and robust ISR system, permanently adapted to the requirements of modern conflicts. Understanding how ISR capabilities can be used in conventional operations by addressing the principles, disciplines and collection systems is a key element in understanding the contribution of ISR to national resilience.

Keywords

  • Intelligence
  • Reconnaissance
  • Surveillance
  • Conventional operations
access type Open Access

Legal Approach to the Democratic Control of the Armed Forces

Published Online: 05 Jul 2022
Page range: 123 - 127

Abstract

Abstract

The existence of contemporary states is directly conditioned by the ways of effectively defending the values, institutions and state resources. The organization and endowment of the armed forces is the expression of the will of the holders of political power and therefore ensuring the democratic character of the control of the armed forces becomes an imperative of today’s global society, an imperative that is achieved through legal means. The process of militarization of contemporary states is supported by the legal framework that establishes the extent and type of political and administrative control that is exercised during this process. An important role in this legislative context is played by the constitution, the fundamental law of each state, which sets out the general principles and modalities for ensuring democratic control of the armed forces. Whether it is a direct control exercised by the people through a referendum or another similar means of expressing the will in connection with military matters of national interest, or it is an indirect control, carried out by the representative authorities, whose members are elected to represent the will of the people, democratic control of the armed forces is a matter of current

Keywords

  • military
  • army
  • control
  • democratic
  • legislation
access type Open Access

Hybrid Warfare — From Red to Blue Operational Behaviours

Published Online: 05 Jul 2022
Page range: 128 - 133

Abstract

Abstract

The manifestation of hybrid actions is not new, but their frequency has increased significantly lately. Nowadays, hybrid warfare is present anytime and everywhere in different forms, and with various degrees of amplitude. Given the fact that hybrid warfare is extremely difficult to decipher, starting with a literature review in the field, the article aims, first of all, to understand the behaviours of different actors from the perspective of their operational strategies. Also, within red and blue strategies identified, the article highlights the main instruments and capabilities used by both attackers and defenders. To fulfil these research objectives, an empirical research based on observation and a comparative analysis will be conducted.

Keywords

  • HW
  • red strategies
  • blue strategies
  • MPECI
  • PMESII
access type Open Access

Directions for the Leadership, Command and Control System of the Country’s Defence Improvement

Published Online: 05 Jul 2022
Page range: 134 - 139

Abstract

Abstract

Based on the analysis of the current state of the leadership, command, and control system of the country’s defence, three possible directions for optimizing this system have been formulated. The thesis argues that increasing the efficiency of the leadership, command and control system of the country’s defence is possible through the development of the regulatory framework, organizational improvement, and technological upgrading.

Keywords

  • leadership
  • command
  • and control system
  • defence of the country
access type Open Access

Nature of Leadership, Command and Control System of the Defence of the Country

Published Online: 05 Jul 2022
Page range: 140 - 145

Abstract

Abstract

Revealing the nature and content of the country’s defence and analysing the core of the terms leadership, command, and control, as well as the purpose and content of the leadership, command, and control system, a definition of the essence of the leadership, command, and control system of country’s defence is proposed.

Keywords

  • country’s defence
  • leadership
  • command
  • and control system
access type Open Access

Examples of Russian Information War Activity at the Beginning of Ukrainian Crisis

Published Online: 05 Jul 2022
Page range: 146 - 150

Abstract

Abstract

On February 24, 2022, the Russian Federation launched an invasion in Ukraine, which was the first military conflict in Europe from almost 80 years. Despite the diplomatic actions taken by the European Union and NATO countries, Russia’s military activity remains unchanged. In the face of the growing threat, many countries and international communities have decided to impose sanctions covering the economic, financial, as well as cultural and media spheres. In the article the authors analyzed content posted on Twitter after the invasion began, using Quaero, an advanced anti-disinformation tool. The article presents observations on information activities in social media undertaken during an armed conflict. As part of the research, pro-Russian, anti-Ukrainian and anti-American accounts were listed, and attention was also paid to the techniques and tools of manipulation in the information sphere. During the research, particular attention was paid to the botnets which play significant role in disinformation process. The very word bot refers to the word robot and it is a program whose main task is to perform actions instead of humans. Many entities in cyberspace, such as Facebook, Messenger or Google, use such programs to improve their activities and protect IT channels against the possibility of their violation.

Keywords

  • Twitter
  • disinformation
  • fake news
  • information war
access type Open Access

Methodology for Developing Resilient Information Systems in Cyber Conflict Environment

Published Online: 05 Jul 2022
Page range: 151 - 157

Abstract

Abstract

Successful cyber defence in the challenging cyber conflict environment depends on many factors but a crucial one is the use of a resilient system for cyber defence which is highly interoperable with those of partner countries and organisations. This paper presents a methodology of developing information systems capabilities resilient and interoperable in cyber conflict environment. The applied approach for defining the system design of information infrastructure is based on NATO models. For the architectural configuration, the NATO Technical Reference Model is applied and the NATO Common Operating Environment Component Model (NCOECM) is used for defining the information infrastructure components of the system design. NATO Technical Reference Model defines system services necessary for the information infrastructure of organizations. Functionalities needed by users and based on system services are also identified using reference models like workstations, servers, terminals and others, which are connected in an integrated information infrastructure. By implementing the proposed methodology a model of architectural configuring of an information infrastructure component has been developed – the Security Information and Event Management (SIEM) Server functional configuration.

Keywords

  • Cyber Conflict Environment
  • methodology
  • NATO models
access type Open Access

Digital Transformation of Higher Education System

Published Online: 05 Jul 2022
Page range: 158 - 168

Abstract

Abstract

Digital transformation of higher education undergoes cultural, mental, and technological change as an overall process. The present paper represents a correlation of the current literature that brings to light the key pillars aspects of the digital transformation of higher education. The objective of this research study was to outline a model of digital transformation strategy applicable to the Romanian academic environment. The original contribution of this study lies in establishing the key pillars elements and necessary stages for the implementation of digital transformation strategy for higher education which should be focused on students and effects.

Keywords

  • focused on students
  • technologies
  • processes
  • digital campus
  • digital library platform
  • digital interactions
access type Open Access

The Risk of Personnel Management

Published Online: 05 Jul 2022
Page range: 169 - 179

Abstract

Abstract

The decision to hire a new person in the company, like many other business decisions, carries a number of risks. Many older companies have had the experience of hiring an unsuitable person because they selected the ideal candidate for the interview, but the candidate had the wrong expectations about performance or integration. The reasons why a new employee turns out to be unsuitable can be many. Perhaps he or she fails to establish a good rapport with colleagues or the company’s customers, or exhibits inappropriate behavior or falls short of expectations and does not meet the performance criteria set forth by the job evaluation form. The role of a human resources risk management professional is to consider all the possible consequences of employee risks, which may be related to employee behavior, management style, or salary, for example. This paper aims to highlight the importance of adult education through training programs, taking into account the role that economic organizations play with regard to continuous training of employees, especially in terms of their personal development, ensuring satisfaction at work and competitiveness on the labour market.

Keywords

  • organizational management
  • personnel management
  • human resources management
  • human resources risk
  • personnel risk
access type Open Access

Artificial Intelligence and the Future of Defence Planning and Resources Management

Published Online: 05 Jul 2022
Page range: 180 - 186

Abstract

Abstract

The concept of artificial intelligence (AI) is rapidly becoming a significant factor for change, in the society in general, both in the private and public sectors. It has not been ignored by the military either, as countries throughout the world (from the US to Russia and China) are studying the potential uses of artificial intelligence in a functional context, and its uses in the defense area. The purpose of this paper is to explore the future potential uses and limitations of using the artificial intelligence in the military, with emphasis on the areas of defence planning and defence resources management.

Keywords

  • artificial
  • intelligence
  • defence
  • planning
  • resources
  • trends
access type Open Access

Workforce and Workplace Ecosystem – Challenges and Opportunities in the Age of Digital Transformation and 4IR

Published Online: 05 Jul 2022
Page range: 187 - 194

Abstract

Abstract

We are witnessing the Fourth Industrial Revolution (4IR) in which technological discoveries and changes are coming at a dizzying speed generating tremendous transformations of organizations, the environment and societies. The purpose of the present paper is to analyze a set of challenges and opportunities of the workforce and workplace ecosystems in the context of 4IR. Innovation – as key ingredient of scaling-up processes – and the widespread implementation of specific 4IR technologies will lead to substantial, sometimes even disruptive changes of the labor market, but also to the workforce and workplace ecosystems’ transformation. Among others, artificial intelligence (AI), smart robotics, and intelligent automation are emerging technologies that dramatically change the ways of work, productivity, but also the types and number of available jobs. This paper has a few specific objectives: summarizing the main technologies and tools specific to 4IR and Industry 4.0; analyzing the major shifts related to the current structure of the workforce -highlighting the external and technological component (AI, robots, automation); analyzing the hybrid workplace (physical and digital); identifying some emerging technologies and their impact on the work ecosystem. The methodology of the study relies on qualitative methods - literature review, systematization of knowledge, observation/ participation (as experts in different national and international consultancy and training programs). The paper draws conclusions and some remarks regarding the intention to address other challenging subjects in the future, such as: rethinking performance management systems to reflect and tackle these challenges; skill gaps and the role of emerging technologies in supporting Society 5.0. - a more sustainable, inclusive and human-centric society.

Keywords

  • workforce
  • workplace ecosystem
  • 4IR
  • Industry 4.0
  • digital transformation
access type Open Access

Challenges of Implementing Sustainable Development Management in Military and Civilian Higher Education Institutions

Published Online: 05 Jul 2022
Page range: 195 - 199

Abstract

Abstract

Sustainable development management takes up and synthesises the concepts of sustainable development and general management and applies them to all areas of social and economic life. Therefore, it has become a challenge for military and civilian higher education institutions to effectively combine the three pillars of sustainable development – economic, social and environmental – with the application of effective management practices that lead to the creation of a sustainable university environment.

Keywords

  • sustainable development management
  • higher education institution
  • management function
access type Open Access

“Knowledge-Based Organization” - Solution in the Management of Organizations in Crisis Situations?

Published Online: 05 Jul 2022
Page range: 200 - 203

Abstract

Abstract

Crisis periods affect all areas of organizational management: material resources management, financial management, strategic management, etc. In this context, knowledge’s process and knowledge can play an essential role in the survival of companies in the context in reality is unclear and changing, and the prospects can be bleak or difficult to calculate. Intangible elements make the difference, like as the ability to use efficiently what the organization knows to deal with unforeseen events much more often in these times of crisis: changing supply rates, declining employee morale, temporary lack of liquidity, etc.

Keywords

  • knowledge
  • organization
  • management
access type Open Access

Considerations on the Selection Process and Professional Development in Intelligence Organizations

Published Online: 05 Jul 2022
Page range: 204 - 213

Abstract

Abstract

The selection process in any domain embraces different principles and various strategies but has the same ultimate target: acquiring the best-equipped candidates for the envisaged jobs. In Intelligence (not exclusively), the personnel selection is centered on the applicants’ skills and traits, personal and professional background, transversal expertise, or technical abilities, as well as development potential – with an outlook on further professional development. Recruitment and talent retention in the military (including Intelligence organisations) reflect the trend of civilian (un)employment. It means motivation and job attractiveness (competing with the civilian job market) are critical elements in selection and performance quality, with variables related to the characteristics of the target audience and/ or the employment’s features. This article provides an assessment of the current approach in the human capital policy in Intelligence and makes a parallel with the competing civilian organisations’ efforts to make use of the best prepared and reliable human resources.

Disclaimer: This paper expresses the views, interpretations, and independent position of the author. It should not be regarded as an official document, nor expressing formal opinions or policies, of NATO or the HUMINT Centre of Excellence.

Keywords

  • Intelligence
  • selection
  • professional development
  • human capital
access type Open Access

Social Image of the Candidate for Police Service – Results of Empirical Research

Published Online: 05 Jul 2022
Page range: 214 - 219

Abstract

Abstract

The social image of a candidate for police service is one of the important factors determining the image of the Polish Police both as an institution and an employer. It can also influence the sense of security of Poles, the level of trust in the police and the prestige of the police profession. The manner the candidates are perceived is conditioned by many factors, including social stereotypes, individual and group experiences or media coverage. In order to show the social image of candidates for service in the police in Poland, an empirical study was conducted in June 2021 using a diagnostic survey utilising the CAWI technique. A total of 384 Poles took part in the study.

Keywords

  • image
  • brand
  • candidate
  • police
  • service
access type Open Access

Bibliometric Analysis of the Main Concepts Associated with Resilience from a National Security Perspective

Published Online: 05 Jul 2022
Page range: 220 - 224

Abstract

Abstract

There is growing interest in deepening resilience building and development programmes that target both individuals and organisations, with implications in almost all areas of social, economic, and political life. The aim of our approach is to illustrate, in quantitative terms, both the place and importance in the literature of some of the most important concepts associated with resilience, namely security, critical infrastructure and security culture, and the links between these concepts.

Keywords

  • critical infrastructure
  • resilience
  • security
  • security culture
  • Voswiever
access type Open Access

Operating Principles for Crisis Management in the Republic of Moldova at the Current Stage

Published Online: 05 Jul 2022
Page range: 225 - 231

Abstract

Abstract

The scientific approach is an in-depth analysis of the concept of crisis management, which emerged as a result of the new current conditions of manifestation of insecurity or instability in the world, and based on them highlighting the most relevant and effective ways and tools to implement them. The content of the article includes the identification and establishment of the system of forces and means involved in the prevention, control and resolution of both internal and external crisis situations, as well as the procedures and tactics of action associated with these actions. This approach is a practical reflection, based exclusively on the national legislation of the Republic of Moldova, which needs to be undertaken immediately, regarding the need to create an integrated system, at national level, of interministerial and inter-agency crisis management, under a leadership unique, able to ensure timely and uniform management of crises at the national level, as well as their management at the international level, if necessary.

Keywords

  • Concept of crisis
  • risks
  • dangers
  • threats
  • principles
  • crisis management requirements
access type Open Access

Relational Approaches to Digital Marketing and Digital Supply Chain Management

Published Online: 05 Jul 2022
Page range: 232 - 239

Abstract

Abstract

The challenges of the information age and the digital economy have had a major impact on marketing and Supply Chain Management (SCM) determining an important evolution of them, until today, when the evolved ways of digital operation of the two concepts are implemented. Achieving beneficial business results through the effective application of strategies and policies specific to the application of these concepts necessarily highlights a functional correlation between the management and execution systems of digital marketing and digital SCM. In this paper, we will present, in essence, some considerations regarding both the functional description of the correlation between digital marketing and digital SCM, even though various studies and publications have been carried out over the years, as well as considerations regarding the easy implementation of the two concepts. At the same time, we will highlight some statistical data, published by experts, regarding suppliers, distributors and customers, all in the context of digital business design.

Keywords

  • digital marketing
  • digital supply chain management
  • digital marketing-digital supply chain management relation
  • digital marketing pltaform
  • digital supply chain management platforms
access type Open Access

Seiso, Shine, Sweep – The Third Step of the 5S Methodology

Published Online: 05 Jul 2022
Page range: 240 - 245

Abstract

Abstract

A useful tool for organizing workplaces is the 5S method, which is essentially a program divided into five phases to systematically achieve organization, cleanliness and standardization in the workplace to help improve productivity, reduce quality deficiencies and workplace safety issues. Since it is a Japanese method for organizing, cleaning, developing and maintaining a productive workplace, the name is derived from five Japanese words, each beginning with the S sound: Seiri, Seiton, Seiso, Seiketsu, Shitsuke. This technique was also adopted by the organizations from the strong economies, and the translation of the five words from Japanese into English resulted in an identical name for this methodology: Sort, Straighten, Shine, Standardize, Sustain.The purpose of this paper is to highlight the importance of workplace cleanliness at the end of work. This must become an integral part of the daily work of every employee, regardless of hierarchical level, in order to achieve and maintain optimal working conditions.

Keywords

  • Shine
  • Cleanliness
  • Brilliance
  • 5S methodology
access type Open Access

Conceptual Aspects Regarding the Efficiency of Logistical Support in Peacetime

Published Online: 05 Jul 2022
Page range: 246 - 250

Abstract

Abstract

Streamlining the logistical support of the military units at peace is a decisive desideratum in carrying out the planned military activities independent or joint, as well as their missions and is achieved through methods and procedures, which harmonize doctrinally and structurally with the general effort of the Romanian Army to participate, within NATO, to the joint effort to achieve regional and global security.

Keywords

  • eficentization
  • logistical support
  • procedure
  • methods
access type Open Access

Trust in Military Organizations

Published Online: 05 Jul 2022
Page range: 251 - 256

Abstract

Abstract

In this paper we emphasizes the importance of trust in today’s organizational environment, including the military organization. In view of this approach, we analyzed what influence the level of organizational trust, so the organizational structure with the two variables, formalization and centralization, is what makes the greatest impact on all indicators of trust.

Keywords

  • organizational trust
  • organizational structure
  • centralization
access type Open Access

Hypothesising in Contemporary Organisational Management Research. What Really Matters?

Published Online: 05 Jul 2022
Page range: 257 - 266

Abstract

Abstract

Management is an economic science and more than ever, temporal, as a direct effect of the level of social development, with many interdependencies with other fields of knowledge. Generically said, studies and research in the field of organisational management involve a high level of difficulty compared to other types of sciences because they primarily investigate aspects related to the soft component of the organisation, the human resource. The results, operationalised through the design and implementation of decisions, are achieved by people, for people, and people are involved in the (micro or macro) organisational universe with different experiences and expertise, different attitudes, different expectations, transforming other types of resources. It is difficult to translate purely qualitative aspects, which can be extracted from an organisational framework often by observation, into quantitative contexts that support the transformation of conclusions into judgements of principle value. In this context, the article examines the role, importance and usability of the hypothesis as a management tool. Starting from the highlighting of topical issues in the field of management science, an attempt is made to answer the following questions: in what situations can hypotheses be used? what are the application peculiarities and, subsequently, the advantages and disadvantages? what established typologies have been highlighted in the investigation of management issues? The theoretical observations are doubled in significance by a case study based on the use of the Competing Hypotheses Model (CHA). To summarize, the quality of the conceptual representations and semantics of the construction of a working hypothesis can bring us closer or further away from the organisational reality of interest, with direct effects on the relevance and effects of the activity undertaken.

Keywords

  • management
  • hypothesis
  • method
39 Articles
access type Open Access

The Barcelona Attack as an Example of a New Way of Carrying Out a Terrorist Attempt in an Urban Space Using a Vehicle Ramming a Crowd of Pedestrians

Published Online: 05 Jul 2022
Page range: 1 - 6

Abstract

Abstract

In this article the author presents problems related to the use of a new way of carrying out attacks by terrorists and terrorist groups, which is the use of vehicles to ram people in crowded areas of urban space. This method is presented based on the 2017 attacks in Barcelona and Cambrils, Spain. The text presents the course of the attack, the actions of the services, as well as a detailed analysis of these attacks. The material on which the article was based was taken from Spanish press and from communications made available by the services responsible for state security. In the conclusion the author draws particular attention to the increasing use of the method of ramming people with vehicles by terrorists and the ways in which this should be counteracted.

Keywords

  • attack
  • terrorist groups
  • crowded area
  • state security
access type Open Access

Challenges to European and Euro-Atlantic Security

Published Online: 05 Jul 2022
Page range: 7 - 14

Abstract

Abstract

The current security environment is characterized by uncertainty and multiple transformations in all areas. Mankind as a whole enjoys an extremely favorable context and an indisputable climate of security. However, security challenges are becoming more and more difficult to anticipate. The last few years have brought a new pandemic challenge to all states, which has put all systems to the test. In addition to the pandemic challenge, European and Euro-Atlantic countries face a military challenge that has the potential to directly affect regional and global security and cause shock waves in all areas, especially in the economic, political, diplomatic and military field. To these major challenges are added the challenges that have now faded into the background, such as climate change, the impact of natural disasters, organized crime, terrorism, and so on. In order to meet these new challenges, the European and Euro-Atlantic states must demonstrate cohesion and determination and take effective and decisive action to protect their interests and ensure the security and stability of their allies.

Keywords

  • security
  • challenge
  • threat
  • tensions
  • conflict
access type Open Access

The Modernization of the Bulgarian Army - A Factor for its Readiness

Published Online: 05 Jul 2022
Page range: 15 - 20

Abstract

Abstract

Bulgaria’s accession to Euro-Atlantic structures put the modernization of the Bulgarian Army and Armed Forces on the agenda. After years of reforms prior to the pre-accession period, they have been reduced as a matter of priority to reductions in structures and personnel and the release of obsolete property, weapons and equipment. Thus, under the pretext that modernization and supply of new equipment, systems and armaments compatible with those of NATO member states is forthcoming, the Bulgarian Army and its armed forces are deprived of key armaments and equipment for protection of national security and satisfactory. declared abilities. Over the years, modernization has been at the center of a number of regulations and documents, plans and programs with long-term and medium-term scope, according to the role, missions, goals and objectives of the Bulgarian Army and Armed Forces, whose implementation remains a good wish. And now, when the challenges of the security environment, whose dynamics and uncertainty are becoming increasingly difficult to predict, our country and its security are facing serious challenges. These circumstances unequivocally provoke our scientific research to study the reasons for the failed modernization of the Bulgarian Army and its armed forces.

Keywords

  • security
  • defense
  • modernization
  • defense capabilities
  • combat capability
access type Open Access

Nato’s Nordic Expansion, A Decision at Stake. Consequences Upon the European Security Landscape

Published Online: 05 Jul 2022
Page range: 21 - 28

Abstract

Abstract

The international security environment, particularly the European one, is at a significant turning point, leading to substantial, long-term structural changes. From this point of view, the perspective of Finland and Sweden joining NATO under unfavorable European security conditions has a critical impact on the strategic environment. Without any certainty at the time of writing this research, the analyzed extension is approached as a possibility with a high degree of fulfillment, given the approving elements displayed a month before the NATO Summit in Madrid, June 28-30, when a new strategic concept will be launched. The accession of the two Nordic states represents, from an unquestionable standpoint, a return to the specifics of the Cold War period, characterized by ideological and political clashes between the West and the East, between the United States of America and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. More specifically, we are witnessing a maneuver to contain Russia, with the Baltic Sea becoming a NATO Sea and looking at the launch of a new deterrence policy by expanding the European security zone under the power of collective defense. Although, de facto, Finland and Sweden could be assimilated into the circle of the allied states, given the military cooperation between them and the Alliance that has been going on for almost three decades, de jure membership gives weight to the adherence process, including by the political symbolism of Article 5.

Keywords

  • expansion
  • collective defence
  • security landscape
  • neutrality
access type Open Access

Conceptual Framework - Basis of Successful Tactical Actions

Published Online: 05 Jul 2022
Page range: 29 - 36

Abstract

Abstract

Throughout history, the ability to command and control military forces has been a critical component of success. In military operations today, this requirement is hampered and complicated by a myriad of factors, including evolving technology, diversity of forces, geographical division, and dynamic threats. In now days planning staff and their commander are responsible for the success of any operation or tactical action. Years ago George Marshall esteemed innate qualities [common sense, professional knowledge, physical fitness and stamina, loyalty, determination, optimism, and the ability to work within a group].” is this enough now and what is new that is needed? Planning as part of the operational process still have their place in whole scope of military successful operations and tactical activities.

Keywords

  • planning process
  • frameworks
  • tactical activities
  • operations
access type Open Access

Technology – Military Art Connections in the Military Training Process

Published Online: 05 Jul 2022
Page range: 37 - 45

Abstract

Abstract

The issue of the technological revolution and its impact on military operations and, implicitly, on the force training process, in the current conditions, is a highly timely, interdisciplinary research topic at the confluence of technical, military, and economic sciences. The increasing complexity of weapons systems under the technological evolutions generates the need to adapt training processes both in terms of the learning methods and of the techniques used, but above all, in terms of the technologies applicable to force training where, a multitude of opportunities have been generates by the advent of the computer. The new technologies have led to a compression of time and a widening of the area of confrontation and a diversification of tactics, techniques, and procedures used in military conflicts, which requires an appropriate response in the area of military operations training. The essence of this paper is to find the most effective ways of training military forces by studying the impact advanced technologies have on this phenomenon.

Keywords

  • technology
  • simulation
  • training process
  • military art
access type Open Access

The Strategic Determinations of the Gherasimov Doctrine on the Military Actions and the Protection of the Critical Infrastructure in the Russian-Ukrainian War

Published Online: 05 Jul 2022
Page range: 46 - 50

Abstract

Abstract

Sun Tzu stated that “if you know the enemy and you know yourself, you should not fear the results of a hundred fights.” It seems, however, that in the last period of time, this maxim of the famous Chinese general has been forgotten and the results of international relations are marked by many and frequent strategic surprises. The most recent of these, the invasion or special military operation of the Russian Federation in Ukraine comes to show us that the opponent can only be counteracted if you know how he thinks and acts or will act in the future. This article brings into focus the correlation between Russian strategic thinking and the actional reality of the Russian-Ukrainian war. The article also contains new ideas on the real undeclared purpose of the war, namely the control of the critical infrastructures of Russian European interest.

Keywords

  • strategy
  • Gherasimov doctrine
  • critical infrastructure
  • hybrid warfare
  • energy
  • economic warfare
access type Open Access

The Meaning of the Term Noncombatant in International Humanitarian Law – Interpretation of the Provision of Article 37/1/c of the Additional Protocol I of Geneva of 1977

Published Online: 05 Jul 2022
Page range: 51 - 56

Abstract

Abstract

Fundamental to the correct application of the rules of international humanitarian law are the understanding and implementation of the principle of distinction between combatants and civilians (and other protected persons). This principle has evolved over time, from strict rules of differentiation (wearing a uniform or a fixed distinctive sign; carrying the arms openly), to a minimalistic reformulation of the conditions for recognition of combatant status and the right to be a prisoner of war, by the provisions of art. 44 of the Additional Protocol I of 1977 (carrying his arms openly when the combatant is preparing or participating in military actions and is in sight of the opponent, even if he does not wear distinctive signs). These provisions are very important for the correct definition of the notions of combatant, non-combatant and civilian and for the proper identification of cases of perfidy which represent war crimes. The biggest problem in the application of these norms, for the Romanian armed forces, is the legal translation and interpretation of international treaties when the Romanian legislator adopts them. We find such a situation in the case of Article 37/1/c of the Additional Protocol I of Geneva of 1977 regarding the prohibition of perfidy in connection with the use of the notions of civilian and non-combatant.

Keywords

  • international humanitarian law
  • combatant
  • non-combatant
  • civilian
  • perfidy
access type Open Access

Lessons Learned from the Modern Armed Forces Strategic Deployment in Operations

Published Online: 05 Jul 2022
Page range: 57 - 65

Abstract

Abstract

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the deployment of forces in expeditionary operations, in relation to the operations performed in the past by the modern armed forces. Thus, the intention is to approach the deployment of forces by identifying the most important actions, practical and decisional landmarks, which have decisively influenced the strategic maneuver, reception, staging and onward movement processes, in order to integrate forces in the contemporary theaters of operations. Going straight for the stated objectives, I conducted a multiple-case study, based on reviewing the relevant available literature, in order to efficiently access all the elements in the concerned field of interest.

Keywords

  • deployment
  • strategic movement
  • reception
  • staging
  • force protection
access type Open Access

Trends in Radicalization Processes and Terrorist Activities After Covid-19

Published Online: 05 Jul 2022
Page range: 66 - 71

Abstract

Abstract

This report provides a detailed overview of trends in the development of radicalization and terrorism worldwide as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic. The short-lived changes in the way of life during and after the pandemic give rise to the possibility of new models of terrorism and radicalization in the coming years. Also this report aims to trace how COVID-19 has influenced and changed modern terrorism. On the other hand, the established structural organization of terrorist groups requires from us an in-depth analysis of the direction of their progressive development. Terrorists are increasingly trying to adapt to society in one form or another. Attempts are being made to penetrate them into the social activities of modern society. It was the pandemic that opened up many opportunities for a more concentrated psychological impact on “poorer” societies but the more problematic is that the long-term economic damage caused by the pandemic could reduce the resources available to fight terrorism and radicalization for several years. In the other hand the governments that have seen their coffers run out and their gross national product shrink will face difficult choices about where to spend their reduced revenues, and despite their genuine counter-terrorism commitment, may be forced to feed their populations and revitalize their economies at the expense of defence spending, including funding to fight terrorism and radicalization.

Keywords

  • Terrorism
  • counterterrorism
  • radicalization
  • trends
  • COVID-19
  • changes
  • new model
access type Open Access

Shooting Training with Light Infantry Weapons, an Essential Dimension of Individual and Collective Training

Published Online: 05 Jul 2022
Page range: 72 - 77

Abstract

Abstract

Shooting with the available weapons is a determining and defining element of armed combat, and the mysteries, practice, art and, above all, the science of shooting are learnt during shooting training, a discipline of overwhelming importance in the process of training troops and, implicitly, their preparation for combat. Nowadays, the construction of (fire) weapons has reached unprecedented technical and technological levels, with lethal and destructive accuracy and capability that were unimaginable a few decades ago. In this context, the maximum exploitation of the characteristics of the available weapons and the training of instictual shooting is an indispensable requirement coming from the reality of the military conflicts in which the Romanian military have taken part, a reality that has generated the need to develop the existing training facilities in order to create the best conditions for training the necessary skills. This development can be done either by purchasing training systems incorporating state-of-the-art technologies, at high cost, or by modernizing the existing ones at relatively lower costs and bringing them to the level of the accepted training requirements.

Keywords

  • shooting
  • weapons
  • instruction
  • combat
  • warfare
access type Open Access

The Expansion of the North Atlantic Alliance and its Relationship with Russia

Published Online: 05 Jul 2022
Page range: 78 - 82

Abstract

Abstract

The present study is intended to be an argument answer to a number of questions connected with the structure of the North Atlantic Alliance, about how it has evolved since its formation in 1949 to date, especially on its eastern flank where the Russian-Ukrainian conflict is in full progress. What is the link between the North Atlantic Alliance and this conflict, whether it has implications for the Alliance’s expansion policy, whether there are changes in the rules for addressing new challenges, and especially how it intends to respond to pressures the Russian Federation, are the research directions we have followed.

Keywords

  • Expansion policy
  • sovereign states
  • masters of their own destinies
access type Open Access

The Actual Security Climate in the Black Sea Basin

Published Online: 05 Jul 2022
Page range: 83 - 93

Abstract

Abstract

This paper analyses the context of security in the Black Sea basin area and its connections with the strategic, military, and economic aims of the main factors contributing to the region’s stability and security. The work debuted with some geographical and physical features of the maritime basin, switching the analysis to security actors. The article portrays the EU (European Union) and NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization) regarding the actual and past actions taken to enhance the region’s security and stability. Further, the article investigates the six riparian states through the military and strategic-oriented approach. The concluding part of the work exhibits a sharp insight beyond the sea basin area, and the work is closed by short concluding remarks.

Keywords

  • Black Sea
  • security
  • contested
  • conflict
  • military
access type Open Access

Evolution of Conflicts, Strategies, and High-Precision Weapon Systems

Published Online: 05 Jul 2022
Page range: 94 - 99

Abstract

Abstract

It’s been a few decades since military operations success has become difficult to define. During the Cold War, the outcome of a war between relatively symmetrical forces was predictable and the adversary was forced to admit defeat. In recent decades, the paradigm has changed radically in the political, diplomatic, and military domains, against the background of a geopolitical context characterized by complexity and instability, where the competitive struggle for hegemony between states is fierce and the proliferation of new risks, asymmetric, and hybrid threats requires the adaptation of strategies and capabilities to the new operational environment. New high-precision search-and-rescue, missile, communications and computing systems are a clear technological opportunity, and their ownership and usage is a real prerequisite for success in military operations. These sophisticated, integrated and synchronised technologies are, and will remain in the future, vectors of strategic deterrence because of their ability to detect and engage targets with maximum accuracy and effectiveness.

Keywords

  • effects
  • missiles
  • war
  • strategies
  • technology
access type Open Access

Environmental Impact of Wars and Armed Conflicts

Published Online: 05 Jul 2022
Page range: 100 - 104

Abstract

Abstract

The article presents the consequences of wars for the natural environment. Research and experience with more and more modern combat equipment are always associated with losses incurred by nature. Subsequent armed conflicts cause that new substances, dangerous for nature and man, enter the ecosystem. Warfare not only destroys the environment, but also frustrates and prevents any action to protect it. After some time, the conflicts that begin are resolved, and the restoration of degraded environments is very difficult, and often even impossible. Wars not only kill soldiers and civilians with weapons, but also put lives at risk by destroying natural resources, impoverishing land and making it impossible to use them for agricultural purposes.

Keywords

  • armed conflicts
  • war
  • environment
access type Open Access

Trends in Current Military Conflicts Operational Environments

Published Online: 05 Jul 2022
Page range: 105 - 111

Abstract

Abstract

Current and future military confrontations require adaptive forces, moving rapidly from specific, lethal and high-intensity combat operations to stabilization and reconstruction operations or, conversely, from stability operations to kinetic ones. In fact, many times, military actions will take place simultaneously, at several levels of intensity and along the spectrum of the conflict. Thus, this article presents aspects that show that the current operational environment is the space of “military competition”, which will be marked by confrontations in a gray area, between “war and peace”, and in this area the military forces must have the necessary capabilities to carry out several and various types of missions.

Keywords

  • operational environment
  • hybrid conflict
  • VUCA characteristics
  • artificial intelligence (AI) Anti-Access/Area Denial (A2/AD)
access type Open Access

Resistance Combat — The Best Defence of Small States Against an Invasion

Published Online: 05 Jul 2022
Page range: 112 - 118

Abstract

Abstract

The topic addressed in this article is a current one due to the political-military situation in the vicinity of Europe and the numerous analyses and comments that it will cause in the future. First, the authors present the general framework of the resistance combat beginning with the operational requirements necessary for conducting such operations, and then it analyzes the perspectives that such operations have in future military operations and proposes directions of action necessary to prepare Romania for defence.

Keywords

  • resilience
  • armed resistance
  • resistance combat
access type Open Access

Issues Regarding the Use of ISR Structures in Conventional Operations in the Context of National Resilience

Published Online: 05 Jul 2022
Page range: 119 - 122

Abstract

Abstract

Addressing the use of ISR structures in conventional operations in the context of national resilience, in an era of unpredictability of the security environment and the current presence of a regional conflict, inevitably becomes a mandatory concern for both support and decision-makers at all hierarchical levels and from all categories of troops. The development of a national defense position can be achieved through a flexible and robust ISR system, permanently adapted to the requirements of modern conflicts. Understanding how ISR capabilities can be used in conventional operations by addressing the principles, disciplines and collection systems is a key element in understanding the contribution of ISR to national resilience.

Keywords

  • Intelligence
  • Reconnaissance
  • Surveillance
  • Conventional operations
access type Open Access

Legal Approach to the Democratic Control of the Armed Forces

Published Online: 05 Jul 2022
Page range: 123 - 127

Abstract

Abstract

The existence of contemporary states is directly conditioned by the ways of effectively defending the values, institutions and state resources. The organization and endowment of the armed forces is the expression of the will of the holders of political power and therefore ensuring the democratic character of the control of the armed forces becomes an imperative of today’s global society, an imperative that is achieved through legal means. The process of militarization of contemporary states is supported by the legal framework that establishes the extent and type of political and administrative control that is exercised during this process. An important role in this legislative context is played by the constitution, the fundamental law of each state, which sets out the general principles and modalities for ensuring democratic control of the armed forces. Whether it is a direct control exercised by the people through a referendum or another similar means of expressing the will in connection with military matters of national interest, or it is an indirect control, carried out by the representative authorities, whose members are elected to represent the will of the people, democratic control of the armed forces is a matter of current

Keywords

  • military
  • army
  • control
  • democratic
  • legislation
access type Open Access

Hybrid Warfare — From Red to Blue Operational Behaviours

Published Online: 05 Jul 2022
Page range: 128 - 133

Abstract

Abstract

The manifestation of hybrid actions is not new, but their frequency has increased significantly lately. Nowadays, hybrid warfare is present anytime and everywhere in different forms, and with various degrees of amplitude. Given the fact that hybrid warfare is extremely difficult to decipher, starting with a literature review in the field, the article aims, first of all, to understand the behaviours of different actors from the perspective of their operational strategies. Also, within red and blue strategies identified, the article highlights the main instruments and capabilities used by both attackers and defenders. To fulfil these research objectives, an empirical research based on observation and a comparative analysis will be conducted.

Keywords

  • HW
  • red strategies
  • blue strategies
  • MPECI
  • PMESII
access type Open Access

Directions for the Leadership, Command and Control System of the Country’s Defence Improvement

Published Online: 05 Jul 2022
Page range: 134 - 139

Abstract

Abstract

Based on the analysis of the current state of the leadership, command, and control system of the country’s defence, three possible directions for optimizing this system have been formulated. The thesis argues that increasing the efficiency of the leadership, command and control system of the country’s defence is possible through the development of the regulatory framework, organizational improvement, and technological upgrading.

Keywords

  • leadership
  • command
  • and control system
  • defence of the country
access type Open Access

Nature of Leadership, Command and Control System of the Defence of the Country

Published Online: 05 Jul 2022
Page range: 140 - 145

Abstract

Abstract

Revealing the nature and content of the country’s defence and analysing the core of the terms leadership, command, and control, as well as the purpose and content of the leadership, command, and control system, a definition of the essence of the leadership, command, and control system of country’s defence is proposed.

Keywords

  • country’s defence
  • leadership
  • command
  • and control system
access type Open Access

Examples of Russian Information War Activity at the Beginning of Ukrainian Crisis

Published Online: 05 Jul 2022
Page range: 146 - 150

Abstract

Abstract

On February 24, 2022, the Russian Federation launched an invasion in Ukraine, which was the first military conflict in Europe from almost 80 years. Despite the diplomatic actions taken by the European Union and NATO countries, Russia’s military activity remains unchanged. In the face of the growing threat, many countries and international communities have decided to impose sanctions covering the economic, financial, as well as cultural and media spheres. In the article the authors analyzed content posted on Twitter after the invasion began, using Quaero, an advanced anti-disinformation tool. The article presents observations on information activities in social media undertaken during an armed conflict. As part of the research, pro-Russian, anti-Ukrainian and anti-American accounts were listed, and attention was also paid to the techniques and tools of manipulation in the information sphere. During the research, particular attention was paid to the botnets which play significant role in disinformation process. The very word bot refers to the word robot and it is a program whose main task is to perform actions instead of humans. Many entities in cyberspace, such as Facebook, Messenger or Google, use such programs to improve their activities and protect IT channels against the possibility of their violation.

Keywords

  • Twitter
  • disinformation
  • fake news
  • information war
access type Open Access

Methodology for Developing Resilient Information Systems in Cyber Conflict Environment

Published Online: 05 Jul 2022
Page range: 151 - 157

Abstract

Abstract

Successful cyber defence in the challenging cyber conflict environment depends on many factors but a crucial one is the use of a resilient system for cyber defence which is highly interoperable with those of partner countries and organisations. This paper presents a methodology of developing information systems capabilities resilient and interoperable in cyber conflict environment. The applied approach for defining the system design of information infrastructure is based on NATO models. For the architectural configuration, the NATO Technical Reference Model is applied and the NATO Common Operating Environment Component Model (NCOECM) is used for defining the information infrastructure components of the system design. NATO Technical Reference Model defines system services necessary for the information infrastructure of organizations. Functionalities needed by users and based on system services are also identified using reference models like workstations, servers, terminals and others, which are connected in an integrated information infrastructure. By implementing the proposed methodology a model of architectural configuring of an information infrastructure component has been developed – the Security Information and Event Management (SIEM) Server functional configuration.

Keywords

  • Cyber Conflict Environment
  • methodology
  • NATO models
access type Open Access

Digital Transformation of Higher Education System

Published Online: 05 Jul 2022
Page range: 158 - 168

Abstract

Abstract

Digital transformation of higher education undergoes cultural, mental, and technological change as an overall process. The present paper represents a correlation of the current literature that brings to light the key pillars aspects of the digital transformation of higher education. The objective of this research study was to outline a model of digital transformation strategy applicable to the Romanian academic environment. The original contribution of this study lies in establishing the key pillars elements and necessary stages for the implementation of digital transformation strategy for higher education which should be focused on students and effects.

Keywords

  • focused on students
  • technologies
  • processes
  • digital campus
  • digital library platform
  • digital interactions
access type Open Access

The Risk of Personnel Management

Published Online: 05 Jul 2022
Page range: 169 - 179

Abstract

Abstract

The decision to hire a new person in the company, like many other business decisions, carries a number of risks. Many older companies have had the experience of hiring an unsuitable person because they selected the ideal candidate for the interview, but the candidate had the wrong expectations about performance or integration. The reasons why a new employee turns out to be unsuitable can be many. Perhaps he or she fails to establish a good rapport with colleagues or the company’s customers, or exhibits inappropriate behavior or falls short of expectations and does not meet the performance criteria set forth by the job evaluation form. The role of a human resources risk management professional is to consider all the possible consequences of employee risks, which may be related to employee behavior, management style, or salary, for example. This paper aims to highlight the importance of adult education through training programs, taking into account the role that economic organizations play with regard to continuous training of employees, especially in terms of their personal development, ensuring satisfaction at work and competitiveness on the labour market.

Keywords

  • organizational management
  • personnel management
  • human resources management
  • human resources risk
  • personnel risk
access type Open Access

Artificial Intelligence and the Future of Defence Planning and Resources Management

Published Online: 05 Jul 2022
Page range: 180 - 186

Abstract

Abstract

The concept of artificial intelligence (AI) is rapidly becoming a significant factor for change, in the society in general, both in the private and public sectors. It has not been ignored by the military either, as countries throughout the world (from the US to Russia and China) are studying the potential uses of artificial intelligence in a functional context, and its uses in the defense area. The purpose of this paper is to explore the future potential uses and limitations of using the artificial intelligence in the military, with emphasis on the areas of defence planning and defence resources management.

Keywords

  • artificial
  • intelligence
  • defence
  • planning
  • resources
  • trends
access type Open Access

Workforce and Workplace Ecosystem – Challenges and Opportunities in the Age of Digital Transformation and 4IR

Published Online: 05 Jul 2022
Page range: 187 - 194

Abstract

Abstract

We are witnessing the Fourth Industrial Revolution (4IR) in which technological discoveries and changes are coming at a dizzying speed generating tremendous transformations of organizations, the environment and societies. The purpose of the present paper is to analyze a set of challenges and opportunities of the workforce and workplace ecosystems in the context of 4IR. Innovation – as key ingredient of scaling-up processes – and the widespread implementation of specific 4IR technologies will lead to substantial, sometimes even disruptive changes of the labor market, but also to the workforce and workplace ecosystems’ transformation. Among others, artificial intelligence (AI), smart robotics, and intelligent automation are emerging technologies that dramatically change the ways of work, productivity, but also the types and number of available jobs. This paper has a few specific objectives: summarizing the main technologies and tools specific to 4IR and Industry 4.0; analyzing the major shifts related to the current structure of the workforce -highlighting the external and technological component (AI, robots, automation); analyzing the hybrid workplace (physical and digital); identifying some emerging technologies and their impact on the work ecosystem. The methodology of the study relies on qualitative methods - literature review, systematization of knowledge, observation/ participation (as experts in different national and international consultancy and training programs). The paper draws conclusions and some remarks regarding the intention to address other challenging subjects in the future, such as: rethinking performance management systems to reflect and tackle these challenges; skill gaps and the role of emerging technologies in supporting Society 5.0. - a more sustainable, inclusive and human-centric society.

Keywords

  • workforce
  • workplace ecosystem
  • 4IR
  • Industry 4.0
  • digital transformation
access type Open Access

Challenges of Implementing Sustainable Development Management in Military and Civilian Higher Education Institutions

Published Online: 05 Jul 2022
Page range: 195 - 199

Abstract

Abstract

Sustainable development management takes up and synthesises the concepts of sustainable development and general management and applies them to all areas of social and economic life. Therefore, it has become a challenge for military and civilian higher education institutions to effectively combine the three pillars of sustainable development – economic, social and environmental – with the application of effective management practices that lead to the creation of a sustainable university environment.

Keywords

  • sustainable development management
  • higher education institution
  • management function
access type Open Access

“Knowledge-Based Organization” - Solution in the Management of Organizations in Crisis Situations?

Published Online: 05 Jul 2022
Page range: 200 - 203

Abstract

Abstract

Crisis periods affect all areas of organizational management: material resources management, financial management, strategic management, etc. In this context, knowledge’s process and knowledge can play an essential role in the survival of companies in the context in reality is unclear and changing, and the prospects can be bleak or difficult to calculate. Intangible elements make the difference, like as the ability to use efficiently what the organization knows to deal with unforeseen events much more often in these times of crisis: changing supply rates, declining employee morale, temporary lack of liquidity, etc.

Keywords

  • knowledge
  • organization
  • management
access type Open Access

Considerations on the Selection Process and Professional Development in Intelligence Organizations

Published Online: 05 Jul 2022
Page range: 204 - 213

Abstract

Abstract

The selection process in any domain embraces different principles and various strategies but has the same ultimate target: acquiring the best-equipped candidates for the envisaged jobs. In Intelligence (not exclusively), the personnel selection is centered on the applicants’ skills and traits, personal and professional background, transversal expertise, or technical abilities, as well as development potential – with an outlook on further professional development. Recruitment and talent retention in the military (including Intelligence organisations) reflect the trend of civilian (un)employment. It means motivation and job attractiveness (competing with the civilian job market) are critical elements in selection and performance quality, with variables related to the characteristics of the target audience and/ or the employment’s features. This article provides an assessment of the current approach in the human capital policy in Intelligence and makes a parallel with the competing civilian organisations’ efforts to make use of the best prepared and reliable human resources.

Disclaimer: This paper expresses the views, interpretations, and independent position of the author. It should not be regarded as an official document, nor expressing formal opinions or policies, of NATO or the HUMINT Centre of Excellence.

Keywords

  • Intelligence
  • selection
  • professional development
  • human capital
access type Open Access

Social Image of the Candidate for Police Service – Results of Empirical Research

Published Online: 05 Jul 2022
Page range: 214 - 219

Abstract

Abstract

The social image of a candidate for police service is one of the important factors determining the image of the Polish Police both as an institution and an employer. It can also influence the sense of security of Poles, the level of trust in the police and the prestige of the police profession. The manner the candidates are perceived is conditioned by many factors, including social stereotypes, individual and group experiences or media coverage. In order to show the social image of candidates for service in the police in Poland, an empirical study was conducted in June 2021 using a diagnostic survey utilising the CAWI technique. A total of 384 Poles took part in the study.

Keywords

  • image
  • brand
  • candidate
  • police
  • service
access type Open Access

Bibliometric Analysis of the Main Concepts Associated with Resilience from a National Security Perspective

Published Online: 05 Jul 2022
Page range: 220 - 224

Abstract

Abstract

There is growing interest in deepening resilience building and development programmes that target both individuals and organisations, with implications in almost all areas of social, economic, and political life. The aim of our approach is to illustrate, in quantitative terms, both the place and importance in the literature of some of the most important concepts associated with resilience, namely security, critical infrastructure and security culture, and the links between these concepts.

Keywords

  • critical infrastructure
  • resilience
  • security
  • security culture
  • Voswiever
access type Open Access

Operating Principles for Crisis Management in the Republic of Moldova at the Current Stage

Published Online: 05 Jul 2022
Page range: 225 - 231

Abstract

Abstract

The scientific approach is an in-depth analysis of the concept of crisis management, which emerged as a result of the new current conditions of manifestation of insecurity or instability in the world, and based on them highlighting the most relevant and effective ways and tools to implement them. The content of the article includes the identification and establishment of the system of forces and means involved in the prevention, control and resolution of both internal and external crisis situations, as well as the procedures and tactics of action associated with these actions. This approach is a practical reflection, based exclusively on the national legislation of the Republic of Moldova, which needs to be undertaken immediately, regarding the need to create an integrated system, at national level, of interministerial and inter-agency crisis management, under a leadership unique, able to ensure timely and uniform management of crises at the national level, as well as their management at the international level, if necessary.

Keywords

  • Concept of crisis
  • risks
  • dangers
  • threats
  • principles
  • crisis management requirements
access type Open Access

Relational Approaches to Digital Marketing and Digital Supply Chain Management

Published Online: 05 Jul 2022
Page range: 232 - 239

Abstract

Abstract

The challenges of the information age and the digital economy have had a major impact on marketing and Supply Chain Management (SCM) determining an important evolution of them, until today, when the evolved ways of digital operation of the two concepts are implemented. Achieving beneficial business results through the effective application of strategies and policies specific to the application of these concepts necessarily highlights a functional correlation between the management and execution systems of digital marketing and digital SCM. In this paper, we will present, in essence, some considerations regarding both the functional description of the correlation between digital marketing and digital SCM, even though various studies and publications have been carried out over the years, as well as considerations regarding the easy implementation of the two concepts. At the same time, we will highlight some statistical data, published by experts, regarding suppliers, distributors and customers, all in the context of digital business design.

Keywords

  • digital marketing
  • digital supply chain management
  • digital marketing-digital supply chain management relation
  • digital marketing pltaform
  • digital supply chain management platforms
access type Open Access

Seiso, Shine, Sweep – The Third Step of the 5S Methodology

Published Online: 05 Jul 2022
Page range: 240 - 245

Abstract

Abstract

A useful tool for organizing workplaces is the 5S method, which is essentially a program divided into five phases to systematically achieve organization, cleanliness and standardization in the workplace to help improve productivity, reduce quality deficiencies and workplace safety issues. Since it is a Japanese method for organizing, cleaning, developing and maintaining a productive workplace, the name is derived from five Japanese words, each beginning with the S sound: Seiri, Seiton, Seiso, Seiketsu, Shitsuke. This technique was also adopted by the organizations from the strong economies, and the translation of the five words from Japanese into English resulted in an identical name for this methodology: Sort, Straighten, Shine, Standardize, Sustain.The purpose of this paper is to highlight the importance of workplace cleanliness at the end of work. This must become an integral part of the daily work of every employee, regardless of hierarchical level, in order to achieve and maintain optimal working conditions.

Keywords

  • Shine
  • Cleanliness
  • Brilliance
  • 5S methodology
access type Open Access

Conceptual Aspects Regarding the Efficiency of Logistical Support in Peacetime

Published Online: 05 Jul 2022
Page range: 246 - 250

Abstract

Abstract

Streamlining the logistical support of the military units at peace is a decisive desideratum in carrying out the planned military activities independent or joint, as well as their missions and is achieved through methods and procedures, which harmonize doctrinally and structurally with the general effort of the Romanian Army to participate, within NATO, to the joint effort to achieve regional and global security.

Keywords

  • eficentization
  • logistical support
  • procedure
  • methods
access type Open Access

Trust in Military Organizations

Published Online: 05 Jul 2022
Page range: 251 - 256

Abstract

Abstract

In this paper we emphasizes the importance of trust in today’s organizational environment, including the military organization. In view of this approach, we analyzed what influence the level of organizational trust, so the organizational structure with the two variables, formalization and centralization, is what makes the greatest impact on all indicators of trust.

Keywords

  • organizational trust
  • organizational structure
  • centralization
access type Open Access

Hypothesising in Contemporary Organisational Management Research. What Really Matters?

Published Online: 05 Jul 2022
Page range: 257 - 266

Abstract

Abstract

Management is an economic science and more than ever, temporal, as a direct effect of the level of social development, with many interdependencies with other fields of knowledge. Generically said, studies and research in the field of organisational management involve a high level of difficulty compared to other types of sciences because they primarily investigate aspects related to the soft component of the organisation, the human resource. The results, operationalised through the design and implementation of decisions, are achieved by people, for people, and people are involved in the (micro or macro) organisational universe with different experiences and expertise, different attitudes, different expectations, transforming other types of resources. It is difficult to translate purely qualitative aspects, which can be extracted from an organisational framework often by observation, into quantitative contexts that support the transformation of conclusions into judgements of principle value. In this context, the article examines the role, importance and usability of the hypothesis as a management tool. Starting from the highlighting of topical issues in the field of management science, an attempt is made to answer the following questions: in what situations can hypotheses be used? what are the application peculiarities and, subsequently, the advantages and disadvantages? what established typologies have been highlighted in the investigation of management issues? The theoretical observations are doubled in significance by a case study based on the use of the Competing Hypotheses Model (CHA). To summarize, the quality of the conceptual representations and semantics of the construction of a working hypothesis can bring us closer or further away from the organisational reality of interest, with direct effects on the relevance and effects of the activity undertaken.

Keywords

  • management
  • hypothesis
  • method

Plan your remote conference with Sciendo