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Issue Editors: Magdalena Bielska, Jerzy Pilawski, Katarzyna Skupniewicz

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Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
2300-8733
First Published
25 Nov 2011
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English

Search

Volume 18 (2018): Issue 3 (July 2018)

Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
2300-8733
First Published
25 Nov 2011
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English

Search

17 Articles

Review

Open Access

Dairy cattle welfare as a result of human-animal relationship – a review

Published Online: 01 Aug 2018
Page range: 601 - 622

Abstract

Abstract

Despite the various concepts of human-animal relationship, the welfarist approach to this problem is one of the most often considered in theory and used in practice. When dealing with issues related to dairy cattle welfare (DCW), it is necessary to take into account both the reality characteristic for animals used to obtain milk (e.g. the problem of automatic milking of cows) and for slaughter cattle (e.g. slaughter of culled animals). It is not surprising, therefore, that issues related to DCW are the focus of the attention of the public, researchers, breeders as well as the dairy and meat industries. The aim of this article was to possibly most comprehensively cover the above-mentioned issues, although due to its huge scope it was obviously necessary to limit the article to what I think are currently most important issues. That is why in the review I (1) characterized the issues related to the division of human responsibility for DCW; (2) discussed the importance of technology to human-animal relationship; (3) elaborated the matter of stress, emotionality of animals and their cognitive abilities in the aspect of “negative” and “positive” DCW; (4) considered the possibilities of non-invasive assessment of animal welfare in the future and (5) discussed topics related to improving the conditions of the slaughter of animals. In summary, it was proposed paying more attention than has been paid until now, to the assessment of positive DCW in scientific research and breeding practice. I also drew attention to the necessity of reliable information flow on the line of the breeder/milk producer - industry - consumer, as negligence in this area is one of the reasons for public disinformation regarding the level of animal welfare.

Keywords

  • dairy cattle
  • human responsibility
  • animal welfare
Open Access

Can Reprogramming of Overall Epigenetic Memory and Specific Parental Genomic Imprinting Memory within Donor Cell-Inherited Nuclear Genome be a Major Hindrance for the Somatic Cell Cloning of Mammals? – A Review

Published Online: 01 Aug 2018
Page range: 623 - 638

Abstract

Abstract

Successful cloning of animals by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) requires epigenetic transcriptional reprogramming of the differentiated state of the donor cell nucleus to a totipotent embryonic ground state. It means that the donor nuclei must cease its own program of gene expression and restore a particular program of the embryonic genome expression regulation that is necessary for normal development. Transcriptional activity of somatic cell-derived nuclear genome during embryo pre- and postimplantation development as well as foetogenesis is correlated with the frequencies for spatial remodeling of chromatin architecture and reprogramming of cellular epigenetic memory. This former and this latter process include such covalent modifications as demethylation/re-methylation of DNA cytosine residues and acetylation/deacetylation as well as demethylation/re-methylation of lysine residues of nucleosomal core-derived histones H3 and H4. The main cause of low SCNT efficiency in mammals turns out to be an incomplete reprogramming of transcriptional activity for donor cell-descended genes. It has been ascertained that somatic cell nuclei should undergo the wide DNA cytosine residue demethylation changes throughout the early development of cloned embryos to reset their own overall epigenetic and parental genomic imprinting memories that have been established by re-methylation of the nuclear donor cell-inherited genome during specific pathways of somatic and germ cell lineage differentiation. A more extensive understanding of the molecular mechanisms and recognition of determinants for epigenetic transcriptional reprogrammability of somatic cell nuclear genome will be helpful to solve the problems resulting from unsatisfactory SCNT effectiveness and open new possibilities for common application of this technology in transgenic research focused on human biomedicine.

Keywords

  • somatic cell nuclear transfer
  • cloned embryo
  • DNA methylation
  • histone acetylation/ methylation
  • architectural remodeling
  • epigenetic reprogramming
  • parental genomic imprinting
Open Access

The uses of microbial phytase as a feed additive in poultry nutrition – a review

Published Online: 01 Aug 2018
Page range: 639 - 658

Abstract

Abstract

Most of the phosphorus (P) in feed ingredients is present as phytate, which is poorly available for absorption in the gastrointestinal tract of different poultry species due to the lack of endogenous phytase. The supplementation of phytase increases the utilization of P by hydrolyzing phytate, which consequently may reduce the excretion of P in the environment. In addition, it has been suggested that phytase may improve the feed utilization, weight gain, egg production and egg traits, nutrient digestibility, energy availability, retention of important minerals in blood and bones. Thus, the effectiveness of phytase on performance and Ca and P absorption in layer chickens fed corn-soybean based diets has been well recognized. The current review briefly discusses the supplementation of phytase in the diet of poultry on performance and egg production and characteristics as well as amino acids and minerals availability.

Keywords

  • phytase
  • poultry
  • performance
  • egg quality
  • digestibility
  • blood
Open Access

Threonine in broiler diets: an updated review

Published Online: 01 Aug 2018
Page range: 659 - 674

Abstract

Abstract

Threonine (Thr) is the third limiting essential amino acid after methionine and lysine in cornsoybean based diets of broilers. Dietary imbalance of Thr, therefore, results in a poor growth performance in broilers. This review summarizes literature data on the known effects of dietary levels of Thr on growth performance, gut morphology, immunity and carcass characteristics in broilers. Due to continuous improvement in genetic potential and management practices for poultry production, dietary Thr requirements are changing. A number of studies have shown that supplementation of Thr in broiler diet at a higher level than the current NRC recommendation (0.74-0.81%), increases body weight gain, feed conversion ratio, and improves gut morphology, carcass quality and immune status, mainly by enhancing the functional capability of digestive system and immune organs (spleen, bursa, and thymus). According to the literature data discussed in this review, the minimal and maximal total dietary Thr levels for healthy birds reared in normal conditions were 0.67 and 0.90% for growth performance, 0.77 and 1.1% for a better gut health, 0.60 and 1.02% for immunity and 0.62 and 0.97% for better carcass characteristics. This background provides impetus to further investigate the exact level of Thr and its effects on growth performance, gut morphology, immunity and carcass characteristics in broilers.

Keywords

  • threonine
  • broiler
  • growth performance
  • gut health
  • immunity

Animal genetics and breeding

Open Access

Characterization of the SSAT1 gene and its expression profiling in various tissues and follicles in geese

Published Online: 01 Aug 2018
Page range: 675 - 684

Abstract

Abstract

Spermidine/spermine N1-acetyltransferase (SSAT ) is a catabolic regulator of polyamines, ubiquitous molecules essential for cell proliferation and differentiation. In this study, the molecular characterization of the SSAT1 gene of the Sichuan white goose was analyzed, as well as its expression profiles in various follicles and tissues. The open reading frame of the SSAT1 cDNA (GenBank No. KM925008) is 516 bp in length and encodes a 171-amino acid protein with a putative molecular weight of 20 kDa. The predicted SSAT1 protein is highly conserved with those of other species, especially Gallus gallus. SSAT1 mRNA was ubiquitously expressed in all the examined tissues. The highest level of SSAT1 mRNA expression was found in the pineal gland (P<0.05), and was 12-fold greater than in the heart. The level of SSAT1 mRNA expression was relatively lower in preovulatory follicles, while it was higher in postovulatory follicles (POFs), particularly in POF1. Furthermore, as postovulatory follicles degenerated, SSAT1 expression gradually decreased. Our findings suggest that SSAT1 might play important roles in mediating the physiological function of the pineal gland and regulating the regression of POFs.

Keywords

  • goose
  • spermidine/spermine-N1-acetyltransferase
  • gene expression
  • follicle
  • follicle regression
Open Access

Detection of single nucleotide polymorphisms at major prolificacy genes in the Mehraban sheep and association with litter size

Published Online: 01 Aug 2018
Page range: 685 - 698

Abstract

Abstract

The present study aimed to investigate the presence of polymorphisms at four known genes controlling ovine prolificacy i.e. BMP15, GDF9, BMPR1B and B4GALNT2 in a sample of 115 Iranian Mehraban ewes and their association with litter size (LS) and lambs’ birth weight (BW) traits. Using Sanger sequencing of exons and polymorphism specific genotyping, ten SNPs (Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms) were observed in only two genes, GDF9 and BMPR1B. Seven SNPs were found in the GDF9 gene on the chromosome 5. Among them, six were already described in the coding sequence, and a new one (g.41840985C>T) was found in the 3’UTR. In the BMPR1B gene on the chromosome 6, three novel SNPs were detected in the exon 7 (g.29382184G>A; g.29382337G>A and g.29382340G>A). Allelic frequencies were established for six SNPs among the ten identified and they were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. A significant association was found between the novel SNPs found in the exon 7 of BMPR1B and LS. Present results indicate the potential role of the BMPR1B locus in controlling prolificacy of Mehraban sheep and provide genetic markers for further exploitation in selection to improve reproductive efficiency.

Keywords

  • polymorphism
  • Mehraban sheep
  • major genes
  • prolificacy
Open Access

Association of MTNR1A and CYP19 genes polymorphisms with sperm quality and testicular size in Sanjabi breed rams

Published Online: 01 Aug 2018
Page range: 699 - 711

Abstract

Abstract

The purpose of this study was to identify mutations in melatonin receptor 1A (MTNR1A) and aromatase cytochrome P450 (CYP19) genes using PCR-RFLP technique and their associations with sperm quality and testicular size traits in Sanjabi breed rams. The blood and sperm samples were collected from Sanjabi rams (n = 96). Genomic DNA was extracted from the blood. A 824bp fragment from exon II of MTNR1A gene and a 517bp fragment from promoter 2 (P2) of CYP19 gene were amplified using two pairs of specific primers. The PCR products were separately digested by two restriction enzymes, SsiI for MTNR1A locus and DraI for CYP19 locus. Digestion by SsiI restriction enzyme resulted in CC, CA and AA genotypes with frequency of 0.45, 0.41 and 0.14, respectively. However, digestion of 517bp fragment of CYP19 gene by DraI endonuclease determined two AG and AA genotypes with frequency 0.89 and 0.11, respectively. The Chi-square test proved that the two loci were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE). The significant effect was observed between different genotypes of MTNR1A gene and morphological trait (P<0.05) and there was a significant association between different genotypes of CYP19 gene and scrotal circumference trait (P<0.05). The results of this study indicated that polymorphisms of MTNR1A and CYP19 genes were not associated with most traits of sperm quality and testicular sizes. Therefore, it seems that further studies are needed to identify mutations in other regions of these genes and other genes responsible to genomic regions for the sperm quality and testicular size in Sanjabi ram in order to improve fertility in these herds.

Keywords

  • CYP19 gene
  • MTNR1A gene
  • Sanjabi sheep
  • sperm quality
  • testicular size

The biology, physiology, reproduction, and health

Open Access

Effect of presynchronization prior to Ovsynch on ovulatory response to first GnRH, ovulatory follicle diameter and pregnancy per AI in multiparous Holstein cows during summer in Iran

Published Online: 01 Aug 2018
Page range: 713 - 722

Abstract

Abstract

The aim was to evaluate the effect of presynchronization with GnRH and PGF2α prior to Ovsynch on ovulatory response to first GnRH, diameter of largest follicle at TAI and pregnancy per AI (P/AI) in multiparous dairy cows during summer. Cows (n=1069) were randomly assigned to one of three timed-AI (TAI) protocols. The TAI protocols were: 1) Ovsynch (O; n=425), GnRH- 7d-PGF2α-56h-GnRH-16h-TAI), 2) double-Ovsynch (DO; n=302), GnRH-7d-PGF2α-3d-GnRH and Ovsynch was initiated 7 days later, and 3) G7G-Ovsynch (G7G; n=342), PGF2α-2d-GnRH and Ovsynch was initiated 7 days later. Ovarian examinations were performed by transrectal ultrasonography during Ovsynch to determine ovulatory response to first GnRH and diameter of largest follicle at TAI. Presynchronization increased ovulatory response after first GnRH of Ovsynch (P=0.001), which was greater in DO (74.0%) and G7G (76.0%) groups compared to O group (50.0%). Means (±SEM) diameter (mm) of largest follicle at TAI was smaller in cows presynchronized before Ovsynch (DO and G7G, overall 15.7±0.3) compared to that in cows subjected to a standard Ovsynch without presynchronization (18.5±0.42). P/AI at 32 d after Al was greater (P=0.001) in G7G (32.7%) and DO (31.1%) groups compared to Ovsynch (19.7%) group. Presynchronization prior to Ovsynch also affected P/AI at 60 and 150 d after AI (P<0.05). In conclusion, DO and G7G protocols resulted in greater ovulatory response to first GnRH, smaller ovulatory follicles and greater P/AI compared to a standard Ovsynch protocol. Therefore, TAI protocols that include a presynchronization with GnRH and PGF2α prior to Ovsynch should be used in multiparous cows during summer to achieve acceptable reproductive performance.

Keywords

  • Ovsynch
  • pregnancy rate
  • secondary sex ratio
  • ultrasonography
  • Holstein cows
Open Access

Population study of the Pura Raza Español Horse regarding its coat colour

Published Online: 01 Aug 2018
Page range: 723 - 739

Abstract

Abstract

Coat colour has always been a valuable trait for horse breeders. However, preferences for this feature have changed over the years. In this research, the Pura Raza Español horse (PRE) population was divided into four subpopulations (Grey, Bay, Black and Others), according to the most frequent coat colours and those of their ancestors. The purpose was to analyse genetic variability, reproductive parameters and distances among subpopulations during three key periods in the history of the breed: before 1960, from 1960 to 2000 and after 2000. The subpopulations composed of animals with ancestors with the same coat colour showed higher values of recent inbreeding (ranging from 7.13% to 10.44%) and a greater Nei’s minimum distance between them, as a result of more inbred matings than those carried out in families with members with different coat colours. Non-pure subpopulations also showed more similar recent inbreeding values (between 6.63% and 6.74%). Strikingly, the productive life of Pure bay, Pure black and other subpopulations with minority coat colours was considerably longer (10.79, 10.08 and 9.11 years, respectively) compared to the values of grey PRE horses (6.01 and 7.98 years), which is the subpopulation with the highest census. These results, together with shorter generation intervals of black stallion-offspring (5.51 years via father-son and 6.39 years via father-daughter) and the fact that this coat colour was not present in the breed until two decades ago, highlight the recent trend towards the breeding of black animals.

Keywords

  • equine
  • genetic diversity
  • inbreeding
  • reproductive parameters
Open Access

Relationship of arctic fox (Alopex lagopus L.) sperm morphology with age of males, sperm concentration, ejaculate volume and acrosin activity

Published Online: 01 Aug 2018
Page range: 741 - 752

Abstract

Abstract

The aim of the study was to determine the relationship of sperm morphology with age of males, ejaculate concentration and volume, as well as with acrosin activity determined in sperm acrosome extracts. The study used manually collected ejaculates from 9 male arctic foxes, including 6 young males aged one year and 3 older males (between 3 and 5 years of age). All of the 39 ejaculates used in the study were classified as normal based on motility exceeding 70%. The ejaculates collected from the foxes were evaluated for volume, sperm concentration and frequency of morphological changes including primary and secondary defects. The spermiograms of the male arctic foxes were classified according to a six-grade subjective scale. In addition, acrosin activity was determined in the sperm acrosome extracts. The data were analysed using the criteria of male age, sperm concentration, ejaculate volume, and acrosin activity. The morphology of arctic fox spermatozoa was dependent on the age of the male. A greater number of morphologically altered spermatozoa tended to occur in the ejaculates of young foxes, which were in their first breeding season. In addition, statistical analysis revealed positive relationships between the frequency of morphological changes in sperm and their ejaculate concentration. In contrast, there were no significant correlations between the percentages of morphologically changed spermatozoa and the ejaculate volume and the content of acrosin, which is an indicator of acrosomal integrity. Semen quality is dependent on the number of sperm in ejaculate with morphological defects which prevent oocyte fertilization. Therefore, morphological assessment of semen, which covers both the number and type of morphological changes, is highly useful when selecting appropriate males for reproduction.

Keywords

  • arctic fox
  • semen
  • morphology
  • spermatozoa

Animal nutrition, and feedstuffs

Open Access

Effect of Eucalyptus globulus leaves extracts on in vitro rumen fermentation, methanogenesis, degradability and protozoa population

Published Online: 01 Aug 2018
Page range: 753 - 767

Abstract

Abstract

The aim of the research was to evaluate the effect of three Eucalyptus globulus extracts rich in phenolic compounds, especially flavonoids, on rumen fermentation, methane (CH4) production, organic matter degradability and protozoa population using an in vitro gas production technique. Four concentrations (0, 50, 75 and 100 mg) of three Eucalyptus extracts (ethyl acetate, n-butanol and aqueous) were added to a diet of ruminants (forage: concentrate ratio 60:40) and incubated at 39°C under anaerobiosis with buffered rumen fluid. After 24 h, the fermentation fluid was analysed for ammonia-N and volatile fatty acids (VFA). Organic matter degradability (OMD) and protozoa were also determined; in vitro gas production was also recorded and CH4 concentration was measured. Compared to the control, CH4 production was significantly lower for ethyl acetate extract (P<0.05), but higher for n-butanol and aqueous extracts. Production of ammonia- N was lower in all Eucalyptus extracts (P<0.05). Propionate production (P<0.05) increased for ethyl acetate and n-butanol extracts, whereas no effect was registered for VFA, for all Eucalyptus extracts. Ethyl acetate extract decreased in vitro OMD (P<0.05), whereas n-butanol and aqueous extracts were comparable to the control. Protozoa population decreased (P<0.05) for all extracts in comparison with the control. Eucalyptus ethyl acetate extract might be promising to be used as a potent anti-methanogenic additive. Moreover, the assessment of the right dosage seems to be important to decrease methane production, without reducing feed nutritional value.

Keywords

  • flavonoids
  • gas production
  • volatile fatty acids
  • ammonia-N
  • partitioning factor
Open Access

Growth performance, nutrient digestibility, and selected fecal microbiota are improved by β-glucan supplementation in weaner pigs

Published Online: 01 Aug 2018
Page range: 769 - 779

Abstract

Abstract

This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary β-glucan supplementation on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, blood profiles, and fecal characteristics in weaner pigs. A total of 140 weaner pigs [(Yorkshire × Landrace) × Duroc] with an average body weight of 6.37±1.14 kg were allotted to one of the following dietary treatments: 1) negative control (NC, basal diet); 2) positive control (PC, basal diet supplemented with 39 ppm Tiamulin); 3) basal diet supplemented with 0.1% β-glucan (G1); 4) basal diet supplemented with 0.2% β-glucan (G2). During days 22 to 42 and 1 to 42, pigs offered PC and G2 diets grew faster than those offered NC diet (P<0.05). Additionally, during the same periods, pigs fed G2 and PC diets exhibited improved gain:feed ratio compared to pigs receiving NC and G1 diets (P<0.05). Pigs fed G2 diet exhibited higher coefficient of total tract apparent digestibility of dry matter than those fed NC diet (P<0.05). There were no differences on blood profiles, fecal scores, fecal moisture, and fecal pH (P>0.05). Fecal lactic acid bacteria counts in G2 treatment were higher compared with PC and NC treatments (P<0.05). Coliform bacteria concentrations were decreased in pigs fed PC and G2 diets compared with those fed NC diet (P<0.05). In conclusion, the results of the current study indicate that dietary supplementation of 0.2% β-glucan can improve growth performance and dry matter digestibility, increase fecal lactic acid bacteria concentration but decrease fecal coliform bacteria concentration in weaner pigs.

Keywords

  • β-glucan
  • digestibility
  • growth performance
  • weaner pigs
Open Access

The influence of selected feed additives on mineral utilisation and bone characteristics in laying hens

Published Online: 01 Aug 2018
Page range: 781 - 793

Abstract

Abstract

The trial with 240 caged ISA Brown laying hens was performed to evaluate the effect of selected feed additives on mineral utilisation as well as biomechanical (breaking strength, yielding load, stiffness) and geometrical (cortex thickness, cross-section area, weight, length) indices of tibia and femur bones. At 26 wks of age the layers were randomly assigned to 10 treatments with 12 replicates (cages) of two birds. In the study a 2 × 5 experimental scheme was used i.e. to 70 wks of age, the layers were fed isocaloric and isonitrogenous experimental diets containing reduced (3.20%) or standard (3.70%) Ca level. The diets with both Ca levels were either not supplemented, or supplemented with the studied feed additives i.e. sodium butyrate, probiotic bacteria, herbal extract blend and chitosan. There were no statistically significant effects of the experimental factors on the indices of the tibia bones. However, the diet with reduced Ca level decreased bone breaking strength, yielding load, stiffness, and mineralisation of the femur bones (P<0.05). The majority of used feed supplements, i.e. probiotic, herb extracts, and chitosan, increased biomechanical indices (breaking strength and yielding load) and mineralisation of the femur bones (P<0.05). Neither dietary Ca level nor feed additives affected dry matter, organic matter, ether extract, N-free extracts, crude fibre and ash digestibility, and P retention and excretion; however, Ca excretion and retention was lower in the hens fed the diets with reduced Ca level (P<0.05). Relative Ca retention (Ca retained as % of Ca intake) was improved by diet supplementation with probiotic, herb extracts and chitosan (P<0.05). In conclusion, this study has shown that decreased Ca dietary level (3.20%) can negatively affect bone quality in layers, while probiotic, herb extracts and chitosan addition may improve the selected biomechanical indices of the femurs, irrespective of Ca dietary concentration.

Keywords

  • laying hens
  • feed additives
  • calcium retention
  • bones quality
Open Access

Do insects smell attractive to dogs? A comparison of dog reactions to insects and commercial feed aromas – a preliminary study

Published Online: 01 Aug 2018
Page range: 795 - 800

Abstract

Abstract

The goal of the present study was to investigate the olfactory attractiveness of air-dried insects used as aromas to dogs. The trial consisted of 35 adult dogs (20 males, 15 females) aged between 12 months and 7 years (mean = 3.6), varied in terms of breed, kept as companion animals. The dogs had free olfactory access to selected unprocessed dried insects, i.e., mealworm (Tenebrio molitor), Turkestan cockroach (Shelfordella lateralis), black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens), and tropical house cricket (Gryllodes sigillatus), as well as commercial dried and pelleted dog feed, which was used as a control treatment. Samples (100 g) were located separately in non transparent closed boxes with 5 perforations in the cover (7 mm each) to improve the intensity of the aromas without direct contact with the tested samples. The box was recorded as chosen when the dog showed interest in it for more than 15 seconds continuously per each attempt (3 attempts per dog). The presented study shows that the selected insect species were chosen as frequently as the control group (P=0.03). However, in terms of preferences by dog gender, Tenebrio molitor was favored more often by males than by females, which preferred Shelfordella lateralis. The current preliminary data suggest that the olfactory features of the selected insect species may be attractive to dogs.

Keywords

  • dogs
  • feed additives
  • insects
  • aroma
  • nutrition
Open Access

The influence of dietary replacement of soybean meal with high-tannin faba beans on gut-bone axis and metabolic response in broiler chickens

Published Online: 01 Aug 2018
Page range: 801 - 824

Abstract

Abstract

Faba bean (FB) seeds can be a good protein-energy component in animal feed. However, the presence of anti-nutritional substances is a negative feature of FB seeds. The aim of this study was to examine the influence of different levels of unprocessed FB seeds in feed on the gut-bone axis and metabolic profile in broilers. Ninety six, 1-day-old Ross 308 broiler chickens were randomly selected to one of the 3 dietary treatments (32 chickens in each, divided into 8 pens with 4 birds per each pen): the control group fed standard diet with soybean meal and without FB seeds, group I fed 8/15% (starter/grower) of high-tannin FB seeds, and group II fed 16/22% of high-tannin FB seeds. Bone mechanical examination, hematological and serum biochemical analysis as well histomorphometry of small intestine and liver tissue were performed. The intake of high-tannin FB seeds, irrespective of their amount, did not alter the bone geometric, mechanical and densitometric parameters nor influenced basal hematological parameters, however it resulted in: decreased serum concentration of total cholesterol and calcium; a reduced longitudinal myenteron of small intestine; increased mucosa and villus epithelium thickness, villus length, thickness and absorptive surface in duodenum; increased number of active crypts in jejunum; unchanged collagen area, intercellular space, and total cell number in the liver; decreased number of multinuclear hepatocyte cells. Moreover, the livers of birds fed the higher dose of high-tannin FB seeds had lymphocytic infiltrates in portal tracts and sinusoids. Feeding of unprocessed high-tannin FB seeds exerted an influence on the gastrointestinal tract by increased absorptive surface. In conclusion, the dietary inclusion of unprocessed high-tannin FB seeds had no negative effects on broiler growth, tibial bone mechanical properties and intestinal characteristics. Unprocessed high-tannin FB seeds may be used in broiler diets, but their dietary levels should not be higher than those discussed.

Keywords

  • broiler chickens
  • high-tannin faba bean
  • intestine histomorphometry
  • liver tissue
  • bones

Behavior, well-being, production technology, and environment

Open Access

The effect of heat stress on time spent lying by cows in a housing system

Published Online: 01 Aug 2018
Page range: 825 - 833

Abstract

Abstract

Dairy cows are exposed to heat stress, the risk of which is increasing due to climate change. This could result in significant changes in the cows’ lying time behaviour. The presented study shows the relationship between heat stress determined with the use of the Temperature Humidity Index (THI) and the daily lying time of 40 Holstein-Friesian dairy cows. Based on the calculated value of THI, two periods were specified, a neutral period (with a maximum daily THI value below 68) and warm period (with minimal daily THI value above 73). The obtained results were processed using analysis of the Spearman’s correlation coefficient with significance at P<0.05. The results showed a decrease in daily total lying time between the neutral and warm periods from 11.3 to 9.4 h/d. During the warm period, the correlation between cows’ lying time and increased THI shows that the relationship is significant inversely proportional, but in the neutral period that correlation was not significant. A decrease in the percentage of the lying cows and average lying time per hour was also noticeable between the daytime and night-time in warm periods, which was 2 times less than in the neutral period.

Keywords

  • dairy cow
  • behaviour
  • THI
  • lying time
  • free stall barn
Open Access

Effects of rearing system and feeding intensity on the fattening performance and slaughter value of young crossbred bulls

Published Online: 01 Aug 2018
Page range: 835 - 847

Abstract

Abstract

The aim of this study was to determine the effects of rearing system and feeding intensity on the fattening performance and slaughter value of 38 young crossbred bull calves. The calves were raised naturally with nurse cows (NC) or were fed milk replacer (MF) until 150 days of age. During the rearing period the NC calves were healthier and had higher average daily gain (by 0.15 kg) compared to the MF calves. After a 30-day transition period, the animals were fattened in intensive (I) and semi-intensive (SI) systems from 181 to 560 days of age. During the fattening period, the bulls were fed ad libitum a total mixed ration (TMR) composed of grass silage and concentrate. The concentrate to silage ratio, on a DM basis, was 25:75 (SI) and 40:60 (I). The MF calves had lower BW at the end of the fattening period compared to the NC calves but the rearing system had no effects on daily gain during the fattening period. Compensatory growth was not observed during fattening. During the fattening period, a higher proportion of concentrate in the ration contributed to higher feed intake, higher feed efficiency and more desirable carcass characteristics. Three-rib cuts from the carcasses of the I bulls had significantly (P<0.05) higher fat content and lower bone content compared to the carcasses of the SI bulls. The longissimus thoracis muscle of the I bulls had higher (P<0.01) intramuscular fat content compared to the SI bulls.

Keywords

  • beef
  • nurse cow
  • crossbred
  • carcass characteristics
  • cattle fattening
17 Articles

Review

Open Access

Dairy cattle welfare as a result of human-animal relationship – a review

Published Online: 01 Aug 2018
Page range: 601 - 622

Abstract

Abstract

Despite the various concepts of human-animal relationship, the welfarist approach to this problem is one of the most often considered in theory and used in practice. When dealing with issues related to dairy cattle welfare (DCW), it is necessary to take into account both the reality characteristic for animals used to obtain milk (e.g. the problem of automatic milking of cows) and for slaughter cattle (e.g. slaughter of culled animals). It is not surprising, therefore, that issues related to DCW are the focus of the attention of the public, researchers, breeders as well as the dairy and meat industries. The aim of this article was to possibly most comprehensively cover the above-mentioned issues, although due to its huge scope it was obviously necessary to limit the article to what I think are currently most important issues. That is why in the review I (1) characterized the issues related to the division of human responsibility for DCW; (2) discussed the importance of technology to human-animal relationship; (3) elaborated the matter of stress, emotionality of animals and their cognitive abilities in the aspect of “negative” and “positive” DCW; (4) considered the possibilities of non-invasive assessment of animal welfare in the future and (5) discussed topics related to improving the conditions of the slaughter of animals. In summary, it was proposed paying more attention than has been paid until now, to the assessment of positive DCW in scientific research and breeding practice. I also drew attention to the necessity of reliable information flow on the line of the breeder/milk producer - industry - consumer, as negligence in this area is one of the reasons for public disinformation regarding the level of animal welfare.

Keywords

  • dairy cattle
  • human responsibility
  • animal welfare
Open Access

Can Reprogramming of Overall Epigenetic Memory and Specific Parental Genomic Imprinting Memory within Donor Cell-Inherited Nuclear Genome be a Major Hindrance for the Somatic Cell Cloning of Mammals? – A Review

Published Online: 01 Aug 2018
Page range: 623 - 638

Abstract

Abstract

Successful cloning of animals by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) requires epigenetic transcriptional reprogramming of the differentiated state of the donor cell nucleus to a totipotent embryonic ground state. It means that the donor nuclei must cease its own program of gene expression and restore a particular program of the embryonic genome expression regulation that is necessary for normal development. Transcriptional activity of somatic cell-derived nuclear genome during embryo pre- and postimplantation development as well as foetogenesis is correlated with the frequencies for spatial remodeling of chromatin architecture and reprogramming of cellular epigenetic memory. This former and this latter process include such covalent modifications as demethylation/re-methylation of DNA cytosine residues and acetylation/deacetylation as well as demethylation/re-methylation of lysine residues of nucleosomal core-derived histones H3 and H4. The main cause of low SCNT efficiency in mammals turns out to be an incomplete reprogramming of transcriptional activity for donor cell-descended genes. It has been ascertained that somatic cell nuclei should undergo the wide DNA cytosine residue demethylation changes throughout the early development of cloned embryos to reset their own overall epigenetic and parental genomic imprinting memories that have been established by re-methylation of the nuclear donor cell-inherited genome during specific pathways of somatic and germ cell lineage differentiation. A more extensive understanding of the molecular mechanisms and recognition of determinants for epigenetic transcriptional reprogrammability of somatic cell nuclear genome will be helpful to solve the problems resulting from unsatisfactory SCNT effectiveness and open new possibilities for common application of this technology in transgenic research focused on human biomedicine.

Keywords

  • somatic cell nuclear transfer
  • cloned embryo
  • DNA methylation
  • histone acetylation/ methylation
  • architectural remodeling
  • epigenetic reprogramming
  • parental genomic imprinting
Open Access

The uses of microbial phytase as a feed additive in poultry nutrition – a review

Published Online: 01 Aug 2018
Page range: 639 - 658

Abstract

Abstract

Most of the phosphorus (P) in feed ingredients is present as phytate, which is poorly available for absorption in the gastrointestinal tract of different poultry species due to the lack of endogenous phytase. The supplementation of phytase increases the utilization of P by hydrolyzing phytate, which consequently may reduce the excretion of P in the environment. In addition, it has been suggested that phytase may improve the feed utilization, weight gain, egg production and egg traits, nutrient digestibility, energy availability, retention of important minerals in blood and bones. Thus, the effectiveness of phytase on performance and Ca and P absorption in layer chickens fed corn-soybean based diets has been well recognized. The current review briefly discusses the supplementation of phytase in the diet of poultry on performance and egg production and characteristics as well as amino acids and minerals availability.

Keywords

  • phytase
  • poultry
  • performance
  • egg quality
  • digestibility
  • blood
Open Access

Threonine in broiler diets: an updated review

Published Online: 01 Aug 2018
Page range: 659 - 674

Abstract

Abstract

Threonine (Thr) is the third limiting essential amino acid after methionine and lysine in cornsoybean based diets of broilers. Dietary imbalance of Thr, therefore, results in a poor growth performance in broilers. This review summarizes literature data on the known effects of dietary levels of Thr on growth performance, gut morphology, immunity and carcass characteristics in broilers. Due to continuous improvement in genetic potential and management practices for poultry production, dietary Thr requirements are changing. A number of studies have shown that supplementation of Thr in broiler diet at a higher level than the current NRC recommendation (0.74-0.81%), increases body weight gain, feed conversion ratio, and improves gut morphology, carcass quality and immune status, mainly by enhancing the functional capability of digestive system and immune organs (spleen, bursa, and thymus). According to the literature data discussed in this review, the minimal and maximal total dietary Thr levels for healthy birds reared in normal conditions were 0.67 and 0.90% for growth performance, 0.77 and 1.1% for a better gut health, 0.60 and 1.02% for immunity and 0.62 and 0.97% for better carcass characteristics. This background provides impetus to further investigate the exact level of Thr and its effects on growth performance, gut morphology, immunity and carcass characteristics in broilers.

Keywords

  • threonine
  • broiler
  • growth performance
  • gut health
  • immunity

Animal genetics and breeding

Open Access

Characterization of the SSAT1 gene and its expression profiling in various tissues and follicles in geese

Published Online: 01 Aug 2018
Page range: 675 - 684

Abstract

Abstract

Spermidine/spermine N1-acetyltransferase (SSAT ) is a catabolic regulator of polyamines, ubiquitous molecules essential for cell proliferation and differentiation. In this study, the molecular characterization of the SSAT1 gene of the Sichuan white goose was analyzed, as well as its expression profiles in various follicles and tissues. The open reading frame of the SSAT1 cDNA (GenBank No. KM925008) is 516 bp in length and encodes a 171-amino acid protein with a putative molecular weight of 20 kDa. The predicted SSAT1 protein is highly conserved with those of other species, especially Gallus gallus. SSAT1 mRNA was ubiquitously expressed in all the examined tissues. The highest level of SSAT1 mRNA expression was found in the pineal gland (P<0.05), and was 12-fold greater than in the heart. The level of SSAT1 mRNA expression was relatively lower in preovulatory follicles, while it was higher in postovulatory follicles (POFs), particularly in POF1. Furthermore, as postovulatory follicles degenerated, SSAT1 expression gradually decreased. Our findings suggest that SSAT1 might play important roles in mediating the physiological function of the pineal gland and regulating the regression of POFs.

Keywords

  • goose
  • spermidine/spermine-N1-acetyltransferase
  • gene expression
  • follicle
  • follicle regression
Open Access

Detection of single nucleotide polymorphisms at major prolificacy genes in the Mehraban sheep and association with litter size

Published Online: 01 Aug 2018
Page range: 685 - 698

Abstract

Abstract

The present study aimed to investigate the presence of polymorphisms at four known genes controlling ovine prolificacy i.e. BMP15, GDF9, BMPR1B and B4GALNT2 in a sample of 115 Iranian Mehraban ewes and their association with litter size (LS) and lambs’ birth weight (BW) traits. Using Sanger sequencing of exons and polymorphism specific genotyping, ten SNPs (Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms) were observed in only two genes, GDF9 and BMPR1B. Seven SNPs were found in the GDF9 gene on the chromosome 5. Among them, six were already described in the coding sequence, and a new one (g.41840985C>T) was found in the 3’UTR. In the BMPR1B gene on the chromosome 6, three novel SNPs were detected in the exon 7 (g.29382184G>A; g.29382337G>A and g.29382340G>A). Allelic frequencies were established for six SNPs among the ten identified and they were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. A significant association was found between the novel SNPs found in the exon 7 of BMPR1B and LS. Present results indicate the potential role of the BMPR1B locus in controlling prolificacy of Mehraban sheep and provide genetic markers for further exploitation in selection to improve reproductive efficiency.

Keywords

  • polymorphism
  • Mehraban sheep
  • major genes
  • prolificacy
Open Access

Association of MTNR1A and CYP19 genes polymorphisms with sperm quality and testicular size in Sanjabi breed rams

Published Online: 01 Aug 2018
Page range: 699 - 711

Abstract

Abstract

The purpose of this study was to identify mutations in melatonin receptor 1A (MTNR1A) and aromatase cytochrome P450 (CYP19) genes using PCR-RFLP technique and their associations with sperm quality and testicular size traits in Sanjabi breed rams. The blood and sperm samples were collected from Sanjabi rams (n = 96). Genomic DNA was extracted from the blood. A 824bp fragment from exon II of MTNR1A gene and a 517bp fragment from promoter 2 (P2) of CYP19 gene were amplified using two pairs of specific primers. The PCR products were separately digested by two restriction enzymes, SsiI for MTNR1A locus and DraI for CYP19 locus. Digestion by SsiI restriction enzyme resulted in CC, CA and AA genotypes with frequency of 0.45, 0.41 and 0.14, respectively. However, digestion of 517bp fragment of CYP19 gene by DraI endonuclease determined two AG and AA genotypes with frequency 0.89 and 0.11, respectively. The Chi-square test proved that the two loci were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE). The significant effect was observed between different genotypes of MTNR1A gene and morphological trait (P<0.05) and there was a significant association between different genotypes of CYP19 gene and scrotal circumference trait (P<0.05). The results of this study indicated that polymorphisms of MTNR1A and CYP19 genes were not associated with most traits of sperm quality and testicular sizes. Therefore, it seems that further studies are needed to identify mutations in other regions of these genes and other genes responsible to genomic regions for the sperm quality and testicular size in Sanjabi ram in order to improve fertility in these herds.

Keywords

  • CYP19 gene
  • MTNR1A gene
  • Sanjabi sheep
  • sperm quality
  • testicular size

The biology, physiology, reproduction, and health

Open Access

Effect of presynchronization prior to Ovsynch on ovulatory response to first GnRH, ovulatory follicle diameter and pregnancy per AI in multiparous Holstein cows during summer in Iran

Published Online: 01 Aug 2018
Page range: 713 - 722

Abstract

Abstract

The aim was to evaluate the effect of presynchronization with GnRH and PGF2α prior to Ovsynch on ovulatory response to first GnRH, diameter of largest follicle at TAI and pregnancy per AI (P/AI) in multiparous dairy cows during summer. Cows (n=1069) were randomly assigned to one of three timed-AI (TAI) protocols. The TAI protocols were: 1) Ovsynch (O; n=425), GnRH- 7d-PGF2α-56h-GnRH-16h-TAI), 2) double-Ovsynch (DO; n=302), GnRH-7d-PGF2α-3d-GnRH and Ovsynch was initiated 7 days later, and 3) G7G-Ovsynch (G7G; n=342), PGF2α-2d-GnRH and Ovsynch was initiated 7 days later. Ovarian examinations were performed by transrectal ultrasonography during Ovsynch to determine ovulatory response to first GnRH and diameter of largest follicle at TAI. Presynchronization increased ovulatory response after first GnRH of Ovsynch (P=0.001), which was greater in DO (74.0%) and G7G (76.0%) groups compared to O group (50.0%). Means (±SEM) diameter (mm) of largest follicle at TAI was smaller in cows presynchronized before Ovsynch (DO and G7G, overall 15.7±0.3) compared to that in cows subjected to a standard Ovsynch without presynchronization (18.5±0.42). P/AI at 32 d after Al was greater (P=0.001) in G7G (32.7%) and DO (31.1%) groups compared to Ovsynch (19.7%) group. Presynchronization prior to Ovsynch also affected P/AI at 60 and 150 d after AI (P<0.05). In conclusion, DO and G7G protocols resulted in greater ovulatory response to first GnRH, smaller ovulatory follicles and greater P/AI compared to a standard Ovsynch protocol. Therefore, TAI protocols that include a presynchronization with GnRH and PGF2α prior to Ovsynch should be used in multiparous cows during summer to achieve acceptable reproductive performance.

Keywords

  • Ovsynch
  • pregnancy rate
  • secondary sex ratio
  • ultrasonography
  • Holstein cows
Open Access

Population study of the Pura Raza Español Horse regarding its coat colour

Published Online: 01 Aug 2018
Page range: 723 - 739

Abstract

Abstract

Coat colour has always been a valuable trait for horse breeders. However, preferences for this feature have changed over the years. In this research, the Pura Raza Español horse (PRE) population was divided into four subpopulations (Grey, Bay, Black and Others), according to the most frequent coat colours and those of their ancestors. The purpose was to analyse genetic variability, reproductive parameters and distances among subpopulations during three key periods in the history of the breed: before 1960, from 1960 to 2000 and after 2000. The subpopulations composed of animals with ancestors with the same coat colour showed higher values of recent inbreeding (ranging from 7.13% to 10.44%) and a greater Nei’s minimum distance between them, as a result of more inbred matings than those carried out in families with members with different coat colours. Non-pure subpopulations also showed more similar recent inbreeding values (between 6.63% and 6.74%). Strikingly, the productive life of Pure bay, Pure black and other subpopulations with minority coat colours was considerably longer (10.79, 10.08 and 9.11 years, respectively) compared to the values of grey PRE horses (6.01 and 7.98 years), which is the subpopulation with the highest census. These results, together with shorter generation intervals of black stallion-offspring (5.51 years via father-son and 6.39 years via father-daughter) and the fact that this coat colour was not present in the breed until two decades ago, highlight the recent trend towards the breeding of black animals.

Keywords

  • equine
  • genetic diversity
  • inbreeding
  • reproductive parameters
Open Access

Relationship of arctic fox (Alopex lagopus L.) sperm morphology with age of males, sperm concentration, ejaculate volume and acrosin activity

Published Online: 01 Aug 2018
Page range: 741 - 752

Abstract

Abstract

The aim of the study was to determine the relationship of sperm morphology with age of males, ejaculate concentration and volume, as well as with acrosin activity determined in sperm acrosome extracts. The study used manually collected ejaculates from 9 male arctic foxes, including 6 young males aged one year and 3 older males (between 3 and 5 years of age). All of the 39 ejaculates used in the study were classified as normal based on motility exceeding 70%. The ejaculates collected from the foxes were evaluated for volume, sperm concentration and frequency of morphological changes including primary and secondary defects. The spermiograms of the male arctic foxes were classified according to a six-grade subjective scale. In addition, acrosin activity was determined in the sperm acrosome extracts. The data were analysed using the criteria of male age, sperm concentration, ejaculate volume, and acrosin activity. The morphology of arctic fox spermatozoa was dependent on the age of the male. A greater number of morphologically altered spermatozoa tended to occur in the ejaculates of young foxes, which were in their first breeding season. In addition, statistical analysis revealed positive relationships between the frequency of morphological changes in sperm and their ejaculate concentration. In contrast, there were no significant correlations between the percentages of morphologically changed spermatozoa and the ejaculate volume and the content of acrosin, which is an indicator of acrosomal integrity. Semen quality is dependent on the number of sperm in ejaculate with morphological defects which prevent oocyte fertilization. Therefore, morphological assessment of semen, which covers both the number and type of morphological changes, is highly useful when selecting appropriate males for reproduction.

Keywords

  • arctic fox
  • semen
  • morphology
  • spermatozoa

Animal nutrition, and feedstuffs

Open Access

Effect of Eucalyptus globulus leaves extracts on in vitro rumen fermentation, methanogenesis, degradability and protozoa population

Published Online: 01 Aug 2018
Page range: 753 - 767

Abstract

Abstract

The aim of the research was to evaluate the effect of three Eucalyptus globulus extracts rich in phenolic compounds, especially flavonoids, on rumen fermentation, methane (CH4) production, organic matter degradability and protozoa population using an in vitro gas production technique. Four concentrations (0, 50, 75 and 100 mg) of three Eucalyptus extracts (ethyl acetate, n-butanol and aqueous) were added to a diet of ruminants (forage: concentrate ratio 60:40) and incubated at 39°C under anaerobiosis with buffered rumen fluid. After 24 h, the fermentation fluid was analysed for ammonia-N and volatile fatty acids (VFA). Organic matter degradability (OMD) and protozoa were also determined; in vitro gas production was also recorded and CH4 concentration was measured. Compared to the control, CH4 production was significantly lower for ethyl acetate extract (P<0.05), but higher for n-butanol and aqueous extracts. Production of ammonia- N was lower in all Eucalyptus extracts (P<0.05). Propionate production (P<0.05) increased for ethyl acetate and n-butanol extracts, whereas no effect was registered for VFA, for all Eucalyptus extracts. Ethyl acetate extract decreased in vitro OMD (P<0.05), whereas n-butanol and aqueous extracts were comparable to the control. Protozoa population decreased (P<0.05) for all extracts in comparison with the control. Eucalyptus ethyl acetate extract might be promising to be used as a potent anti-methanogenic additive. Moreover, the assessment of the right dosage seems to be important to decrease methane production, without reducing feed nutritional value.

Keywords

  • flavonoids
  • gas production
  • volatile fatty acids
  • ammonia-N
  • partitioning factor
Open Access

Growth performance, nutrient digestibility, and selected fecal microbiota are improved by β-glucan supplementation in weaner pigs

Published Online: 01 Aug 2018
Page range: 769 - 779

Abstract

Abstract

This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary β-glucan supplementation on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, blood profiles, and fecal characteristics in weaner pigs. A total of 140 weaner pigs [(Yorkshire × Landrace) × Duroc] with an average body weight of 6.37±1.14 kg were allotted to one of the following dietary treatments: 1) negative control (NC, basal diet); 2) positive control (PC, basal diet supplemented with 39 ppm Tiamulin); 3) basal diet supplemented with 0.1% β-glucan (G1); 4) basal diet supplemented with 0.2% β-glucan (G2). During days 22 to 42 and 1 to 42, pigs offered PC and G2 diets grew faster than those offered NC diet (P<0.05). Additionally, during the same periods, pigs fed G2 and PC diets exhibited improved gain:feed ratio compared to pigs receiving NC and G1 diets (P<0.05). Pigs fed G2 diet exhibited higher coefficient of total tract apparent digestibility of dry matter than those fed NC diet (P<0.05). There were no differences on blood profiles, fecal scores, fecal moisture, and fecal pH (P>0.05). Fecal lactic acid bacteria counts in G2 treatment were higher compared with PC and NC treatments (P<0.05). Coliform bacteria concentrations were decreased in pigs fed PC and G2 diets compared with those fed NC diet (P<0.05). In conclusion, the results of the current study indicate that dietary supplementation of 0.2% β-glucan can improve growth performance and dry matter digestibility, increase fecal lactic acid bacteria concentration but decrease fecal coliform bacteria concentration in weaner pigs.

Keywords

  • β-glucan
  • digestibility
  • growth performance
  • weaner pigs
Open Access

The influence of selected feed additives on mineral utilisation and bone characteristics in laying hens

Published Online: 01 Aug 2018
Page range: 781 - 793

Abstract

Abstract

The trial with 240 caged ISA Brown laying hens was performed to evaluate the effect of selected feed additives on mineral utilisation as well as biomechanical (breaking strength, yielding load, stiffness) and geometrical (cortex thickness, cross-section area, weight, length) indices of tibia and femur bones. At 26 wks of age the layers were randomly assigned to 10 treatments with 12 replicates (cages) of two birds. In the study a 2 × 5 experimental scheme was used i.e. to 70 wks of age, the layers were fed isocaloric and isonitrogenous experimental diets containing reduced (3.20%) or standard (3.70%) Ca level. The diets with both Ca levels were either not supplemented, or supplemented with the studied feed additives i.e. sodium butyrate, probiotic bacteria, herbal extract blend and chitosan. There were no statistically significant effects of the experimental factors on the indices of the tibia bones. However, the diet with reduced Ca level decreased bone breaking strength, yielding load, stiffness, and mineralisation of the femur bones (P<0.05). The majority of used feed supplements, i.e. probiotic, herb extracts, and chitosan, increased biomechanical indices (breaking strength and yielding load) and mineralisation of the femur bones (P<0.05). Neither dietary Ca level nor feed additives affected dry matter, organic matter, ether extract, N-free extracts, crude fibre and ash digestibility, and P retention and excretion; however, Ca excretion and retention was lower in the hens fed the diets with reduced Ca level (P<0.05). Relative Ca retention (Ca retained as % of Ca intake) was improved by diet supplementation with probiotic, herb extracts and chitosan (P<0.05). In conclusion, this study has shown that decreased Ca dietary level (3.20%) can negatively affect bone quality in layers, while probiotic, herb extracts and chitosan addition may improve the selected biomechanical indices of the femurs, irrespective of Ca dietary concentration.

Keywords

  • laying hens
  • feed additives
  • calcium retention
  • bones quality
Open Access

Do insects smell attractive to dogs? A comparison of dog reactions to insects and commercial feed aromas – a preliminary study

Published Online: 01 Aug 2018
Page range: 795 - 800

Abstract

Abstract

The goal of the present study was to investigate the olfactory attractiveness of air-dried insects used as aromas to dogs. The trial consisted of 35 adult dogs (20 males, 15 females) aged between 12 months and 7 years (mean = 3.6), varied in terms of breed, kept as companion animals. The dogs had free olfactory access to selected unprocessed dried insects, i.e., mealworm (Tenebrio molitor), Turkestan cockroach (Shelfordella lateralis), black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens), and tropical house cricket (Gryllodes sigillatus), as well as commercial dried and pelleted dog feed, which was used as a control treatment. Samples (100 g) were located separately in non transparent closed boxes with 5 perforations in the cover (7 mm each) to improve the intensity of the aromas without direct contact with the tested samples. The box was recorded as chosen when the dog showed interest in it for more than 15 seconds continuously per each attempt (3 attempts per dog). The presented study shows that the selected insect species were chosen as frequently as the control group (P=0.03). However, in terms of preferences by dog gender, Tenebrio molitor was favored more often by males than by females, which preferred Shelfordella lateralis. The current preliminary data suggest that the olfactory features of the selected insect species may be attractive to dogs.

Keywords

  • dogs
  • feed additives
  • insects
  • aroma
  • nutrition
Open Access

The influence of dietary replacement of soybean meal with high-tannin faba beans on gut-bone axis and metabolic response in broiler chickens

Published Online: 01 Aug 2018
Page range: 801 - 824

Abstract

Abstract

Faba bean (FB) seeds can be a good protein-energy component in animal feed. However, the presence of anti-nutritional substances is a negative feature of FB seeds. The aim of this study was to examine the influence of different levels of unprocessed FB seeds in feed on the gut-bone axis and metabolic profile in broilers. Ninety six, 1-day-old Ross 308 broiler chickens were randomly selected to one of the 3 dietary treatments (32 chickens in each, divided into 8 pens with 4 birds per each pen): the control group fed standard diet with soybean meal and without FB seeds, group I fed 8/15% (starter/grower) of high-tannin FB seeds, and group II fed 16/22% of high-tannin FB seeds. Bone mechanical examination, hematological and serum biochemical analysis as well histomorphometry of small intestine and liver tissue were performed. The intake of high-tannin FB seeds, irrespective of their amount, did not alter the bone geometric, mechanical and densitometric parameters nor influenced basal hematological parameters, however it resulted in: decreased serum concentration of total cholesterol and calcium; a reduced longitudinal myenteron of small intestine; increased mucosa and villus epithelium thickness, villus length, thickness and absorptive surface in duodenum; increased number of active crypts in jejunum; unchanged collagen area, intercellular space, and total cell number in the liver; decreased number of multinuclear hepatocyte cells. Moreover, the livers of birds fed the higher dose of high-tannin FB seeds had lymphocytic infiltrates in portal tracts and sinusoids. Feeding of unprocessed high-tannin FB seeds exerted an influence on the gastrointestinal tract by increased absorptive surface. In conclusion, the dietary inclusion of unprocessed high-tannin FB seeds had no negative effects on broiler growth, tibial bone mechanical properties and intestinal characteristics. Unprocessed high-tannin FB seeds may be used in broiler diets, but their dietary levels should not be higher than those discussed.

Keywords

  • broiler chickens
  • high-tannin faba bean
  • intestine histomorphometry
  • liver tissue
  • bones

Behavior, well-being, production technology, and environment

Open Access

The effect of heat stress on time spent lying by cows in a housing system

Published Online: 01 Aug 2018
Page range: 825 - 833

Abstract

Abstract

Dairy cows are exposed to heat stress, the risk of which is increasing due to climate change. This could result in significant changes in the cows’ lying time behaviour. The presented study shows the relationship between heat stress determined with the use of the Temperature Humidity Index (THI) and the daily lying time of 40 Holstein-Friesian dairy cows. Based on the calculated value of THI, two periods were specified, a neutral period (with a maximum daily THI value below 68) and warm period (with minimal daily THI value above 73). The obtained results were processed using analysis of the Spearman’s correlation coefficient with significance at P<0.05. The results showed a decrease in daily total lying time between the neutral and warm periods from 11.3 to 9.4 h/d. During the warm period, the correlation between cows’ lying time and increased THI shows that the relationship is significant inversely proportional, but in the neutral period that correlation was not significant. A decrease in the percentage of the lying cows and average lying time per hour was also noticeable between the daytime and night-time in warm periods, which was 2 times less than in the neutral period.

Keywords

  • dairy cow
  • behaviour
  • THI
  • lying time
  • free stall barn
Open Access

Effects of rearing system and feeding intensity on the fattening performance and slaughter value of young crossbred bulls

Published Online: 01 Aug 2018
Page range: 835 - 847

Abstract

Abstract

The aim of this study was to determine the effects of rearing system and feeding intensity on the fattening performance and slaughter value of 38 young crossbred bull calves. The calves were raised naturally with nurse cows (NC) or were fed milk replacer (MF) until 150 days of age. During the rearing period the NC calves were healthier and had higher average daily gain (by 0.15 kg) compared to the MF calves. After a 30-day transition period, the animals were fattened in intensive (I) and semi-intensive (SI) systems from 181 to 560 days of age. During the fattening period, the bulls were fed ad libitum a total mixed ration (TMR) composed of grass silage and concentrate. The concentrate to silage ratio, on a DM basis, was 25:75 (SI) and 40:60 (I). The MF calves had lower BW at the end of the fattening period compared to the NC calves but the rearing system had no effects on daily gain during the fattening period. Compensatory growth was not observed during fattening. During the fattening period, a higher proportion of concentrate in the ration contributed to higher feed intake, higher feed efficiency and more desirable carcass characteristics. Three-rib cuts from the carcasses of the I bulls had significantly (P<0.05) higher fat content and lower bone content compared to the carcasses of the SI bulls. The longissimus thoracis muscle of the I bulls had higher (P<0.01) intramuscular fat content compared to the SI bulls.

Keywords

  • beef
  • nurse cow
  • crossbred
  • carcass characteristics
  • cattle fattening

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