1. bookVolume 14 (2014): Issue 2 (April 2014)
Journal Details
License
Format
Journal
eISSN
2300-8733
First Published
25 Nov 2011
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English
access type Open Access

Dehorning of Calves – Methods of Pain and Stress Alleviation – A Review

Published Online: 25 Apr 2014
Volume & Issue: Volume 14 (2014) - Issue 2 (April 2014)
Page range: 231 - 243
Received: 17 Oct 2013
Accepted: 13 Feb 2014
Journal Details
License
Format
Journal
eISSN
2300-8733
First Published
25 Nov 2011
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English
Abstract

Dehorning of calves is intended to facilitate handling and increase the safety of people and animals. The study aimed to review the methods of calf dehorning and use of pharmacological analgesic, anaesthetic and sedation drugs, as well as their impact on pain perception. Regardless of the age of calves, dehorning is always associated with pain and stress. The changes in behaviour, physiological parameters, changes in heart rate, respiratory rate and increased cortisol secretion are observed during this procedure. The welfare of calves is significantly reduced during dehorning. Many studies point to minimization of the pain perceived by the use of pharmacological agents. Beneficial effects were observed with the combined use of anaesthetics and non-steroidal antiinflammatory drugs

Keywords

Allen K.A., Coetzee J.F., Edwards- Callaway L.N., Glynn H., Dockweiler J., .Ku - kanich B., Lin H., Wang C., Fraccaro E., Jones M., Bergamasco L. (2013). The effect of timing of oral meloxicam administration on physiological responses in calves after cautery dehorning with local anesthesia. J. Dairy Sci., 9, p. 1.10.3168/jds.2012-625123746590Search in Google Scholar

Anderson D.E., Muir W.W. (2005). Pain management in cattle. Vet. Clin. Food Anim., 21: 623-635.Search in Google Scholar

Ayala I., Martos N., Silvan G., Gutierrez- Panizo C., Clavel J., Illera J. (2012). Cortisol, adrenocorticotropic hormone, serotonin, adrenaline, and noradrenaline serum concentrations in relation to disease and stress in the horse. Vet. Sci., 93: 103-107.Search in Google Scholar

Ballou M.A., Sutherland M.A., Brooks T.A., Hulbert L.E., Davis B.L., Cobb C.J. (2013). Administration of anesthetic and analgesic prevent the suppression of many leukocyte responses following surgical castration and physical dehorning. Vet. Immunol. Immunop., 151: 285-293.Search in Google Scholar

Blessing W.W. (2003). Lower brainstem pathways regulating sympathetically mediated changes in cutaneous blood flow. Cell Mol. Biol., 23: 527-538.Search in Google Scholar

Boissy A., Manteuffel G., Jensen M.B., Moe R.O., Spruijt B., Keeling L.J., Winck- ler C., Forkman B.R., Dimitrov I., Langbein J., Bakken M., Veissier I., Au - bert A. (2007). Assessment of positive emotions in animals to improve their welfare. Physiol. Behav., 92: 375-397.Search in Google Scholar

Braz M., Carreira M., Carolino N., Rodrigues T., Stilwell G. (2012). Effect of rectal or intravenous tramadol on the incidence of pain-related behaviour after disbudding calves with caustic paste. App. Anim. Behav. Sci., 136: 20-25.Search in Google Scholar

Chiu I.M.,von Hehn C.A., Woolf C.J. (2012). Neurogenic inflammation and the peripheral nervous system in host defense and immunopathology. Nat. Neurosci., 15: 1063-1067.Search in Google Scholar

Cook N.J., Schaefer A.L., Warren L., Burwash L., Anderson M., Baron V. (2001). Adrenocortical and metabolic responses to ACTHinjection in horses: an assessment by salivary cortisol and infrared thermography of the eye. Can. J. Anim. Sci., 81, p. 621. Council Directive 91/629/EECof 19 November 1991 laying down minimum standards for the protection of calves. Official Journal L 340, 11/12/1991. Council Directive 97/2/ECof 20 January 1997 amending Directive 91/629/EEClaying down minimum standards for the protection of calves. Official Journal L 025, 28/01/1997.Search in Google Scholar

Delatour P., Foot R., Foster A.P., Bagott D., Lees P. (1996). Pharmacodynamics and chiral pharmacokinetics of carprofen in calves. Brit. Vet. J., 152: 183-198.Search in Google Scholar

Doherty T.J., Kattesh H.G., Adcock R.J., Welborn M.G., Saxton A.M., Morrow J.L., Dailey J.W. (2007). Effects ofaconcentrated lidocaine solution on the acute phase stress response to dehorning in dairy calves. J. Dairy Sci., 90: 4232-4239.Search in Google Scholar

Duffield T.F., Heinrich A., Millman S.T., De Haan A., James S., Lissemore K. (2010). Reduction in pain response by combined use of local lidocaine anesthesia and systemic ketoprofen in dairy calves dehorned by heat cauterization. Can. Vet. J., 51: 283-288.Search in Google Scholar

Earley B., Buckham- Sporer K., Gupta S., Pang W., Ting S. (2010). Biologic response of animals to husbandry stress with implications for biomedical models. Open Access Anim. Physiol., 2: 25-42.Search in Google Scholar

Faulkner P.M., Weary D.M. (2000). Reducing pain after dehorning in dairy calves. J. Dairy Sci., 83: 2037-2041.Search in Google Scholar

Fraccaro E., Coetzee J.F., Odore R., Edwards- Callaway L.N., Ku Kanich B., Badino P., Bertolotti L., Glynn H., Dockweiler J., Allen K., Bergamasco L. (2013). Astudy to compare circulating funixin, meloxicam and gabapentin concentrations with prostaglandin E2 levels in calves undergoing dehorning. Res. Vet. Sci., 95: 204-211.Search in Google Scholar

Fulwider W.K., Grandin T., Rollin B.E., Engle T.E., Dalsted N.L., Lamm W.D. (2008). Survey of dairy management practices on one hundred thirteen north central and northeastern United States dairies. J. Dairy Sci., 91: 1686-1692.Search in Google Scholar

Goonewardene L.A., Price M.A., Okine E., Berg R.T. (1999). Behavioral responses to handling and restraint in dehorned and polled cattle. App. Anim. Behav. Sci., 64: 159-167.Search in Google Scholar

Gottardo F., Nalon E., Contiero B., Normando S., Dalvit P., Cozzi G. (2011). The dehorning of dairy calves: Practices and opinions of 639 farmers. J. Dairy Sci., 94: 5724-5734.Search in Google Scholar

Graf B., Senn M. (1999). Behavioural and physiological responses of calves to dehorning by heat cauterization with or without local anaesthesia. Appl. Anim. Behav. Sci., 62: 153-171.Search in Google Scholar

Grøndahl - Nielsen C., Simonsen H.B., Damkjer Lund J., Hesselholt M. (1999). Behavioural, endocrine and cardiac responses in young calves undergoing dehorning without and with use of sedation and analgesia. Vet. J., 158: 14-20.Search in Google Scholar

Hart K.A. (2012). The use of cortisol for the objective assessment of stress in animals: pros and cons. Vet. J., 192: 137-139.Search in Google Scholar

Heinrich A., Duffield T.F., Lissemore K.D., Squires E.J., Millman S.T. (2009). Theimpact of meloxicam on postsurgical stress associated with cautery dehorning. J. Dairy Sci., 92: 540-547.Search in Google Scholar

Heinrich A., Duffield T.F., Lissemore K.D., Millman S.T. (2010). The effect of meloxicam on behavior and pain sensitivity of dairy calves following cautery dehorning withalocal anesthetic. J. Dairy Sci., 93: 2450-2457.Search in Google Scholar

Huber J., Arnholdt T., Möstl E., Gelfert C.C., Drillich M. (2013). Pain management with flunixin meglumine at dehorning of calves. J. Dairy Sci., 96: 132-140.Search in Google Scholar

Knierim U., Irrgang N., Roth B.A., Gorniak T. (2009). Report on the assessment of dehorning and the keeping of horned dairy and beef cattle. University of Kassel, Germany, pp. 1-37. Mc Meekan C.M., Stafford K.J., Mellor D.J., Bruce R.A., Ward R.N., Gregory N.G. (1998). Effects of regional analgesia and/oranon-steroidal anti-inflammatory analgesic on the acute cortisol response to dehorning in calves. Res. Vet. Sci., 64: 147-150. Mc Meekan C., Stafford K.J., Mellort D.J., Bruce R.A., Ward R.N., Gregory N. (1999). Effects ofalocal anaesthetic andanon-steroidal anti-inflammatlory analgesic on the behavioural responses of calves to dehorning. New Zeal. Vet. J., 47: 92-96.Search in Google Scholar

Mintline E.M., Stewart M., Rogers A.R., Cox N.R., Verkerk G.A., Stookey J.M., Webster J.R., Tucker C.B. (2013). Play behavior as an indicator of animal welfare: Disbudding in dairy calves. App. Anim. Behav. Sci., 144: 22-30.Search in Google Scholar

Misch L.J., Duffield T.F., Millman S.T., Lissemore K.D. (2007). An investigation into the practices of dairy producers and veterinarians in dehorning dairy calves in Ontario. Can. Vet. J., 48: 1249-1254.Search in Google Scholar

Mosher R.A., Wang C., Allen P.S. (2013). Comparative effects of castration and dehorning in series or concurrent castration and dehorning procedures on stress responses and production in Holstein calves. J. Anim. Sci., 91: 4133-4145.Search in Google Scholar

Parsons C., Jensen S. (2006). Dehorning Cattle, Western Beef Resource Committee, Cattle Producer’s Library, Management Section CL750, University of Idaho and Oregon State University (2006). http://www.csubeef.com/dmdocuments/750.pdf.Search in Google Scholar

SANCO (2009). Directorate General for Health and Consumers, Animal Health and Welfare Directorate (2009) SANCO/2008/D5/018.Search in Google Scholar

Stafford K.J., Mellor D.J. (2005). Dehorning and disbudding distress and its alleviation in calves. Vet. J., 169: 337-349.Search in Google Scholar

Stafford K.J., Mellor D.J. (2011). Addressing the pain associated with disbudding and dehorning in cattle. App. Anim. Behav. Sci., 135: 226-231.Search in Google Scholar

Stewart M., Webster J.R., Schaefer A.L., Cook N.J., Scott S.L. (2005). Infrared thermography asanon-invasive tool to study animal welfare. Anim. Welfare, 14: 319-325.Search in Google Scholar

Stewart M., Stafford K.J., Dowling S.K., Schaefer A.L., Webster J.R. (2008). Eye temperature and heart rate variability of calves disbudded with or without local anaesthetic. Physiol. Behav., 93: 789-797.Search in Google Scholar

Stewart M., Stookey J.M., Stafford K.J., Tucker C.B., Rogers A.R., Dowling S.K., Verkerk G.A., Schaefer A.L., Webster J.R., Stilwell G., Carvalho R.C., Caroli - no N., Lima M.S. (2009). Effects of local anesthetic andanonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug on pain responses of dairy calves to hot-iron dehorning. J. Dairy Sci., 92: 1512-1519.Search in Google Scholar

Stilwell G., Carvalho R.C., Lima M.S., Broom D.M. (2009). Effect of caustic paste disbudding, using local anaesthesia with and without analgesia, on behaviour and cortisol of calves. Appl.\ Anim. Behav. Sci., 116: 35-44.Search in Google Scholar

Stilwell G., Carvalho R.C., Carolino N., Lima M.S., Broom D.M. (2010). Effect of hotiron disbudding on behaviour and plasma cortisol of calves sedated with xylazine. Res. Vet. Sci., 88: 188-193.Search in Google Scholar

Stilwell G., Lima M.S., Carvalho R.C., Broom D.M. (2012). Effects of hot-iron disbudding, using regional anaesthesia with and without carprofen, on cortisol and behaviour of calves. Res. Vet. Sci., 92: 338-341.Search in Google Scholar

Sutherland M.A., Ballou M.A., Davis B.L. (2013). Effect of castration and dehorning singularly or combined on the behaviour and physiology of Holstein calves. J. Anim. Sci., 91: 935-942.Search in Google Scholar

Sylvester S.P., Mellor D.J., Stafford K.J., Bruce R.A., Ward R.N. (1998). Acute cortisol responses of calves to scoop dehorning with prior use of local anaesthetic and/or cautery of the wound. Aust. Vet. J., 76: 118-122.Search in Google Scholar

Taschke A.C., Fölsch D.W. (1997). Ethologische, physiologische und histologische Untersuchungen zur Schmerzbelastung der Rinder bei der Enthornung. Tierärztl. Prax., 25: 19-27.Search in Google Scholar

Vickers K.J., Niel L., Kiehlbauch L.M., Weary D.M. (2005). Calf response to caustic paste and hot-iron dehorning using sedation with and without local anesthetic. J. Dairy Sci., 88: 1454-1459.Search in Google Scholar

Recommended articles from Trend MD

Plan your remote conference with Sciendo