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Volume 14 (2014): Issue 2 (April 2014)

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Issue Editors: Magdalena Bielska, Jerzy Pilawski, Katarzyna Skupniewicz

Volume 13 (2013): Issue 3 (July 2013)

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Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
2300-8733
First Published
25 Nov 2011
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English

Search

Volume 14 (2014): Issue 2 (April 2014)

Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
2300-8733
First Published
25 Nov 2011
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English

Search

21 Articles

Review

Open Access

Dehorning of Calves – Methods of Pain and Stress Alleviation – A Review

Published Online: 25 Apr 2014
Page range: 231 - 243

Abstract

Abstract

Dehorning of calves is intended to facilitate handling and increase the safety of people and animals. The study aimed to review the methods of calf dehorning and use of pharmacological analgesic, anaesthetic and sedation drugs, as well as their impact on pain perception. Regardless of the age of calves, dehorning is always associated with pain and stress. The changes in behaviour, physiological parameters, changes in heart rate, respiratory rate and increased cortisol secretion are observed during this procedure. The welfare of calves is significantly reduced during dehorning. Many studies point to minimization of the pain perceived by the use of pharmacological agents. Beneficial effects were observed with the combined use of anaesthetics and non-steroidal antiinflammatory drugs

Keywords

  • calves
  • dehorning
  • stress
  • cortisol
Open Access

Enhancing The Nutritional Value of Poultry Feedstuffs Using The Example of Rapeseed Products – A Review

Published Online: 25 Apr 2014
Page range: 245 - 256

Abstract

Abstract

This paper outlines the main goals and methods for improving the nutritional value of poultry diets. The benefits of various processing techniques are demonstrated using the example of rapeseed and rapeseed by-products, i.e. rapeseed cake and rapeseed meal. The progress made in plant breeding in the past decades led to a significant reduction in the content of anti-nutritional factors and ingredients which reduce the nutritional value of feed. Rapeseed by-products have become a valuable source of protein for feedstuffs, and they can be safely used in poultry rations at high inclusion rates. Mechanical treatments, such as rapeseed hulling, and enzyme supplementation (phytases, carbohydrases) also significantly increase the nutritional value of feed ingredients. Further research is needed to tap into the new opportunities for improving the nutritional value of feedstuffs

Keywords

  • rapeseed meal
  • rapeseed cake
  • nutritional value
  • poultry

Animal genetics and breeding

Open Access

A Canonical Correlation Analysis of Relationships Between Growth, Compositional Traits and Longevity, Lifetime Productivity and Efficiency in Polish Landrace Sows

Published Online: 25 Apr 2014
Page range: 257 - 270

Abstract

Abstract

Relationships between performance test traits (growth rate, backfat thickness, loin depth, lean meat percentage, exterior, phenotypic selection index) and longevity traits (length of productive life, number of litters, total number of weaned pigs, number of weaned piglets per year, number of litters per year) in Landrace sows were evaluated using canonical correlation analysis. The data set consisted of 23,012 purebred sows that farrowed from 1994 to 2011 in 161 herds. The first three canonical correlations (0.37, 0.25, 0.07) were highly significant (P<0.0001). Correlations of the first canonical variate with the original measured variables indicated that sows with high values for this variate had lower growth rate (r=-0.31) and loin depth (r=-0.43), greater backfat thickness (r=0.23), as well as being older at birth of their last litter (r=0.98). These sows also had a greater number of litters (r=0.94) and better lifetime efficiency (r=0.61 and r=0.70 for number of weaned piglets per year and number of litters per year, respectively). Canonical loadings for the second canonical function indicate that sows with high values for the second set of variates had high growth rate (r=0.79) and phenotypic selection index (r=0.83), excellent conformation (r=0.62), as well as better efficiency in pig production (r=0.67). The squared multiple correlations show that the first canonical variate of the performance traits is a poor predictor of longevity (0.13) and nearly useless for predicting efficiency traits (0.07). Performance test traits explain 11% of the variance in the variables of longevity and lifetime productivity, whereas dependent variables explain only 3% of the variance in performance test traits. The relationships between performance test data and subsequent lifetime productivity or longevity were significant and unfavourable but low for Polish Landrace population

Keywords

  • canonical correlation analysis
  • compositional traits
  • longevity
  • sow
Open Access

Preliminary Evaluation of the use Value of Jumping Horses Based on Their Results Achieved in Grand Prix Competitions

Published Online: 25 Apr 2014
Page range: 271 - 278

Abstract

Abstract

The aim of the work was preliminary evaluation of predispositions of Polish racehorses to sports. The tests covered 273 horses taking part in CC class and CC1 class competitions in the finals of the big tour. The probability of achieving the best result in the competitions depending on the horse breed was evaluated using multivariate analysis of variance. With the use of Spearman’s rank correlations, the initial correspondence between the horse’s rank in breeders’ ranking and the ranking based on sport results was defined. It was stated that horses starting in Grand Prix competitions represented only 6.85% of all horses registered in the Polish Equestrian Federation. In the group, foreign breeds were predominant. The proportion of native breeds was marginal. The lack of a significant influence of the race on differentiation of sports results of horses proves that the best specimens were chosen within individual races. The preliminary results revealed lack of rank agreement between the evaluation of the breeding value and sports achievements of an individual. This suggests the necessity of performing broader analyses covering different aspects

Keywords

  • horses
  • horse-jumping
  • use value
  • breeding value
  • performance test
Open Access

The Effect of Using DNA Obtained from Blood of Cattle with Genetic Chimerism on Illumina’s Beadchip Assay Performance

Published Online: 25 Apr 2014
Page range: 279 - 286

Abstract

Abstract

Blood cell chimerism is a common phenomenon occurring in cattle coming from double or multiple parturitions and can be observed as two DNA profiles present in blood of each of twin born animals. In the era of genomics, a large number of animals is being genotyped with high throughput genotyping methods, which are giving limited insight into the performance of single markers and rather only statistical description of the results is available for a common user. This hampers the detailed analysis of the results obtained and direct identification of the causes of poorer performance of some samples. In this study we describe the influence of analysis of DNA obtained from blood samples of cattle with genetic chimerism on basic parameters of Infinium technology-based Illumina’s genotyping arrays. The results obtained may help to identify such samples, especially when no precise information about the animals’ origin is available

Keywords

  • cattle
  • chimerism
  • Infinium
  • SNP
  • twins

The biology, physiology, reproduction, and health

Open Access

Acute-Phase Response in Monitoring Postoperative Recovery in Bitches After Ovariohysterectomy

Published Online: 25 Apr 2014
Page range: 287 - 295

Abstract

Abstract

An ovariohysterectomy is one of the most common procedures performed on bitches in everyday veterinary practice. As with any other surgery, it leads to a local inflammatory reaction, which is usually accompanied by a systemic reaction called the acute-phase response (APR). The aim of the study was to assess the changes of serum CRP concentration, WBC and rectal temperature during the postoperative period in bitches undergoing ovariohysterectomy and to establish the usefulness of such determinations after surgical trauma. The results showed increased levels of all the measured parameters 24 hours after surgery. During the course of a normal postoperative period, WBC count and rectal temperature return to values that are considered physiological norms for dogs. The subsequent decline in CRP during the postoperative course indicates the gradual subsidence of the inflammatory reaction to surgical trauma. CRP concentrations higher than the physiological norm noted 10 days after surgery indicate a persistent, although less severe inflammatory process. The serum concentration of CRP is a more sensitive and reliable parameter for an evaluation of the postoperative period in bitches than WBC count and rectal temperature

Keywords

  • bitches
  • ovariohysterectomy
  • acute-phase response
  • rectal temperature
  • WBC
  • CRP
Open Access

Endoparasites of European Brown Hare (Lepus Europaeus) from Southern Poland Based on Necropsy

Published Online: 25 Apr 2014
Page range: 297 - 306

Abstract

Abstract

The population of the European brown hare (Lepus europaeus) has been declining for the last decades in many European countries, including Poland. The goal of this study was to determine the level of endoparasite infection among hares. In 2007-2010, 83 animals were examined postmortem. The animals were weighed and analysed according to age and sex. During the dissection only the following nematodes were noticed: Trichostrongylus retortaeformis, Strongyloides papillosus, Trichuris leporis and Passalurus ambiguus in the intestinal tract and Protostrongylus pulmonalis in lungs. Body mass of hares was analysed with a general linear model (GLM) with age, sex, and presence/ absence of nematode infection as factors. The proportion of infected and uninfected hares with protozoan coccidia was compared with Fisher exact test for 2×2 contingency tables, whereas the proportion of nematode infection was compared by χ2 test. There was a significant difference in the proportion of hares infected and not infected by coccidia with the higher proportion of infected juvenile individuals (P=0.010), whereas there was no difference between males and females (P=0.41). The frequencies of hares infected vs. not infected by nematodes did not differ between sex (χ2=1.89, P=0.168) and age (χ2=0.0007, P=0.97). The mean body mass of all hares was 4.15 kg±0.40 kg. GLM model conducted for body mass of hares showed that there was a significant difference only between juvenile and adult hares (F=24.225, P=0.000005) and no significant association between the level of endoparasite infection and sex

Keywords

  • Lepus europaeus
  • body weight
  • sex
  • parasites
  • necropsy

Animal nutrition and feedstuffs

Open Access

Comparative Analysis of Nutrient Digestibility and Nitrogen Retention in Wild and Farmed Canids

Published Online: 25 Apr 2014
Page range: 307 - 314

Abstract

Abstract

The aim of this study, conducted in November 2012, was to determine whether farming of common foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides) leads to changes in nutrient digestibility and nitrogen retention in comparison with their wild counterparts. Wild and farmed animals were compared within and between species. Each group consisted of five males and five females aged around eight months. Farmed silver foxes - a variety of the common red fox (group FSF) and farmed raccoon dogs (group FRD) were purchased from a breeding farm in southeastern Poland. Wild red foxes (group WRF) and wild raccoon dogs (group WRD) were trapped in the hunting grounds of the Polish Hunting Association (Olsztyn Division). The animals were placed in metabolism cages. The coefficients of nutrient and energy digestibility, and daily nitrogen balance and retention values were compared between groups. Farmed animals tended to have higher digestibility coefficients than their wild counterparts. No significant differences were noted within species. The coefficients of dry matter (P≤0.01), organic matter (P≤0.05, P≤0.05) and protein (only FSF vs. WRD - P≤0.05) digestibility were higher in foxes. Raccoon dogs were characterized by higher digestibility of carbohydrates - N-free extracts (P≤0.01). Nitrogen retention was higher in farmed animals. The highest and lowest levels of retained nitrogen were observed in groups FSF and WRD, respectively

Keywords

  • common fox
  • raccoon dog
  • feeding
  • digestibility
  • N retention
Open Access

Effect of the Composition and Autoclave Sterilization of Diets for Laboratory Animals on Pellet Hardness and Growth Performance of Mice

Published Online: 25 Apr 2014
Page range: 315 - 328

Abstract

Abstract

The aim of the study was to determine the effect of modifications of ingredient composition and autoclaving of feeds for laboratory animals on pellet hardness and growth performance of mice. Composition of two breeding diets, containing either casein or soybean meal as the main protein sources, was modified by a change of wheat to maize proportions, or by oil and/or fibre supplementation (in casein containing diets only). The diets were pelleted and autoclaved at 121°C for 20 min. Pellet hardness of nonautoclaved soya diets was smaller than of casein diets except for those supplemented with oil. Oil supplementation tended to reduce or reduced pellet hardness of nonautoclaved but not of autoclaved diets whereas change of cereal proportion and type of fibre had no effect. Autoclaving increased pellet hardness of all diets, cancelled softening effect of oil supplementation of nonautoclaved casein diets and reduced difference between casein and soya containing diets. Pellet hardness was correlated with fat, fibre, starch, ash and phosphorus content. In mice, total consumption of autoclaved diets was greater than of nonautoclaved diets. Body weight was not affected by diet whereas it was decreased by autoclaving only in the 3rd and 6th week of experiment, the differences being of a very small magnitude. Growth of male mice depended on nutrient content, especially fibre, ash, phosphorus and energy, whereas body weight of females was highly correlated with phosphorus content. The dependencies differed between weeks of experiment

Keywords

  • laboratory animals
  • feed composition
  • autoclaving
  • pellet quality
  • growth performance
Open Access

In Vitro Cellulase Production from Five Herbivore Microbial Ecosystems and Consortia

Published Online: 25 Apr 2014
Page range: 329 - 340

Abstract

Abstract

As the most abundant biomass in nature, cellulose is the main chemical component in herbivore forages. The energy locked in these complex polymers can only be released by cellulolytic enzymes. Therefore, research aiming to increase the expression of cellulolytic enzymes or browsing uncultured microbial ecosystem in search of potential fibrolytic enzymes is imperative. The main objectives were to: (a) investigate the variation of cellulase enzymes in cow (CW), horse (H), miniature horse (mH), wildebeest (WB) and zebra (ZB); and (b) identify their presence and activeness in microbial consortia, N1 (H+WB), N2 (H+ZB), N3 (WB+ZB) and N4 (H+WB+ZB). Fresh faecal or rumen inocula were cultured in the laboratory on maize stover and lucerne (1:1) with salivary buffer for 72 h at 38°C. Crude proteins (CPZ) were precipitated from both fresh and cultured inocula using 60% ammonium sulfate for enzyme assays and zymography. Endocellulases and their activity were identified on 1% (m/v) carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) zymograms stained with Congo red. All CPZ extracts were active as reducing sugars were produced after incubation with crystalline cellulose, CMC and xylan. The number and types of proteins with endocellulase activity varied (P<0.05) among and within the different animal species CW (15), H (14), mH (14), WB (13) and ZB (13). Microbial consortia were active with relatively higher number of endocellulases, N1 (17), N3 (14), N4 (14), and N2 (13). Cellulase enzymes vary among and within herbivore species grazing on the same or different fields. Therefore, identifying specific enzymes and microbes with higher fibrolytic potentials from different ecosystems for transinoculation could play a vital role in improving forage digestibility in ruminants

Keywords

  • fibrolytic enzymes
  • rumen
  • faecal inoculum
Open Access

Effect of Protein Concentrate Supplement on the Qualitative and Quantitative Parameters of Milk from Dairy Cows in Organic Farming

Published Online: 25 Apr 2014
Page range: 341 - 352

Abstract

Abstract

In our experiment, we studied the effects of protein concentrate addition on the qualitative and quantitative composition of milk in organically farmed dairy cows. A total number of 40 Holstein cows were divided into two groups. Live weight of dairy cows was around 625±25 kg. Average production efficiency of animals was 7600±50 kg milk for the lactation period. Animals of both groups received identical basal feed ration. The first experimental group of cows (n=20) received in the feed ration a protein concentrate from organic production (soybean cake 60%, sunflower cake 20%, linseed cake 20%) at 1 kg per head and day. The second group served as a control (n=20) without the addition of protein concentrate. The experiment lasted 30 days. The goal of the experiment was to investigate whether the addition of protein concentrate can affect individual milk components. The measured values show that the experimental group of dairy cows with the addition of protein concentrate exhibited increases in fat content by 7.4% (P≤0.05), in urea content by 83.1% (P≤0.001) and in citric acid content by 18.6% (P≤0.01), and decreases in free fatty acids by 54.9% (P≤0.001), in ECM by 5.5% (P≤0.05) and in FCM by 6.1% (P≤0.05). The control group of cows exhibited the citric acid content in milk increased by 20.0% (P≤0.05). The results indicate that the protein concentrate composed of soybean, sunflower and linseed cakes can affect the composition of milk from organically farmed dairy cows

Keywords

  • protein concentrate
  • milk
  • cows
  • organic farming
Open Access

Effect of Zinc Acetate and Magnesium Sulfate Dietary Supplementation on Broiler Thigh Meat Colour, Nutrient Composition and Lipid Peroxidation Values Under Continuous Heat Stress Condition

Published Online: 25 Apr 2014
Page range: 353 - 363

Abstract

Abstract

Four hundred and fifty one-day-old male broiler chicks (Ross 308) in 9 groups of 50 each (3 × 3 factorial experiment) were randomly allocated to investigate the effects of different dietary levels of 0, 30 and 60 mg/kg Zinc (Zn) and 0, 300 and 600 mg/kg magnesium (Mg) on thigh meat colour, nutrient composition and lipid peroxidation value in broiler chickens under heat stress. The birds were kept under a high temperature (32±1°C) for 24 h/day for the first until the final day. At the end of the experiment (day 42), five birds per treatment were slaughtered. Then two pieces of the right thigh muscle per bird (upper part of the thigh muscle) were immediately collected for assessing the meat quality indices. The results of the present experiment showed that addition of Zn and Mg did not influence the ash, dry matter (DM) and ether extract (EE) contents of thigh meat (P>0.05), whereas the crude protein (CP) content of the thigh meat was increased when diet was supplemented with Zn (P<0.05). Addition of Zn and Mg in diet did not change the mean lightness (L) and redness (a) value in the thigh meat (P>0.05). Thigh yellowness (b) value was increased by inclusion of 30 mg/kg Zn alone or along with 600 mg/kg Mg (P<0.05). Furthermore, inclusion of 30 mg/kg Zn in diet (at any level of Mg) decreased the thigh thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (P<0.05)

Keywords

  • thigh meat
  • thigh yellowness
  • crude protein
  • pH
  • thiobarbituric acid reactive substances

Behavior, well-being, production technology, and environment

Open Access

Determinants Of Dominance, Resting Place And Neighbour Preferences In Wrzosówka Polska Ewes Kept Indoors

Published Online: 25 Apr 2014
Page range: 365 - 375

Abstract

Abstract

The aim of this study was to recognize features determining social hierarchy in Wrzosówka Polska ewes kept indoors as well as to investigate their resting place and companionship preferences. Observations (156 hours in total) were carried out in a group of 22 ewes. The social rank of sheep was determined by their age, body weight and length of horns. Social position was positively correlated with aggressive behaviour performed and negatively with aggressive behaviour received. Use of space while resting was influenced by ewe social behaviour; aggressive individuals lied more often in attractive places, namely against walls and fodder troughs compared to other animals. In general, the ewes rested by having physical contact with animals of similar rank and aggressiveness. Kinship appeared not to be important in neighbour preference. As can be concluded, social interactions influenced the use of space and neighbourhood in ewes

Keywords

  • social hierarchy
  • females
  • behaviour
  • Polish Heath Sheep
Open Access

Results of Research on the Active Species Protection of the Roman Snail (Helix Pomatia, Linnaeus, 1758) Using Farmed Snails in the Second Year of Life. First Season of the Study

Published Online: 25 Apr 2014
Page range: 377 - 389

Abstract

Abstract

The effect of three forms of active species protection in the Roman snail were studied. On the “source plot” the natural population was supported by introducing hatchlings of farmed Roman snails aged 1+, bred from adult specimens of this population. These hatchlings (age 1+) from “source plot” population were also introduced to the following two natural plots: to the “empty plot”, where the population was formed by introduction of farmed Roman snails in the second year of life (1+) into a selected area which had been emptied of the natural population; to the “inhabited plot”, where farmed Roman snails aged 1+, originating from breeding snails of the foreign population from a “source plot”, were introduced to the local natural population. It was established that introducing Roman snails aged 1+ and bred under farm conditions has a clearly positive influence on the age structure of the natural population in the studied plots. The rate of growth of these snails adjusted to the rate of growth of the specimens in the same age group belonging to the natural population. The farmed Roman snails grew most rapidly in the “empty plot” sown with fodder vegetation, more slowly in the “source plot” with access to appropriate herbaceous vegetation, and most slowly in the “inhabited plot”. The attempt to create a naturalized population in a specially adapted “empty plot” without the natural population was successful. This was determined not only by a large number of hiding places from calcareous stones available to the Roman snails but above all by the species structure of the herb flora, which met their nutritional requirements as it contained high proportions of plants such as Brassica rapa × Brassica rapa subsp. chinensis, white clover (Trifolium repens), red clover (Trifolium pratense) and the hybrid of lucerne (Medicago × varia Martyn)

Keywords

  • Roman snail
  • Helix pomatia
  • active protection
  • farmed population
  • natural population
Open Access

Normalization of Showjumping Competition’s Results

Published Online: 25 Apr 2014
Page range: 391 - 403

Abstract

Abstract

The aim of this study was to verify the newly proposed transformation of penalty points and ranking of showjumping horses for the purpose of genetic evaluation. Genomic information in the transformation of input data was used as well. Data of showjumping competition Global Champions Tour was used. Profit of penalty points was transformed to normally distributed variable using Blom formula (height of obstacles and height of obstacles with single nucleotide polymorphism - SNP effect taken into account). Non-normal distribution was obtained. The rankings of sport horses in competitions were transformed using the Blom formula (height of obstacles taken into account) to normal distribution (tests of normality Kolmogorov-Smirnov (KS) test Pr>D, D 0.011, P>0.150, Cramer-von Mises (CM) test Pr>W-Sq, W-Sq 0.039, P>0.250, Anderson-Darling test (AD) Pr>A-Sq, A-Sq 0.638, P<0.097). Better distributed variable ranking transformed by Blom formula (height of obstacles and SNP effect taken into account) was obtained (KS test Pr>D, D 0.004, P>0.150, CM test Pr>W-Sq, W-Sq 0.004, P>0.250, AD test Pr>A-Sq, A-Sq 0.062, P>0.250). Model where all used fixed effects to equation were applied without any combination of the effects was tested, R2 0.54. Variable ranking was transformed to normal score by Blom formula (height of obstacles was taken into account). In the following model some effects were taken into account in the form of quadratic regression, R2 0.61. Variable ranking was transformed to normal score, the same as in previous model. In the last model we transformed variable ranking to normal score by Blom formula, taking into account height of obstacles and SNP effect. Same effects as in previous model were used, R2 0.60

Keywords

  • showjumping
  • normal distribution
  • penalty points
  • ranking
  • genomics
Open Access

Comparison of Two Methods of Housing Primiparous Cows

Published Online: 25 Apr 2014
Page range: 405 - 415

Abstract

Abstract

We researched the influence of two methods of housing primiparous cows on meeting estimated energy requirements. In herd A primiparous cows were kept in a separate technological group during the whole lactation period, whereas in herd B they were kept in technological groups together with multigravid cows. The whole herd A consisted of 400 cows, where the average annual yield was 10,200 kg of milk per cow. Herd B consisted of 250 cows, where the average annual yield was 8,500 kg of milk per cow. In 2010 and 2011 there were 200 primiparous cows in herd A, whereas in herd B there were 165 primiparous cows. The milk yield for 100 and 305 days of lactation was analysed. Meeting the cows’ demand for energy was determined on the basis of the percentage of protein in milk. In both herds primiparous cows were divided into milk yield classes for 100 days of lactation. Both the trend and the amount of variation in the content of protein in milk were found to be identical in both herds. The content of protein in milk increased as the milk yield decreased. This regularity could be observed at both lactation stages under analysis and the differences between the classes were statistically confirmed. During the first 100 days of lactation the estimated energy deficit comprised a much larger percentage of the cows than in the 305-day lactation period. The system of maintenance of primiparous cows (separately or together with multigravid cows) was not found to influence the milk yield or the estimated demand for energy

Keywords

  • primiparous cow
  • housing system
  • milk yield
  • energy demand

Quality and safety of animal origin products

Open Access

Level of Fatty Acids, Selected Quality Traits of Longissimus Dorsi and Semimembranosus Muscles and Their Relationship with Fattening and Slaughter Performance in Polish Landrace Pigs

Published Online: 25 Apr 2014
Page range: 417 - 427

Abstract

Abstract

The aim of this study was to perform a comprehensive analysis of the level of fatty acids and selected meat quality traits, as well as their association with fattening and slaughter performance in Polish Landrace pigs. The study was conducted for two muscles: musculus longissimus dorsi and musculus semimembranosus. The study used 100 Polish Landrace gilts. The experimental animals originated from nucleus farms located in Poland. Their parents were animals with a known status of the RYR 1 genotype (all animals were dominant homozygotes). Pigs were fattened, slaughtered and evaluated postmortem in piggeries of the Experimental Stations of the National Research Institute of Animal Production using test station procedures. After reaching 100 kg body weight, pigs were slaughtered and their half-carcasses dissected. Fattening and slaughter parameters were determined. Meat samples were analysed for crude fat using the Soxhlet method. The composition of higher fatty acids was determined by gas chromatography. Research results indicate that saturated fatty acids found in m. longissimus dorsi and m. semimembranosus were positively correlated to n-3 and n-6 PUFA . A similarly high correlation was observed between the level of UFA and n-6 and n-3 PUFA in the loin and ham. The fact that the proportions of some acids (e.g. n-6/n-3 PUFA ) fail to meet WHO standards requires making efforts to improve them. Likewise, selection work is necessary to improve IMF levels in meat. The low correlations between meat quality traits and fattening and slaughter performance suggest that quality parameters should be regarded as independent traits in pig improvement models. In order to limit meat quality traits in pig improvement models, it is necessary to make use of the correlations between them

Keywords

  • pigs
  • fatty acids
  • meat quality
  • slaughter performance
Open Access

Prediction of the Carcass Value of Young Holstein-Friesian Bulls Based on Live Body Measurements

Published Online: 25 Apr 2014
Page range: 429 - 439

Abstract

Abstract

The aim of this study was to determine the suitability of ultrasound and zoometric measurements and visual muscle scoring for predicting the carcass value of 167 young Holstein-Friesian (HF) bulls. Zoometric and ultrasound measurements were performed and live muscle scoring was estimated before slaughter. After slaughter, hot carcass weight (HCW) was determined and carcasses were assigned to conformation and fat classes according to the EUROP system. Multiple regression equations were derived to estimate the weight, conformation and fatness of carcasses. HCW was estimated using the following equations: Ŷ = 1.507x1 + 1.103x2 + 4.043x3 + 5.53x4 + 0.379x5 + + 8.076x6 - 678.93 (R2=0.892; Sy = 16.28) and Ŷ = 2.525x4 + 0.579x7 + 0.451x8 - 134.17 (R2=0.943; Sy = 11.84); independent variables x1 - height at sacrum (cm); x2 - chest girth (cm); x3 - pelvic width (cm); x4 - pelvic length (cm); x5 - thickness of M. gluteo-biceps (mm); x6 - intravital muscle scoring (points); x7 - thickness of M. longissimus dorsi (mm); x8 - live weight (kg). Validation of the first regression equation revealed overestimation of HCW by 1.25% on average, while validation of the second equation revealed its underestimation by 1.85% on average. It was found that intravital muscle scoring and selected ultrasound and zoometric measurements of HF bulls can be used in formulating regression equations for predicting the carcass value of live animals. The proposed models enable predicting the carcass value of young bulls with satisfactory accuracy, thus contributing to an objective live beef cattle assessment

Keywords

  • prediction
  • carcass value
  • body measurements
Open Access

Effect of Noise Generated by the Wind Turbine on the Quality of Goose Muscles and Abdominal Fat

Published Online: 25 Apr 2014
Page range: 441 - 451

Abstract

Abstract

The objective of this study was to assess the physicochemical properties of breast and thigh muscles and fatty acid composition of abdominal fat of geese reared at a distance of 50 metres from the wind turbine compared to those reared 460 metres from the wind turbine. The study was carried out on 40 Kołuda White® geese (Anser anser f. domestica) divided into two groups: Treatment 1 - reared at a distance of 50 metres and Treatment 2 - reared at a distance of 460 metres from the wind turbine (Vestas V90 wind turbine). The muscles were analysed for pH, thermal loss, shear force, TBARS values and colour parameters (L* a* b*). The fatty acids composition of abdominal fat was also analysed. The results of the present study suggest that noise generated by the wind turbine affected the quality of muscles and the fatty acid profile of abdominal fat of geese. The results showed that the muscles of geese reared at a distance of 50 metres from the wind turbine were characterized by higher pH and TBARS values compared to those reared at a longer distance from the wind turbine. The significantly lower content of C 18:3 n-3 fatty acid in abdominal fat was observed for geese reared 50 metres from the wind turbine. Further studies should be undertaken to establish the safe distance of a wind turbine from livestock buildings

Keywords

  • goose
  • stress
  • breast and leg muscles quality
  • abdominal fat
Open Access

Semi-Intensive Fattening Suitability and Slaughter Value of Young Bulls of Three Polish Native Breeds in Comparison With Polish Holstein-Friesian and Simmental

Published Online: 25 Apr 2014
Page range: 453 - 460

Abstract

Abstract

An evaluation was conducted of the suitability for fattening in a semi-intensive system (mainly with fodders from permanent grassland) and the slaughter value of 15 young bulls of the Polish Red (PR) breed and 10 each of the White-Backed (WB) and Polish Black-and-White (BW) breeds. The reference group consisted of young bulls of the Black-and-White variety of the Polish Holstein- Friesian (HF) breed and the Simmental (SIM) breed, fattened on the same farms. Control fattening was carried out until the age of 18 months. Mean daily weight gain in the bulls of the native breeds during the control fattening period (which lasted 314-358 days) was 0.9 kg, similarly to HF, but significantly lower (P≤0.05) than in the Simmentals (986 g). During the entire fattening period, i.e. from birth to the age of 18 months, daily weight gain was 832 g in PR and 889-919 g in WB and BW. Dressing percentage was lowest in PR bulls (51.69%), and higher in WB (53.1%) and BW (53.49%), with values similar to the reference group, i.e. young bulls of the Simmental (52.97%) and HF (53.29%) breeds. The difference between PR and BW (1.8%) and HF (1.6%) was statistically significant (P≤0.05). In the EUROP classification system, the carcasses of the young bulls of the native breeds were most often placed in classes R- and O+ (conformation) and 2+ and 3- (fat cover), as in the case of young HF bulls. Carcasses of young Simmental bulls were assigned to much higher classes. The young bulls of the three Polish native breeds evaluated are good material for fattening in a semi-intensive system (mainly with fodder from permanent grasslands), while the young PR bulls were the least suitable

Keywords

  • cattle
  • native breeds
  • semi-intensive fattening
  • daily weight gain
  • slaughter value
Open Access

Variations in PH Decline Measured from 45 Min to 48 H Postmortem as Related to Meat Quality of (L × Y) × H Fatteners

Published Online: 25 Apr 2014
Page range: 461 - 469

Abstract

Abstract

The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of the range of pH decline from 45 min to 48 h after the slaughter on the quality of meat in (Landrace × Yorkshire) × Hampshire fattening pigs. The mean value and standard deviation for the range of pH fall from 45 min to 48 h postmortem served to create the following experimental groups: group I with pH decline less or equal to 0.88 units pH; group II with pH decline higher than 0.88 but lower than 1.26 pH units; and group III where pH decline was equal to 1.26 units or higher. This investigation showed that glycolytic resources in meat (glycogen and lactate) were connected with the range of pH decline from 45 min to 48 h postmortem. The different ultimate pH in meat with the same lactate concentration was noted (group I vs. II). Although the range and the rate of pH decline from 3 h postmortem was higher and significantly faster (P≤0.05 and 0.01) in both groups with a higher pH fall (groups II and III), there was no statistically confirmed influence of the investigated range of pH fall on drip loss and on colour. The average values for drip loss and colour obtained in this experiment were related to ultimate pH of meat of (L × Y) × H fatteners, being characteristic for acid meat

Keywords

  • pork meat quality
  • pH changes
21 Articles

Review

Open Access

Dehorning of Calves – Methods of Pain and Stress Alleviation – A Review

Published Online: 25 Apr 2014
Page range: 231 - 243

Abstract

Abstract

Dehorning of calves is intended to facilitate handling and increase the safety of people and animals. The study aimed to review the methods of calf dehorning and use of pharmacological analgesic, anaesthetic and sedation drugs, as well as their impact on pain perception. Regardless of the age of calves, dehorning is always associated with pain and stress. The changes in behaviour, physiological parameters, changes in heart rate, respiratory rate and increased cortisol secretion are observed during this procedure. The welfare of calves is significantly reduced during dehorning. Many studies point to minimization of the pain perceived by the use of pharmacological agents. Beneficial effects were observed with the combined use of anaesthetics and non-steroidal antiinflammatory drugs

Keywords

  • calves
  • dehorning
  • stress
  • cortisol
Open Access

Enhancing The Nutritional Value of Poultry Feedstuffs Using The Example of Rapeseed Products – A Review

Published Online: 25 Apr 2014
Page range: 245 - 256

Abstract

Abstract

This paper outlines the main goals and methods for improving the nutritional value of poultry diets. The benefits of various processing techniques are demonstrated using the example of rapeseed and rapeseed by-products, i.e. rapeseed cake and rapeseed meal. The progress made in plant breeding in the past decades led to a significant reduction in the content of anti-nutritional factors and ingredients which reduce the nutritional value of feed. Rapeseed by-products have become a valuable source of protein for feedstuffs, and they can be safely used in poultry rations at high inclusion rates. Mechanical treatments, such as rapeseed hulling, and enzyme supplementation (phytases, carbohydrases) also significantly increase the nutritional value of feed ingredients. Further research is needed to tap into the new opportunities for improving the nutritional value of feedstuffs

Keywords

  • rapeseed meal
  • rapeseed cake
  • nutritional value
  • poultry

Animal genetics and breeding

Open Access

A Canonical Correlation Analysis of Relationships Between Growth, Compositional Traits and Longevity, Lifetime Productivity and Efficiency in Polish Landrace Sows

Published Online: 25 Apr 2014
Page range: 257 - 270

Abstract

Abstract

Relationships between performance test traits (growth rate, backfat thickness, loin depth, lean meat percentage, exterior, phenotypic selection index) and longevity traits (length of productive life, number of litters, total number of weaned pigs, number of weaned piglets per year, number of litters per year) in Landrace sows were evaluated using canonical correlation analysis. The data set consisted of 23,012 purebred sows that farrowed from 1994 to 2011 in 161 herds. The first three canonical correlations (0.37, 0.25, 0.07) were highly significant (P<0.0001). Correlations of the first canonical variate with the original measured variables indicated that sows with high values for this variate had lower growth rate (r=-0.31) and loin depth (r=-0.43), greater backfat thickness (r=0.23), as well as being older at birth of their last litter (r=0.98). These sows also had a greater number of litters (r=0.94) and better lifetime efficiency (r=0.61 and r=0.70 for number of weaned piglets per year and number of litters per year, respectively). Canonical loadings for the second canonical function indicate that sows with high values for the second set of variates had high growth rate (r=0.79) and phenotypic selection index (r=0.83), excellent conformation (r=0.62), as well as better efficiency in pig production (r=0.67). The squared multiple correlations show that the first canonical variate of the performance traits is a poor predictor of longevity (0.13) and nearly useless for predicting efficiency traits (0.07). Performance test traits explain 11% of the variance in the variables of longevity and lifetime productivity, whereas dependent variables explain only 3% of the variance in performance test traits. The relationships between performance test data and subsequent lifetime productivity or longevity were significant and unfavourable but low for Polish Landrace population

Keywords

  • canonical correlation analysis
  • compositional traits
  • longevity
  • sow
Open Access

Preliminary Evaluation of the use Value of Jumping Horses Based on Their Results Achieved in Grand Prix Competitions

Published Online: 25 Apr 2014
Page range: 271 - 278

Abstract

Abstract

The aim of the work was preliminary evaluation of predispositions of Polish racehorses to sports. The tests covered 273 horses taking part in CC class and CC1 class competitions in the finals of the big tour. The probability of achieving the best result in the competitions depending on the horse breed was evaluated using multivariate analysis of variance. With the use of Spearman’s rank correlations, the initial correspondence between the horse’s rank in breeders’ ranking and the ranking based on sport results was defined. It was stated that horses starting in Grand Prix competitions represented only 6.85% of all horses registered in the Polish Equestrian Federation. In the group, foreign breeds were predominant. The proportion of native breeds was marginal. The lack of a significant influence of the race on differentiation of sports results of horses proves that the best specimens were chosen within individual races. The preliminary results revealed lack of rank agreement between the evaluation of the breeding value and sports achievements of an individual. This suggests the necessity of performing broader analyses covering different aspects

Keywords

  • horses
  • horse-jumping
  • use value
  • breeding value
  • performance test
Open Access

The Effect of Using DNA Obtained from Blood of Cattle with Genetic Chimerism on Illumina’s Beadchip Assay Performance

Published Online: 25 Apr 2014
Page range: 279 - 286

Abstract

Abstract

Blood cell chimerism is a common phenomenon occurring in cattle coming from double or multiple parturitions and can be observed as two DNA profiles present in blood of each of twin born animals. In the era of genomics, a large number of animals is being genotyped with high throughput genotyping methods, which are giving limited insight into the performance of single markers and rather only statistical description of the results is available for a common user. This hampers the detailed analysis of the results obtained and direct identification of the causes of poorer performance of some samples. In this study we describe the influence of analysis of DNA obtained from blood samples of cattle with genetic chimerism on basic parameters of Infinium technology-based Illumina’s genotyping arrays. The results obtained may help to identify such samples, especially when no precise information about the animals’ origin is available

Keywords

  • cattle
  • chimerism
  • Infinium
  • SNP
  • twins

The biology, physiology, reproduction, and health

Open Access

Acute-Phase Response in Monitoring Postoperative Recovery in Bitches After Ovariohysterectomy

Published Online: 25 Apr 2014
Page range: 287 - 295

Abstract

Abstract

An ovariohysterectomy is one of the most common procedures performed on bitches in everyday veterinary practice. As with any other surgery, it leads to a local inflammatory reaction, which is usually accompanied by a systemic reaction called the acute-phase response (APR). The aim of the study was to assess the changes of serum CRP concentration, WBC and rectal temperature during the postoperative period in bitches undergoing ovariohysterectomy and to establish the usefulness of such determinations after surgical trauma. The results showed increased levels of all the measured parameters 24 hours after surgery. During the course of a normal postoperative period, WBC count and rectal temperature return to values that are considered physiological norms for dogs. The subsequent decline in CRP during the postoperative course indicates the gradual subsidence of the inflammatory reaction to surgical trauma. CRP concentrations higher than the physiological norm noted 10 days after surgery indicate a persistent, although less severe inflammatory process. The serum concentration of CRP is a more sensitive and reliable parameter for an evaluation of the postoperative period in bitches than WBC count and rectal temperature

Keywords

  • bitches
  • ovariohysterectomy
  • acute-phase response
  • rectal temperature
  • WBC
  • CRP
Open Access

Endoparasites of European Brown Hare (Lepus Europaeus) from Southern Poland Based on Necropsy

Published Online: 25 Apr 2014
Page range: 297 - 306

Abstract

Abstract

The population of the European brown hare (Lepus europaeus) has been declining for the last decades in many European countries, including Poland. The goal of this study was to determine the level of endoparasite infection among hares. In 2007-2010, 83 animals were examined postmortem. The animals were weighed and analysed according to age and sex. During the dissection only the following nematodes were noticed: Trichostrongylus retortaeformis, Strongyloides papillosus, Trichuris leporis and Passalurus ambiguus in the intestinal tract and Protostrongylus pulmonalis in lungs. Body mass of hares was analysed with a general linear model (GLM) with age, sex, and presence/ absence of nematode infection as factors. The proportion of infected and uninfected hares with protozoan coccidia was compared with Fisher exact test for 2×2 contingency tables, whereas the proportion of nematode infection was compared by χ2 test. There was a significant difference in the proportion of hares infected and not infected by coccidia with the higher proportion of infected juvenile individuals (P=0.010), whereas there was no difference between males and females (P=0.41). The frequencies of hares infected vs. not infected by nematodes did not differ between sex (χ2=1.89, P=0.168) and age (χ2=0.0007, P=0.97). The mean body mass of all hares was 4.15 kg±0.40 kg. GLM model conducted for body mass of hares showed that there was a significant difference only between juvenile and adult hares (F=24.225, P=0.000005) and no significant association between the level of endoparasite infection and sex

Keywords

  • Lepus europaeus
  • body weight
  • sex
  • parasites
  • necropsy

Animal nutrition and feedstuffs

Open Access

Comparative Analysis of Nutrient Digestibility and Nitrogen Retention in Wild and Farmed Canids

Published Online: 25 Apr 2014
Page range: 307 - 314

Abstract

Abstract

The aim of this study, conducted in November 2012, was to determine whether farming of common foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides) leads to changes in nutrient digestibility and nitrogen retention in comparison with their wild counterparts. Wild and farmed animals were compared within and between species. Each group consisted of five males and five females aged around eight months. Farmed silver foxes - a variety of the common red fox (group FSF) and farmed raccoon dogs (group FRD) were purchased from a breeding farm in southeastern Poland. Wild red foxes (group WRF) and wild raccoon dogs (group WRD) were trapped in the hunting grounds of the Polish Hunting Association (Olsztyn Division). The animals were placed in metabolism cages. The coefficients of nutrient and energy digestibility, and daily nitrogen balance and retention values were compared between groups. Farmed animals tended to have higher digestibility coefficients than their wild counterparts. No significant differences were noted within species. The coefficients of dry matter (P≤0.01), organic matter (P≤0.05, P≤0.05) and protein (only FSF vs. WRD - P≤0.05) digestibility were higher in foxes. Raccoon dogs were characterized by higher digestibility of carbohydrates - N-free extracts (P≤0.01). Nitrogen retention was higher in farmed animals. The highest and lowest levels of retained nitrogen were observed in groups FSF and WRD, respectively

Keywords

  • common fox
  • raccoon dog
  • feeding
  • digestibility
  • N retention
Open Access

Effect of the Composition and Autoclave Sterilization of Diets for Laboratory Animals on Pellet Hardness and Growth Performance of Mice

Published Online: 25 Apr 2014
Page range: 315 - 328

Abstract

Abstract

The aim of the study was to determine the effect of modifications of ingredient composition and autoclaving of feeds for laboratory animals on pellet hardness and growth performance of mice. Composition of two breeding diets, containing either casein or soybean meal as the main protein sources, was modified by a change of wheat to maize proportions, or by oil and/or fibre supplementation (in casein containing diets only). The diets were pelleted and autoclaved at 121°C for 20 min. Pellet hardness of nonautoclaved soya diets was smaller than of casein diets except for those supplemented with oil. Oil supplementation tended to reduce or reduced pellet hardness of nonautoclaved but not of autoclaved diets whereas change of cereal proportion and type of fibre had no effect. Autoclaving increased pellet hardness of all diets, cancelled softening effect of oil supplementation of nonautoclaved casein diets and reduced difference between casein and soya containing diets. Pellet hardness was correlated with fat, fibre, starch, ash and phosphorus content. In mice, total consumption of autoclaved diets was greater than of nonautoclaved diets. Body weight was not affected by diet whereas it was decreased by autoclaving only in the 3rd and 6th week of experiment, the differences being of a very small magnitude. Growth of male mice depended on nutrient content, especially fibre, ash, phosphorus and energy, whereas body weight of females was highly correlated with phosphorus content. The dependencies differed between weeks of experiment

Keywords

  • laboratory animals
  • feed composition
  • autoclaving
  • pellet quality
  • growth performance
Open Access

In Vitro Cellulase Production from Five Herbivore Microbial Ecosystems and Consortia

Published Online: 25 Apr 2014
Page range: 329 - 340

Abstract

Abstract

As the most abundant biomass in nature, cellulose is the main chemical component in herbivore forages. The energy locked in these complex polymers can only be released by cellulolytic enzymes. Therefore, research aiming to increase the expression of cellulolytic enzymes or browsing uncultured microbial ecosystem in search of potential fibrolytic enzymes is imperative. The main objectives were to: (a) investigate the variation of cellulase enzymes in cow (CW), horse (H), miniature horse (mH), wildebeest (WB) and zebra (ZB); and (b) identify their presence and activeness in microbial consortia, N1 (H+WB), N2 (H+ZB), N3 (WB+ZB) and N4 (H+WB+ZB). Fresh faecal or rumen inocula were cultured in the laboratory on maize stover and lucerne (1:1) with salivary buffer for 72 h at 38°C. Crude proteins (CPZ) were precipitated from both fresh and cultured inocula using 60% ammonium sulfate for enzyme assays and zymography. Endocellulases and their activity were identified on 1% (m/v) carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) zymograms stained with Congo red. All CPZ extracts were active as reducing sugars were produced after incubation with crystalline cellulose, CMC and xylan. The number and types of proteins with endocellulase activity varied (P<0.05) among and within the different animal species CW (15), H (14), mH (14), WB (13) and ZB (13). Microbial consortia were active with relatively higher number of endocellulases, N1 (17), N3 (14), N4 (14), and N2 (13). Cellulase enzymes vary among and within herbivore species grazing on the same or different fields. Therefore, identifying specific enzymes and microbes with higher fibrolytic potentials from different ecosystems for transinoculation could play a vital role in improving forage digestibility in ruminants

Keywords

  • fibrolytic enzymes
  • rumen
  • faecal inoculum
Open Access

Effect of Protein Concentrate Supplement on the Qualitative and Quantitative Parameters of Milk from Dairy Cows in Organic Farming

Published Online: 25 Apr 2014
Page range: 341 - 352

Abstract

Abstract

In our experiment, we studied the effects of protein concentrate addition on the qualitative and quantitative composition of milk in organically farmed dairy cows. A total number of 40 Holstein cows were divided into two groups. Live weight of dairy cows was around 625±25 kg. Average production efficiency of animals was 7600±50 kg milk for the lactation period. Animals of both groups received identical basal feed ration. The first experimental group of cows (n=20) received in the feed ration a protein concentrate from organic production (soybean cake 60%, sunflower cake 20%, linseed cake 20%) at 1 kg per head and day. The second group served as a control (n=20) without the addition of protein concentrate. The experiment lasted 30 days. The goal of the experiment was to investigate whether the addition of protein concentrate can affect individual milk components. The measured values show that the experimental group of dairy cows with the addition of protein concentrate exhibited increases in fat content by 7.4% (P≤0.05), in urea content by 83.1% (P≤0.001) and in citric acid content by 18.6% (P≤0.01), and decreases in free fatty acids by 54.9% (P≤0.001), in ECM by 5.5% (P≤0.05) and in FCM by 6.1% (P≤0.05). The control group of cows exhibited the citric acid content in milk increased by 20.0% (P≤0.05). The results indicate that the protein concentrate composed of soybean, sunflower and linseed cakes can affect the composition of milk from organically farmed dairy cows

Keywords

  • protein concentrate
  • milk
  • cows
  • organic farming
Open Access

Effect of Zinc Acetate and Magnesium Sulfate Dietary Supplementation on Broiler Thigh Meat Colour, Nutrient Composition and Lipid Peroxidation Values Under Continuous Heat Stress Condition

Published Online: 25 Apr 2014
Page range: 353 - 363

Abstract

Abstract

Four hundred and fifty one-day-old male broiler chicks (Ross 308) in 9 groups of 50 each (3 × 3 factorial experiment) were randomly allocated to investigate the effects of different dietary levels of 0, 30 and 60 mg/kg Zinc (Zn) and 0, 300 and 600 mg/kg magnesium (Mg) on thigh meat colour, nutrient composition and lipid peroxidation value in broiler chickens under heat stress. The birds were kept under a high temperature (32±1°C) for 24 h/day for the first until the final day. At the end of the experiment (day 42), five birds per treatment were slaughtered. Then two pieces of the right thigh muscle per bird (upper part of the thigh muscle) were immediately collected for assessing the meat quality indices. The results of the present experiment showed that addition of Zn and Mg did not influence the ash, dry matter (DM) and ether extract (EE) contents of thigh meat (P>0.05), whereas the crude protein (CP) content of the thigh meat was increased when diet was supplemented with Zn (P<0.05). Addition of Zn and Mg in diet did not change the mean lightness (L) and redness (a) value in the thigh meat (P>0.05). Thigh yellowness (b) value was increased by inclusion of 30 mg/kg Zn alone or along with 600 mg/kg Mg (P<0.05). Furthermore, inclusion of 30 mg/kg Zn in diet (at any level of Mg) decreased the thigh thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (P<0.05)

Keywords

  • thigh meat
  • thigh yellowness
  • crude protein
  • pH
  • thiobarbituric acid reactive substances

Behavior, well-being, production technology, and environment

Open Access

Determinants Of Dominance, Resting Place And Neighbour Preferences In Wrzosówka Polska Ewes Kept Indoors

Published Online: 25 Apr 2014
Page range: 365 - 375

Abstract

Abstract

The aim of this study was to recognize features determining social hierarchy in Wrzosówka Polska ewes kept indoors as well as to investigate their resting place and companionship preferences. Observations (156 hours in total) were carried out in a group of 22 ewes. The social rank of sheep was determined by their age, body weight and length of horns. Social position was positively correlated with aggressive behaviour performed and negatively with aggressive behaviour received. Use of space while resting was influenced by ewe social behaviour; aggressive individuals lied more often in attractive places, namely against walls and fodder troughs compared to other animals. In general, the ewes rested by having physical contact with animals of similar rank and aggressiveness. Kinship appeared not to be important in neighbour preference. As can be concluded, social interactions influenced the use of space and neighbourhood in ewes

Keywords

  • social hierarchy
  • females
  • behaviour
  • Polish Heath Sheep
Open Access

Results of Research on the Active Species Protection of the Roman Snail (Helix Pomatia, Linnaeus, 1758) Using Farmed Snails in the Second Year of Life. First Season of the Study

Published Online: 25 Apr 2014
Page range: 377 - 389

Abstract

Abstract

The effect of three forms of active species protection in the Roman snail were studied. On the “source plot” the natural population was supported by introducing hatchlings of farmed Roman snails aged 1+, bred from adult specimens of this population. These hatchlings (age 1+) from “source plot” population were also introduced to the following two natural plots: to the “empty plot”, where the population was formed by introduction of farmed Roman snails in the second year of life (1+) into a selected area which had been emptied of the natural population; to the “inhabited plot”, where farmed Roman snails aged 1+, originating from breeding snails of the foreign population from a “source plot”, were introduced to the local natural population. It was established that introducing Roman snails aged 1+ and bred under farm conditions has a clearly positive influence on the age structure of the natural population in the studied plots. The rate of growth of these snails adjusted to the rate of growth of the specimens in the same age group belonging to the natural population. The farmed Roman snails grew most rapidly in the “empty plot” sown with fodder vegetation, more slowly in the “source plot” with access to appropriate herbaceous vegetation, and most slowly in the “inhabited plot”. The attempt to create a naturalized population in a specially adapted “empty plot” without the natural population was successful. This was determined not only by a large number of hiding places from calcareous stones available to the Roman snails but above all by the species structure of the herb flora, which met their nutritional requirements as it contained high proportions of plants such as Brassica rapa × Brassica rapa subsp. chinensis, white clover (Trifolium repens), red clover (Trifolium pratense) and the hybrid of lucerne (Medicago × varia Martyn)

Keywords

  • Roman snail
  • Helix pomatia
  • active protection
  • farmed population
  • natural population
Open Access

Normalization of Showjumping Competition’s Results

Published Online: 25 Apr 2014
Page range: 391 - 403

Abstract

Abstract

The aim of this study was to verify the newly proposed transformation of penalty points and ranking of showjumping horses for the purpose of genetic evaluation. Genomic information in the transformation of input data was used as well. Data of showjumping competition Global Champions Tour was used. Profit of penalty points was transformed to normally distributed variable using Blom formula (height of obstacles and height of obstacles with single nucleotide polymorphism - SNP effect taken into account). Non-normal distribution was obtained. The rankings of sport horses in competitions were transformed using the Blom formula (height of obstacles taken into account) to normal distribution (tests of normality Kolmogorov-Smirnov (KS) test Pr>D, D 0.011, P>0.150, Cramer-von Mises (CM) test Pr>W-Sq, W-Sq 0.039, P>0.250, Anderson-Darling test (AD) Pr>A-Sq, A-Sq 0.638, P<0.097). Better distributed variable ranking transformed by Blom formula (height of obstacles and SNP effect taken into account) was obtained (KS test Pr>D, D 0.004, P>0.150, CM test Pr>W-Sq, W-Sq 0.004, P>0.250, AD test Pr>A-Sq, A-Sq 0.062, P>0.250). Model where all used fixed effects to equation were applied without any combination of the effects was tested, R2 0.54. Variable ranking was transformed to normal score by Blom formula (height of obstacles was taken into account). In the following model some effects were taken into account in the form of quadratic regression, R2 0.61. Variable ranking was transformed to normal score, the same as in previous model. In the last model we transformed variable ranking to normal score by Blom formula, taking into account height of obstacles and SNP effect. Same effects as in previous model were used, R2 0.60

Keywords

  • showjumping
  • normal distribution
  • penalty points
  • ranking
  • genomics
Open Access

Comparison of Two Methods of Housing Primiparous Cows

Published Online: 25 Apr 2014
Page range: 405 - 415

Abstract

Abstract

We researched the influence of two methods of housing primiparous cows on meeting estimated energy requirements. In herd A primiparous cows were kept in a separate technological group during the whole lactation period, whereas in herd B they were kept in technological groups together with multigravid cows. The whole herd A consisted of 400 cows, where the average annual yield was 10,200 kg of milk per cow. Herd B consisted of 250 cows, where the average annual yield was 8,500 kg of milk per cow. In 2010 and 2011 there were 200 primiparous cows in herd A, whereas in herd B there were 165 primiparous cows. The milk yield for 100 and 305 days of lactation was analysed. Meeting the cows’ demand for energy was determined on the basis of the percentage of protein in milk. In both herds primiparous cows were divided into milk yield classes for 100 days of lactation. Both the trend and the amount of variation in the content of protein in milk were found to be identical in both herds. The content of protein in milk increased as the milk yield decreased. This regularity could be observed at both lactation stages under analysis and the differences between the classes were statistically confirmed. During the first 100 days of lactation the estimated energy deficit comprised a much larger percentage of the cows than in the 305-day lactation period. The system of maintenance of primiparous cows (separately or together with multigravid cows) was not found to influence the milk yield or the estimated demand for energy

Keywords

  • primiparous cow
  • housing system
  • milk yield
  • energy demand

Quality and safety of animal origin products

Open Access

Level of Fatty Acids, Selected Quality Traits of Longissimus Dorsi and Semimembranosus Muscles and Their Relationship with Fattening and Slaughter Performance in Polish Landrace Pigs

Published Online: 25 Apr 2014
Page range: 417 - 427

Abstract

Abstract

The aim of this study was to perform a comprehensive analysis of the level of fatty acids and selected meat quality traits, as well as their association with fattening and slaughter performance in Polish Landrace pigs. The study was conducted for two muscles: musculus longissimus dorsi and musculus semimembranosus. The study used 100 Polish Landrace gilts. The experimental animals originated from nucleus farms located in Poland. Their parents were animals with a known status of the RYR 1 genotype (all animals were dominant homozygotes). Pigs were fattened, slaughtered and evaluated postmortem in piggeries of the Experimental Stations of the National Research Institute of Animal Production using test station procedures. After reaching 100 kg body weight, pigs were slaughtered and their half-carcasses dissected. Fattening and slaughter parameters were determined. Meat samples were analysed for crude fat using the Soxhlet method. The composition of higher fatty acids was determined by gas chromatography. Research results indicate that saturated fatty acids found in m. longissimus dorsi and m. semimembranosus were positively correlated to n-3 and n-6 PUFA . A similarly high correlation was observed between the level of UFA and n-6 and n-3 PUFA in the loin and ham. The fact that the proportions of some acids (e.g. n-6/n-3 PUFA ) fail to meet WHO standards requires making efforts to improve them. Likewise, selection work is necessary to improve IMF levels in meat. The low correlations between meat quality traits and fattening and slaughter performance suggest that quality parameters should be regarded as independent traits in pig improvement models. In order to limit meat quality traits in pig improvement models, it is necessary to make use of the correlations between them

Keywords

  • pigs
  • fatty acids
  • meat quality
  • slaughter performance
Open Access

Prediction of the Carcass Value of Young Holstein-Friesian Bulls Based on Live Body Measurements

Published Online: 25 Apr 2014
Page range: 429 - 439

Abstract

Abstract

The aim of this study was to determine the suitability of ultrasound and zoometric measurements and visual muscle scoring for predicting the carcass value of 167 young Holstein-Friesian (HF) bulls. Zoometric and ultrasound measurements were performed and live muscle scoring was estimated before slaughter. After slaughter, hot carcass weight (HCW) was determined and carcasses were assigned to conformation and fat classes according to the EUROP system. Multiple regression equations were derived to estimate the weight, conformation and fatness of carcasses. HCW was estimated using the following equations: Ŷ = 1.507x1 + 1.103x2 + 4.043x3 + 5.53x4 + 0.379x5 + + 8.076x6 - 678.93 (R2=0.892; Sy = 16.28) and Ŷ = 2.525x4 + 0.579x7 + 0.451x8 - 134.17 (R2=0.943; Sy = 11.84); independent variables x1 - height at sacrum (cm); x2 - chest girth (cm); x3 - pelvic width (cm); x4 - pelvic length (cm); x5 - thickness of M. gluteo-biceps (mm); x6 - intravital muscle scoring (points); x7 - thickness of M. longissimus dorsi (mm); x8 - live weight (kg). Validation of the first regression equation revealed overestimation of HCW by 1.25% on average, while validation of the second equation revealed its underestimation by 1.85% on average. It was found that intravital muscle scoring and selected ultrasound and zoometric measurements of HF bulls can be used in formulating regression equations for predicting the carcass value of live animals. The proposed models enable predicting the carcass value of young bulls with satisfactory accuracy, thus contributing to an objective live beef cattle assessment

Keywords

  • prediction
  • carcass value
  • body measurements
Open Access

Effect of Noise Generated by the Wind Turbine on the Quality of Goose Muscles and Abdominal Fat

Published Online: 25 Apr 2014
Page range: 441 - 451

Abstract

Abstract

The objective of this study was to assess the physicochemical properties of breast and thigh muscles and fatty acid composition of abdominal fat of geese reared at a distance of 50 metres from the wind turbine compared to those reared 460 metres from the wind turbine. The study was carried out on 40 Kołuda White® geese (Anser anser f. domestica) divided into two groups: Treatment 1 - reared at a distance of 50 metres and Treatment 2 - reared at a distance of 460 metres from the wind turbine (Vestas V90 wind turbine). The muscles were analysed for pH, thermal loss, shear force, TBARS values and colour parameters (L* a* b*). The fatty acids composition of abdominal fat was also analysed. The results of the present study suggest that noise generated by the wind turbine affected the quality of muscles and the fatty acid profile of abdominal fat of geese. The results showed that the muscles of geese reared at a distance of 50 metres from the wind turbine were characterized by higher pH and TBARS values compared to those reared at a longer distance from the wind turbine. The significantly lower content of C 18:3 n-3 fatty acid in abdominal fat was observed for geese reared 50 metres from the wind turbine. Further studies should be undertaken to establish the safe distance of a wind turbine from livestock buildings

Keywords

  • goose
  • stress
  • breast and leg muscles quality
  • abdominal fat
Open Access

Semi-Intensive Fattening Suitability and Slaughter Value of Young Bulls of Three Polish Native Breeds in Comparison With Polish Holstein-Friesian and Simmental

Published Online: 25 Apr 2014
Page range: 453 - 460

Abstract

Abstract

An evaluation was conducted of the suitability for fattening in a semi-intensive system (mainly with fodders from permanent grassland) and the slaughter value of 15 young bulls of the Polish Red (PR) breed and 10 each of the White-Backed (WB) and Polish Black-and-White (BW) breeds. The reference group consisted of young bulls of the Black-and-White variety of the Polish Holstein- Friesian (HF) breed and the Simmental (SIM) breed, fattened on the same farms. Control fattening was carried out until the age of 18 months. Mean daily weight gain in the bulls of the native breeds during the control fattening period (which lasted 314-358 days) was 0.9 kg, similarly to HF, but significantly lower (P≤0.05) than in the Simmentals (986 g). During the entire fattening period, i.e. from birth to the age of 18 months, daily weight gain was 832 g in PR and 889-919 g in WB and BW. Dressing percentage was lowest in PR bulls (51.69%), and higher in WB (53.1%) and BW (53.49%), with values similar to the reference group, i.e. young bulls of the Simmental (52.97%) and HF (53.29%) breeds. The difference between PR and BW (1.8%) and HF (1.6%) was statistically significant (P≤0.05). In the EUROP classification system, the carcasses of the young bulls of the native breeds were most often placed in classes R- and O+ (conformation) and 2+ and 3- (fat cover), as in the case of young HF bulls. Carcasses of young Simmental bulls were assigned to much higher classes. The young bulls of the three Polish native breeds evaluated are good material for fattening in a semi-intensive system (mainly with fodder from permanent grasslands), while the young PR bulls were the least suitable

Keywords

  • cattle
  • native breeds
  • semi-intensive fattening
  • daily weight gain
  • slaughter value
Open Access

Variations in PH Decline Measured from 45 Min to 48 H Postmortem as Related to Meat Quality of (L × Y) × H Fatteners

Published Online: 25 Apr 2014
Page range: 461 - 469

Abstract

Abstract

The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of the range of pH decline from 45 min to 48 h after the slaughter on the quality of meat in (Landrace × Yorkshire) × Hampshire fattening pigs. The mean value and standard deviation for the range of pH fall from 45 min to 48 h postmortem served to create the following experimental groups: group I with pH decline less or equal to 0.88 units pH; group II with pH decline higher than 0.88 but lower than 1.26 pH units; and group III where pH decline was equal to 1.26 units or higher. This investigation showed that glycolytic resources in meat (glycogen and lactate) were connected with the range of pH decline from 45 min to 48 h postmortem. The different ultimate pH in meat with the same lactate concentration was noted (group I vs. II). Although the range and the rate of pH decline from 3 h postmortem was higher and significantly faster (P≤0.05 and 0.01) in both groups with a higher pH fall (groups II and III), there was no statistically confirmed influence of the investigated range of pH fall on drip loss and on colour. The average values for drip loss and colour obtained in this experiment were related to ultimate pH of meat of (L × Y) × H fatteners, being characteristic for acid meat

Keywords

  • pork meat quality
  • pH changes

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