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Volume 22 (2022): Issue 3 (July 2022)

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Volume 21 (2021): Issue 4 (October 2021)

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Volume 21 (2021): Issue 2 (April 2021)

Volume 21 (2021): Issue 1 (January 2021)

Volume 20 (2020): Issue 4 (October 2020)

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Volume 19 (2019): Issue 4 (October 2019)

Volume 19 (2019): Issue 3 (July 2019)

Volume 19 (2019): Issue 2 (April 2019)

Volume 19 (2019): Issue 1 (January 2019)

Volume 18 (2018): Issue 4 (October 2018)

Volume 18 (2018): Issue 3 (July 2018)

Volume 18 (2018): Issue 2 (May 2018)

Volume 18 (2018): Issue 1 (January 2018)

Volume 17 (2017): Issue 4 (October 2017)

Volume 17 (2017): Issue 3 (July 2017)

Volume 17 (2017): Issue 2 (May 2017)

Volume 17 (2017): Issue 1 (January 2017)

Volume 16 (2016): Issue 4 (October 2016)

Volume 16 (2016): Issue 3 (July 2016)

Volume 16 (2016): Issue 2 (April 2016)

Volume 16 (2016): Issue 1 (January 2016)

Volume 15 (2015): Issue 4 (October 2015)

Volume 15 (2015): Issue 3 (July 2015)

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Volume 15 (2015): Issue 1 (January 2015)

Volume 14 (2014): Issue 4 (October 2014)

Volume 14 (2014): Issue 3 (July 2014)

Volume 14 (2014): Issue 2 (April 2014)

Volume 14 (2014): Issue 1 (January 2014)

Volume 13 (2013): Issue 4 (October 2013)
Issue Editors: Magdalena Bielska, Jerzy Pilawski, Katarzyna Skupniewicz

Volume 13 (2013): Issue 3 (July 2013)

Volume 13 (2013): Issue 2 (April 2013)

Volume 13 (2013): Issue 1 (January 2013)

Volume 12 (2012): Issue 4 (October 2012)

Volume 12 (2012): Issue 3 (July 2012)

Volume 12 (2012): Issue 2 (April 2012)

Volume 12 (2012): Issue 1 (January 2012)

Volume 11 (2011): Issue 4 (August 2011)

Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
2300-8733
First Published
25 Nov 2011
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English

Search

Volume 18 (2018): Issue 4 (October 2018)

Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
2300-8733
First Published
25 Nov 2011
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English

Search

14 Articles

Review

Open Access

Effects of Zeolite Supplementation on Dairy Cow Production and Ruminal Parameters – A Review

Published Online: 02 Nov 2018
Page range: 857 - 877

Abstract

Abstract

In recent years, the use of both natural and synthetic zeolites in livestock feeds fed to lactating cows has increased, mainly to improve their performance, health, and to protect against mycotoxins intoxication. Data of scientific literature were compiled to analyze the effects of the incorporation of non-nutritional adsorbent zeolite on production performance and ruminal environment parameters of lactating cows. At moderate levels (200–400 g/cow/day), milk yield was increased by zeolite. Milk fat and protein contents and DMI were not altered and all ruminal parameters were improved: acetate was enhanced, propionate was reduced and consequently, acetate to propionate ratio was increased. The rumen pH was increased and rumen ammonia nitrogen was reduced. When the level of zeolite exceeded 400 g/d/cow, all production and ruminal parameters were negatively altered. These data suggest that zeolite level in the diet has a significant effect on the response of dairy production and ruminal environment characteristics.

Keywords

  • dairy cows
  • lactation
  • productive parameters
  • ruminal parameters
  • zeolite
Open Access

Silver and Zinc Nanoparticles in Animal Nutrition – A Review

Published Online: 02 Nov 2018
Page range: 879 - 898

Abstract

Abstract

The use of metal nanoparticles as supplements of animal diets does not always bring unambiguous results. There are many reports in the literature about the multifaceted effects of this type of supplementation on the animal organism. Therefore, the aim of the paper is to present the current knowledge of the possible application of nanometal forms in animal nutrition and its potential benefits and threats. The positive effect of nanoparticles used as feed additives has most frequently been reflected in an increase in body weight, higher average daily gain, or improvement of the FCR value. In some cases, however, the effect of nanoparticle addition to diets was indiscernible. The potent antibacterial activity of nanoparticles, especially against Gram-negative bacteria and Gram-positive bacteria, is regarded as a positive effect. In turn, the probability of their toxicity is a potential risk in application thereof. Supplementation of diets with nanometals has been accompanied by pathological changes in animal tissues, primarily in the pancreas, kidney, liver, rumen, abomasum, small intestine, adrenal glands, and brain. Additionally, at the the cellular level, nanoparticles were found to induce toxicity, inflammatory excitation, and cell death. Oral administration of nanoparticles induced a risk of malfunction of the nervous system and even impairment of cognitive processes in animals. The increasing knowledge of the possible toxic effects of nanoparticles on the animal organism suggests caution in their use in animal production and necessitates further precise investigations in this area.

Keywords

  • metal nanoparticles
  • nutrition
  • animal production
  • bactericidal properties
  • toxicity
Open Access

Air Ionization in Livestock Buildings – A Review

Published Online: 02 Nov 2018
Page range: 899 - 905

Abstract

Abstract

Research has shown that microclimate is determined not only by air microparticles, but also by the degree of air ionization. Ions affect the body through the respiratory tract and skin. Exposure of reared chickens to elevated air temperature (37°C–23°C) was found to accelerate the break-down of negative ions compared to temperature lower by 10°C. Negative air ionization offsets the adverse effect of elevated temperature on chickens. Higher (85%) air humidity during rearing of chickens was also observed to destroy negative ions. Research findings indicate that air ionization is an environmental element that contributes to improving performance in broiler chickens. Many studies have also confirmed a positive effect of air ionization on the body weight and health of piglets.

Keywords

  • air ionization
  • temperature
  • air humidity
  • health
  • productivity
  • poultry
  • pigs

Animal genetics and breeding

Open Access

Analysis of the Methylation Status of CpG Sites Within Cancer-Related Genes in Equine Sarcoids

Published Online: 02 Nov 2018
Page range: 907 - 918

Abstract

Abstract

In the recent years, particular attention was given to the research aimed at optimizing the use of tumour epigenetic markers. One of the best known epigenetic changes associated with the process of carcinogenesis is aberrant DNA methylation. The aim of the present research was to evaluate the methylation profile of genes potentially important in the diagnosis and/or prognosis of equine sarcoids, the most commonly detected skin tumours in Equidae. The methylation status of potential promoter sequences of nine genes: APC, CCND2, CDKN2B, DCC, RARβ, RASSF1, RASSF5, THBS1 and TRPM1, was determined using bisulfite sequencing polymerase chain reaction (BSP-CR). The results of this study did not reveal any changes in the level of DNA methylation in the analysed group of candidate genes between the tumour and healthy tissues. Despite numerous reports describing the aberrant methylation of the promoters of the analysed genes in human cancers, the data obtained did not confirm the existence of such relationships in the examined tumour tissues, which excludes the possibility of using these genes for the diagnosis of the equine sarcoid.

Keywords

  • equine sarcoids
  • horse
  • tumourigenesis
  • DNA methylation
  • BSPCR
Open Access

Characterization of Three Generations of Transgenic Pigs Expressing the HLA-E Gene

Published Online: 02 Nov 2018
Page range: 919 - 935

Abstract

Abstract

The use of pigs as a source of organs and tissues for xenotransplantation can overcome the growing shortage of human donors. Human NK cells play an important role in the cell-mediated rejection of pig-to-human xenografts. In this paper we report the generation and extensive characterization of three generations of transgenic pigs with HLA-E gene encoding the antigen which can inhibit the human NK cell-mediated response. The gene construct pHLAE-GFPBsd containing the human gene encoding the human leukocyte antigen under the promoter of the EF-1α elongation factor ensuring systemic expression was introduced by microinjection into a pronucleus of the fertilized porcine oocyte. PCR analysis revealed and FISH analysis confirmed that the pHLAE-GFPBsd gene construct was present in the genome of the founder female pig. As a result of inter-breeding, an additional 7 transgenic animals were obtained (one individual from F1 generation and six individuals from F2 generation). The transgene expression was shown by RT-PCR and flow cytometry. Real Time PCR analysis estimated the approximate number of transgene copies at 16–34. Karyotype analysis did not show any changes in the structure or the number of chromosomes. The expression level of the transgene was stable in the next generation of genetically modified pigs. An NK cell-mediated cytotoxicity assay showed the increased viability of the transgenic cells in comparison with the wild-type, which confirmed the protective influence of HLA-E expression.

Keywords

  • transgenic pigs
  • transgene expression
  • xenotransplantation
  • transgene stability
  • transgene inheritance

The biology, physiology, reproduction, and health

Open Access

White Tea is More Effective in Preservation of Bone Loss in Adult Rats Co-Exposed to Lead and Cadmium Compared to Black, Red or Green Tea

Published Online: 02 Nov 2018
Page range: 937 - 953

Abstract

Abstract

Lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) are toxic metals occurring commonly in the human environment that show mutagenic, genotoxic and carcinogenic effects. Dietary components could prevent heavy metals intoxication by reducing their accumulation in the body. The purpose of the study was to check possible protective effect of regular consumption of white, black, red, or green tea on bone metabolism during long-term exposure to Pb and Cd in adult rats. The 12 week-long exposure to Pb and Cd (50 mg Pb and 7 mg Cd/kg of the diet) in a rat model was studied. Twelve-week-old adult male Wistar rats were randomly divided into a negative control group (Pb and Cd exposure without tea), a control (without Pb and Cd and teas), and groups co-exposed to Pb and Cd and supplemented with green, red, black, or white tea (n=12 each group). The experiment lasted for 12 weeks. The co-exposure to Pb and Cd led to the increase of bone resorption depending on the tea treatment, which was confirmed by the mechanical testing and histomorphometrical examination of cancellous bone. Pb and Cd influenced mechanical strength, reduced the densitometric and geometric parameters and the thickness of growth plate and articular cartilages. Concluding, white tea exerted the best protective effect on bone tissue and hyaline cartilage against heavy metal action.

Keywords

  • cadmium
  • lead
  • tea
  • adult rats
  • femur
  • geometry
  • mechanical endurance
Open Access

The Relationship Between Subclinical Ketosis and Ruminal Dysfunction in Dairy Cows

Published Online: 02 Nov 2018
Page range: 955 - 971

Abstract

Abstract

Ketosis is still an important problem which must be solved in dairy herds. Early precise diagnosis and proper evaluation of the cause of the disease is essential for good management of ketosis on dairy farms. The aim of our work was to analyse the occurrence of rumen dysfunction in connection with subclinical ketosis in dairy herds and to evaluate the relationships between beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) concentration in blood and metabolic parameters in blood, urine and rumen fluid. We analysed the results of metabolic profile tests performed in dairy cattle herds from 1,338 cows. The concentration of BHB significantly correlated with glucose, NEFA (nonesterified fatty acids), bilirubin, AST (aspartate aminotransferase), GGT (γ-glutamyl transferase), urea, magnesium and calcium in blood serum and with following parameters of rumen fluid – acetate, propionate, butyrate, acetate/propionate and infusoria. Significant but weak correlations were found between BHB and urine parameters (pH, specific gravity, potassium, magnesium, chloride). Subclinical ruminal acidosis was found in 23.1% and 16.7% of dairy cows with light (BHB 1.2–2 mmol/L) and more severe subclinical ketosis (BHB >2 mmol/L) and simple ruminal indigestion in 16.7% and 30%, respectively. On the basis of performed analysis we can conclude that rumen dysfunction is an important factor for the development of ketosis. Veterinary practitioners should suggest checking the feeding management in their diagnostic work with the aim to distinguish primary and secondary ketosis. Only complex and precise diagnostic work allows applying correct and successful therapy not only for individual animals but also for herd health management.

Keywords

  • ruminants
  • dairy cows
  • ketosis
  • beta-hydroxybutyrate
  • rumen dysfunctions

Animal nutrition, and feedstuffs

Open Access

Effect of Dietary Fish Oil on Mammary Gland Development and Milk Production of Holstein Cow

Published Online: 02 Nov 2018
Page range: 973 - 990

Abstract

Abstract

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of feeding oil supplement on mammary gland development and milk production responses in Holstein cows. Ten multiparous Holstein cows (42.2±9.2 d before calving, 3.25±0.25 body condition score, and 620±35 kg body weight) were randomly assigned to treatments. Treatments were a diet with oil added as palm oil (PO; n=5), or fish oil (FO; n=5) given to cows until 63 d in milk. Milk yield was recorded daily, milk composition (fat, protein, lactose, total solid and somatic cell count) was measured weekly and fatty acid profiles of milk fat were determined at first and last week of the experiment. Samples of mammary tissue were obtained at 7 and 63 d in milk by biopsy gun. Tissue slides were analyzed by Image J software. Results showed that fish oil supplemented diet compared to the palm oil supplemented diet increased milk production after 6 weeks of lactation (P<0.05), content of polyunsaturated fatty acids milk fat (P<0.05) and docosahexaenoic acid (P<0.01). Moreover, n-6:n-3 ratio was decreased by fish oil supplement (P<0.05). Histological studies showed that FO increased the relative percentage of tissue area occupied by epithelial cells as well as a number of total alveoli in each microscopic field (P<0.05). Data suggested that feeding fish oil during the dry period and early lactation could improve development and function of the mammary gland in the dairy cow.

Keywords

  • dairy cows
  • fat supplementation
  • mammary development
  • milk yield
  • milk fat
  • fatty acid profile
Open Access

Effect of Soybean or Linseed Oil With RRR-D-α-Tocopherol or Dl-α-Tocopherol Acetate on Quality Characteristics and Fatty Acid Profile of Turkey Meat

Published Online: 02 Nov 2018
Page range: 991 - 1005

Abstract

Abstract

In this study, the effect of the halved dosage of RRR-d-α-tocopherol (with respect to dl-α-to-copherol acetate) in diets containing oil rich in linoleic or α-linolenic acid (soybean or linseed oil, respectively) on the quality characteristics and fatty acid (FA) profile of turkey meat was studied. The experiment was conducted using 480 one-week-old turkey hens Big 6 line reared until the 16th week of life. The hens in Groups I and II received soybean oil added to their feed mixture, in Groups III and IV linseed oil was the source of supplementary fat. Turkeys in Groups I and III received dl-α-tocopherol acetate, whereas those in Groups II and IV RRR-d-α-tocopherol. No influence of dietary manipulation was observed on the chemical composition of turkey meat. The combined effect of the type of dietary fat and vitamin E source added to the feed was assessed using the color parameters. The addition of natural vitamin E to the feed mixture with linseed oil significantly increased the proportion of PUFA in breast muscle lipids compared with the group receiving soybean oil with this form of vitamin E. The inclusion of linseed oil increased the content of α-linolenic acid and total n-3 FA concentration in both muscles, compared with the diet that contained soybean oil. This modification of FA composition led to lower n-6/n-3 ratio in both the breast and thigh muscles regardless of the dietary vitamin E source. The use of natural form of tocopherol in diets containing linseed oil may help to improve the nutritional quality of turkey meat, especially by enhancing n-3 PUFA levels with no detrimental effect of lipid addition on the chemical composition and quality of meat.

Keywords

  • turkey
  • soybean oil
  • linseed oil
  • tocopherol
  • fatty acids
Open Access

The Effect of Feeding Native Faba Bean Seeds (Vicia faba L.) to Sows and Supplemented With Enzymes to Piglets and Growing Pigs

Published Online: 02 Nov 2018
Page range: 1007 - 1027

Abstract

Abstract

The aim of this experiment was to examine the possibility of replacing part of soybean meal in the diets of sows, their piglets and fatteners with two varieties of high- or low-tannin faba bean seed. Twenty-four sows were allocated to 3 groups, 8 animals in each. Control group (C) received standard feed mixture containing soybean meal as the main protein source. Next groups received standard feed mixture in which part of soybean meal was replaced by high-tannin variety Bobas (group HT) or low-tannin variety Kasztelan (group LT). Faba bean was added to diets at the level of 12 and 14% for pregnant and lactating sows, 6% for piglets, and 12 and 16% for fatteners (grower and finisher, respectively). Diets for half piglets and fatteners were supplemented with the enzyme Ronozyme VP. Apparent digestibility of nutrients was evaluated in a parallel experiment, using the same feeds on 18 barrows weighing about 40 kg (grower) and 80 kg (finisher). There was almost no difference in sow reproductive rates, litter weight and body weight of piglets on the first day of life were similar. Until 35 days of age piglets receiving faba bean grew faster than control ones. Control piglets grew fastest from 35 to 84 days of age, but differences were not significant. Enzyme supplement had a positive effect on body weight only from 56 to 84 days of piglet life. Digestibility of nutrients was lower in pigs fed with faba beans, especially in the grower period. Faba bean HT had lower nutrient digestibility in both periods of fattening. Almost all carcass traits were better in control pigs than in those fed with bean variety Bobas. Meat of these pigs had also the lowest content of unsaturated fatty acids and highest atherogenic indices. In sensory evaluation this meat had also the worst smell and taste. It can be stated that faba bean seeds, in moderate amounts, can partially replace soybean meal in feed for pigs, but some lowering of body weight gain and meat quality is possible especially when high-tannin varieties are used.

Keywords

  • pig feeding
  • feed enzymes
  • faba bean
  • pig performance
  • digestibility
  • meat quality
Open Access

Impact of Dietary Cornstarch Levels on Growth Performance, Body Composition and Digestive Enzyme Activities of Juvenile Soft-Shelled Turtle (Pelodiscus sinensis)

Published Online: 02 Nov 2018
Page range: 1029 - 1043

Abstract

Abstract

We conducted an 8-week feeding trial to determine the effects of dietary starch levels on growth performance, body composition, and digestive enzyme activities of juvenile soft-shelled turtles. Six fish meal-based diets containing 120, 180, 240, 300, 360 and 420 g kg−1 cornstarch were formulated. Body weight gain (BWG), crude protein concentration in whole body, as well as protease activity increased with increasing dietary starch levels until the highest at 240–300 g kg−1, but it was decreased at higher dietary starch content. In contrast, the feed conversion ratio, moisture content and hepatosomatic index were the lowest at 240–300 g kg−1 of cornstarch. The weight gain correlated significantly with the survival rate, the crude protein composition and the protease activity, but correlated negatively to the moisture content and the hepatosomatic index. The optimal dietary starch levels for the maximum BWG and maximum protease activity were 267.25 g kg−1 and 266.79 g kg−1, respectively. The α-amylase activity was the lowest at 120 g · kg−1 of cornstarch, and increased with increasing cornstrach content. The lipase activity and the amount of crude lipid in the turtles were not influenced by dietary cornstarch. Our results suggest that around 300 g kg−1 of cornstarch in diets is optimal for juvenile soft-shelled turtles.

Keywords

  • soft-shelled turtle
  • growth performance
  • corn gluten
  • enzymatic activity
  • amylase activity

Behavior, well-being, production technology, and environment

Open Access

Impact of Different Rearing Systems and Age on Bovans White Layer’s Performance, Egg Quality Traits and Synthesis of Heat Shock Protein 70 kDa

Published Online: 02 Nov 2018
Page range: 1045 - 1060

Abstract

Abstract

This study was conducted to investigate the performance of laying hens and to determine possible age-related changes on external and internal quality traits of their eggs and synthesis of heat shock protein 70 kDa (HSP70) in the conventional cage and organic rearing systems. For this purpose, 4 different Bovans White hybrid flocks of the same age were monitored in each of these two systems for 52 weeks. While a total of 360 eggs were examined to determine the effects of rearing system and age (30 and 60 weeks) on egg quality traits, 48 liver tissue samples were examined for the analysis of HSP70. Egg production (hen-day) and dirty egg ratio were higher in the organic rearing system (P<0.05). The age at 50% yield, the age at peak of lay, and peak production rate were calculated as 156, 218.75 days and 95.98% in the conventional system, and 155.75, 201.50 days, and 96.56% in the organic system, respectively (P>0.05). While egg weight, albumen weight, yolk weight, shell weight, shape index, and yolk colour were higher in the organic system, the crude ash ratio of eggshell and shell ratio were higher in the conventional system (P<0.05). It was also found that the egg weight, albumen weight, yolk weight, shell weight, and the percentage of yolk were higher at 60 weeks of age (P<0.001). The percentage of shell and albumen, shape index, and yolk colour were higher at 30 weeks of age (P<0.001). The interactions between rearing system and age were statistically significant in terms of shell thickness, shape index, crude ash ratio, and yolk colour (P<0.001). Stress protein (HSP70) level was affected only by the rearing system and was higher in the organic system (P<0.001). As a result, the organic system can be considered as advantageous in terms of egg production and quality traits and the eggs of young hens exhibited better properties. The high level of HSP70 in the organic system could indicate that hens were affected by the environmental conditions at higher rates and/or the hens reared in the organic system had a stronger antioxidant defence system.

Keywords

  • egg quality
  • HSP70
  • laying hens
  • performance
  • rearing systems
Open Access

Analysis of Lifetime Performance and Culling Reasons in Black-and-White Holstein-Friesian Cows Compared with Crossbreds

Published Online: 02 Nov 2018
Page range: 1061 - 1079

Abstract

Abstract

The effect of crossbreeding Holstein-Friesian cows with other breeds is usually improved genetic potential of crossbreds in terms of longevity. However, culling decisions, which in practice determine the longevity in dairy cows, are contingent on many environmental and economic factors. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate longevity in relation to culling reasons in Holstein-Friesian cows of the Black-and-White strain (HO) and crossbreds, taking genotype, age at first calving, herd size, culling season, culling reason and milking temperament into consideration. The data analysed concerned 154,256 dairy cows culled in Poland in 2015. It was found that all studied factors significantly affected cow lifetime performance. The mean age at culling in dairy cows of HO strain exceeded 6 years, with mean lifetime energy-corrected milk (LECM) yield of 28,933 kg and mean lifetime energy-corrected milk yield per milking day (DECM) of 20.2 kg. Crossbreds, on the other hand, tended to have shorter lifespans, with mean LECM yield amounting to less than 25,000 kg. Mean LECM yield of cows surviving for the longest period (9.2 years), amounted to 47,771 kg, and reproduction problems were unquestionably the most common (40%) reason for cows’ culling. A suggestion was made to take milking temperament into account in breeding practice, as this trait proves to be closely related to the longevity characteristics of dairy cows. It was also proposed that the culling reasons be subjected to a more comprehensive analysis, considering the “life history” of cows as well as the interactions between different reasons for their removal from the herd.

Keywords

  • cattle breeding
  • animal welfare
  • farm management

Quality and safety of animal origin products

Open Access

Concentration of Bioactive Components in the Milk of Simmental Cows Depending on the Feeding System

Published Online: 02 Nov 2018
Page range: 1081 - 1092

Abstract

Abstract

The aim of the study was to determine the yield and chemical composition of milk from TMR-(group I) and pasture-fed Simmental cows (group II). The study was conducted with second and third lactation Simmental cows between 30 and 200 days of lactation. The present research showed that compared to TMR feeding, the use of summer pasture feeding and proper supplementation with high-energy feeds allow for higher milk yield and higher nutritive value of the milk. Compared to TMR-fed cows (group I), milk from pastured cows (group II) was characterized by a more beneficial composition of protein fractions, and a higher content of α-lactalbumin, β-lactoglobulin and lactoferrin. It also contained more vitamins A and E, calcium, magnesium and iodine, and had a significantly (P≤0.05) lower cholesterol content. The milk of cows from group II contained over twice as much CLA (1.59% of all acids) and 35% more n-3 PUFA, which resulted in a more beneficial n-6/n-3 fatty acids ratio of 2.88. In addition, this milk contained significantly (P≤0.05) less saturated fatty acids (SFA) and significantly more (P≤0.05) mono-(MUFA) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). Consequently, the MUFA:SFA and PUFA:SFA ratios in this group were more favourable at 0.448 and 0.066, respectively. Also the content of desirable fatty acids (DFA) with hypocholesterolemic effects was higher in group II, which resulted in a more beneficial DFA:OFA ratio of 0.8 in this group. In conclusion, the use of summer pasture feeding and a proper supplemented feeding ration in Simmental cows with high-energy feeds allow for high milk yield and high nutritive value of the milk.

Keywords

  • cows
  • milk
  • feeding
  • bioactive components
14 Articles

Review

Open Access

Effects of Zeolite Supplementation on Dairy Cow Production and Ruminal Parameters – A Review

Published Online: 02 Nov 2018
Page range: 857 - 877

Abstract

Abstract

In recent years, the use of both natural and synthetic zeolites in livestock feeds fed to lactating cows has increased, mainly to improve their performance, health, and to protect against mycotoxins intoxication. Data of scientific literature were compiled to analyze the effects of the incorporation of non-nutritional adsorbent zeolite on production performance and ruminal environment parameters of lactating cows. At moderate levels (200–400 g/cow/day), milk yield was increased by zeolite. Milk fat and protein contents and DMI were not altered and all ruminal parameters were improved: acetate was enhanced, propionate was reduced and consequently, acetate to propionate ratio was increased. The rumen pH was increased and rumen ammonia nitrogen was reduced. When the level of zeolite exceeded 400 g/d/cow, all production and ruminal parameters were negatively altered. These data suggest that zeolite level in the diet has a significant effect on the response of dairy production and ruminal environment characteristics.

Keywords

  • dairy cows
  • lactation
  • productive parameters
  • ruminal parameters
  • zeolite
Open Access

Silver and Zinc Nanoparticles in Animal Nutrition – A Review

Published Online: 02 Nov 2018
Page range: 879 - 898

Abstract

Abstract

The use of metal nanoparticles as supplements of animal diets does not always bring unambiguous results. There are many reports in the literature about the multifaceted effects of this type of supplementation on the animal organism. Therefore, the aim of the paper is to present the current knowledge of the possible application of nanometal forms in animal nutrition and its potential benefits and threats. The positive effect of nanoparticles used as feed additives has most frequently been reflected in an increase in body weight, higher average daily gain, or improvement of the FCR value. In some cases, however, the effect of nanoparticle addition to diets was indiscernible. The potent antibacterial activity of nanoparticles, especially against Gram-negative bacteria and Gram-positive bacteria, is regarded as a positive effect. In turn, the probability of their toxicity is a potential risk in application thereof. Supplementation of diets with nanometals has been accompanied by pathological changes in animal tissues, primarily in the pancreas, kidney, liver, rumen, abomasum, small intestine, adrenal glands, and brain. Additionally, at the the cellular level, nanoparticles were found to induce toxicity, inflammatory excitation, and cell death. Oral administration of nanoparticles induced a risk of malfunction of the nervous system and even impairment of cognitive processes in animals. The increasing knowledge of the possible toxic effects of nanoparticles on the animal organism suggests caution in their use in animal production and necessitates further precise investigations in this area.

Keywords

  • metal nanoparticles
  • nutrition
  • animal production
  • bactericidal properties
  • toxicity
Open Access

Air Ionization in Livestock Buildings – A Review

Published Online: 02 Nov 2018
Page range: 899 - 905

Abstract

Abstract

Research has shown that microclimate is determined not only by air microparticles, but also by the degree of air ionization. Ions affect the body through the respiratory tract and skin. Exposure of reared chickens to elevated air temperature (37°C–23°C) was found to accelerate the break-down of negative ions compared to temperature lower by 10°C. Negative air ionization offsets the adverse effect of elevated temperature on chickens. Higher (85%) air humidity during rearing of chickens was also observed to destroy negative ions. Research findings indicate that air ionization is an environmental element that contributes to improving performance in broiler chickens. Many studies have also confirmed a positive effect of air ionization on the body weight and health of piglets.

Keywords

  • air ionization
  • temperature
  • air humidity
  • health
  • productivity
  • poultry
  • pigs

Animal genetics and breeding

Open Access

Analysis of the Methylation Status of CpG Sites Within Cancer-Related Genes in Equine Sarcoids

Published Online: 02 Nov 2018
Page range: 907 - 918

Abstract

Abstract

In the recent years, particular attention was given to the research aimed at optimizing the use of tumour epigenetic markers. One of the best known epigenetic changes associated with the process of carcinogenesis is aberrant DNA methylation. The aim of the present research was to evaluate the methylation profile of genes potentially important in the diagnosis and/or prognosis of equine sarcoids, the most commonly detected skin tumours in Equidae. The methylation status of potential promoter sequences of nine genes: APC, CCND2, CDKN2B, DCC, RARβ, RASSF1, RASSF5, THBS1 and TRPM1, was determined using bisulfite sequencing polymerase chain reaction (BSP-CR). The results of this study did not reveal any changes in the level of DNA methylation in the analysed group of candidate genes between the tumour and healthy tissues. Despite numerous reports describing the aberrant methylation of the promoters of the analysed genes in human cancers, the data obtained did not confirm the existence of such relationships in the examined tumour tissues, which excludes the possibility of using these genes for the diagnosis of the equine sarcoid.

Keywords

  • equine sarcoids
  • horse
  • tumourigenesis
  • DNA methylation
  • BSPCR
Open Access

Characterization of Three Generations of Transgenic Pigs Expressing the HLA-E Gene

Published Online: 02 Nov 2018
Page range: 919 - 935

Abstract

Abstract

The use of pigs as a source of organs and tissues for xenotransplantation can overcome the growing shortage of human donors. Human NK cells play an important role in the cell-mediated rejection of pig-to-human xenografts. In this paper we report the generation and extensive characterization of three generations of transgenic pigs with HLA-E gene encoding the antigen which can inhibit the human NK cell-mediated response. The gene construct pHLAE-GFPBsd containing the human gene encoding the human leukocyte antigen under the promoter of the EF-1α elongation factor ensuring systemic expression was introduced by microinjection into a pronucleus of the fertilized porcine oocyte. PCR analysis revealed and FISH analysis confirmed that the pHLAE-GFPBsd gene construct was present in the genome of the founder female pig. As a result of inter-breeding, an additional 7 transgenic animals were obtained (one individual from F1 generation and six individuals from F2 generation). The transgene expression was shown by RT-PCR and flow cytometry. Real Time PCR analysis estimated the approximate number of transgene copies at 16–34. Karyotype analysis did not show any changes in the structure or the number of chromosomes. The expression level of the transgene was stable in the next generation of genetically modified pigs. An NK cell-mediated cytotoxicity assay showed the increased viability of the transgenic cells in comparison with the wild-type, which confirmed the protective influence of HLA-E expression.

Keywords

  • transgenic pigs
  • transgene expression
  • xenotransplantation
  • transgene stability
  • transgene inheritance

The biology, physiology, reproduction, and health

Open Access

White Tea is More Effective in Preservation of Bone Loss in Adult Rats Co-Exposed to Lead and Cadmium Compared to Black, Red or Green Tea

Published Online: 02 Nov 2018
Page range: 937 - 953

Abstract

Abstract

Lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) are toxic metals occurring commonly in the human environment that show mutagenic, genotoxic and carcinogenic effects. Dietary components could prevent heavy metals intoxication by reducing their accumulation in the body. The purpose of the study was to check possible protective effect of regular consumption of white, black, red, or green tea on bone metabolism during long-term exposure to Pb and Cd in adult rats. The 12 week-long exposure to Pb and Cd (50 mg Pb and 7 mg Cd/kg of the diet) in a rat model was studied. Twelve-week-old adult male Wistar rats were randomly divided into a negative control group (Pb and Cd exposure without tea), a control (without Pb and Cd and teas), and groups co-exposed to Pb and Cd and supplemented with green, red, black, or white tea (n=12 each group). The experiment lasted for 12 weeks. The co-exposure to Pb and Cd led to the increase of bone resorption depending on the tea treatment, which was confirmed by the mechanical testing and histomorphometrical examination of cancellous bone. Pb and Cd influenced mechanical strength, reduced the densitometric and geometric parameters and the thickness of growth plate and articular cartilages. Concluding, white tea exerted the best protective effect on bone tissue and hyaline cartilage against heavy metal action.

Keywords

  • cadmium
  • lead
  • tea
  • adult rats
  • femur
  • geometry
  • mechanical endurance
Open Access

The Relationship Between Subclinical Ketosis and Ruminal Dysfunction in Dairy Cows

Published Online: 02 Nov 2018
Page range: 955 - 971

Abstract

Abstract

Ketosis is still an important problem which must be solved in dairy herds. Early precise diagnosis and proper evaluation of the cause of the disease is essential for good management of ketosis on dairy farms. The aim of our work was to analyse the occurrence of rumen dysfunction in connection with subclinical ketosis in dairy herds and to evaluate the relationships between beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) concentration in blood and metabolic parameters in blood, urine and rumen fluid. We analysed the results of metabolic profile tests performed in dairy cattle herds from 1,338 cows. The concentration of BHB significantly correlated with glucose, NEFA (nonesterified fatty acids), bilirubin, AST (aspartate aminotransferase), GGT (γ-glutamyl transferase), urea, magnesium and calcium in blood serum and with following parameters of rumen fluid – acetate, propionate, butyrate, acetate/propionate and infusoria. Significant but weak correlations were found between BHB and urine parameters (pH, specific gravity, potassium, magnesium, chloride). Subclinical ruminal acidosis was found in 23.1% and 16.7% of dairy cows with light (BHB 1.2–2 mmol/L) and more severe subclinical ketosis (BHB >2 mmol/L) and simple ruminal indigestion in 16.7% and 30%, respectively. On the basis of performed analysis we can conclude that rumen dysfunction is an important factor for the development of ketosis. Veterinary practitioners should suggest checking the feeding management in their diagnostic work with the aim to distinguish primary and secondary ketosis. Only complex and precise diagnostic work allows applying correct and successful therapy not only for individual animals but also for herd health management.

Keywords

  • ruminants
  • dairy cows
  • ketosis
  • beta-hydroxybutyrate
  • rumen dysfunctions

Animal nutrition, and feedstuffs

Open Access

Effect of Dietary Fish Oil on Mammary Gland Development and Milk Production of Holstein Cow

Published Online: 02 Nov 2018
Page range: 973 - 990

Abstract

Abstract

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of feeding oil supplement on mammary gland development and milk production responses in Holstein cows. Ten multiparous Holstein cows (42.2±9.2 d before calving, 3.25±0.25 body condition score, and 620±35 kg body weight) were randomly assigned to treatments. Treatments were a diet with oil added as palm oil (PO; n=5), or fish oil (FO; n=5) given to cows until 63 d in milk. Milk yield was recorded daily, milk composition (fat, protein, lactose, total solid and somatic cell count) was measured weekly and fatty acid profiles of milk fat were determined at first and last week of the experiment. Samples of mammary tissue were obtained at 7 and 63 d in milk by biopsy gun. Tissue slides were analyzed by Image J software. Results showed that fish oil supplemented diet compared to the palm oil supplemented diet increased milk production after 6 weeks of lactation (P<0.05), content of polyunsaturated fatty acids milk fat (P<0.05) and docosahexaenoic acid (P<0.01). Moreover, n-6:n-3 ratio was decreased by fish oil supplement (P<0.05). Histological studies showed that FO increased the relative percentage of tissue area occupied by epithelial cells as well as a number of total alveoli in each microscopic field (P<0.05). Data suggested that feeding fish oil during the dry period and early lactation could improve development and function of the mammary gland in the dairy cow.

Keywords

  • dairy cows
  • fat supplementation
  • mammary development
  • milk yield
  • milk fat
  • fatty acid profile
Open Access

Effect of Soybean or Linseed Oil With RRR-D-α-Tocopherol or Dl-α-Tocopherol Acetate on Quality Characteristics and Fatty Acid Profile of Turkey Meat

Published Online: 02 Nov 2018
Page range: 991 - 1005

Abstract

Abstract

In this study, the effect of the halved dosage of RRR-d-α-tocopherol (with respect to dl-α-to-copherol acetate) in diets containing oil rich in linoleic or α-linolenic acid (soybean or linseed oil, respectively) on the quality characteristics and fatty acid (FA) profile of turkey meat was studied. The experiment was conducted using 480 one-week-old turkey hens Big 6 line reared until the 16th week of life. The hens in Groups I and II received soybean oil added to their feed mixture, in Groups III and IV linseed oil was the source of supplementary fat. Turkeys in Groups I and III received dl-α-tocopherol acetate, whereas those in Groups II and IV RRR-d-α-tocopherol. No influence of dietary manipulation was observed on the chemical composition of turkey meat. The combined effect of the type of dietary fat and vitamin E source added to the feed was assessed using the color parameters. The addition of natural vitamin E to the feed mixture with linseed oil significantly increased the proportion of PUFA in breast muscle lipids compared with the group receiving soybean oil with this form of vitamin E. The inclusion of linseed oil increased the content of α-linolenic acid and total n-3 FA concentration in both muscles, compared with the diet that contained soybean oil. This modification of FA composition led to lower n-6/n-3 ratio in both the breast and thigh muscles regardless of the dietary vitamin E source. The use of natural form of tocopherol in diets containing linseed oil may help to improve the nutritional quality of turkey meat, especially by enhancing n-3 PUFA levels with no detrimental effect of lipid addition on the chemical composition and quality of meat.

Keywords

  • turkey
  • soybean oil
  • linseed oil
  • tocopherol
  • fatty acids
Open Access

The Effect of Feeding Native Faba Bean Seeds (Vicia faba L.) to Sows and Supplemented With Enzymes to Piglets and Growing Pigs

Published Online: 02 Nov 2018
Page range: 1007 - 1027

Abstract

Abstract

The aim of this experiment was to examine the possibility of replacing part of soybean meal in the diets of sows, their piglets and fatteners with two varieties of high- or low-tannin faba bean seed. Twenty-four sows were allocated to 3 groups, 8 animals in each. Control group (C) received standard feed mixture containing soybean meal as the main protein source. Next groups received standard feed mixture in which part of soybean meal was replaced by high-tannin variety Bobas (group HT) or low-tannin variety Kasztelan (group LT). Faba bean was added to diets at the level of 12 and 14% for pregnant and lactating sows, 6% for piglets, and 12 and 16% for fatteners (grower and finisher, respectively). Diets for half piglets and fatteners were supplemented with the enzyme Ronozyme VP. Apparent digestibility of nutrients was evaluated in a parallel experiment, using the same feeds on 18 barrows weighing about 40 kg (grower) and 80 kg (finisher). There was almost no difference in sow reproductive rates, litter weight and body weight of piglets on the first day of life were similar. Until 35 days of age piglets receiving faba bean grew faster than control ones. Control piglets grew fastest from 35 to 84 days of age, but differences were not significant. Enzyme supplement had a positive effect on body weight only from 56 to 84 days of piglet life. Digestibility of nutrients was lower in pigs fed with faba beans, especially in the grower period. Faba bean HT had lower nutrient digestibility in both periods of fattening. Almost all carcass traits were better in control pigs than in those fed with bean variety Bobas. Meat of these pigs had also the lowest content of unsaturated fatty acids and highest atherogenic indices. In sensory evaluation this meat had also the worst smell and taste. It can be stated that faba bean seeds, in moderate amounts, can partially replace soybean meal in feed for pigs, but some lowering of body weight gain and meat quality is possible especially when high-tannin varieties are used.

Keywords

  • pig feeding
  • feed enzymes
  • faba bean
  • pig performance
  • digestibility
  • meat quality
Open Access

Impact of Dietary Cornstarch Levels on Growth Performance, Body Composition and Digestive Enzyme Activities of Juvenile Soft-Shelled Turtle (Pelodiscus sinensis)

Published Online: 02 Nov 2018
Page range: 1029 - 1043

Abstract

Abstract

We conducted an 8-week feeding trial to determine the effects of dietary starch levels on growth performance, body composition, and digestive enzyme activities of juvenile soft-shelled turtles. Six fish meal-based diets containing 120, 180, 240, 300, 360 and 420 g kg−1 cornstarch were formulated. Body weight gain (BWG), crude protein concentration in whole body, as well as protease activity increased with increasing dietary starch levels until the highest at 240–300 g kg−1, but it was decreased at higher dietary starch content. In contrast, the feed conversion ratio, moisture content and hepatosomatic index were the lowest at 240–300 g kg−1 of cornstarch. The weight gain correlated significantly with the survival rate, the crude protein composition and the protease activity, but correlated negatively to the moisture content and the hepatosomatic index. The optimal dietary starch levels for the maximum BWG and maximum protease activity were 267.25 g kg−1 and 266.79 g kg−1, respectively. The α-amylase activity was the lowest at 120 g · kg−1 of cornstarch, and increased with increasing cornstrach content. The lipase activity and the amount of crude lipid in the turtles were not influenced by dietary cornstarch. Our results suggest that around 300 g kg−1 of cornstarch in diets is optimal for juvenile soft-shelled turtles.

Keywords

  • soft-shelled turtle
  • growth performance
  • corn gluten
  • enzymatic activity
  • amylase activity

Behavior, well-being, production technology, and environment

Open Access

Impact of Different Rearing Systems and Age on Bovans White Layer’s Performance, Egg Quality Traits and Synthesis of Heat Shock Protein 70 kDa

Published Online: 02 Nov 2018
Page range: 1045 - 1060

Abstract

Abstract

This study was conducted to investigate the performance of laying hens and to determine possible age-related changes on external and internal quality traits of their eggs and synthesis of heat shock protein 70 kDa (HSP70) in the conventional cage and organic rearing systems. For this purpose, 4 different Bovans White hybrid flocks of the same age were monitored in each of these two systems for 52 weeks. While a total of 360 eggs were examined to determine the effects of rearing system and age (30 and 60 weeks) on egg quality traits, 48 liver tissue samples were examined for the analysis of HSP70. Egg production (hen-day) and dirty egg ratio were higher in the organic rearing system (P<0.05). The age at 50% yield, the age at peak of lay, and peak production rate were calculated as 156, 218.75 days and 95.98% in the conventional system, and 155.75, 201.50 days, and 96.56% in the organic system, respectively (P>0.05). While egg weight, albumen weight, yolk weight, shell weight, shape index, and yolk colour were higher in the organic system, the crude ash ratio of eggshell and shell ratio were higher in the conventional system (P<0.05). It was also found that the egg weight, albumen weight, yolk weight, shell weight, and the percentage of yolk were higher at 60 weeks of age (P<0.001). The percentage of shell and albumen, shape index, and yolk colour were higher at 30 weeks of age (P<0.001). The interactions between rearing system and age were statistically significant in terms of shell thickness, shape index, crude ash ratio, and yolk colour (P<0.001). Stress protein (HSP70) level was affected only by the rearing system and was higher in the organic system (P<0.001). As a result, the organic system can be considered as advantageous in terms of egg production and quality traits and the eggs of young hens exhibited better properties. The high level of HSP70 in the organic system could indicate that hens were affected by the environmental conditions at higher rates and/or the hens reared in the organic system had a stronger antioxidant defence system.

Keywords

  • egg quality
  • HSP70
  • laying hens
  • performance
  • rearing systems
Open Access

Analysis of Lifetime Performance and Culling Reasons in Black-and-White Holstein-Friesian Cows Compared with Crossbreds

Published Online: 02 Nov 2018
Page range: 1061 - 1079

Abstract

Abstract

The effect of crossbreeding Holstein-Friesian cows with other breeds is usually improved genetic potential of crossbreds in terms of longevity. However, culling decisions, which in practice determine the longevity in dairy cows, are contingent on many environmental and economic factors. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate longevity in relation to culling reasons in Holstein-Friesian cows of the Black-and-White strain (HO) and crossbreds, taking genotype, age at first calving, herd size, culling season, culling reason and milking temperament into consideration. The data analysed concerned 154,256 dairy cows culled in Poland in 2015. It was found that all studied factors significantly affected cow lifetime performance. The mean age at culling in dairy cows of HO strain exceeded 6 years, with mean lifetime energy-corrected milk (LECM) yield of 28,933 kg and mean lifetime energy-corrected milk yield per milking day (DECM) of 20.2 kg. Crossbreds, on the other hand, tended to have shorter lifespans, with mean LECM yield amounting to less than 25,000 kg. Mean LECM yield of cows surviving for the longest period (9.2 years), amounted to 47,771 kg, and reproduction problems were unquestionably the most common (40%) reason for cows’ culling. A suggestion was made to take milking temperament into account in breeding practice, as this trait proves to be closely related to the longevity characteristics of dairy cows. It was also proposed that the culling reasons be subjected to a more comprehensive analysis, considering the “life history” of cows as well as the interactions between different reasons for their removal from the herd.

Keywords

  • cattle breeding
  • animal welfare
  • farm management

Quality and safety of animal origin products

Open Access

Concentration of Bioactive Components in the Milk of Simmental Cows Depending on the Feeding System

Published Online: 02 Nov 2018
Page range: 1081 - 1092

Abstract

Abstract

The aim of the study was to determine the yield and chemical composition of milk from TMR-(group I) and pasture-fed Simmental cows (group II). The study was conducted with second and third lactation Simmental cows between 30 and 200 days of lactation. The present research showed that compared to TMR feeding, the use of summer pasture feeding and proper supplementation with high-energy feeds allow for higher milk yield and higher nutritive value of the milk. Compared to TMR-fed cows (group I), milk from pastured cows (group II) was characterized by a more beneficial composition of protein fractions, and a higher content of α-lactalbumin, β-lactoglobulin and lactoferrin. It also contained more vitamins A and E, calcium, magnesium and iodine, and had a significantly (P≤0.05) lower cholesterol content. The milk of cows from group II contained over twice as much CLA (1.59% of all acids) and 35% more n-3 PUFA, which resulted in a more beneficial n-6/n-3 fatty acids ratio of 2.88. In addition, this milk contained significantly (P≤0.05) less saturated fatty acids (SFA) and significantly more (P≤0.05) mono-(MUFA) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). Consequently, the MUFA:SFA and PUFA:SFA ratios in this group were more favourable at 0.448 and 0.066, respectively. Also the content of desirable fatty acids (DFA) with hypocholesterolemic effects was higher in group II, which resulted in a more beneficial DFA:OFA ratio of 0.8 in this group. In conclusion, the use of summer pasture feeding and a proper supplemented feeding ration in Simmental cows with high-energy feeds allow for high milk yield and high nutritive value of the milk.

Keywords

  • cows
  • milk
  • feeding
  • bioactive components

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