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Volume 22 (2022): Issue 3 (July 2022)

Volume 22 (2022): Issue 2 (April 2022)

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Volume 21 (2021): Issue 4 (October 2021)

Volume 21 (2021): Issue 3 (July 2021)

Volume 21 (2021): Issue 2 (April 2021)

Volume 21 (2021): Issue 1 (January 2021)

Volume 20 (2020): Issue 4 (October 2020)

Volume 20 (2020): Issue 3 (July 2020)

Volume 20 (2020): Issue 2 (April 2020)

Volume 20 (2020): Issue 1 (January 2020)

Volume 19 (2019): Issue 4 (October 2019)

Volume 19 (2019): Issue 3 (July 2019)

Volume 19 (2019): Issue 2 (April 2019)

Volume 19 (2019): Issue 1 (January 2019)

Volume 18 (2018): Issue 4 (October 2018)

Volume 18 (2018): Issue 3 (July 2018)

Volume 18 (2018): Issue 2 (May 2018)

Volume 18 (2018): Issue 1 (January 2018)

Volume 17 (2017): Issue 4 (October 2017)

Volume 17 (2017): Issue 3 (July 2017)

Volume 17 (2017): Issue 2 (May 2017)

Volume 17 (2017): Issue 1 (January 2017)

Volume 16 (2016): Issue 4 (October 2016)

Volume 16 (2016): Issue 3 (July 2016)

Volume 16 (2016): Issue 2 (April 2016)

Volume 16 (2016): Issue 1 (January 2016)

Volume 15 (2015): Issue 4 (October 2015)

Volume 15 (2015): Issue 3 (July 2015)

Volume 15 (2015): Issue 2 (April 2015)

Volume 15 (2015): Issue 1 (January 2015)

Volume 14 (2014): Issue 4 (October 2014)

Volume 14 (2014): Issue 3 (July 2014)

Volume 14 (2014): Issue 2 (April 2014)

Volume 14 (2014): Issue 1 (January 2014)

Volume 13 (2013): Issue 4 (October 2013)
Issue Editors: Magdalena Bielska, Jerzy Pilawski, Katarzyna Skupniewicz

Volume 13 (2013): Issue 3 (July 2013)

Volume 13 (2013): Issue 2 (April 2013)

Volume 13 (2013): Issue 1 (January 2013)

Volume 12 (2012): Issue 4 (October 2012)

Volume 12 (2012): Issue 3 (July 2012)

Volume 12 (2012): Issue 2 (April 2012)

Volume 12 (2012): Issue 1 (January 2012)

Volume 11 (2011): Issue 4 (August 2011)

Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
2300-8733
ISSN
1642-3402
First Published
25 Nov 2011
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English

Search

Volume 12 (2012): Issue 1 (January 2012)

Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
2300-8733
ISSN
1642-3402
First Published
25 Nov 2011
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English

Search

10 Articles

Review

Open Access

The Application of Zoo-Fish Technique for Analysis of Chromosomal Rearrangements in the Equidae Family

Published Online: 15 Feb 2012
Page range: 5 - 13

Abstract

The Application of Zoo-Fish Technique for Analysis of Chromosomal Rearrangements in the <italic>Equidae</italic> Family

Genome analysis is necessary to trace evolutionary rearrangements and relationships between species. Initially, to this end, the tools of classical cytogenetics were used but along with the development of molecular cytogenetics methods it became possible to analyse the genome more thoroughly. One of the widely used methods is fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and its different types. Zoo-FISH, or cross-species chromosome painting, which uses painting probes specific for whole chromosomes, enables detecting homologous synteny blocks, the occurrence of which is evidence that species share a common ancestry and are related. Zoo-FISH technique is complemented by FISH with probes specific to chromosome arms or repetitive sequences (telomeres, centromeres), which provide additional information about karyotype organization, as well as karyotype polymorphism and conservation. Another method used is FISH with gene-specific probes, which enable the localization of single loci, thus making it possible to determine linkages between genes and verify data obtained after using painting probes in Zoo-FISH technique. Because of its diverse karyotype and rapid karyotypic evolution, the Equidae family is an ideal object of study using a number of methods based on in situ hybridization, which, in turn, enables information to be obtained at many levels of DNA organization.

Keywords

  • FISH
  • Zoo-FISH
Open Access

The Gonadotropins Subunits, GNRH and GNRH Receptor Gene Expression and Role of Carbon Monoxide in Seasonal Breeding Animals

Published Online: 15 Feb 2012
Page range: 15 - 23

Abstract

The Gonadotropins Subunits, <italic>GNRH</italic> and GNRH Receptor Gene Expression and Role of Carbon Monoxide in Seasonal Breeding Animals

Seasonality in reproduction occurs mainly in wild species and it is the result of natural selection. Signals to start or finish the period of reproductive activity, both environmental and hormonal depend on the neuroendocrine pathway - synthesis and secretion of pituitary hormones, luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), under the control of the hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons. Variable frequency of GnRH pulses is not only the main factor governing primary and preovulatory release of gonadotropins, but it can also play a role in the specific transcriptional activity of gonadotropin subunit genes (LHβ, FSHβ and Cga). However, changes in release of GnRH pulse pattern do not explain the preferential stimulation of the synthesis and secretion of gonadotropins in the annual reproductive cycle. In this regulation also a GnRH independent mechanism participates. It seems that the main factor responsible for the occurrence of the seasonal modulation of reproduction in sheep and other mammals, is significant changes in response of GnRH systems to gonadal steroids. The effect of carbon monoxide on regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis has not been studied to date. There is substantial evidence to suggest that it may play a role in the transduction of information on day length. The presence of heme oxygenase-2 in hypothalamic areas important for regulation of pituitary secretory function and in the pituitary itself suggests that carbon monoxide, the product of this enzyme, may participate in the regulation of hormone secretion by the pineal gland.

Keywords

  • gonadotropin gene expression
  • GnRH
  • seasonality in reproduction
Open Access

Cholesterol and Lipid Peroxides in Animal Products and Health Implications - A Review

Published Online: 15 Feb 2012
Page range: 25 - 52

Abstract

Cholesterol and Lipid Peroxides in Animal Products and Health Implications - A Review

The level of oxysterols in animal products depends on the temperature used in food processing, duration of heating, and storage time and conditions. High temperature, oxygen, exposure to light, chemical composition of the product and low level of antioxidants accelerate the formation of cholesterol oxidation products (COPs). Also the high content of polyunsaturated fatty acids in meat and eggs favours the formation of oxysterols. Dairy products are characterized by the lowest content of COPs of all animal products. The most common oxysterols present in products of animal origin are 7-ketocholesterol, 20α-hydroxycholesterol, 25-hydroxycholesterol and α, β-epoxycholesterol. Numerous studies have confirmed the adverse effects of COPs on animal and human health. They exhibit mutagenic, carcinogenic, angiogenic and toxic action, damage cell membranes, and inhibit cholesterol biosynthesis. The use of certain antioxidants in animal nutrition limits the formation of COPs during technological processing of meat, eggs and milk, as well as during storage of fresh products. The excessive oxidation of cholesterol can be additionally prevented through the use of appropriate packaging that limits oxygen and light exposure.

Keywords

  • cholesterol
  • oxidation
  • oxysterols
  • TBARS
  • meat
  • egg
  • milk products

Genetics and farm animal breeding

Open Access

The Effects of Crossing Balkan and Saanen Goat Breeds on Carcass Traits and Certain Quality Parameters of Kid Meat

Published Online: 15 Feb 2012
Page range: 53 - 62

Abstract

The Effects of Crossing Balkan and Saanen Goat Breeds on Carcass Traits and Certain Quality Parameters of Kid Meat

The possibility for improvement of carcass traits and quality of kid meat of the autochthonous Balkan goat breed by crossing with Saanen breed was investigated in this study. The trial was carried out on one group of Balkan goat kids and three groups of kid crosses of Balkan and Saanen goats with different proportion of Saanen genes: 25, 50 and 75%. Each group had 16 male kids, which were slaughtered at the average body weight of 18 kg. With the increase in the proportion of Saanen genes, the age of kids that reached preslaughter weight decreased, the chilling loss increased and the proportion of fat tissue (kidney and pelvic fat) in the carcass side decreased (P≤0.05). The crossing also increased the proportion of carcass parts of the first category (leg and loin section), as well as muscle tissue in those parts. The highest proportion of muscle tissue in the thigh (74.91%) and loin section (75.66%) was determined in kids from the group with 75% of Saanen genes, and kids from this group also had the highest proportion of intramuscular fat (2.48%) in samples of m. longissimus dorsi. Slight differences between kid groups were established in indicators of technological meat properties, such as water binding capacity and tenderness, with the increase in the proportion of Saanen genes in the genotype. Sensory score for roasted meat was high, and scores for tenderness and juiciness were slightly higher in kid crosses with 50% and 75% of Saanen genes (P≤0.05). Results presented in this study confirm the positive effect of crossing the Saanen breed with the Balkan breed on carcass traits and for obtaining meat of more desirable quality.

Keywords

  • kid
  • genotype
  • carcass traits
  • proportion of tissues
  • meat quality
Open Access

Effect of Calpastatin Gene Polymorphism on Lamb Growth and Muscling

Published Online: 15 Feb 2012
Page range: 63 - 72

Abstract

Effect of Calpastatin Gene Polymorphism on Lamb Growth and Muscling

The calpain-calpastatin system plays a key role in skeletal muscle growth and development processes. It is known that calpastatin activity correlates highly with muscle growth rate, which implies that skeletal muscle growth is likely to result from reduced protein degradation due to compromised activity of calpains or substantial increase of calpastatin activity. The objective of the present research was to identify polymorphic forms in intron 12 of the ovine calpastatin gene in sheep of synthetic lines BCP and SCP, followed by determination of the correlation between each polymorphic form of CAST gene and chosen traits characterizing lamb growth and muscling. The present study's results suggest that lambs carrying the "b" and "e" alleles and the "ae" genotype could be preferred when selecting for growth rate. The breeding efforts to obtain substantial increases in sheep muscle mass could focus on animals carrying the "ac" genotype. No statistically significant relationship was observed in any of the analysed cases between values of the traits and the CAST genotype. However, a highly significant effect of the study year on the analysed traits was found. The results should be regarded as preliminary. The research should be continued on a larger group of animals to ensure the adequate number of each genotype. The trends mentioned and discussed above may also serve as an indicator showing the future direction of further studies in this area.

Keywords

  • sheep
  • calpastatin polymorphism gene
  • muscle growth

The biology, physiology and reproduction of animals

Open Access

Postimplantation Development of Cloned Rabbit Embryos Reconstructed with Foetal and Adult Skin-Derived Fibroblast Cell Nuclei

Published Online: 15 Feb 2012
Page range: 73 - 80

Abstract

Postimplantation Development of Cloned Rabbit Embryos Reconstructed with Foetal and Adult Skin-Derived Fibroblast Cell Nuclei

The aim of the study was to determine the postimplantation developmental potential of nuclear transfer (NT) derived rabbit embryos, which were reconstructed with foetal fibroblast (FF) or adult skin fibroblast (AF) cell nuclei. A total of 97 embryos reconstructed with FF cell nuclei (Group I) were transferred into the oviducts of 6 pseudopregnant recipients and 101 embryos reconstructed with AF cell nuclei (Group II) were transferred to 6 foster mothers. The presence of fetuses (with the symptoms of early resorption of amniotic sacs) was confirmed in the 4/6 (66.7%) and 1/6 (16.7%) recipient-females in Group I and Group II, respectively. The implantation rate was significantly higher for cloned embryos originating from the oocytes receiving foetal fibroblasts than for those derived from adult skin fibroblasts (P<0.1). Nonetheless, all pregnancies were lost and no progeny were obtained.

Keywords

  • rabbit
  • somatic cell nuclear transfer
  • foetal fibroblast
  • adult skin fibroblast

Animal nutrition and feedstuffs

Open Access

Effect of Pasture or Maize Silage Feeding on the Nutritional Value of Beef

Published Online: 15 Feb 2012
Page range: 81 - 93

Abstract

Effect of Pasture or Maize Silage Feeding on the Nutritional Value of Beef

The objective of this study was to evaluate the nutritional value of beef from different production systems. The study was conducted with Hereford bulls on organic and conventional farms. On the organic farm, fattening was mainly based on roughages, including pasture forage in the summer season, when the end of fattening occurred. On the conventional farm the bulls were fed maize silage and concentrate. On both farms, the animals were aged 7-9 months at the beginning of fattening. The bulls were fattened to a final body weight of 550-600 kg. Samples of longissimus thoracis muscle were collected from half-carcasses of slaughtered bulls originating from each farm to analyse fat content, fatty acid profile, and content of selected minerals and vitamin E. Muscle samples were additionally analysed for the concentration of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances 3 and 7 days after slaughter. Analyses showed a lower fat content in longissimus thoracis muscle of bulls from the pasture feeding system. The fatty acid profile was also characterized by a lower content of C 14:0, and a higher content of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), including C18:3 n-3, conjugated linoleic acid, C 20:5 n-3, and C 22:5 n-3, as well as by a lower ratio of n-6/n-3 PUFA. The total content of monounsaturated fatty acids was significantly higher in animals fed maize silage and feed concentrate. In turn, the muscle of pasture fed animals had higher levels of Na, Zn and Fe as well as of vitamin E.

Keywords

  • beef cattle
  • beef production system
  • beef quality
  • fatty acids
  • vitamin E
  • lipid oxidation
  • minerals
Open Access

Effectiveness of Rapeseed Press Cake (RPC) in Sow Feeding in Two Reproduction Cycles

Published Online: 15 Feb 2012
Page range: 95 - 104

Abstract

Effectiveness of Rapeseed Press Cake (RPC) in Sow Feeding in Two Reproduction Cycles

The possibility of replacing soybean meal with rapeseed press cake (RPC) in feed was determined over two reproductive cycles in an experiment with 54 pregnant and lactating sows allocated to three groups with 18 gilts per group. Group I received the standard mixture, group II received RPC as the main protein source from insemination to 100 days of pregnancy, and the control diet during late pregnancy and lactation. In group III, RPC replaced all of soybean meal protein in early pregnancy and one-half of soybean meal protein during late pregnancy and lactation. Half of the sows in each group received a iodine supplement (1 mg/kg feed). Sows were weighed at mating, farrowing and weaning. Piglets were weighed at 1 and 28 days of age (weaning). Samples of milk were collected at 14 days postpartum to determine the content of protein, fat, lactose and iodine. After the first reproductive cycle sows were mated and allocated to the respective groups as in the first cycle. Neither RPC nor iodine had any effect on body weight of the sows. RPC had a beneficial effect on body weight of piglets at birth and weaning, which could be due to a higher content of fat and amino acids in sow RPC diets. RPC, especially when given throughout pregnancy and lactation significantly lowered iodine content in sow milk. Piglets grew significantly faster in the second compared to the first reproductive cycle (184 and 178 g per day, respectively). Iodine supplemented to sows reduced piglet daily weight gain from 185 to 177 g. It is concluded that rapeseed press cake can replace soybean meal in the diets for pregnant and lactating sows without a negative effect on their performance while improving piglet body weight.

Keywords

  • sows
  • piglets
  • rapeseed press cake
  • iodine

Quality and safety of animal origin products

Open Access

Feeding Wheat Distillers Dried Grains with Solubles (DDGS) to Laying Hens and its Effect on Performance and Egg Quality

Published Online: 15 Feb 2012
Page range: 105 - 115

Abstract

Feeding Wheat Distillers Dried Grains with Solubles (DDGS) to Laying Hens and its Effect on Performance and Egg Quality

The purpose of this experiment was to determine the effect of wheat DDGS as a feed ingredient on the performance of laying hens and their egg quality. ISA Brown laying hens were administered a feed mixture containing 15% (E1) or 20% (E2) wheat DDGS for 12 weeks. The hens from the control group (C) received a standard diet based on soybean meal as the main protein source only. Laying performance (laying %), average egg weight (g), average daily feed intake (g/hen), and feed conversion ratio (kg/kg eggs) were recorded over the study period. Egg quality traits (egg weight, thick albumen quality, yolk colour, yolk percentage, shell percentage and shell thickness) were evaluated twice: before the start and at the end of the experiment. There was no effect of dietary DDGS on laying performance or on feed intake. The average egg weight was significantly lower in both experimental groups and the feed conversion ratio was lower compared to the control group. Dietary wheat DDGS did not affect the main egg quality parameters except for thick albumen quality. Eggs from hens fed the diet with DDGS had higher values of Haugh unit than those from the control hens. These results suggest that wheat DDGS can be used in amounts of up to 20% as a component of feed mixtures for flocks of laying hens.

Keywords

  • DDGS
  • wheat
  • laying hens
  • egg production
  • egg quality
Open Access

The Effect of Humic-Fatty Acid Preparation on Production Parameters and Meat Quality of Growing Rabbits

Published Online: 15 Feb 2012
Page range: 117 - 126

Abstract

The Effect of Humic-Fatty Acid Preparation on Production Parameters and Meat Quality of Growing Rabbits

The aim of the study was to determine the effect of a humic-fatty acid preparation on production parameters and meat quality of rabbits. Three groups of New Zealand White rabbits were used (one control and two experimental) with 8 animals per group. The animals of group C (control) were fed standard pelleted diet, group H5 received a control diet supplemented with 5%, and group H10 a control diet with 10% humic-fatty acid preparation. The experiment was terminated after 6 weeks feeding, when rabbits were slaughtered. The experimental groups showed higher gains and a higher feed conversion ratio than the control group. The dietary inclusion of the experimental additive had a beneficial effect on the meat quality traits, such as Fe concentration, hardness and colour, but it also increased the susceptibility of fat to oxidative changes.

Keywords

  • rabbit
  • humic-fatty acid preparation
  • meat
  • fat
  • rearing results
10 Articles

Review

Open Access

The Application of Zoo-Fish Technique for Analysis of Chromosomal Rearrangements in the Equidae Family

Published Online: 15 Feb 2012
Page range: 5 - 13

Abstract

The Application of Zoo-Fish Technique for Analysis of Chromosomal Rearrangements in the <italic>Equidae</italic> Family

Genome analysis is necessary to trace evolutionary rearrangements and relationships between species. Initially, to this end, the tools of classical cytogenetics were used but along with the development of molecular cytogenetics methods it became possible to analyse the genome more thoroughly. One of the widely used methods is fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and its different types. Zoo-FISH, or cross-species chromosome painting, which uses painting probes specific for whole chromosomes, enables detecting homologous synteny blocks, the occurrence of which is evidence that species share a common ancestry and are related. Zoo-FISH technique is complemented by FISH with probes specific to chromosome arms or repetitive sequences (telomeres, centromeres), which provide additional information about karyotype organization, as well as karyotype polymorphism and conservation. Another method used is FISH with gene-specific probes, which enable the localization of single loci, thus making it possible to determine linkages between genes and verify data obtained after using painting probes in Zoo-FISH technique. Because of its diverse karyotype and rapid karyotypic evolution, the Equidae family is an ideal object of study using a number of methods based on in situ hybridization, which, in turn, enables information to be obtained at many levels of DNA organization.

Keywords

  • FISH
  • Zoo-FISH
Open Access

The Gonadotropins Subunits, GNRH and GNRH Receptor Gene Expression and Role of Carbon Monoxide in Seasonal Breeding Animals

Published Online: 15 Feb 2012
Page range: 15 - 23

Abstract

The Gonadotropins Subunits, <italic>GNRH</italic> and GNRH Receptor Gene Expression and Role of Carbon Monoxide in Seasonal Breeding Animals

Seasonality in reproduction occurs mainly in wild species and it is the result of natural selection. Signals to start or finish the period of reproductive activity, both environmental and hormonal depend on the neuroendocrine pathway - synthesis and secretion of pituitary hormones, luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), under the control of the hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons. Variable frequency of GnRH pulses is not only the main factor governing primary and preovulatory release of gonadotropins, but it can also play a role in the specific transcriptional activity of gonadotropin subunit genes (LHβ, FSHβ and Cga). However, changes in release of GnRH pulse pattern do not explain the preferential stimulation of the synthesis and secretion of gonadotropins in the annual reproductive cycle. In this regulation also a GnRH independent mechanism participates. It seems that the main factor responsible for the occurrence of the seasonal modulation of reproduction in sheep and other mammals, is significant changes in response of GnRH systems to gonadal steroids. The effect of carbon monoxide on regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis has not been studied to date. There is substantial evidence to suggest that it may play a role in the transduction of information on day length. The presence of heme oxygenase-2 in hypothalamic areas important for regulation of pituitary secretory function and in the pituitary itself suggests that carbon monoxide, the product of this enzyme, may participate in the regulation of hormone secretion by the pineal gland.

Keywords

  • gonadotropin gene expression
  • GnRH
  • seasonality in reproduction
Open Access

Cholesterol and Lipid Peroxides in Animal Products and Health Implications - A Review

Published Online: 15 Feb 2012
Page range: 25 - 52

Abstract

Cholesterol and Lipid Peroxides in Animal Products and Health Implications - A Review

The level of oxysterols in animal products depends on the temperature used in food processing, duration of heating, and storage time and conditions. High temperature, oxygen, exposure to light, chemical composition of the product and low level of antioxidants accelerate the formation of cholesterol oxidation products (COPs). Also the high content of polyunsaturated fatty acids in meat and eggs favours the formation of oxysterols. Dairy products are characterized by the lowest content of COPs of all animal products. The most common oxysterols present in products of animal origin are 7-ketocholesterol, 20α-hydroxycholesterol, 25-hydroxycholesterol and α, β-epoxycholesterol. Numerous studies have confirmed the adverse effects of COPs on animal and human health. They exhibit mutagenic, carcinogenic, angiogenic and toxic action, damage cell membranes, and inhibit cholesterol biosynthesis. The use of certain antioxidants in animal nutrition limits the formation of COPs during technological processing of meat, eggs and milk, as well as during storage of fresh products. The excessive oxidation of cholesterol can be additionally prevented through the use of appropriate packaging that limits oxygen and light exposure.

Keywords

  • cholesterol
  • oxidation
  • oxysterols
  • TBARS
  • meat
  • egg
  • milk products

Genetics and farm animal breeding

Open Access

The Effects of Crossing Balkan and Saanen Goat Breeds on Carcass Traits and Certain Quality Parameters of Kid Meat

Published Online: 15 Feb 2012
Page range: 53 - 62

Abstract

The Effects of Crossing Balkan and Saanen Goat Breeds on Carcass Traits and Certain Quality Parameters of Kid Meat

The possibility for improvement of carcass traits and quality of kid meat of the autochthonous Balkan goat breed by crossing with Saanen breed was investigated in this study. The trial was carried out on one group of Balkan goat kids and three groups of kid crosses of Balkan and Saanen goats with different proportion of Saanen genes: 25, 50 and 75%. Each group had 16 male kids, which were slaughtered at the average body weight of 18 kg. With the increase in the proportion of Saanen genes, the age of kids that reached preslaughter weight decreased, the chilling loss increased and the proportion of fat tissue (kidney and pelvic fat) in the carcass side decreased (P≤0.05). The crossing also increased the proportion of carcass parts of the first category (leg and loin section), as well as muscle tissue in those parts. The highest proportion of muscle tissue in the thigh (74.91%) and loin section (75.66%) was determined in kids from the group with 75% of Saanen genes, and kids from this group also had the highest proportion of intramuscular fat (2.48%) in samples of m. longissimus dorsi. Slight differences between kid groups were established in indicators of technological meat properties, such as water binding capacity and tenderness, with the increase in the proportion of Saanen genes in the genotype. Sensory score for roasted meat was high, and scores for tenderness and juiciness were slightly higher in kid crosses with 50% and 75% of Saanen genes (P≤0.05). Results presented in this study confirm the positive effect of crossing the Saanen breed with the Balkan breed on carcass traits and for obtaining meat of more desirable quality.

Keywords

  • kid
  • genotype
  • carcass traits
  • proportion of tissues
  • meat quality
Open Access

Effect of Calpastatin Gene Polymorphism on Lamb Growth and Muscling

Published Online: 15 Feb 2012
Page range: 63 - 72

Abstract

Effect of Calpastatin Gene Polymorphism on Lamb Growth and Muscling

The calpain-calpastatin system plays a key role in skeletal muscle growth and development processes. It is known that calpastatin activity correlates highly with muscle growth rate, which implies that skeletal muscle growth is likely to result from reduced protein degradation due to compromised activity of calpains or substantial increase of calpastatin activity. The objective of the present research was to identify polymorphic forms in intron 12 of the ovine calpastatin gene in sheep of synthetic lines BCP and SCP, followed by determination of the correlation between each polymorphic form of CAST gene and chosen traits characterizing lamb growth and muscling. The present study's results suggest that lambs carrying the "b" and "e" alleles and the "ae" genotype could be preferred when selecting for growth rate. The breeding efforts to obtain substantial increases in sheep muscle mass could focus on animals carrying the "ac" genotype. No statistically significant relationship was observed in any of the analysed cases between values of the traits and the CAST genotype. However, a highly significant effect of the study year on the analysed traits was found. The results should be regarded as preliminary. The research should be continued on a larger group of animals to ensure the adequate number of each genotype. The trends mentioned and discussed above may also serve as an indicator showing the future direction of further studies in this area.

Keywords

  • sheep
  • calpastatin polymorphism gene
  • muscle growth

The biology, physiology and reproduction of animals

Open Access

Postimplantation Development of Cloned Rabbit Embryos Reconstructed with Foetal and Adult Skin-Derived Fibroblast Cell Nuclei

Published Online: 15 Feb 2012
Page range: 73 - 80

Abstract

Postimplantation Development of Cloned Rabbit Embryos Reconstructed with Foetal and Adult Skin-Derived Fibroblast Cell Nuclei

The aim of the study was to determine the postimplantation developmental potential of nuclear transfer (NT) derived rabbit embryos, which were reconstructed with foetal fibroblast (FF) or adult skin fibroblast (AF) cell nuclei. A total of 97 embryos reconstructed with FF cell nuclei (Group I) were transferred into the oviducts of 6 pseudopregnant recipients and 101 embryos reconstructed with AF cell nuclei (Group II) were transferred to 6 foster mothers. The presence of fetuses (with the symptoms of early resorption of amniotic sacs) was confirmed in the 4/6 (66.7%) and 1/6 (16.7%) recipient-females in Group I and Group II, respectively. The implantation rate was significantly higher for cloned embryos originating from the oocytes receiving foetal fibroblasts than for those derived from adult skin fibroblasts (P<0.1). Nonetheless, all pregnancies were lost and no progeny were obtained.

Keywords

  • rabbit
  • somatic cell nuclear transfer
  • foetal fibroblast
  • adult skin fibroblast

Animal nutrition and feedstuffs

Open Access

Effect of Pasture or Maize Silage Feeding on the Nutritional Value of Beef

Published Online: 15 Feb 2012
Page range: 81 - 93

Abstract

Effect of Pasture or Maize Silage Feeding on the Nutritional Value of Beef

The objective of this study was to evaluate the nutritional value of beef from different production systems. The study was conducted with Hereford bulls on organic and conventional farms. On the organic farm, fattening was mainly based on roughages, including pasture forage in the summer season, when the end of fattening occurred. On the conventional farm the bulls were fed maize silage and concentrate. On both farms, the animals were aged 7-9 months at the beginning of fattening. The bulls were fattened to a final body weight of 550-600 kg. Samples of longissimus thoracis muscle were collected from half-carcasses of slaughtered bulls originating from each farm to analyse fat content, fatty acid profile, and content of selected minerals and vitamin E. Muscle samples were additionally analysed for the concentration of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances 3 and 7 days after slaughter. Analyses showed a lower fat content in longissimus thoracis muscle of bulls from the pasture feeding system. The fatty acid profile was also characterized by a lower content of C 14:0, and a higher content of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), including C18:3 n-3, conjugated linoleic acid, C 20:5 n-3, and C 22:5 n-3, as well as by a lower ratio of n-6/n-3 PUFA. The total content of monounsaturated fatty acids was significantly higher in animals fed maize silage and feed concentrate. In turn, the muscle of pasture fed animals had higher levels of Na, Zn and Fe as well as of vitamin E.

Keywords

  • beef cattle
  • beef production system
  • beef quality
  • fatty acids
  • vitamin E
  • lipid oxidation
  • minerals
Open Access

Effectiveness of Rapeseed Press Cake (RPC) in Sow Feeding in Two Reproduction Cycles

Published Online: 15 Feb 2012
Page range: 95 - 104

Abstract

Effectiveness of Rapeseed Press Cake (RPC) in Sow Feeding in Two Reproduction Cycles

The possibility of replacing soybean meal with rapeseed press cake (RPC) in feed was determined over two reproductive cycles in an experiment with 54 pregnant and lactating sows allocated to three groups with 18 gilts per group. Group I received the standard mixture, group II received RPC as the main protein source from insemination to 100 days of pregnancy, and the control diet during late pregnancy and lactation. In group III, RPC replaced all of soybean meal protein in early pregnancy and one-half of soybean meal protein during late pregnancy and lactation. Half of the sows in each group received a iodine supplement (1 mg/kg feed). Sows were weighed at mating, farrowing and weaning. Piglets were weighed at 1 and 28 days of age (weaning). Samples of milk were collected at 14 days postpartum to determine the content of protein, fat, lactose and iodine. After the first reproductive cycle sows were mated and allocated to the respective groups as in the first cycle. Neither RPC nor iodine had any effect on body weight of the sows. RPC had a beneficial effect on body weight of piglets at birth and weaning, which could be due to a higher content of fat and amino acids in sow RPC diets. RPC, especially when given throughout pregnancy and lactation significantly lowered iodine content in sow milk. Piglets grew significantly faster in the second compared to the first reproductive cycle (184 and 178 g per day, respectively). Iodine supplemented to sows reduced piglet daily weight gain from 185 to 177 g. It is concluded that rapeseed press cake can replace soybean meal in the diets for pregnant and lactating sows without a negative effect on their performance while improving piglet body weight.

Keywords

  • sows
  • piglets
  • rapeseed press cake
  • iodine

Quality and safety of animal origin products

Open Access

Feeding Wheat Distillers Dried Grains with Solubles (DDGS) to Laying Hens and its Effect on Performance and Egg Quality

Published Online: 15 Feb 2012
Page range: 105 - 115

Abstract

Feeding Wheat Distillers Dried Grains with Solubles (DDGS) to Laying Hens and its Effect on Performance and Egg Quality

The purpose of this experiment was to determine the effect of wheat DDGS as a feed ingredient on the performance of laying hens and their egg quality. ISA Brown laying hens were administered a feed mixture containing 15% (E1) or 20% (E2) wheat DDGS for 12 weeks. The hens from the control group (C) received a standard diet based on soybean meal as the main protein source only. Laying performance (laying %), average egg weight (g), average daily feed intake (g/hen), and feed conversion ratio (kg/kg eggs) were recorded over the study period. Egg quality traits (egg weight, thick albumen quality, yolk colour, yolk percentage, shell percentage and shell thickness) were evaluated twice: before the start and at the end of the experiment. There was no effect of dietary DDGS on laying performance or on feed intake. The average egg weight was significantly lower in both experimental groups and the feed conversion ratio was lower compared to the control group. Dietary wheat DDGS did not affect the main egg quality parameters except for thick albumen quality. Eggs from hens fed the diet with DDGS had higher values of Haugh unit than those from the control hens. These results suggest that wheat DDGS can be used in amounts of up to 20% as a component of feed mixtures for flocks of laying hens.

Keywords

  • DDGS
  • wheat
  • laying hens
  • egg production
  • egg quality
Open Access

The Effect of Humic-Fatty Acid Preparation on Production Parameters and Meat Quality of Growing Rabbits

Published Online: 15 Feb 2012
Page range: 117 - 126

Abstract

The Effect of Humic-Fatty Acid Preparation on Production Parameters and Meat Quality of Growing Rabbits

The aim of the study was to determine the effect of a humic-fatty acid preparation on production parameters and meat quality of rabbits. Three groups of New Zealand White rabbits were used (one control and two experimental) with 8 animals per group. The animals of group C (control) were fed standard pelleted diet, group H5 received a control diet supplemented with 5%, and group H10 a control diet with 10% humic-fatty acid preparation. The experiment was terminated after 6 weeks feeding, when rabbits were slaughtered. The experimental groups showed higher gains and a higher feed conversion ratio than the control group. The dietary inclusion of the experimental additive had a beneficial effect on the meat quality traits, such as Fe concentration, hardness and colour, but it also increased the susceptibility of fat to oxidative changes.

Keywords

  • rabbit
  • humic-fatty acid preparation
  • meat
  • fat
  • rearing results

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