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Issue Editors: Magdalena Bielska, Jerzy Pilawski, Katarzyna Skupniewicz

Volume 13 (2013): Issue 3 (July 2013)

Volume 13 (2013): Issue 2 (April 2013)

Volume 13 (2013): Issue 1 (January 2013)

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Volume 12 (2012): Issue 2 (April 2012)

Volume 12 (2012): Issue 1 (January 2012)

Volume 11 (2011): Issue 4 (August 2011)

Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
2300-8733
First Published
25 Nov 2011
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English

Search

Volume 20 (2020): Issue 2 (April 2020)

Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
2300-8733
First Published
25 Nov 2011
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English

Search

23 Articles
Open Access

The Role of Arginine in Disease Prevention, Gut Microbiota Modulation, Growth Performance and the Immune System of Broiler Chicken – A Review

Published Online: 04 May 2020
Page range: 325 - 341

Abstract

Abstract

The effect of dietary arginine on disease prevention, immune system modulation, the gut micro-biota composition and growth of broiler chicken was reviewed. The main aim of poultry production is the maximization of profit at the least possible cost. This objective can mainly be achieved by ensuring that there is no interference in growth or disease outbreak and by feeding chicken with the best possible level of nutrients. With the ban on antibiotic growth promoters, attention is shifted towards other nutrition methods to prevent diseases and promote growth. More attention is therefore given to protein diets in animal nutrition due to their importance as essential part of active biological compounds in the body, assisting in the breakdown of body tissue and helping in the physiological processes of the animal. Arginine plays important function in serving as building blocks of proteins and polypeptides. It performs other roles during the regulation of important biochemical functions such as maintenance, growth, reproduction and immunity. Arginine cannot be synthesized by the body so it has to be supplemented in the diet. When arginine is supplemented above the recommended level, the gut mucosa is protected, immunosuppression is alleviated, diseases like necrotic enteritis, infectious bursal disease and coccidiosis in broiler chickens are prevented. There is an improvement in growth resulting from the increase in intestinal absorption, barrier function and microbiota composition.

Keywords

  • arginine
  • immune system
  • growth modulator
  • microbiota
  • immune modulation
Open Access

Breeding and Performance Potential of Puławska Pigs – A Review

Published Online: 04 May 2020
Page range: 343 - 354

Abstract

Abstract

The aim of the study was to discuss breeding of pigs of the Puławska breed, which is included in a Genetic Resources Conservation Programme, and to analyse performance parameters that are useful in domestic pig production. The Puławska breed is the oldest native breed of pig in Poland. Since 1996 it has been protected by a genetic resources conservation programme, owing to breeding traditions and the production traits characteristic of the breed. The use value of these pigs is currently at the level of maternal breeds: number of live piglets born per litter – 10.54; number of piglets reared per litter – 9.37; daily weight gains – 569 g for breeding boars and 562 g for breeding gilts; meat content – 54.6% for breeding boars and 54.9% for breeding gilts. An important element in favour of the use of this breed in domestic production of fresh pork and pork products is its meat quality parameters. The mean values for physical traits (WHC 22.42%, pH45 6.47, pH24 5.63) and chemical parameters (protein 22.70%, fat 2.65%) are characteristic of meat of normal quality. The Puławska breed can be used to produce high-quality fresh meat and meat products, including traditional and regional ones. Puławska pigs are bred and reared according to the principles of sustainable agriculture, which reduces the negative impact of pig production on the natural environment.

Keywords

  • pigs
  • native breed
  • Puławska breed
  • meat quality
  • Genetic Resources Conservation Programme
Open Access

The Potential Effect of Dietary Tannins on Enteric Methane Emission and Ruminant Production, as an Alternative to Antibiotic Feed Additives – A Review

Published Online: 04 May 2020
Page range: 355 - 388

Abstract

Abstract

Antibiotic growth promoters in livestock nutrition cause microbial resistance which produces threats to human health. Therefore, tannins have been considered as natural alternative antibiotic feed additives which possess various biological properties including antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and immunomodulatory. Additionally, these plants also have antiparasitic and anti-bloat characteristics which contribute to inhibit the enteric methane emission in order to improve nutrient digestibility, milk and meat quality, fatty acids composition and ruminant production. Antibiotic growth promoters have been practiced in animals feeding to increase feed intake, growth rate, weight gain as well as reduce metabolic disorders and energy losses in the rumen. In 2006, the European Union banned the usage of antibiotic growth promoters in the feeding of livestock. This antibiotic resistance issue has increased demand to explore the natural feed additives that might be useful for animal production system. Consequently, natural forages have been categorized as potential feed additives in animal production since it improves nutritive value, protein digestibility, increase amino acid absorption and growth rate. But, some plant materials are usually rich in tannins known as anti-nutritional factors. Therefore, the application of tannin-rich plants in ruminant nutrition needs great precaution due to its possible injurious effects (dose dependent) on animal health such as metabolic disorders. Hence, there is need to give attention to the usage of tannins in ruminant nutrition as an alternative to antibiotics feed additives to investigate its effects on enteric methane emissions and ruminants production. In addition, safety and risk associated with tannins feeding have also been briefly discussed.

Keywords

  • condensed tannins
  • hydrolysable tannins
  • feed additives
  • methane emission
  • ruminants
Open Access

The Applications of Origanum Vulgare and Its Derivatives in Human, Ruminant and Fish Nutrition – A Review

Published Online: 04 May 2020
Page range: 389 - 407

Abstract

Abstract

Origanum vulgare L. is an aromatic enduring herb that belongs to Lamiaceae family. The bioactive constituents of this herb, such as carvacrol and thymol possess several medicinal properties, such as antioxidant, antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antiviral, antiparasitic, anti-neoplastic, and immune modulatory. Moreover, it is considered a standard natural, less toxic, and residue free feed additive, that is successfully used in livestock and fish. Additionally, in human, Origanum vulgare is extensively used with promising health benefits against respiratory, digestive and urinary disorders. This review casts light on description, chemical composition and structure of Origanum vulgare, as well as its therapeutic applications in human and its biological activities in ruminants and fish, data that will be possibly useful for physiologists, nutritionists and veterinarians.

Keywords

  • animal
  • human
  • fish
  • health
  • antioxidant
  • performance
  • nutrition
Open Access

Polymorphisms in JAK2 Gene are Associated with Production Traits and Mastitis Resistance in Dairy Cattle

Published Online: 04 May 2020
Page range: 409 - 423

Abstract

Abstract

The present study was designed to investigate the effects of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the JAK2 gene on the production and mastitis related traits in dairy cattle. Blood and milk samples were collected from 201 lactating dairy cattle of three breeds, i.e. Holstein Friesian (HF), Jersey (J) and Achai (A) and their crosses maintained at well-established dairy farms in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. Generalized linear model was used to evaluate the association between genotypes and the studied traits. A DNA pool was made from randomly selected 30 samples which revealed three SNPs, i.e. SNP 1 in 5’ upstream region (G>A, rs379754157), SNP 2 in intron 15 (A>G, rs134192265), and SNP 3 in exon 20 (A>G, rs110298451) that were further validated in the population under study using SNaPshot technique. Of the three SNPs, SNP 1 did not obey Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (P<0.05). SNP 2 and SNP 3 were found to be in strong linkage disequilibrium and allele G was highly prevalent compared to allele A in these SNPs. in SNP 1, the GG genotype was associated with significantly (P<0.01) higher SCC, whereas SNP 2 and SNP 3 were significantly (P<0.01) associated with higher lactose percentage compared to the other geno-types. The haplogroups association analysis revealed that H1H2 (GG GG AG) has significantly lower SCC than H2H2 (GG GG GG). The results infer that JAK2 could be an important candidate gene and the studied SNPs might be useful genetic markers for production and mastitis related traits.

Keywords

  • dairy cattle
  • mastitis
  • production traits
  • polymorphism
Open Access

The SSC15 QTL-Rich Region Mutations Affecting Intramuscular Fat and Production Traits in Pigs

Published Online: 04 May 2020
Page range: 425 - 444

Abstract

Abstract

One of the more interesting regions in the pig genome is on chromosome 15 (115,800,000-122,100,000, SSC15, Sus scrofa 11.1) that has high quantitative trait locus (QTL) density associated with fattening, slaughter and meat quality characteristics. The SSC15 region encodes over 80 genes and a few miRNA sequences where potential genetic markers can be found. The goal of the study was to evaluate the effects of SSC15 mutations associated with villin 1 (VIL1), tensin 1 (TNS1), obscurin-like 1 (OBSL1) genes and with one long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) on productive pig traits and to enrich the genetic marker pool in further selection purpose. The potential genetic markers were identified using the targeted enrichment DNA sequencing (TEDNA-seq) of chromosome 15 region. The selected mutations were genotyped by using HRM, PCR and PCRRFLP methods. The association study was performed using the general linear model (GLM) in the sas program that included over 600 pigs of 5 Polish populations. The rs332253419 VIL1 mutation shows a significant effect on intramuscular fat (IMF) content in Duroc population where AA pigs had a 16% higher level than heterozygotes. The IMF content is also affected by the OBSL1 mutation, and the differences between groups are even up to 30%, but it is strongly dependent on breed factor. The OBSL1 mutation also significantly influences the meat yellowness, backfat thickness and pH level. The performed study delivers valuable information that could be highly useful during the development of the high-throughput genotyping method for further selection purposes in pigs. The OBSL1 and VIL1 mutations seem to be the most promising DNA marker showing a high effect on IMF level.

Keywords

  • obscurin-like-1
  • villin
  • lncRNA
  • targeted DNA sequencing
  • pork quality
Open Access

Genome-Wide Association Study Using Fix-Length Haplotypes and Network Analysis Revealed New Candidate Genes for Nematode Resistance and Body Weight in Blackface Lambs

Published Online: 04 May 2020
Page range: 445 - 464

Abstract

Abstract

The objectives of this study were to identify genomic regions by Bayesian methods (BayesA, BayesB, or BayesN) that fit fixed-length haplotypes or SNPs using GenSel. Covariates for haplo-type alleles of five lengths (125, 250, 500 kb, 1 or 2 Mb) were generated, and rare haplotypes were removed at three thresholds (1, 5, or 10%). Subsequently, we performed gene network analyses to investigate the biological processes shared by genes that were identified for the same across traits. Genotypes at 41,034 SNPs that were common on OvineSNP50 panel were phased for 751 Scottish Blackface (SBF) lambs. This is the first study to quantify the proportion of genetic variance using haplotypes across the whole genome in an SBF population. The genetic variance explained of haplotype-based GWAS was higher than that of SNP-based GWAS in across traits studied. In this population, fitting 500kb haplotypes with a 1% frequency threshold resulted in the highest proportion of genetic variance explained for nematode resistance and fitting 2Mb haplotypes with a 10% frequency threshold improved genetic variance explained for body weight comparable to fitting SNPs by BayesB. Candidate genes, including CXCR4, STAT4, CCL1, CCL2, CCL3, CCL5, CCL8, CCL16, CCL18, CARMIL2, and HSPA14 were identified for nematode resistance and ADH5, PPP3CA, and FABP4 for body weight traits. Network analysis provided annotation results linking to all identified candidate genes. This study supported previous results from GWAS of nematode resistance and body weight and revealed additional regions in the ovine genome associated with these economically important traits. These results suggest that network analysis can provide new information regarding biological mechanisms and genes leading to complex phenotypes, like nematode resistance and body weight of lamb.

Keywords

  • sheep
  • genome-wide study
  • gene networks
  • nematode resistance
  • body weight
Open Access

Single Loci and Haplotypes in CAPN1 and CAST Genes are Associated with Growth, Biometrics, and in Vivo Carcass Traits in Santa Inês Sheep

Published Online: 04 May 2020
Page range: 465 - 483

Abstract

Abstract

µ-calpain (CAPN1) and calpastatin (CAST) genes play key roles in protein turnover. The present study aimed to identify the variants in these genes associated with growth and ultrasound carcass traits in Santa Inês sheep. A sample of 192 no full sibling Santa Inês lambs was used. Fragments of the CAST and CAPN1 genes were amplified and next-generation sequencing was performed in the MiSeq platform. Variants in the CAPN1 and CAST sequences were then detected using bioinformatic tools. Withers and croup heights, body length, thoracic and croup widths, thoracic and leg girths, body depth, carcass fat score, rib eye area, fat thickness, body weights were recorded at weaning and at 140 days post-weaning, and average daily gain post-weaning was calculated. Both single-locus and haplotype association analyses were performed with the model as follows: farm (2 levels), year (4 levels), the month of birth (12 levels), and the covariate age of the animal. The fragments amplified included 4,514 bp between the 20th and 23rd exons of CAST as well as 3,927 bp between the 12th and 21st exons of CAPN1. In these regions, 58 (CAST) and 45 (CAPN1) variants were identified. In the CAST gene, the single-locus analysis revealed 22 suggestive additive effects (P<0.05) on several growth and carcass traits. Moreover, haplotype substitutions were associated with rib eye area (–0.689±0.290), average daily gain (–23.6±10.4), thoracic girth (–2.72±1.27), body length (–3.38±1.49), and leg girth (–2.84±1.37). Regarding the CAPN1 gene, the single-locus analysis identified seven suggestive additive effects, while only one haplotype replacement effect on fat thickness (–0.0143±0.0053) was detected. The results of the present study suggest that variants in the CAPN1 and CAST genes are associated with growth and ultrasound carcass traits in Santa Inês sheep, which may be a source of information to improve knowledge regarding the genetic control of these traits.

Keywords

  • body weight
  • fat
  • lambs
  • muscle
  • selection
Open Access

Prevalence and Genetic Diversity of C. Jejuni Isolated from Broilers and their Environment Using flaA-RFLP Typing and MLST Analysis

Published Online: 04 May 2020
Page range: 485 - 501

Abstract

Abstract

Campylobacter is highly diverse genetically and also undergoes frequent intraspecific recombination. A major source of campylobacteriosis, which is transmitted to humans is found in poultry. The assessment of the genetic diversity among Campylobacter population is critical to our understanding of the epidemiology. The genetic diversity of Campylobacter jejuni isolates in broilers and their environment were investigated by flaA-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). The study revealed that 92.3% of the examined broiler flocks were contaminated with Campylobacter spp. A total number of 35 different flaA types defined by flaA-RFLP were found in 448 C. jejuni isolates originated from broilers, litter, puddles, zones, anteroom and wild birds. The most dominant flaA type was XXV. MLST defined 20 sequence types (STs) belonging to 10 clonal complexes (CCs). Among all the STs 9 isolates (15%) were consigned to 2 different STs (ST-7413 and ST-4800), which could not be assigned. The most common CCs were ST-21 and ST-179. The ST-21 CC was common in broilers and environment (puddle water and concentric zones) and the ST-179 CC was specific to wild birds, but also was found in puddle water and concentric zones.

Keywords

  • poultry
  • MLST
  • RFLP
  • campylobacteriosis
Open Access

The Effect of a Rat Diet Without Added Cu on Redox Status in Tissues and Epigenetic Changes in the Brain

Published Online: 04 May 2020
Page range: 503 - 520

Abstract

Abstract

The aim of the study was to determine whether feeding rats a diet without added Cu increases oxidation of macromolecules in tissues, as well as epigenetic changes in the brain. The rats were divided into two groups: the Cu-6.5 group which was fed a diet with a standard content of Cu in mineral mixture – 6.5 mg Cu from CuCO3 per kg of diet; and the Cu-0 group which was fed a diet with a mineral mix without Cu supplementation. At the end of the experiment the rats were weighed and blood samples were collected. Finally, the rats were euthanized and then the liver, small intestine, spleen, kidneys, heart, brain, lung, testes and leg muscles were removed and weighed. In the blood of Cu-0 rats the lower Cp activity and greater GPx and CAT activity than in Cu-6.5 rats were noticed. In the liver, lungs, heart and testes of Cu-0 rats, a decreased content of Cu were noticed. Application of Cu-0 diets resulted in increased LOOH level in the small intestine, liver, and heart, as well as increased MDA content in the liver, spleen, lungs, brain and testes. The Cu-0 treatment caused a decrease in SOD activity in the heart, lungs and testes of the rats and a decrease in CAT activity in the small intestine. In the brain and testes of rats from the Cu-0 treatment, lower content of GSH + GSSG was observed. The brain of rats from the Cu-0 treatment showed an increase in the level of PCs, 8-OHdG, Casp 8 and DNA methylation. The research has shown that a deficiency of Cu in the diet impairs the body’s antioxidant defences, which in turn leads to increased lipid oxidation in the liver, small intestinal wall, heart, spleen, lungs, brain and testes, as well as to oxidation of proteins and DNA in the brain. A deficiency of Cu in the diet also increases methylation of cytosine in the brain.

Keywords

  • copper deficiency
  • rats
  • brain
  • epigenetic change
  • redox status
Open Access

The Chemical Composition of Domestic Soybean Seeds and the Effects of Partial Substitution of Soybean Meal by Raw Soybean Seeds in the Diet on Pigs’ Growth Performance and Pork Quality (M. Longissimus Lumborum)

Published Online: 04 May 2020
Page range: 521 - 533

Abstract

Abstract

The objective of the study was to determine the effect of replacing soybean meal with 5% of raw soybean seeds on the growth, feed consumption and utilization of growing pigs, also the carcass and pork quality. The growth experiment was conducted on 120 pigs of approx. 18.5 kg allocated to two dietary treatments. The animals from the control treatment (CON) were offered a diet with soybean meal, and the experimental group (EXP) was given 5% raw soybean seeds (NON-GMO, Augusta var.) instead of SBM. The experiment lasted 88 days. After the experiment, eight pigs from each group were euthanized and meat samples were collected. No diet effects on the animals’ performance and carcass quality were observed (P>0.05). The experimental diet affected (P<0.05) meat color, and also meat composition (higher water content and lower intramuscular fat content). The composition of fatty acids in the meat did not differ significantly, except for higher C16:1 content in the EXP group. The introduction of 5% raw soybean seeds into the diets did not impact animal performance, but it reduced some indices of the pork quality.

Keywords

  • raw soybean
  • growing pigs
  • meat quality
Open Access

Biochemical and Haematological Blood Parameters of Sows and Piglets Fed a Diet with a Dried Fermented Rapeseed Meal

Published Online: 04 May 2020
Page range: 535 - 550

Abstract

Abstract

Animal health and welfare can be assessed using biochemical and haematological markers of the blood. The values of these parameters depend in part on the quantity and quality of feed ingredients, i.e. feed protein and feed additives. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of including fermented rapeseed meal (FRSM) in dry feeding system on haematological and biochemical blood parameters of sows and piglets. The experimental material comprised 30 primiparous gilts and 30 multiparous sows after their second lactation. They were randomly divided into two groups of equal size – control and experimental. The animals in control groups CG (15 gilts) and CS (15 sows) received a standard diet for pregnant or lactating sows, depending on the reproductive period. Experimental groups EG and ES were 15 gilts and 15 multiparous sows, respectively, receiving feed with a 4% share of FRSM in place of soybean meal up to 100 d of gestation. In addition, from 100 d of gestation to 7 d of lactation, the sows in these groups received feed with a 9% share of FRSM, and then again a diet with a 4% share of FRSM until the end of lactation. Blood samples were taken from 6 animals from each group in two periods: at 100 days of pregnancy (late pregnancy) and at 27 days of lactation (late lactation). Blood from piglets was taken at 27 days of age (before weaning), from two piglets from each sow (one gilt and one barrow), taking into account the average body weight in the litter. Haematological parameters: Ht, Hb and RBC were determined in whole blood. The plasma content of minerals, activity of selected enzymes and biochemical parameters of sows, gilts and piglets were determined. The diet containing fermented rapeseed meal, fed to pregnant and lactating sows, increased the level of Ht and Hb and RBC content and mineral content (phosphorus, calcium and iron) in the plasma. This effect was mainly observed in primiparous sows. The inclusion of FRSM in the diet of sows reduced the plasma content of total cholesterol and triacylglycerols in sows and piglets, as well as liver enzyme activity, particularly AST in piglets. The use of fermented rapeseed meal in sow diet resulted in better use of mineral compounds, improvement of production effects and health parameters of sow and piglet blood.

Keywords

  • sows
  • piglets
  • fermentation
  • fermented rapeseed meal
  • blood
Open Access

Evaluation of Slaughter Parameters and Meat Quality of Rabbits Fed Diets with Silkworm Pupae and Mealworm Larvae Meals

Published Online: 04 May 2020
Page range: 551 - 564

Abstract

Abstract

The aim of this study was to determine the effect of feeding rabbits with diets containing dried silkworm pupae and mealworm larvae meals on their slaughter value and meat quality. A total of 60 New Zealand White rabbits at 35 days of age were divided into 3 equivalent groups. Control group (C) and two experimental diets included either 4% silkworm pupae meal (diet A) or 4% mealworm larvae meal (diet B). The experiment lasted for 55 days and growth performance as well chemical and amino acid meat composition and the profile of fatty acids were evaluated during the study. The results showed that dietary supplementation of insect meals caused increases in final body weight and carcass meat content in rabbits from the experimental groups. The experimental diets had no effect on the sum of essential amino acids in the studied muscles, but created differences in the level of some amino acids: phenylalanine, lysine, tryptophan, threonine, isoleucine and methionine. The concentration of saturated (SFA) and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) in the muscles was comparable in all the groups. In the tissues of rabbits fed the silkworm meal diet, PUFA-3 concentration increased and cholesterol level decreased. It is concluded that dried silkworm pupae and mealworm larvae meals can be used as feed material in rabbit diets at 4% inclusion level without any adverse effect on growth performance, as well as quality and dietetic value of rabbit meat.

Keywords

  • rabbit
  • feeding
  • meat quality
Open Access

Dietary Supplementation with Natural Extracts Mixture: Effects on Reproductive Performances, Blood Biochemical and Antioxidant Parameters in Rabbit Does

Published Online: 04 May 2020
Page range: 565 - 578

Abstract

Abstract

The present study evaluates the effects of natural extracts on reproductive performance, haematochemical parameters, and antioxidant status of rabbit does. A total of sixty New Zealand White second parity does were divided into three groups: the first group was fed a control diet (CON), the second (T1) and the third groups (T2) were fed the same diet supplemented with prebiotic polysaccharides from brown seaweeds (Laminaria spp.) plus phenolic acid, hydroxycinnamic acids, tannins, and flavonoids from plant extracts (0.3% and 0.6%, respectively). The trial was conducted for two consecutive reproductive cycles (75 days). Reproductive performance was recorded. Blood samples were collected before the first insemination, 10 d after the first kindling, and 10 d after the second one. At the first reproductive cycle, productive parameters were negatively affected (P<0.05) by a high dosage of the dietary supplement (T2 group). At the second reproductive cycle, no differences (P>0.05) between dietary treatments on reproductive and productive performances were observed. Bilirubin was affected by dietary treatment (P<0.001) and decreased in relation to sampling time (P<0.001). The HDL cholesterol decreased by dietary treatment (P<0.01). All the plasma antioxidant markers were positively affected (P<0.001) by dietary supplementation and sampling time. No previous study has reported the effects of brown seaweeds and polyphenols on rabbit does and the present data shows that this natural extract supplement improved the antioxidant status of rabbit does.

Keywords

  • rabbit
  • natural extract
  • blood
  • antioxidant markers
Open Access

Dietary Inclusion of Tenebrio Molitor Meal in Sea Trout Larvae Rearing: Effects on Fish Growth Performance, Survival, Condition, and GIT and Liver Enzymatic Activity

Published Online: 04 May 2020
Page range: 579 - 598

Abstract

Abstract

Sea trout (Salmo trutta m. trutta) is a species for which effective methods of rearing are still being developed. They need high-quality protein in their diet, but, considering the ecological consequences of fishmeal production, new sources of protein are needed. Presently, insect meal is one of the most promising alternative sources of protein in the diets of farm animals. Insect production does not result in excessive gas emissions, waste generation or the risk of obtaining low-quality dietary protein. The study on sea trout larvae was carried out for 60 days. Four diets were given to the fish: one control (C), without the inclusion of insect meal, and three experimental, with one unhydrolysed Tenebrio molitor meal (TM) and two hydrolysed Tenebrio molitor meal treatments. The effects of the diets were evaluated on the basis of growth performance (weight and length of the fish, SR, SGR, RGR, FCR and PER), somatic indices (HSI and VSI) and fish condition (CF). We observed that the highest body mass and weight gain were obtained in the control group. However, the lowest mortality and the highest values of RGR were observed only in groups fed diets containing mealworm meal. The results for the hepato- and viscerosomatic indices showed a lack of statistically significant differences between the control group and the unhydrolysed Tenebrio molitor meal group in terms of the enzymatic activities of amylase, lipase and trypsin in the fish intestine and both aminotransferases in the liver. Our study demonstrated that the inclusion of 20% mealworm meal in practical diets for sea trout did not negatively affect growth performance or gastrointestinal tract (GIT) enzyme activity. The hydrolysed mealworm meal and the non-processed mealworm meal had similar effects.

Keywords

  • insect meal
  • sea trout
  • larvae rearing
  • growth performance
  • hydrolysed protein
Open Access

The Effect of Diet with Fermented Soybean Meal on Blood Metabolites and Redox Status of Chickens

Published Online: 04 May 2020
Page range: 599 - 611

Abstract

Abstract

The aim of the study was to determine whether replacing soybean meal with 3% or 6% fermented soybean meal would positively affect blood metabolites and redox status of broiler chickens. The experiment was carried out on 600 broiler chickens assigned to three experimental groups of 200 chickens each (10 replications of 20 individuals each). In the control group, soybean meal (SBM) was the main source of dietary protein, whereas the remaining groups were fed diets in which soybean meal was partially replaced with 3% or 6% fermented soybean meal (FSBM-3%, FSBM-6%). The fermentation of the SBM contributed to an increase of Lactobacillus, content of crude protein, methionine and lysine, and especially over a 30-fold increase in the concentration of lactic acid. The inclusion of 3% or 6% share of FSBM in the diet of chickens contributed to an increase in total antioxidant potential (FRAP) and plasma total glutathione content. In blood of chickens receiving FSBM an increase of total protein and HDL cholesterol content, aspartate aminotransferase activity and a decrease in urea content were noted. In addition to the positive effect on protein and lipid metabolism as well as antioxidant defence, the diet with a 6% share of FSBM improved body weight gain of chickens. In conclusion, it can be suggested that introducing 6% share of FSBM in place of FSM is more justified.

Keywords

  • chicken
  • fermented soybean meal
  • antioxidant
  • biochemical parameters
Open Access

Thermoregulatory and Behaviour Responses of Dairy Heifers Raised on a Silvopastoral System in a Subtropical Climate

Published Online: 04 May 2020
Page range: 613 - 627

Abstract

Abstract

In this study, we investigated the influence of a silvopastoral system on the thermal environment, behaviour and thermoregulation of dairy heifers in a subtropical climate. The experiment was conducted on a dairy farm in Southwest Paraná, Brazil, during the summer of 2014. Crossbred Holstein × Jersey dairy heifers (n = 10) were used in a split-plot design. The fixed effects in this study include time of day (9:00–10:00, 13:00–14:00, and 17:00–18:00 h) under silvopastoral or open pastures conditions, which were the main-plot and split-plot factors, respectively. To assess the environmental conditions in both systems, air temperature, relative humidity and wind speed were recorded. In addition, the temperature-humidity index was calculated based on the microcli-mate measurements. Respiratory rate and hair coat surface temperature of heifers were measured in both groups during time of day (30 days). Diurnal behaviour using focal observations with 0/1 sampling was observed. Data were analysed using Bayesian inference with a mixed effects model. The air temperature was higher (P<0.05) in open pasture conditions than the silvopasture system. Temperature-humidity index values for the silvopasture system were lower than open pasture during the hottest hours of the day. Regarding thermoregulation responses, there was an interaction between time of day and pasture environment (P<0.05). Heifers showed lower respiratory rates and hair coat surface temperature values (P<0.05) when access to shade was provided, mainly during the hottest periods in the afternoon. In addition, there was also an interaction between rumination and water intake (P<0.05), which indicates a higher rumination frequency for animals in the silvopasture system during the hottest period, as well as a higher water intake frequency for heifers in open pasture during midday. These findings imply that the arrangement of trees in a silvopasture system provides better thermal comfort conditions for dairy heifers raised in a subtropical climate.

Keywords

  • animal welfare
  • biometeorology
  • dairy cow
  • shading
  • thermal comfort
Open Access

Nutritional Composition of Salmonidae and Acipenseridae Fish Eggs

Published Online: 04 May 2020
Page range: 629 - 645

Abstract

Abstract

Analysis of the physicochemical properties of fresh eggs (raw material for caviar production) of the Salmonidae [sea trout (Salmo trutta L. 1758) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss, Walbaum 1792)] and the acipenseridae [siberian sturgeon (Acipenser baeri Brandt, 1869)], as well as sturgeon hybrids (Acipenser baeri Brandt, 1869 × Acipenser gueldenstaedti Brandt & Ratzeburg, 1833), included determination of basic physicochemical parameters (pH, dry weight, content of protein, fat, fiber and ash), amino acid composition and fatty acid profile. Compared to the Acipenseridae, Salmonidae eggs yielded a 22.5% higher total protein content, a 40.0% higher level of essential amino acids (EAA) and a 57.5% lower crude fat content. The sea trout eggs showed also a completely different fatty acids profile and hence values of lipid indices (lowest PUFA value – 11.72%, highest SFA value – 39.86%). The rainbow trout and sturgeon eggs had a similar fatty acid profile, and were characterized by a high nutritional and dietary value.

Keywords

  • fish eggs
  • and
  • physicochemical properties
  • amino acid composition
  • fatty acid profile
Open Access

Effects of Supplementing Drinking Water with Mixed Herb Extract or Outdoor Access on Meat Quality Characteristics in Broiler Chickens

Published Online: 04 May 2020
Page range: 647 - 660

Abstract

Abstract

The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of supplementing drinking water with an extract of mixed herbs or housing with outdoor access on carcass traits, levels of antioxidant enzymes (SOD, CAT, GPx), reduced glutathione (GSH), malondialdehyde (MDA), and selected quality parameters of meat from broiler chickens. One-day-old Ross 308 broiler chickens were allocated to three groups: group I (control), in which birds were kept in compartments on litter and had no outdoor access; group II, in which birds were kept in compartments on litter without outdoor access and were supplemented with an extract of mixed herbs (50% Melissa officinalis L. and 50% Urtica dioica L.) at 2 ml/l of drinking water; and group III, in which birds were raised in compartments on litter and had outdoor access from day 1 of rearing. Throughout the rearing period, the broilers had free access to feed and water. On day 42, 20 birds were selected from each group, slaughtered and subjected to simplified slaughter analysis. Their breast and leg muscles were measured for pH, colour, water holding capacity (WHC) and drip loss, and analysed for the content of antioxidant enzymes (SOD, CAT, GPx), reduced glutathione (GSH), malondialdehyde (MDA) and fatty acids. The outdoor access reduced dressing percentage, both with (P≤0.01) and without giblets (P≤0.05). The supplementation of drinking water with the mixed herb extract (2 ml/l) improved the muscle antioxidant status (higher SOD, CAT and GSH content) and reduced lipid peroxidation in the leg muscles of the broilers (lower MDA level). In general, the supplementation of the diet with the mixture of herbs in the applied form and concentration, as well as the outdoor access had no effect on the other examined quality parameters of broiler meat.

Keywords

  • rearing system
  • herb extract
  • meat quality
  • muscle antioxidant status
  • broiler chickens
Open Access

Comparison of the Composition and Quality Properties of Fromage Frais-Type Cheese Manufactured from the Milk of Selected Cow Breeds

Published Online: 04 May 2020
Page range: 661 - 676

Abstract

Abstract

The purpose of this research was to compare the physicochemical and sensorial properties of from-age frais-type cheese produced from milk of different cow breeds. There is no information on this topic in literature. The cheeses were manufactured in laboratory conditions during summer in three independent series from milk of the Polish Holstein-Friesian Black-and-White (HO), Polish Holstein-Friesian Red-and-White (RW) and Polish Red (RP) cows. The milk, whey and cheeses were analysed for chemical composition and physicochemical properties. Moreover, sensory analysis, TPA, protein fractions by SDS PAGE and fatty acid profile by GC were determined in cheeses. A one-way ANOVA was employed and the significance of differences between the means was established using the Duncan’s test. The cheeses were found to have a similar acidity and basic chemical composition (P≥0.05), with the exception of fat in dry matter concentration, which was greater in RW than HO cheese (P<0.05). The sensory evaluation of fromage frais-type cheeses revealed that they differed only in smell which gained a better score in RP than HO cheese (P<0.05). However, texture analysis showed a significant difference in the hardness and chewiness between cheeses which were the greatest in HO cheese (P<0.05). The RW cheeses were characterised by a greater proportion of whey proteins, trans-vaccenic acid, cis-9, trans-11-linoleic acid and monounsaturated fatty acids (P<0.05) than the HO ones. The cheeses from the RP milk gave the greatest yield. In conclusion, the most beneficial raw material for fromage frais-type cheese manufacture is the RW milk.

Keywords

  • dairy cow breeds
  • fromage frais-type cheese
  • fatty acid profile
  • protein fractions
  • sensory properties
Open Access

Meat Texture Profile and Cutting Strength Analyses of Pork Depending on Breed and Age

Published Online: 04 May 2020
Page range: 677 - 692

Abstract

Abstract

The chemical composition and culinary meat tenderness belong to the most important characteristics determining meat quality and value. The aim of this work was to compare texture profiles and shear force of pork loin (m. longissimus dorsi) and of pork ham (m. semimembranosus) from fatteners of Polish Landrace (PL), Polish Large White (PLW), Duroc, Pietrain and Puławska pig breeds slaughtered at 60, 90, 120, 150, 180 and 210 d of breeding. Meat was roasted at 180°C to inner temperature of 78°C. The intramuscular fat (IMF) content in loin was growing with fattener age (from 1.17% at 60 d to 1.84% at 180 d of life). Between breeds IMF ranged from 0.82% in PLW to 2.29% in Puławska breed. The shear force for loin muscle ranged from 3.42 kG/cm2 at 60 d to 6.54 kG/cm2 at 210 d of life while for and ham muscle 4.4 kG/cm2 at 60 d to 6.78 kG/cm2 at 210 d of life. The hardness (TPA) ranged from 72.29 N at 90 d of life to 109.46 N at 210 d of life. The shear force of loin and ham meat was increasing with age of fatteners and some texture parameters – hardness and chewiness. Nevertheless it seems that the age of 150 days is the time when meat of fatteners is characterized by the highest technological properties. However, the final decision regarding slaughter age should be made taking into account the technological destination of the carcasses. No significant interactions between the animal breed and their age were found for the parameters analysed.

Keywords

  • pigs
  • meat parameters
  • texture profile
  • shear force
Open Access

Relationship Between Content of Ketone Bodies in Milk and Milk Freezing Point of Polish Holstein-Friesian Cows in Early Lactation

Published Online: 04 May 2020
Page range: 693 - 707

Abstract

Abstract

The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between milk β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), acetone (ACE) as well as parity and lactation stage and milk freezing point (MFP) in Polish Holstein-Friesian cows in early lactation. Additionally, we studied the relationship between milk ketone bodies and daily milk yield (DMY), fat (MF) and protein (MP) content in milk. The data obtained from the Polish Federation of Cattle Breeders and Dairy Farmers, comprised 749,894 test day milk samples, collected between 6 and 60 days in milk (DIM) from 521,049 lactations of 514,066 cows. Milk BHB and ACE were determined using the Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) technology. Four classes of parities were created: first, second, third, and fourth to seventh and two classes of lactation stage: 5–21 and 22–60 DIM. BHB was grouped into five classes: ≤0.05, 0.06–0.10, 0.11–0.20, 0.21–0.50 and >0.50 mmol/L, and ACE was also classified into five classes: ≤0.05, 0.06–0.10, 0.11–0.15, 0.16–0.30 and >0.30 mmol/L. Data on MFP, DMY, and MF and MP content were analyzed using the MIXED procedure of SAS and a linear model in which effects of parity, lactation stage, BHB and ACE classes were included, together with interactions between lactation stage and BHB classes, parity and BHB classes, lactation stage and ACE classes, and parity and ACE classes. The differences among parity, lactation stages, BHB and ACE classes in MFP, DMY, MF and MP were highly significant. There was a clear tendency for decreasing of MFP with increasing of BHB. Such a trend did not occur in case of ACE. DMY and MP decreased and MF increased with increasing BHB or ACE. In conclusion, since MFP can be measured relatively easily and is well related to milk BHB content, it may be used in the prediction of diagnostic models of ketosis based on milk composition.

Keywords

  • acetone
  • β-hydroxybutyrate
  • dairy cow
  • ketosis
Open Access

Effect of Electrical and Mechanical Stunning on Rabbit Meat Quality Traits

Published Online: 04 May 2020
Page range: 709 - 724

Abstract

Abstract

Increased interest in the production of rabbit meat justifies the need to assess and improve the welfare of these animals not only during the production cycle but also at slaughter. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the effects of different stunning methods on the level of blood biochemical parameters (stress indicators), and meat quality of slaughter rabbits. Rabbits of the Hycole line (n = 60) were subjected to the following stunning methods: mechanical with a non-penetrating captive bolt (group I; n = 20), mechanical by hitting a narrow rod on the head (group II; n = 20), and electrical stunning (n = 20). In the stunning groups there were no differences found in the blood level of insulin, cortisol, glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides, non-esterified fatty acids, and protein content (P>0.05). The stunning method did not affect the pH of rabbit meat (P=0.768), but significantly influenced the L* and b* colour parameters. The muscles of longissimus thoracis et lumborum, from the group of rabbits mechanically stunned by hitting a narrow rod on the head, were the darkest (L * = 58.4), with the lowest yellowness values (b* = 4.04). The meat of electrically stunned rabbits was characterised by higher drip loss (P<0.001), lower plasticity (P=0.043), and higher free water content (P=0.043). From the analysed texture measures, only the Warner Bratzler Shear Energy values of the cooked meat were affected by the stunning method. These values were higher in the meat of the mechanically stunned groups compared to the electrically stunned rabbits (P=0.042). The percentage of dry matter, crude protein, extractable fat and water to protein ratio, were affected only by the muscle type (P<0.001). To conclude, the rabbit meat was characterised by good quality, with only slight differences between the groups. No differences were found in the stress reaction of rabbits subjected to the examined stunning methods.

Keywords

  • meat
  • meat quality
  • rabbit
  • stunning method
  • welfare
23 Articles
Open Access

The Role of Arginine in Disease Prevention, Gut Microbiota Modulation, Growth Performance and the Immune System of Broiler Chicken – A Review

Published Online: 04 May 2020
Page range: 325 - 341

Abstract

Abstract

The effect of dietary arginine on disease prevention, immune system modulation, the gut micro-biota composition and growth of broiler chicken was reviewed. The main aim of poultry production is the maximization of profit at the least possible cost. This objective can mainly be achieved by ensuring that there is no interference in growth or disease outbreak and by feeding chicken with the best possible level of nutrients. With the ban on antibiotic growth promoters, attention is shifted towards other nutrition methods to prevent diseases and promote growth. More attention is therefore given to protein diets in animal nutrition due to their importance as essential part of active biological compounds in the body, assisting in the breakdown of body tissue and helping in the physiological processes of the animal. Arginine plays important function in serving as building blocks of proteins and polypeptides. It performs other roles during the regulation of important biochemical functions such as maintenance, growth, reproduction and immunity. Arginine cannot be synthesized by the body so it has to be supplemented in the diet. When arginine is supplemented above the recommended level, the gut mucosa is protected, immunosuppression is alleviated, diseases like necrotic enteritis, infectious bursal disease and coccidiosis in broiler chickens are prevented. There is an improvement in growth resulting from the increase in intestinal absorption, barrier function and microbiota composition.

Keywords

  • arginine
  • immune system
  • growth modulator
  • microbiota
  • immune modulation
Open Access

Breeding and Performance Potential of Puławska Pigs – A Review

Published Online: 04 May 2020
Page range: 343 - 354

Abstract

Abstract

The aim of the study was to discuss breeding of pigs of the Puławska breed, which is included in a Genetic Resources Conservation Programme, and to analyse performance parameters that are useful in domestic pig production. The Puławska breed is the oldest native breed of pig in Poland. Since 1996 it has been protected by a genetic resources conservation programme, owing to breeding traditions and the production traits characteristic of the breed. The use value of these pigs is currently at the level of maternal breeds: number of live piglets born per litter – 10.54; number of piglets reared per litter – 9.37; daily weight gains – 569 g for breeding boars and 562 g for breeding gilts; meat content – 54.6% for breeding boars and 54.9% for breeding gilts. An important element in favour of the use of this breed in domestic production of fresh pork and pork products is its meat quality parameters. The mean values for physical traits (WHC 22.42%, pH45 6.47, pH24 5.63) and chemical parameters (protein 22.70%, fat 2.65%) are characteristic of meat of normal quality. The Puławska breed can be used to produce high-quality fresh meat and meat products, including traditional and regional ones. Puławska pigs are bred and reared according to the principles of sustainable agriculture, which reduces the negative impact of pig production on the natural environment.

Keywords

  • pigs
  • native breed
  • Puławska breed
  • meat quality
  • Genetic Resources Conservation Programme
Open Access

The Potential Effect of Dietary Tannins on Enteric Methane Emission and Ruminant Production, as an Alternative to Antibiotic Feed Additives – A Review

Published Online: 04 May 2020
Page range: 355 - 388

Abstract

Abstract

Antibiotic growth promoters in livestock nutrition cause microbial resistance which produces threats to human health. Therefore, tannins have been considered as natural alternative antibiotic feed additives which possess various biological properties including antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and immunomodulatory. Additionally, these plants also have antiparasitic and anti-bloat characteristics which contribute to inhibit the enteric methane emission in order to improve nutrient digestibility, milk and meat quality, fatty acids composition and ruminant production. Antibiotic growth promoters have been practiced in animals feeding to increase feed intake, growth rate, weight gain as well as reduce metabolic disorders and energy losses in the rumen. In 2006, the European Union banned the usage of antibiotic growth promoters in the feeding of livestock. This antibiotic resistance issue has increased demand to explore the natural feed additives that might be useful for animal production system. Consequently, natural forages have been categorized as potential feed additives in animal production since it improves nutritive value, protein digestibility, increase amino acid absorption and growth rate. But, some plant materials are usually rich in tannins known as anti-nutritional factors. Therefore, the application of tannin-rich plants in ruminant nutrition needs great precaution due to its possible injurious effects (dose dependent) on animal health such as metabolic disorders. Hence, there is need to give attention to the usage of tannins in ruminant nutrition as an alternative to antibiotics feed additives to investigate its effects on enteric methane emissions and ruminants production. In addition, safety and risk associated with tannins feeding have also been briefly discussed.

Keywords

  • condensed tannins
  • hydrolysable tannins
  • feed additives
  • methane emission
  • ruminants
Open Access

The Applications of Origanum Vulgare and Its Derivatives in Human, Ruminant and Fish Nutrition – A Review

Published Online: 04 May 2020
Page range: 389 - 407

Abstract

Abstract

Origanum vulgare L. is an aromatic enduring herb that belongs to Lamiaceae family. The bioactive constituents of this herb, such as carvacrol and thymol possess several medicinal properties, such as antioxidant, antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antiviral, antiparasitic, anti-neoplastic, and immune modulatory. Moreover, it is considered a standard natural, less toxic, and residue free feed additive, that is successfully used in livestock and fish. Additionally, in human, Origanum vulgare is extensively used with promising health benefits against respiratory, digestive and urinary disorders. This review casts light on description, chemical composition and structure of Origanum vulgare, as well as its therapeutic applications in human and its biological activities in ruminants and fish, data that will be possibly useful for physiologists, nutritionists and veterinarians.

Keywords

  • animal
  • human
  • fish
  • health
  • antioxidant
  • performance
  • nutrition
Open Access

Polymorphisms in JAK2 Gene are Associated with Production Traits and Mastitis Resistance in Dairy Cattle

Published Online: 04 May 2020
Page range: 409 - 423

Abstract

Abstract

The present study was designed to investigate the effects of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the JAK2 gene on the production and mastitis related traits in dairy cattle. Blood and milk samples were collected from 201 lactating dairy cattle of three breeds, i.e. Holstein Friesian (HF), Jersey (J) and Achai (A) and their crosses maintained at well-established dairy farms in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. Generalized linear model was used to evaluate the association between genotypes and the studied traits. A DNA pool was made from randomly selected 30 samples which revealed three SNPs, i.e. SNP 1 in 5’ upstream region (G>A, rs379754157), SNP 2 in intron 15 (A>G, rs134192265), and SNP 3 in exon 20 (A>G, rs110298451) that were further validated in the population under study using SNaPshot technique. Of the three SNPs, SNP 1 did not obey Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (P<0.05). SNP 2 and SNP 3 were found to be in strong linkage disequilibrium and allele G was highly prevalent compared to allele A in these SNPs. in SNP 1, the GG genotype was associated with significantly (P<0.01) higher SCC, whereas SNP 2 and SNP 3 were significantly (P<0.01) associated with higher lactose percentage compared to the other geno-types. The haplogroups association analysis revealed that H1H2 (GG GG AG) has significantly lower SCC than H2H2 (GG GG GG). The results infer that JAK2 could be an important candidate gene and the studied SNPs might be useful genetic markers for production and mastitis related traits.

Keywords

  • dairy cattle
  • mastitis
  • production traits
  • polymorphism
Open Access

The SSC15 QTL-Rich Region Mutations Affecting Intramuscular Fat and Production Traits in Pigs

Published Online: 04 May 2020
Page range: 425 - 444

Abstract

Abstract

One of the more interesting regions in the pig genome is on chromosome 15 (115,800,000-122,100,000, SSC15, Sus scrofa 11.1) that has high quantitative trait locus (QTL) density associated with fattening, slaughter and meat quality characteristics. The SSC15 region encodes over 80 genes and a few miRNA sequences where potential genetic markers can be found. The goal of the study was to evaluate the effects of SSC15 mutations associated with villin 1 (VIL1), tensin 1 (TNS1), obscurin-like 1 (OBSL1) genes and with one long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) on productive pig traits and to enrich the genetic marker pool in further selection purpose. The potential genetic markers were identified using the targeted enrichment DNA sequencing (TEDNA-seq) of chromosome 15 region. The selected mutations were genotyped by using HRM, PCR and PCRRFLP methods. The association study was performed using the general linear model (GLM) in the sas program that included over 600 pigs of 5 Polish populations. The rs332253419 VIL1 mutation shows a significant effect on intramuscular fat (IMF) content in Duroc population where AA pigs had a 16% higher level than heterozygotes. The IMF content is also affected by the OBSL1 mutation, and the differences between groups are even up to 30%, but it is strongly dependent on breed factor. The OBSL1 mutation also significantly influences the meat yellowness, backfat thickness and pH level. The performed study delivers valuable information that could be highly useful during the development of the high-throughput genotyping method for further selection purposes in pigs. The OBSL1 and VIL1 mutations seem to be the most promising DNA marker showing a high effect on IMF level.

Keywords

  • obscurin-like-1
  • villin
  • lncRNA
  • targeted DNA sequencing
  • pork quality
Open Access

Genome-Wide Association Study Using Fix-Length Haplotypes and Network Analysis Revealed New Candidate Genes for Nematode Resistance and Body Weight in Blackface Lambs

Published Online: 04 May 2020
Page range: 445 - 464

Abstract

Abstract

The objectives of this study were to identify genomic regions by Bayesian methods (BayesA, BayesB, or BayesN) that fit fixed-length haplotypes or SNPs using GenSel. Covariates for haplo-type alleles of five lengths (125, 250, 500 kb, 1 or 2 Mb) were generated, and rare haplotypes were removed at three thresholds (1, 5, or 10%). Subsequently, we performed gene network analyses to investigate the biological processes shared by genes that were identified for the same across traits. Genotypes at 41,034 SNPs that were common on OvineSNP50 panel were phased for 751 Scottish Blackface (SBF) lambs. This is the first study to quantify the proportion of genetic variance using haplotypes across the whole genome in an SBF population. The genetic variance explained of haplotype-based GWAS was higher than that of SNP-based GWAS in across traits studied. In this population, fitting 500kb haplotypes with a 1% frequency threshold resulted in the highest proportion of genetic variance explained for nematode resistance and fitting 2Mb haplotypes with a 10% frequency threshold improved genetic variance explained for body weight comparable to fitting SNPs by BayesB. Candidate genes, including CXCR4, STAT4, CCL1, CCL2, CCL3, CCL5, CCL8, CCL16, CCL18, CARMIL2, and HSPA14 were identified for nematode resistance and ADH5, PPP3CA, and FABP4 for body weight traits. Network analysis provided annotation results linking to all identified candidate genes. This study supported previous results from GWAS of nematode resistance and body weight and revealed additional regions in the ovine genome associated with these economically important traits. These results suggest that network analysis can provide new information regarding biological mechanisms and genes leading to complex phenotypes, like nematode resistance and body weight of lamb.

Keywords

  • sheep
  • genome-wide study
  • gene networks
  • nematode resistance
  • body weight
Open Access

Single Loci and Haplotypes in CAPN1 and CAST Genes are Associated with Growth, Biometrics, and in Vivo Carcass Traits in Santa Inês Sheep

Published Online: 04 May 2020
Page range: 465 - 483

Abstract

Abstract

µ-calpain (CAPN1) and calpastatin (CAST) genes play key roles in protein turnover. The present study aimed to identify the variants in these genes associated with growth and ultrasound carcass traits in Santa Inês sheep. A sample of 192 no full sibling Santa Inês lambs was used. Fragments of the CAST and CAPN1 genes were amplified and next-generation sequencing was performed in the MiSeq platform. Variants in the CAPN1 and CAST sequences were then detected using bioinformatic tools. Withers and croup heights, body length, thoracic and croup widths, thoracic and leg girths, body depth, carcass fat score, rib eye area, fat thickness, body weights were recorded at weaning and at 140 days post-weaning, and average daily gain post-weaning was calculated. Both single-locus and haplotype association analyses were performed with the model as follows: farm (2 levels), year (4 levels), the month of birth (12 levels), and the covariate age of the animal. The fragments amplified included 4,514 bp between the 20th and 23rd exons of CAST as well as 3,927 bp between the 12th and 21st exons of CAPN1. In these regions, 58 (CAST) and 45 (CAPN1) variants were identified. In the CAST gene, the single-locus analysis revealed 22 suggestive additive effects (P<0.05) on several growth and carcass traits. Moreover, haplotype substitutions were associated with rib eye area (–0.689±0.290), average daily gain (–23.6±10.4), thoracic girth (–2.72±1.27), body length (–3.38±1.49), and leg girth (–2.84±1.37). Regarding the CAPN1 gene, the single-locus analysis identified seven suggestive additive effects, while only one haplotype replacement effect on fat thickness (–0.0143±0.0053) was detected. The results of the present study suggest that variants in the CAPN1 and CAST genes are associated with growth and ultrasound carcass traits in Santa Inês sheep, which may be a source of information to improve knowledge regarding the genetic control of these traits.

Keywords

  • body weight
  • fat
  • lambs
  • muscle
  • selection
Open Access

Prevalence and Genetic Diversity of C. Jejuni Isolated from Broilers and their Environment Using flaA-RFLP Typing and MLST Analysis

Published Online: 04 May 2020
Page range: 485 - 501

Abstract

Abstract

Campylobacter is highly diverse genetically and also undergoes frequent intraspecific recombination. A major source of campylobacteriosis, which is transmitted to humans is found in poultry. The assessment of the genetic diversity among Campylobacter population is critical to our understanding of the epidemiology. The genetic diversity of Campylobacter jejuni isolates in broilers and their environment were investigated by flaA-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). The study revealed that 92.3% of the examined broiler flocks were contaminated with Campylobacter spp. A total number of 35 different flaA types defined by flaA-RFLP were found in 448 C. jejuni isolates originated from broilers, litter, puddles, zones, anteroom and wild birds. The most dominant flaA type was XXV. MLST defined 20 sequence types (STs) belonging to 10 clonal complexes (CCs). Among all the STs 9 isolates (15%) were consigned to 2 different STs (ST-7413 and ST-4800), which could not be assigned. The most common CCs were ST-21 and ST-179. The ST-21 CC was common in broilers and environment (puddle water and concentric zones) and the ST-179 CC was specific to wild birds, but also was found in puddle water and concentric zones.

Keywords

  • poultry
  • MLST
  • RFLP
  • campylobacteriosis
Open Access

The Effect of a Rat Diet Without Added Cu on Redox Status in Tissues and Epigenetic Changes in the Brain

Published Online: 04 May 2020
Page range: 503 - 520

Abstract

Abstract

The aim of the study was to determine whether feeding rats a diet without added Cu increases oxidation of macromolecules in tissues, as well as epigenetic changes in the brain. The rats were divided into two groups: the Cu-6.5 group which was fed a diet with a standard content of Cu in mineral mixture – 6.5 mg Cu from CuCO3 per kg of diet; and the Cu-0 group which was fed a diet with a mineral mix without Cu supplementation. At the end of the experiment the rats were weighed and blood samples were collected. Finally, the rats were euthanized and then the liver, small intestine, spleen, kidneys, heart, brain, lung, testes and leg muscles were removed and weighed. In the blood of Cu-0 rats the lower Cp activity and greater GPx and CAT activity than in Cu-6.5 rats were noticed. In the liver, lungs, heart and testes of Cu-0 rats, a decreased content of Cu were noticed. Application of Cu-0 diets resulted in increased LOOH level in the small intestine, liver, and heart, as well as increased MDA content in the liver, spleen, lungs, brain and testes. The Cu-0 treatment caused a decrease in SOD activity in the heart, lungs and testes of the rats and a decrease in CAT activity in the small intestine. In the brain and testes of rats from the Cu-0 treatment, lower content of GSH + GSSG was observed. The brain of rats from the Cu-0 treatment showed an increase in the level of PCs, 8-OHdG, Casp 8 and DNA methylation. The research has shown that a deficiency of Cu in the diet impairs the body’s antioxidant defences, which in turn leads to increased lipid oxidation in the liver, small intestinal wall, heart, spleen, lungs, brain and testes, as well as to oxidation of proteins and DNA in the brain. A deficiency of Cu in the diet also increases methylation of cytosine in the brain.

Keywords

  • copper deficiency
  • rats
  • brain
  • epigenetic change
  • redox status
Open Access

The Chemical Composition of Domestic Soybean Seeds and the Effects of Partial Substitution of Soybean Meal by Raw Soybean Seeds in the Diet on Pigs’ Growth Performance and Pork Quality (M. Longissimus Lumborum)

Published Online: 04 May 2020
Page range: 521 - 533

Abstract

Abstract

The objective of the study was to determine the effect of replacing soybean meal with 5% of raw soybean seeds on the growth, feed consumption and utilization of growing pigs, also the carcass and pork quality. The growth experiment was conducted on 120 pigs of approx. 18.5 kg allocated to two dietary treatments. The animals from the control treatment (CON) were offered a diet with soybean meal, and the experimental group (EXP) was given 5% raw soybean seeds (NON-GMO, Augusta var.) instead of SBM. The experiment lasted 88 days. After the experiment, eight pigs from each group were euthanized and meat samples were collected. No diet effects on the animals’ performance and carcass quality were observed (P>0.05). The experimental diet affected (P<0.05) meat color, and also meat composition (higher water content and lower intramuscular fat content). The composition of fatty acids in the meat did not differ significantly, except for higher C16:1 content in the EXP group. The introduction of 5% raw soybean seeds into the diets did not impact animal performance, but it reduced some indices of the pork quality.

Keywords

  • raw soybean
  • growing pigs
  • meat quality
Open Access

Biochemical and Haematological Blood Parameters of Sows and Piglets Fed a Diet with a Dried Fermented Rapeseed Meal

Published Online: 04 May 2020
Page range: 535 - 550

Abstract

Abstract

Animal health and welfare can be assessed using biochemical and haematological markers of the blood. The values of these parameters depend in part on the quantity and quality of feed ingredients, i.e. feed protein and feed additives. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of including fermented rapeseed meal (FRSM) in dry feeding system on haematological and biochemical blood parameters of sows and piglets. The experimental material comprised 30 primiparous gilts and 30 multiparous sows after their second lactation. They were randomly divided into two groups of equal size – control and experimental. The animals in control groups CG (15 gilts) and CS (15 sows) received a standard diet for pregnant or lactating sows, depending on the reproductive period. Experimental groups EG and ES were 15 gilts and 15 multiparous sows, respectively, receiving feed with a 4% share of FRSM in place of soybean meal up to 100 d of gestation. In addition, from 100 d of gestation to 7 d of lactation, the sows in these groups received feed with a 9% share of FRSM, and then again a diet with a 4% share of FRSM until the end of lactation. Blood samples were taken from 6 animals from each group in two periods: at 100 days of pregnancy (late pregnancy) and at 27 days of lactation (late lactation). Blood from piglets was taken at 27 days of age (before weaning), from two piglets from each sow (one gilt and one barrow), taking into account the average body weight in the litter. Haematological parameters: Ht, Hb and RBC were determined in whole blood. The plasma content of minerals, activity of selected enzymes and biochemical parameters of sows, gilts and piglets were determined. The diet containing fermented rapeseed meal, fed to pregnant and lactating sows, increased the level of Ht and Hb and RBC content and mineral content (phosphorus, calcium and iron) in the plasma. This effect was mainly observed in primiparous sows. The inclusion of FRSM in the diet of sows reduced the plasma content of total cholesterol and triacylglycerols in sows and piglets, as well as liver enzyme activity, particularly AST in piglets. The use of fermented rapeseed meal in sow diet resulted in better use of mineral compounds, improvement of production effects and health parameters of sow and piglet blood.

Keywords

  • sows
  • piglets
  • fermentation
  • fermented rapeseed meal
  • blood
Open Access

Evaluation of Slaughter Parameters and Meat Quality of Rabbits Fed Diets with Silkworm Pupae and Mealworm Larvae Meals

Published Online: 04 May 2020
Page range: 551 - 564

Abstract

Abstract

The aim of this study was to determine the effect of feeding rabbits with diets containing dried silkworm pupae and mealworm larvae meals on their slaughter value and meat quality. A total of 60 New Zealand White rabbits at 35 days of age were divided into 3 equivalent groups. Control group (C) and two experimental diets included either 4% silkworm pupae meal (diet A) or 4% mealworm larvae meal (diet B). The experiment lasted for 55 days and growth performance as well chemical and amino acid meat composition and the profile of fatty acids were evaluated during the study. The results showed that dietary supplementation of insect meals caused increases in final body weight and carcass meat content in rabbits from the experimental groups. The experimental diets had no effect on the sum of essential amino acids in the studied muscles, but created differences in the level of some amino acids: phenylalanine, lysine, tryptophan, threonine, isoleucine and methionine. The concentration of saturated (SFA) and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) in the muscles was comparable in all the groups. In the tissues of rabbits fed the silkworm meal diet, PUFA-3 concentration increased and cholesterol level decreased. It is concluded that dried silkworm pupae and mealworm larvae meals can be used as feed material in rabbit diets at 4% inclusion level without any adverse effect on growth performance, as well as quality and dietetic value of rabbit meat.

Keywords

  • rabbit
  • feeding
  • meat quality
Open Access

Dietary Supplementation with Natural Extracts Mixture: Effects on Reproductive Performances, Blood Biochemical and Antioxidant Parameters in Rabbit Does

Published Online: 04 May 2020
Page range: 565 - 578

Abstract

Abstract

The present study evaluates the effects of natural extracts on reproductive performance, haematochemical parameters, and antioxidant status of rabbit does. A total of sixty New Zealand White second parity does were divided into three groups: the first group was fed a control diet (CON), the second (T1) and the third groups (T2) were fed the same diet supplemented with prebiotic polysaccharides from brown seaweeds (Laminaria spp.) plus phenolic acid, hydroxycinnamic acids, tannins, and flavonoids from plant extracts (0.3% and 0.6%, respectively). The trial was conducted for two consecutive reproductive cycles (75 days). Reproductive performance was recorded. Blood samples were collected before the first insemination, 10 d after the first kindling, and 10 d after the second one. At the first reproductive cycle, productive parameters were negatively affected (P<0.05) by a high dosage of the dietary supplement (T2 group). At the second reproductive cycle, no differences (P>0.05) between dietary treatments on reproductive and productive performances were observed. Bilirubin was affected by dietary treatment (P<0.001) and decreased in relation to sampling time (P<0.001). The HDL cholesterol decreased by dietary treatment (P<0.01). All the plasma antioxidant markers were positively affected (P<0.001) by dietary supplementation and sampling time. No previous study has reported the effects of brown seaweeds and polyphenols on rabbit does and the present data shows that this natural extract supplement improved the antioxidant status of rabbit does.

Keywords

  • rabbit
  • natural extract
  • blood
  • antioxidant markers
Open Access

Dietary Inclusion of Tenebrio Molitor Meal in Sea Trout Larvae Rearing: Effects on Fish Growth Performance, Survival, Condition, and GIT and Liver Enzymatic Activity

Published Online: 04 May 2020
Page range: 579 - 598

Abstract

Abstract

Sea trout (Salmo trutta m. trutta) is a species for which effective methods of rearing are still being developed. They need high-quality protein in their diet, but, considering the ecological consequences of fishmeal production, new sources of protein are needed. Presently, insect meal is one of the most promising alternative sources of protein in the diets of farm animals. Insect production does not result in excessive gas emissions, waste generation or the risk of obtaining low-quality dietary protein. The study on sea trout larvae was carried out for 60 days. Four diets were given to the fish: one control (C), without the inclusion of insect meal, and three experimental, with one unhydrolysed Tenebrio molitor meal (TM) and two hydrolysed Tenebrio molitor meal treatments. The effects of the diets were evaluated on the basis of growth performance (weight and length of the fish, SR, SGR, RGR, FCR and PER), somatic indices (HSI and VSI) and fish condition (CF). We observed that the highest body mass and weight gain were obtained in the control group. However, the lowest mortality and the highest values of RGR were observed only in groups fed diets containing mealworm meal. The results for the hepato- and viscerosomatic indices showed a lack of statistically significant differences between the control group and the unhydrolysed Tenebrio molitor meal group in terms of the enzymatic activities of amylase, lipase and trypsin in the fish intestine and both aminotransferases in the liver. Our study demonstrated that the inclusion of 20% mealworm meal in practical diets for sea trout did not negatively affect growth performance or gastrointestinal tract (GIT) enzyme activity. The hydrolysed mealworm meal and the non-processed mealworm meal had similar effects.

Keywords

  • insect meal
  • sea trout
  • larvae rearing
  • growth performance
  • hydrolysed protein
Open Access

The Effect of Diet with Fermented Soybean Meal on Blood Metabolites and Redox Status of Chickens

Published Online: 04 May 2020
Page range: 599 - 611

Abstract

Abstract

The aim of the study was to determine whether replacing soybean meal with 3% or 6% fermented soybean meal would positively affect blood metabolites and redox status of broiler chickens. The experiment was carried out on 600 broiler chickens assigned to three experimental groups of 200 chickens each (10 replications of 20 individuals each). In the control group, soybean meal (SBM) was the main source of dietary protein, whereas the remaining groups were fed diets in which soybean meal was partially replaced with 3% or 6% fermented soybean meal (FSBM-3%, FSBM-6%). The fermentation of the SBM contributed to an increase of Lactobacillus, content of crude protein, methionine and lysine, and especially over a 30-fold increase in the concentration of lactic acid. The inclusion of 3% or 6% share of FSBM in the diet of chickens contributed to an increase in total antioxidant potential (FRAP) and plasma total glutathione content. In blood of chickens receiving FSBM an increase of total protein and HDL cholesterol content, aspartate aminotransferase activity and a decrease in urea content were noted. In addition to the positive effect on protein and lipid metabolism as well as antioxidant defence, the diet with a 6% share of FSBM improved body weight gain of chickens. In conclusion, it can be suggested that introducing 6% share of FSBM in place of FSM is more justified.

Keywords

  • chicken
  • fermented soybean meal
  • antioxidant
  • biochemical parameters
Open Access

Thermoregulatory and Behaviour Responses of Dairy Heifers Raised on a Silvopastoral System in a Subtropical Climate

Published Online: 04 May 2020
Page range: 613 - 627

Abstract

Abstract

In this study, we investigated the influence of a silvopastoral system on the thermal environment, behaviour and thermoregulation of dairy heifers in a subtropical climate. The experiment was conducted on a dairy farm in Southwest Paraná, Brazil, during the summer of 2014. Crossbred Holstein × Jersey dairy heifers (n = 10) were used in a split-plot design. The fixed effects in this study include time of day (9:00–10:00, 13:00–14:00, and 17:00–18:00 h) under silvopastoral or open pastures conditions, which were the main-plot and split-plot factors, respectively. To assess the environmental conditions in both systems, air temperature, relative humidity and wind speed were recorded. In addition, the temperature-humidity index was calculated based on the microcli-mate measurements. Respiratory rate and hair coat surface temperature of heifers were measured in both groups during time of day (30 days). Diurnal behaviour using focal observations with 0/1 sampling was observed. Data were analysed using Bayesian inference with a mixed effects model. The air temperature was higher (P<0.05) in open pasture conditions than the silvopasture system. Temperature-humidity index values for the silvopasture system were lower than open pasture during the hottest hours of the day. Regarding thermoregulation responses, there was an interaction between time of day and pasture environment (P<0.05). Heifers showed lower respiratory rates and hair coat surface temperature values (P<0.05) when access to shade was provided, mainly during the hottest periods in the afternoon. In addition, there was also an interaction between rumination and water intake (P<0.05), which indicates a higher rumination frequency for animals in the silvopasture system during the hottest period, as well as a higher water intake frequency for heifers in open pasture during midday. These findings imply that the arrangement of trees in a silvopasture system provides better thermal comfort conditions for dairy heifers raised in a subtropical climate.

Keywords

  • animal welfare
  • biometeorology
  • dairy cow
  • shading
  • thermal comfort
Open Access

Nutritional Composition of Salmonidae and Acipenseridae Fish Eggs

Published Online: 04 May 2020
Page range: 629 - 645

Abstract

Abstract

Analysis of the physicochemical properties of fresh eggs (raw material for caviar production) of the Salmonidae [sea trout (Salmo trutta L. 1758) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss, Walbaum 1792)] and the acipenseridae [siberian sturgeon (Acipenser baeri Brandt, 1869)], as well as sturgeon hybrids (Acipenser baeri Brandt, 1869 × Acipenser gueldenstaedti Brandt & Ratzeburg, 1833), included determination of basic physicochemical parameters (pH, dry weight, content of protein, fat, fiber and ash), amino acid composition and fatty acid profile. Compared to the Acipenseridae, Salmonidae eggs yielded a 22.5% higher total protein content, a 40.0% higher level of essential amino acids (EAA) and a 57.5% lower crude fat content. The sea trout eggs showed also a completely different fatty acids profile and hence values of lipid indices (lowest PUFA value – 11.72%, highest SFA value – 39.86%). The rainbow trout and sturgeon eggs had a similar fatty acid profile, and were characterized by a high nutritional and dietary value.

Keywords

  • fish eggs
  • and
  • physicochemical properties
  • amino acid composition
  • fatty acid profile
Open Access

Effects of Supplementing Drinking Water with Mixed Herb Extract or Outdoor Access on Meat Quality Characteristics in Broiler Chickens

Published Online: 04 May 2020
Page range: 647 - 660

Abstract

Abstract

The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of supplementing drinking water with an extract of mixed herbs or housing with outdoor access on carcass traits, levels of antioxidant enzymes (SOD, CAT, GPx), reduced glutathione (GSH), malondialdehyde (MDA), and selected quality parameters of meat from broiler chickens. One-day-old Ross 308 broiler chickens were allocated to three groups: group I (control), in which birds were kept in compartments on litter and had no outdoor access; group II, in which birds were kept in compartments on litter without outdoor access and were supplemented with an extract of mixed herbs (50% Melissa officinalis L. and 50% Urtica dioica L.) at 2 ml/l of drinking water; and group III, in which birds were raised in compartments on litter and had outdoor access from day 1 of rearing. Throughout the rearing period, the broilers had free access to feed and water. On day 42, 20 birds were selected from each group, slaughtered and subjected to simplified slaughter analysis. Their breast and leg muscles were measured for pH, colour, water holding capacity (WHC) and drip loss, and analysed for the content of antioxidant enzymes (SOD, CAT, GPx), reduced glutathione (GSH), malondialdehyde (MDA) and fatty acids. The outdoor access reduced dressing percentage, both with (P≤0.01) and without giblets (P≤0.05). The supplementation of drinking water with the mixed herb extract (2 ml/l) improved the muscle antioxidant status (higher SOD, CAT and GSH content) and reduced lipid peroxidation in the leg muscles of the broilers (lower MDA level). In general, the supplementation of the diet with the mixture of herbs in the applied form and concentration, as well as the outdoor access had no effect on the other examined quality parameters of broiler meat.

Keywords

  • rearing system
  • herb extract
  • meat quality
  • muscle antioxidant status
  • broiler chickens
Open Access

Comparison of the Composition and Quality Properties of Fromage Frais-Type Cheese Manufactured from the Milk of Selected Cow Breeds

Published Online: 04 May 2020
Page range: 661 - 676

Abstract

Abstract

The purpose of this research was to compare the physicochemical and sensorial properties of from-age frais-type cheese produced from milk of different cow breeds. There is no information on this topic in literature. The cheeses were manufactured in laboratory conditions during summer in three independent series from milk of the Polish Holstein-Friesian Black-and-White (HO), Polish Holstein-Friesian Red-and-White (RW) and Polish Red (RP) cows. The milk, whey and cheeses were analysed for chemical composition and physicochemical properties. Moreover, sensory analysis, TPA, protein fractions by SDS PAGE and fatty acid profile by GC were determined in cheeses. A one-way ANOVA was employed and the significance of differences between the means was established using the Duncan’s test. The cheeses were found to have a similar acidity and basic chemical composition (P≥0.05), with the exception of fat in dry matter concentration, which was greater in RW than HO cheese (P<0.05). The sensory evaluation of fromage frais-type cheeses revealed that they differed only in smell which gained a better score in RP than HO cheese (P<0.05). However, texture analysis showed a significant difference in the hardness and chewiness between cheeses which were the greatest in HO cheese (P<0.05). The RW cheeses were characterised by a greater proportion of whey proteins, trans-vaccenic acid, cis-9, trans-11-linoleic acid and monounsaturated fatty acids (P<0.05) than the HO ones. The cheeses from the RP milk gave the greatest yield. In conclusion, the most beneficial raw material for fromage frais-type cheese manufacture is the RW milk.

Keywords

  • dairy cow breeds
  • fromage frais-type cheese
  • fatty acid profile
  • protein fractions
  • sensory properties
Open Access

Meat Texture Profile and Cutting Strength Analyses of Pork Depending on Breed and Age

Published Online: 04 May 2020
Page range: 677 - 692

Abstract

Abstract

The chemical composition and culinary meat tenderness belong to the most important characteristics determining meat quality and value. The aim of this work was to compare texture profiles and shear force of pork loin (m. longissimus dorsi) and of pork ham (m. semimembranosus) from fatteners of Polish Landrace (PL), Polish Large White (PLW), Duroc, Pietrain and Puławska pig breeds slaughtered at 60, 90, 120, 150, 180 and 210 d of breeding. Meat was roasted at 180°C to inner temperature of 78°C. The intramuscular fat (IMF) content in loin was growing with fattener age (from 1.17% at 60 d to 1.84% at 180 d of life). Between breeds IMF ranged from 0.82% in PLW to 2.29% in Puławska breed. The shear force for loin muscle ranged from 3.42 kG/cm2 at 60 d to 6.54 kG/cm2 at 210 d of life while for and ham muscle 4.4 kG/cm2 at 60 d to 6.78 kG/cm2 at 210 d of life. The hardness (TPA) ranged from 72.29 N at 90 d of life to 109.46 N at 210 d of life. The shear force of loin and ham meat was increasing with age of fatteners and some texture parameters – hardness and chewiness. Nevertheless it seems that the age of 150 days is the time when meat of fatteners is characterized by the highest technological properties. However, the final decision regarding slaughter age should be made taking into account the technological destination of the carcasses. No significant interactions between the animal breed and their age were found for the parameters analysed.

Keywords

  • pigs
  • meat parameters
  • texture profile
  • shear force
Open Access

Relationship Between Content of Ketone Bodies in Milk and Milk Freezing Point of Polish Holstein-Friesian Cows in Early Lactation

Published Online: 04 May 2020
Page range: 693 - 707

Abstract

Abstract

The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between milk β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), acetone (ACE) as well as parity and lactation stage and milk freezing point (MFP) in Polish Holstein-Friesian cows in early lactation. Additionally, we studied the relationship between milk ketone bodies and daily milk yield (DMY), fat (MF) and protein (MP) content in milk. The data obtained from the Polish Federation of Cattle Breeders and Dairy Farmers, comprised 749,894 test day milk samples, collected between 6 and 60 days in milk (DIM) from 521,049 lactations of 514,066 cows. Milk BHB and ACE were determined using the Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) technology. Four classes of parities were created: first, second, third, and fourth to seventh and two classes of lactation stage: 5–21 and 22–60 DIM. BHB was grouped into five classes: ≤0.05, 0.06–0.10, 0.11–0.20, 0.21–0.50 and >0.50 mmol/L, and ACE was also classified into five classes: ≤0.05, 0.06–0.10, 0.11–0.15, 0.16–0.30 and >0.30 mmol/L. Data on MFP, DMY, and MF and MP content were analyzed using the MIXED procedure of SAS and a linear model in which effects of parity, lactation stage, BHB and ACE classes were included, together with interactions between lactation stage and BHB classes, parity and BHB classes, lactation stage and ACE classes, and parity and ACE classes. The differences among parity, lactation stages, BHB and ACE classes in MFP, DMY, MF and MP were highly significant. There was a clear tendency for decreasing of MFP with increasing of BHB. Such a trend did not occur in case of ACE. DMY and MP decreased and MF increased with increasing BHB or ACE. In conclusion, since MFP can be measured relatively easily and is well related to milk BHB content, it may be used in the prediction of diagnostic models of ketosis based on milk composition.

Keywords

  • acetone
  • β-hydroxybutyrate
  • dairy cow
  • ketosis
Open Access

Effect of Electrical and Mechanical Stunning on Rabbit Meat Quality Traits

Published Online: 04 May 2020
Page range: 709 - 724

Abstract

Abstract

Increased interest in the production of rabbit meat justifies the need to assess and improve the welfare of these animals not only during the production cycle but also at slaughter. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the effects of different stunning methods on the level of blood biochemical parameters (stress indicators), and meat quality of slaughter rabbits. Rabbits of the Hycole line (n = 60) were subjected to the following stunning methods: mechanical with a non-penetrating captive bolt (group I; n = 20), mechanical by hitting a narrow rod on the head (group II; n = 20), and electrical stunning (n = 20). In the stunning groups there were no differences found in the blood level of insulin, cortisol, glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides, non-esterified fatty acids, and protein content (P>0.05). The stunning method did not affect the pH of rabbit meat (P=0.768), but significantly influenced the L* and b* colour parameters. The muscles of longissimus thoracis et lumborum, from the group of rabbits mechanically stunned by hitting a narrow rod on the head, were the darkest (L * = 58.4), with the lowest yellowness values (b* = 4.04). The meat of electrically stunned rabbits was characterised by higher drip loss (P<0.001), lower plasticity (P=0.043), and higher free water content (P=0.043). From the analysed texture measures, only the Warner Bratzler Shear Energy values of the cooked meat were affected by the stunning method. These values were higher in the meat of the mechanically stunned groups compared to the electrically stunned rabbits (P=0.042). The percentage of dry matter, crude protein, extractable fat and water to protein ratio, were affected only by the muscle type (P<0.001). To conclude, the rabbit meat was characterised by good quality, with only slight differences between the groups. No differences were found in the stress reaction of rabbits subjected to the examined stunning methods.

Keywords

  • meat
  • meat quality
  • rabbit
  • stunning method
  • welfare

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