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Issue Editors: Magdalena Bielska, Jerzy Pilawski, Katarzyna Skupniewicz

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Volume 11 (2011): Issue 4 (August 2011)

Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
2300-8733
ISSN
1642-3402
First Published
25 Nov 2011
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English

Search

Volume 11 (2011): Issue 4 (August 2011)

Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
2300-8733
ISSN
1642-3402
First Published
25 Nov 2011
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English

Search

12 Articles

The biology, physiology and reproduction of animals

access type Open Access

Analysis of the Relationship Between Fatness of Late Pregnant and Lactating Sows and Selected Lipid Parameters of Blood, Colostrum and Milk

Published Online: 25 Nov 2011
Page range: 487 - 495

Abstract

Analysis of the Relationship Between Fatness of Late Pregnant and Lactating Sows and Selected Lipid Parameters of Blood, Colostrum and Milk

This study determined the relationships between backfat thickness in sows on day 104 (±2) of pregnancy, changes in fatness between high pregnancy and lactation (day 21), the body weight of late pregnant sows, the level of selected lipid parameters in blood serum, and basic components and fatty acid profile of colostrum and milk. Backfat measurements were taken using an ultrasound device at the P1, P2, P3 and P4 sites and loin eye height was measured at the P4M site. In late pregnant sows, fatness measured at P1, P2, P3 and P4 and the mean of measurements taken at P2 and P4 were correlated with HDL (+0.491**, +0.537**, +0.439*, +0.483** and 0.529**, respectively). Measurements taken at P4 and the mean of P2 and P4 were correlated with cholesterol (CHOL, +0.367* and +0.372*, respectively). Correlations were also found between the level of fatness of pregnant sows (P2, P3, P4, (P2 + P4)/2) and the level of HDL at the end of lactation (+0.534**, +0.440*, +0.412* and +0.487**, respectively). The body weight of late pregnant sows was significantly correlated with the energy and fat levels in colostrum (-0.467** and -0.429*, respectively). In addition, it was correlated with the proportion of fatty acids in the profile (C18:2 +0.417*, C18:3 +0.493*). Correlations were observed between P1 backfat thickness and the proportion of colostrum fatty acids (C18:1 +0.483*, CLA +0.475*), and between P2 backfat thickness and the C20:4 content of milk (-0.421*). A relationship between backfat thickness measured at farrowing and the levels of selected fatty acids in colostrum was found for P2 and C18:3 (+0.471*), P3 and C18:0 (-0.608**), C18:2 (+0.463*) and C18:3 (+0.517*), and P4M and C16:1 (-0.513*). The greater the difference in P1 backfat thickness between late pregnancy and weaning, the higher the content of fat (+0.549**), energy (+0.510*), C18:0 (+0.493*) and CLA (+0.488*), and the lower the content of C14:0 (-0.512*) and C16:0 (-0.457*) in milk. The strong correlations of fatness in late pregnant sows and of changes in fatness during late pregnancy and weaning with some blood, colostrum and milk parameters suggest that sows should be evaluated for fatness during their productive life.

Keywords

  • sows
  • correlations
  • fatness
  • lipid parameters
  • blood
  • colostrum
  • milk
access type Open Access

Impact of Globulins Derived from Genetically Modified and Conventional Soybean on Swine Lymphocyte Proliferation in in vitro Cultures

Published Online: 25 Nov 2011
Page range: 497 - 505

Abstract

Impact of Globulins Derived from Genetically Modified and Conventional Soybean on Swine Lymphocyte Proliferation in <italic>in vitro</italic> Cultures

The majority of the global feed market is dominated by the Roundup Ready 40-3-2 transgenic soybean varieties developed and marketed by Monsanto Company, which are characterized by tolerance to glyphosate, the active ingredient of the Roundup herbicide. It should be remembered, however, that soybean is one of the major allergens which may affect animal health. The aim of the study was to compare allergenic properties of globulins derived from genetically modified (GM) soybean imported from the USA and conventional soybean developed in Poland. Analyses were performed by measuring porcine lymphocyte proliferation in in vitro cultures. It turned out that both genetically modified and conventional soybean proteins caused immune response at the level of negative control. A slight increase in relation to the negative control was observed in the case of 7S and 11S fractions derived from the GM meal and 7S fraction isolated from Nawiko meal.

Keywords

  • GMO
  • soybean proteins
  • proliferation
  • phytohaemagglutinin (PHA)
access type Open Access

Comparison of Sex Steroid Concentration in Blood Plasma and Ovarian Follicles of White Leghorn and Greenleg Partridge Laying Hens

Published Online: 25 Nov 2011
Page range: 507 - 520

Abstract

Comparison of Sex Steroid Concentration in Blood Plasma and Ovarian Follicles of White Leghorn and Greenleg Partridge Laying Hens

The study was performed to compare plasma and ovarian levels of progesterone (P4) and estradiol (E2) with laying rate in two different breeds of egg-type chickens, i.e. White Leghorn (WL) and Greenleg Partridge (GP). Thirty-five-week-old WL (line H22; n = 8) and GP (line Z11; n = 8) hens were used in the experiment. Blood samples were collected from hens at the time of C1 oviposition (i.e. 0.5 h before C2 ovulation), then at 20, 16, 12, 8, 4, 2 h before C3 ovulation, and at the time of predicted C3 ovulation (i.e. just after C2 oviposition). On the following day, six birds of each breed were decapitated 2 h before ovulation on the next day after the last blood collection. A stroma, small (SWF; 1-4 mm), medium (MWF; 4-6 mm) and large (LWF; 6-8 mm) white prehierarchical follicles, and yellow hierarchical (F6-F1; 8-36 mm) ovarian follicles were isolated. P4 and E2 levels in blood plasma and ovarian follicles were determined radioimmunologically. The average rate of lay in WL hens was significantly higher than in GP hens (P<0.05). The highest concentrations of P4 and E2 were found 4 h before ovulation in both WL and GP hens. In WL hens the levels of P4 at the time of oviposition and at 4 and 2 h before ovulation were significantly higher in comparison with GP hens (P<0.05). On the other hand, higher E2 concentrations were found in GP hens at the time of oviposition and 12, 8 and 4 h before ovulation (P<0.05). In LWF and hierarchical follicles of WL hens the level of P4 was significantly lower than in GP hens (P<0.05). With respect to E2, a reverse relationship was observed in LWF and F6-F4 follicles. In conclusion, the results obtained indicate that in egg-type layers the profiles of plasma and ovarian sex steroids depend on their genotype. The significant differences in sex steroid levels in blood and ovarian follicles of the WL and GP breeds may contribute to explain the endocrinological factors that determined their laying performance and productivity.

Keywords

  • sex hormones
  • blood
  • ovulatory cycle
  • ovarian follicles
  • White Leghorn
  • Greenleg Partridge
  • hen
access type Open Access

Assessment of Selenium Concentration in Selected Organs of Farmed Raccoon Dogs (Nyctereutes Procyonoides)

Published Online: 25 Nov 2011
Page range: 521 - 529

Abstract

Assessment of Selenium Concentration in Selected Organs of Farmed Raccoon Dogs (<italic>Nyctereutes Procyonoides</italic>)

The aim of the study was to determine selenium concentrations in the liver, kidneys, lungs, heart and muscles of farmed raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides) and to evaluate their impact on hair coat quality. Selenium concentration was determined using the modified Watkinson's spectrofluorometric method. Subjects were 20 farmed raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides) at the age of 8-9 months, which were kept on a farm in south-eastern Poland. The results show that liver selenium content averaged 0.23±0.10 μg/g w.w. (wet weight). The concentrations ranged from 0.04 to 0.49 μg/g w.w. Kidney selenium concentration (0.49±0.17 μg/g w.w. on average) was over twice that of liver concentration. Animals with higher scores for hair coat quality had lower selenium concentrations in the kidneys and liver, and higher selenium concentrations in muscles, but the differences were not significant. When relating Se concentrations determined in the liver of raccoon dogs to the biochemical criteria, it is concluded that 80% of the analysed raccoon dogs were deficient in this element and 20% had marginal levels. The results obtained in our study suggest that the food used on the farm did not fully meet the Se requirement of the raccoon dogs.

Keywords

  • raccoon dogs
  • selenium
  • liver
  • kidneys
  • heart
  • lungs
  • muscles

Animal nutrition and feedstuffs

access type Open Access

Influence of Pre- and Postpartum Supplementation of Fibrolytic Enzymes and Yeast Culture, or Both, on Performance and Metabolic Status of Dairy Cows

Published Online: 25 Nov 2011
Page range: 531 - 545

Abstract

Influence of Pre- and Postpartum Supplementation of Fibrolytic Enzymes and Yeast Culture, or Both, on Performance and Metabolic Status of Dairy Cows

The aim of the study was to determine the degree to which feeding total mixed rations (TMR) with fibrolytic enzymes and/or live yeast cultures to periparturient dairy cows will affect feed intake and conversion, milk yield and chemical composition, and metabolic and reproductive parameters of the cows. The experiment was conducted from 3 weeks before calving to 10 weeks of lactation on 36 Polish Red-and-White Holstein-Friesian (PHF Red) cows assigned to four analogous groups, 9 animals each. Cows from the control group (C) were fed an unsupplemented diet, those from group E received a diet supplemented (15 g/day) with enzyme preparation (Fibrozyme™) containing a blend of active xylanase and cellulase, cows from group D a diet with yeast preparation (Yea - Sacc1026) supplemented (10 g/day) with Saccharomyces cerevisiae1026 live yeast culture, and cows from group ED were fed a diet supplemented with a mixture (25 g/day) of both feed additives. The preparations were added to the concentrate included in the TMR diet. It was found that groups E and D showed a tendency towards higher dry matter and nutrient intake compared to group C. In groups E, D and ED there was also a tendency towards higher milk yield (by about 4-12% in the first 3 weeks of lactation) and slightly higher crude protein content (by an average of 0.16, 0.09 and 0.04 percentage units, respectively), without a clear effect on the other milk constituents. Significantly (P<0.05) lower milk urea content was also noted in group E compared to group C. Cows from groups E and D compared to group C, were characterized by better (P<0.05) efficiency of feed and nutrient conversion for kg milk production, especially during the first three weeks after calving. The experimental cows also showed a tendency towards improved blood metabolic profile, especially decreased levels of beta-hydroxybutyric acid (BHBA) and reduced activity of aspartate aminotransferase (AST). The investigated preparations had no significant effect on the body weight, body condition and reproductive parameters of the cows.

Keywords

  • dairy cows
  • fibrolytic enzymes
  • live yeast cultures
  • milk yield
  • blood metabolic profile
  • fertility indices
access type Open Access

Effect of Ghrelin and Ration Composition on Milk Output and Feed Intake in Rabbits

Published Online: 25 Nov 2011
Page range: 547 - 555

Abstract

Effect of Ghrelin and Ration Composition on Milk Output and Feed Intake in Rabbits

The aim of the study was to determine plasma ghrelin concentrations in rabbits. The first part of the experiment focused on plasma ghrelin concentrations in does which were at different physiological stages and received diets with different fat contents. Plasma ghrelin levels were determined in 3-month-old rabbits after 12-hour feed withdrawal and 60 minutes after feed intake. The second part of the experiment investigated the effect of exogenous ghrelin administered to dams on the course of the lactation and weight gains of young rabbits from birth to weaning. The results of the first experiment show that plasma ghrelin levels vary according to the physiological stage of the does. The addition of 2% rapeseed oil to the diet of the does had an inhibitory effect on ghrelin secretion by significantly decreasing its plasma levels. Analysis of plasma ghrelin levels in 3-month-old rabbits subjected to feed withdrawal and following food intake revealed that ghrelin secretion increased when both oil-enriched and unsupplemented diets were fed after feed withdrawal. Ghrelin levels began to decline postprandially. The second part of the experiment demonstrated that ghrelin administered intraperitoneally to the lactating does had an effect on the milk output of the does and thus on the weight gains of the young rabbits.

Keywords

  • rabbit
  • ghrelin
  • feeding
  • lactation

Environment, hygiene and animal production technology

access type Open Access

Zoometric Indices in Silesian Horses in the Years 1945-2005

Published Online: 25 Nov 2011
Page range: 557 - 567

Abstract

Zoometric Indices in Silesian Horses in the Years 1945-2005

The aim of the present work was to analyse biometric parameters of the Silesian horse population over a period of 60 years. The research material consisted of almost 11 000 horses. The post-German breeding material was accepted as the basis of the breed, and then the project traced the changes that the population underwent as a result of inconsistent breeding policy. Zoometric indices were found to vary considerably over the years and there was a definite reaction to breeding selection, leading to changes in animal type during a short period of time.

Keywords

  • horses
  • Silesian breed
  • breeding
  • selection
  • measurements
  • indices
access type Open Access

Usefulness of Selected Incisor Characteristics for Determining the Age of Hucul Horses

Published Online: 25 Nov 2011
Page range: 569 - 575

Abstract

Usefulness of Selected Incisor Characteristics for Determining the Age of Hucul Horses

The aim of this study was to assess the suitability of selected characteristics of incisors for age determination in Hucul horses. The study included 173 Hucul horses (137 mares, 28 stallions and 8 geldings) from one day to 27 years of age. Breeding documentation was used to determine the actual age of the horses, which were then divided into age groups. Each group of horses was assigned a specific incisor characteristic to help identify their age. Selected incisor characteristics were used to evaluate the age of the horses according to the method reported by Pruski (2007) and the results were compared with the actual age, indicating the percentage of errors made. It was found that most errors were made in the case of horses over 11 years old, when assessing the changing shape of the occlusal surface of incisors (Table 1). In this group the percentage of errors was significantly higher (P≤0.01) than that found for horses from the first three youngest age groups, in which the eruption time of deciduous incisors, the disappearance of cups on deciduous incisors and the eruption time of permanent incisors were taken into account. Compared to the above traits, errors were made significantly more often (P≤0.01) when age was determined based on the disappearance of permanent incisors, in a group of horses aged between 6 and 11 years. The eruption time of deciduous incisors and permanent incisors were the traits which enabled the most accurate determination of the horses' age. The results obtained suggest that age determination based on dentition is not accurate enough and can only play a subsidiary role, for example when no breeding records are available.

Keywords

  • incisors
  • age
  • Hucul horses
access type Open Access

Relationships Between Performance Test Results of Gilts of Different Breeds

Published Online: 25 Nov 2011
Page range: 577 - 584

Abstract

Relationships Between Performance Test Results of Gilts of Different Breeds

The relationships expressed as calculated correlation coefficients were determined between the results of 44 110 purebred gilts performance tested in the years 2004-2008. The animals came from the Bydgoszcz Breeding Region and represented 5 breeds (Polish Large White, Polish Landrace, Hampshire, Duroc and Pietrain) and synthetic Line 990. The traits taken into account were: age and body weight on test day, daily body weight gain standardized to 180 days of age, backfat thickness at P2 and P4 points, loin eye height at P4 points, body meat content, and performance test selection index. Negative and highly significant correlations were found between growth rate and standardized backfat thickness at P2 and P4 points in all gilts of the tested breeds except Line 990. In the case of two breeds (Polish Large White and Pietrain) and Line 990, the correlation coefficients between daily body weight gain and standardized body meat content were negative and highly significant, which possibly suggests the unfavourable impact of high growth rate on the meat content. Higher correlation coefficient values were observed between the performance test selection index and the daily body weight gain than between the selection index and the body meat content of Polish Large White, Polish Landrace, Hampshire and Pietrain gilts.

Keywords

  • pigs
  • gilts of different breeds
  • performance test
  • correlations
access type Open Access

Welfare Levels in Heritage Breed vs. Commercial Laying Hens in the Litter System

Published Online: 25 Nov 2011
Page range: 585 - 595

Abstract

Welfare Levels in Heritage Breed vs. Commercial Laying Hens in the Litter System

The objective of the study was to determine differences in welfare levels between heritage breed hens (Yellowleg Partridge, Sussex, Leghorn) and commercial crosses (ISA Brown, Lohmann Brown, Hy-Line) kept in the litter system with no outdoor access. The experiment was carried out with 180 hens of three heritage breeds (Yellowleg Partridge, Sussex, Leghorn) and 180 commercial crosses of laying hens (Hy-Line, ISA Brown, Lohmann). Layers were reared in the litter system with no outdoor access. During the experiment, production data were collected until 38 days of age and birds' behaviour was monitored for 24 h at 18, 20, 32 and 38 weeks of age. O f the three commercial lines of laying hens kept in the litter system with no outdoor access, the lowest welfare levels were characteristic of ISA Brown birds. Hy-Line and Lohmann layers were characterized by comparable welfare levels that were higher in relation to ISA Brown layers. The results also showed that Sussex hens reared in the litter system had higher welfare levels than Yellowleg Partridge and Leghorn hens. When comparing the results of heritage breed and commercial hens, it can be said that mortality and increased levels of aggression in heritage breed hens kept in the litter system suggest that their welfare levels were lower than in commercial layers.

Keywords

  • laying hens
  • welfare
  • behaviour
  • production results

Quality and safety of animal origin products

access type Open Access

Effect of Genetically Modified Feeds on Physico-Chemical Properties of Pork

Published Online: 25 Nov 2011
Page range: 597 - 606

Abstract

Effect of Genetically Modified Feeds on Physico-Chemical Properties of Pork

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of genetically modified (GM), insect-resistant Bt maize (MON810) and the meal made of glyphosate-tolerant soybean (Roundup Ready MON40-3-2) used as the dietary components for pigs on the physico-chemical properties of meat. Forty-eight fatteners derived from Polish Landrace x Polish Large White sows mated to a Duroc x Pietrain boar were used. All animals received isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets containing or not containing the genetically modified components. The design of the experiment was as follows: group I (control) - non-modified soybean meal and maize; group II - GM soybean meal and non-modified maize; group III - non-modified soybean meal and GM maize; group IV - GM soybean meal and GM maize. The examination of the pH values of loin and neck muscles indicated no statistically significant differences between pigs fed diets containing non-transgenic or transgenic feeds. No statistical differences were observed for water holding capacity (WHC) within dietary treatments. The introduction of transgenic maize and soybean meal into pig diets did not significantly affect the a* colour parameter of loin as well as neck muscles. The use of transgenic maize or soybean meal did not cause significant changes in the L* colour value of loin. Results obtained for neck muscles were more differentiated, possibly due to the natural heterogeneity of this primal cut. Pigs which had consumed the transgenic diet exhibited slightly decreased lipid stability of loin, as indicated by thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS). The decrease was statistically significant only in the case of muscles from group II. The addition of feeds derived from genetically modified crops into pig diets did not significantly affect the stability of neck muscle lipids; however, TBARS values of these muscles were twice those of loin muscles.

Keywords

  • pigs
  • genetically modified feeds
  • physico-chemical properties
  • muscles
access type Open Access

Effect of Housing System on Egg Quality in Laying Hens

Published Online: 25 Nov 2011
Page range: 607 - 611

Abstract

Effect of Housing System on Egg Quality in Laying Hens

The aim of the study was to evaluate the quality of eggs from hybrids of laying hens of selected Polish breeding strains depending on their housing system. Analysis was made of eggs from KA-62, KA-42, KA-68 and KA-48 hybrids housed in three systems: cage, litter and free range. One hundred eggs, randomly chosen from each experimental group between 34 and 36 weeks of age, were evaluated for a set of physical characteristics such as weight of egg and egg fraction, percentage of main egg fractions, egg shape index, air cell height, albumen height and pH, Haugh units, yolk colour and pH, as well as shell colour, thickness, density and deformation. Caged birds produced the heaviest eggs (61.06 g) with the lowest shape index (77.86%), lightest shell (39.86) and highest percentage of albumen (57.04%) and yolk (29.89%) in the egg. The most favourable quality traits of albumen from the analysed eggs, i.e. greatest height (5.00 mm) and Haugh units (69.70) were characteristic of egg albumen from hens raised on litter. Shell quality analysis showed that the eggs of free-range birds were characterized by the highest weight of shell (5.76 g), which had the greatest thickness (360.14 μm) and density (81.01 mg/cm2). Detailed analysis of the physical characteristics of eggs from the hybrids of laying hens revealed significant (P≤0.05) differences depending on the housing system. The eggs of caged layers showed many characteristics desired by processors. Meanwhile, the eggs of hens kept on litter were characterized by dietetic properties that could meet specific needs of the consumers.

Keywords

  • housing
  • egg
  • quality
  • physical characteristics
12 Articles

The biology, physiology and reproduction of animals

access type Open Access

Analysis of the Relationship Between Fatness of Late Pregnant and Lactating Sows and Selected Lipid Parameters of Blood, Colostrum and Milk

Published Online: 25 Nov 2011
Page range: 487 - 495

Abstract

Analysis of the Relationship Between Fatness of Late Pregnant and Lactating Sows and Selected Lipid Parameters of Blood, Colostrum and Milk

This study determined the relationships between backfat thickness in sows on day 104 (±2) of pregnancy, changes in fatness between high pregnancy and lactation (day 21), the body weight of late pregnant sows, the level of selected lipid parameters in blood serum, and basic components and fatty acid profile of colostrum and milk. Backfat measurements were taken using an ultrasound device at the P1, P2, P3 and P4 sites and loin eye height was measured at the P4M site. In late pregnant sows, fatness measured at P1, P2, P3 and P4 and the mean of measurements taken at P2 and P4 were correlated with HDL (+0.491**, +0.537**, +0.439*, +0.483** and 0.529**, respectively). Measurements taken at P4 and the mean of P2 and P4 were correlated with cholesterol (CHOL, +0.367* and +0.372*, respectively). Correlations were also found between the level of fatness of pregnant sows (P2, P3, P4, (P2 + P4)/2) and the level of HDL at the end of lactation (+0.534**, +0.440*, +0.412* and +0.487**, respectively). The body weight of late pregnant sows was significantly correlated with the energy and fat levels in colostrum (-0.467** and -0.429*, respectively). In addition, it was correlated with the proportion of fatty acids in the profile (C18:2 +0.417*, C18:3 +0.493*). Correlations were observed between P1 backfat thickness and the proportion of colostrum fatty acids (C18:1 +0.483*, CLA +0.475*), and between P2 backfat thickness and the C20:4 content of milk (-0.421*). A relationship between backfat thickness measured at farrowing and the levels of selected fatty acids in colostrum was found for P2 and C18:3 (+0.471*), P3 and C18:0 (-0.608**), C18:2 (+0.463*) and C18:3 (+0.517*), and P4M and C16:1 (-0.513*). The greater the difference in P1 backfat thickness between late pregnancy and weaning, the higher the content of fat (+0.549**), energy (+0.510*), C18:0 (+0.493*) and CLA (+0.488*), and the lower the content of C14:0 (-0.512*) and C16:0 (-0.457*) in milk. The strong correlations of fatness in late pregnant sows and of changes in fatness during late pregnancy and weaning with some blood, colostrum and milk parameters suggest that sows should be evaluated for fatness during their productive life.

Keywords

  • sows
  • correlations
  • fatness
  • lipid parameters
  • blood
  • colostrum
  • milk
access type Open Access

Impact of Globulins Derived from Genetically Modified and Conventional Soybean on Swine Lymphocyte Proliferation in in vitro Cultures

Published Online: 25 Nov 2011
Page range: 497 - 505

Abstract

Impact of Globulins Derived from Genetically Modified and Conventional Soybean on Swine Lymphocyte Proliferation in <italic>in vitro</italic> Cultures

The majority of the global feed market is dominated by the Roundup Ready 40-3-2 transgenic soybean varieties developed and marketed by Monsanto Company, which are characterized by tolerance to glyphosate, the active ingredient of the Roundup herbicide. It should be remembered, however, that soybean is one of the major allergens which may affect animal health. The aim of the study was to compare allergenic properties of globulins derived from genetically modified (GM) soybean imported from the USA and conventional soybean developed in Poland. Analyses were performed by measuring porcine lymphocyte proliferation in in vitro cultures. It turned out that both genetically modified and conventional soybean proteins caused immune response at the level of negative control. A slight increase in relation to the negative control was observed in the case of 7S and 11S fractions derived from the GM meal and 7S fraction isolated from Nawiko meal.

Keywords

  • GMO
  • soybean proteins
  • proliferation
  • phytohaemagglutinin (PHA)
access type Open Access

Comparison of Sex Steroid Concentration in Blood Plasma and Ovarian Follicles of White Leghorn and Greenleg Partridge Laying Hens

Published Online: 25 Nov 2011
Page range: 507 - 520

Abstract

Comparison of Sex Steroid Concentration in Blood Plasma and Ovarian Follicles of White Leghorn and Greenleg Partridge Laying Hens

The study was performed to compare plasma and ovarian levels of progesterone (P4) and estradiol (E2) with laying rate in two different breeds of egg-type chickens, i.e. White Leghorn (WL) and Greenleg Partridge (GP). Thirty-five-week-old WL (line H22; n = 8) and GP (line Z11; n = 8) hens were used in the experiment. Blood samples were collected from hens at the time of C1 oviposition (i.e. 0.5 h before C2 ovulation), then at 20, 16, 12, 8, 4, 2 h before C3 ovulation, and at the time of predicted C3 ovulation (i.e. just after C2 oviposition). On the following day, six birds of each breed were decapitated 2 h before ovulation on the next day after the last blood collection. A stroma, small (SWF; 1-4 mm), medium (MWF; 4-6 mm) and large (LWF; 6-8 mm) white prehierarchical follicles, and yellow hierarchical (F6-F1; 8-36 mm) ovarian follicles were isolated. P4 and E2 levels in blood plasma and ovarian follicles were determined radioimmunologically. The average rate of lay in WL hens was significantly higher than in GP hens (P<0.05). The highest concentrations of P4 and E2 were found 4 h before ovulation in both WL and GP hens. In WL hens the levels of P4 at the time of oviposition and at 4 and 2 h before ovulation were significantly higher in comparison with GP hens (P<0.05). On the other hand, higher E2 concentrations were found in GP hens at the time of oviposition and 12, 8 and 4 h before ovulation (P<0.05). In LWF and hierarchical follicles of WL hens the level of P4 was significantly lower than in GP hens (P<0.05). With respect to E2, a reverse relationship was observed in LWF and F6-F4 follicles. In conclusion, the results obtained indicate that in egg-type layers the profiles of plasma and ovarian sex steroids depend on their genotype. The significant differences in sex steroid levels in blood and ovarian follicles of the WL and GP breeds may contribute to explain the endocrinological factors that determined their laying performance and productivity.

Keywords

  • sex hormones
  • blood
  • ovulatory cycle
  • ovarian follicles
  • White Leghorn
  • Greenleg Partridge
  • hen
access type Open Access

Assessment of Selenium Concentration in Selected Organs of Farmed Raccoon Dogs (Nyctereutes Procyonoides)

Published Online: 25 Nov 2011
Page range: 521 - 529

Abstract

Assessment of Selenium Concentration in Selected Organs of Farmed Raccoon Dogs (<italic>Nyctereutes Procyonoides</italic>)

The aim of the study was to determine selenium concentrations in the liver, kidneys, lungs, heart and muscles of farmed raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides) and to evaluate their impact on hair coat quality. Selenium concentration was determined using the modified Watkinson's spectrofluorometric method. Subjects were 20 farmed raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides) at the age of 8-9 months, which were kept on a farm in south-eastern Poland. The results show that liver selenium content averaged 0.23±0.10 μg/g w.w. (wet weight). The concentrations ranged from 0.04 to 0.49 μg/g w.w. Kidney selenium concentration (0.49±0.17 μg/g w.w. on average) was over twice that of liver concentration. Animals with higher scores for hair coat quality had lower selenium concentrations in the kidneys and liver, and higher selenium concentrations in muscles, but the differences were not significant. When relating Se concentrations determined in the liver of raccoon dogs to the biochemical criteria, it is concluded that 80% of the analysed raccoon dogs were deficient in this element and 20% had marginal levels. The results obtained in our study suggest that the food used on the farm did not fully meet the Se requirement of the raccoon dogs.

Keywords

  • raccoon dogs
  • selenium
  • liver
  • kidneys
  • heart
  • lungs
  • muscles

Animal nutrition and feedstuffs

access type Open Access

Influence of Pre- and Postpartum Supplementation of Fibrolytic Enzymes and Yeast Culture, or Both, on Performance and Metabolic Status of Dairy Cows

Published Online: 25 Nov 2011
Page range: 531 - 545

Abstract

Influence of Pre- and Postpartum Supplementation of Fibrolytic Enzymes and Yeast Culture, or Both, on Performance and Metabolic Status of Dairy Cows

The aim of the study was to determine the degree to which feeding total mixed rations (TMR) with fibrolytic enzymes and/or live yeast cultures to periparturient dairy cows will affect feed intake and conversion, milk yield and chemical composition, and metabolic and reproductive parameters of the cows. The experiment was conducted from 3 weeks before calving to 10 weeks of lactation on 36 Polish Red-and-White Holstein-Friesian (PHF Red) cows assigned to four analogous groups, 9 animals each. Cows from the control group (C) were fed an unsupplemented diet, those from group E received a diet supplemented (15 g/day) with enzyme preparation (Fibrozyme™) containing a blend of active xylanase and cellulase, cows from group D a diet with yeast preparation (Yea - Sacc1026) supplemented (10 g/day) with Saccharomyces cerevisiae1026 live yeast culture, and cows from group ED were fed a diet supplemented with a mixture (25 g/day) of both feed additives. The preparations were added to the concentrate included in the TMR diet. It was found that groups E and D showed a tendency towards higher dry matter and nutrient intake compared to group C. In groups E, D and ED there was also a tendency towards higher milk yield (by about 4-12% in the first 3 weeks of lactation) and slightly higher crude protein content (by an average of 0.16, 0.09 and 0.04 percentage units, respectively), without a clear effect on the other milk constituents. Significantly (P<0.05) lower milk urea content was also noted in group E compared to group C. Cows from groups E and D compared to group C, were characterized by better (P<0.05) efficiency of feed and nutrient conversion for kg milk production, especially during the first three weeks after calving. The experimental cows also showed a tendency towards improved blood metabolic profile, especially decreased levels of beta-hydroxybutyric acid (BHBA) and reduced activity of aspartate aminotransferase (AST). The investigated preparations had no significant effect on the body weight, body condition and reproductive parameters of the cows.

Keywords

  • dairy cows
  • fibrolytic enzymes
  • live yeast cultures
  • milk yield
  • blood metabolic profile
  • fertility indices
access type Open Access

Effect of Ghrelin and Ration Composition on Milk Output and Feed Intake in Rabbits

Published Online: 25 Nov 2011
Page range: 547 - 555

Abstract

Effect of Ghrelin and Ration Composition on Milk Output and Feed Intake in Rabbits

The aim of the study was to determine plasma ghrelin concentrations in rabbits. The first part of the experiment focused on plasma ghrelin concentrations in does which were at different physiological stages and received diets with different fat contents. Plasma ghrelin levels were determined in 3-month-old rabbits after 12-hour feed withdrawal and 60 minutes after feed intake. The second part of the experiment investigated the effect of exogenous ghrelin administered to dams on the course of the lactation and weight gains of young rabbits from birth to weaning. The results of the first experiment show that plasma ghrelin levels vary according to the physiological stage of the does. The addition of 2% rapeseed oil to the diet of the does had an inhibitory effect on ghrelin secretion by significantly decreasing its plasma levels. Analysis of plasma ghrelin levels in 3-month-old rabbits subjected to feed withdrawal and following food intake revealed that ghrelin secretion increased when both oil-enriched and unsupplemented diets were fed after feed withdrawal. Ghrelin levels began to decline postprandially. The second part of the experiment demonstrated that ghrelin administered intraperitoneally to the lactating does had an effect on the milk output of the does and thus on the weight gains of the young rabbits.

Keywords

  • rabbit
  • ghrelin
  • feeding
  • lactation

Environment, hygiene and animal production technology

access type Open Access

Zoometric Indices in Silesian Horses in the Years 1945-2005

Published Online: 25 Nov 2011
Page range: 557 - 567

Abstract

Zoometric Indices in Silesian Horses in the Years 1945-2005

The aim of the present work was to analyse biometric parameters of the Silesian horse population over a period of 60 years. The research material consisted of almost 11 000 horses. The post-German breeding material was accepted as the basis of the breed, and then the project traced the changes that the population underwent as a result of inconsistent breeding policy. Zoometric indices were found to vary considerably over the years and there was a definite reaction to breeding selection, leading to changes in animal type during a short period of time.

Keywords

  • horses
  • Silesian breed
  • breeding
  • selection
  • measurements
  • indices
access type Open Access

Usefulness of Selected Incisor Characteristics for Determining the Age of Hucul Horses

Published Online: 25 Nov 2011
Page range: 569 - 575

Abstract

Usefulness of Selected Incisor Characteristics for Determining the Age of Hucul Horses

The aim of this study was to assess the suitability of selected characteristics of incisors for age determination in Hucul horses. The study included 173 Hucul horses (137 mares, 28 stallions and 8 geldings) from one day to 27 years of age. Breeding documentation was used to determine the actual age of the horses, which were then divided into age groups. Each group of horses was assigned a specific incisor characteristic to help identify their age. Selected incisor characteristics were used to evaluate the age of the horses according to the method reported by Pruski (2007) and the results were compared with the actual age, indicating the percentage of errors made. It was found that most errors were made in the case of horses over 11 years old, when assessing the changing shape of the occlusal surface of incisors (Table 1). In this group the percentage of errors was significantly higher (P≤0.01) than that found for horses from the first three youngest age groups, in which the eruption time of deciduous incisors, the disappearance of cups on deciduous incisors and the eruption time of permanent incisors were taken into account. Compared to the above traits, errors were made significantly more often (P≤0.01) when age was determined based on the disappearance of permanent incisors, in a group of horses aged between 6 and 11 years. The eruption time of deciduous incisors and permanent incisors were the traits which enabled the most accurate determination of the horses' age. The results obtained suggest that age determination based on dentition is not accurate enough and can only play a subsidiary role, for example when no breeding records are available.

Keywords

  • incisors
  • age
  • Hucul horses
access type Open Access

Relationships Between Performance Test Results of Gilts of Different Breeds

Published Online: 25 Nov 2011
Page range: 577 - 584

Abstract

Relationships Between Performance Test Results of Gilts of Different Breeds

The relationships expressed as calculated correlation coefficients were determined between the results of 44 110 purebred gilts performance tested in the years 2004-2008. The animals came from the Bydgoszcz Breeding Region and represented 5 breeds (Polish Large White, Polish Landrace, Hampshire, Duroc and Pietrain) and synthetic Line 990. The traits taken into account were: age and body weight on test day, daily body weight gain standardized to 180 days of age, backfat thickness at P2 and P4 points, loin eye height at P4 points, body meat content, and performance test selection index. Negative and highly significant correlations were found between growth rate and standardized backfat thickness at P2 and P4 points in all gilts of the tested breeds except Line 990. In the case of two breeds (Polish Large White and Pietrain) and Line 990, the correlation coefficients between daily body weight gain and standardized body meat content were negative and highly significant, which possibly suggests the unfavourable impact of high growth rate on the meat content. Higher correlation coefficient values were observed between the performance test selection index and the daily body weight gain than between the selection index and the body meat content of Polish Large White, Polish Landrace, Hampshire and Pietrain gilts.

Keywords

  • pigs
  • gilts of different breeds
  • performance test
  • correlations
access type Open Access

Welfare Levels in Heritage Breed vs. Commercial Laying Hens in the Litter System

Published Online: 25 Nov 2011
Page range: 585 - 595

Abstract

Welfare Levels in Heritage Breed vs. Commercial Laying Hens in the Litter System

The objective of the study was to determine differences in welfare levels between heritage breed hens (Yellowleg Partridge, Sussex, Leghorn) and commercial crosses (ISA Brown, Lohmann Brown, Hy-Line) kept in the litter system with no outdoor access. The experiment was carried out with 180 hens of three heritage breeds (Yellowleg Partridge, Sussex, Leghorn) and 180 commercial crosses of laying hens (Hy-Line, ISA Brown, Lohmann). Layers were reared in the litter system with no outdoor access. During the experiment, production data were collected until 38 days of age and birds' behaviour was monitored for 24 h at 18, 20, 32 and 38 weeks of age. O f the three commercial lines of laying hens kept in the litter system with no outdoor access, the lowest welfare levels were characteristic of ISA Brown birds. Hy-Line and Lohmann layers were characterized by comparable welfare levels that were higher in relation to ISA Brown layers. The results also showed that Sussex hens reared in the litter system had higher welfare levels than Yellowleg Partridge and Leghorn hens. When comparing the results of heritage breed and commercial hens, it can be said that mortality and increased levels of aggression in heritage breed hens kept in the litter system suggest that their welfare levels were lower than in commercial layers.

Keywords

  • laying hens
  • welfare
  • behaviour
  • production results

Quality and safety of animal origin products

access type Open Access

Effect of Genetically Modified Feeds on Physico-Chemical Properties of Pork

Published Online: 25 Nov 2011
Page range: 597 - 606

Abstract

Effect of Genetically Modified Feeds on Physico-Chemical Properties of Pork

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of genetically modified (GM), insect-resistant Bt maize (MON810) and the meal made of glyphosate-tolerant soybean (Roundup Ready MON40-3-2) used as the dietary components for pigs on the physico-chemical properties of meat. Forty-eight fatteners derived from Polish Landrace x Polish Large White sows mated to a Duroc x Pietrain boar were used. All animals received isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets containing or not containing the genetically modified components. The design of the experiment was as follows: group I (control) - non-modified soybean meal and maize; group II - GM soybean meal and non-modified maize; group III - non-modified soybean meal and GM maize; group IV - GM soybean meal and GM maize. The examination of the pH values of loin and neck muscles indicated no statistically significant differences between pigs fed diets containing non-transgenic or transgenic feeds. No statistical differences were observed for water holding capacity (WHC) within dietary treatments. The introduction of transgenic maize and soybean meal into pig diets did not significantly affect the a* colour parameter of loin as well as neck muscles. The use of transgenic maize or soybean meal did not cause significant changes in the L* colour value of loin. Results obtained for neck muscles were more differentiated, possibly due to the natural heterogeneity of this primal cut. Pigs which had consumed the transgenic diet exhibited slightly decreased lipid stability of loin, as indicated by thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS). The decrease was statistically significant only in the case of muscles from group II. The addition of feeds derived from genetically modified crops into pig diets did not significantly affect the stability of neck muscle lipids; however, TBARS values of these muscles were twice those of loin muscles.

Keywords

  • pigs
  • genetically modified feeds
  • physico-chemical properties
  • muscles
access type Open Access

Effect of Housing System on Egg Quality in Laying Hens

Published Online: 25 Nov 2011
Page range: 607 - 611

Abstract

Effect of Housing System on Egg Quality in Laying Hens

The aim of the study was to evaluate the quality of eggs from hybrids of laying hens of selected Polish breeding strains depending on their housing system. Analysis was made of eggs from KA-62, KA-42, KA-68 and KA-48 hybrids housed in three systems: cage, litter and free range. One hundred eggs, randomly chosen from each experimental group between 34 and 36 weeks of age, were evaluated for a set of physical characteristics such as weight of egg and egg fraction, percentage of main egg fractions, egg shape index, air cell height, albumen height and pH, Haugh units, yolk colour and pH, as well as shell colour, thickness, density and deformation. Caged birds produced the heaviest eggs (61.06 g) with the lowest shape index (77.86%), lightest shell (39.86) and highest percentage of albumen (57.04%) and yolk (29.89%) in the egg. The most favourable quality traits of albumen from the analysed eggs, i.e. greatest height (5.00 mm) and Haugh units (69.70) were characteristic of egg albumen from hens raised on litter. Shell quality analysis showed that the eggs of free-range birds were characterized by the highest weight of shell (5.76 g), which had the greatest thickness (360.14 μm) and density (81.01 mg/cm2). Detailed analysis of the physical characteristics of eggs from the hybrids of laying hens revealed significant (P≤0.05) differences depending on the housing system. The eggs of caged layers showed many characteristics desired by processors. Meanwhile, the eggs of hens kept on litter were characterized by dietetic properties that could meet specific needs of the consumers.

Keywords

  • housing
  • egg
  • quality
  • physical characteristics

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