Magazine et Edition

AHEAD OF PRINT

Volume 22 (2022): Edition 4 (October 2022)

Volume 22 (2022): Edition 3 (July 2022)

Volume 22 (2022): Edition 2 (April 2022)

Volume 22 (2022): Edition 1 (January 2022)

Volume 21 (2021): Edition 4 (October 2021)

Volume 21 (2021): Edition 3 (July 2021)

Volume 21 (2021): Edition 2 (April 2021)

Volume 21 (2021): Edition 1 (January 2021)

Volume 20 (2020): Edition 4 (October 2020)

Volume 20 (2020): Edition 3 (July 2020)

Volume 20 (2020): Edition 2 (April 2020)

Volume 20 (2020): Edition 1 (January 2020)

Volume 19 (2019): Edition 4 (October 2019)

Volume 19 (2019): Edition 3 (July 2019)

Volume 19 (2019): Edition 2 (April 2019)

Volume 19 (2019): Edition 1 (January 2019)

Volume 18 (2018): Edition 4 (October 2018)

Volume 18 (2018): Edition 3 (July 2018)

Volume 18 (2018): Edition 2 (May 2018)

Volume 18 (2018): Edition 1 (January 2018)

Volume 17 (2017): Edition 4 (October 2017)

Volume 17 (2017): Edition 3 (July 2017)

Volume 17 (2017): Edition 2 (May 2017)

Volume 17 (2017): Edition 1 (January 2017)

Volume 16 (2016): Edition 4 (October 2016)

Volume 16 (2016): Edition 3 (July 2016)

Volume 16 (2016): Edition 2 (April 2016)

Volume 16 (2016): Edition 1 (January 2016)

Volume 15 (2015): Edition 4 (October 2015)

Volume 15 (2015): Edition 3 (July 2015)

Volume 15 (2015): Edition 2 (April 2015)

Volume 15 (2015): Edition 1 (January 2015)

Volume 14 (2014): Edition 4 (October 2014)

Volume 14 (2014): Edition 3 (July 2014)

Volume 14 (2014): Edition 2 (April 2014)

Volume 14 (2014): Edition 1 (January 2014)

Volume 13 (2013): Edition 4 (October 2013)
Edition Editors: Magdalena Bielska, Jerzy Pilawski, Katarzyna Skupniewicz

Volume 13 (2013): Edition 3 (July 2013)

Volume 13 (2013): Edition 2 (April 2013)

Volume 13 (2013): Edition 1 (January 2013)

Volume 12 (2012): Edition 4 (October 2012)

Volume 12 (2012): Edition 3 (July 2012)

Volume 12 (2012): Edition 2 (April 2012)

Volume 12 (2012): Edition 1 (January 2012)

Volume 11 (2011): Edition 4 (August 2011)

Détails du magazine
Format
Magazine
eISSN
2300-8733
ISSN
1642-3402
Première publication
25 Nov 2011
Période de publication
4 fois par an
Langues
Anglais

Chercher

Volume 13 (2013): Edition 2 (April 2013)

Détails du magazine
Format
Magazine
eISSN
2300-8733
ISSN
1642-3402
Première publication
25 Nov 2011
Période de publication
4 fois par an
Langues
Anglais

Chercher

19 Articles

Review

Accès libre

Metabolism of arachidonic acid, its concentration in animal products and influence on inflammatory processes in the human body: a review / Metabolizm kwasu arachidonowego, jego stężenie w produktach zwierzęcych i wpływ na procesy zapalne w organizmie człowieka – artykuł przeglądowy

Publié en ligne: 24 Apr 2013
Pages: 177 - 194

Résumé

Abstract

In this review paper we focused on the metabolism of arachidonic acid (AA), an n-6 fatty acid. It can be metabolized to many compounds having a broad effect in the body. Their homeostasis and human health depend on the ratio of dietary n-6 to n-3 fatty acids. These compounds, taken together with the products of animal origin and vegetables should be better balanced in the human diet. This can be achieved by reducing arachidonic acid and its precursors through a diet that modifies the content of AA in animal products such as eggs, milk and meat

Mots clés

  • arachidonic acid
  • inflammatory processes
  • omega-6 fatty acids
  • eicosanoids
  • metabolism of arachidonic acid
Accès libre

The role of nesfatin-1 in metabolism regulation: an overview / Rola nesfatyny-1 w regulacji metabolizmu: artykuł przeglądowy

Publié en ligne: 24 Apr 2013
Pages: 195 - 205

Résumé

Abstract

The hypothalamus synthesizes molecules involved in the regulation of feeding behaviour. Nesfatin- 1 is a recently discovered substance expressed in both the brain and peripheral tissues and exerts a strong anorectic action. Nesfatin-1-immunoreactive cell bodies are distributed in arcuate (ARC), paraventricular (PVN) and supraoptic (SON) nuclei, where the peptide has been found to be co-expressed with pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) and cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART), oxytocin (OX) and vasopressin (VP). More detailed studies have shown a wide distribution of nesfatin-1-positive neurons in several brain areas, such as the forebrain, hindbrain, brainstem and spinal cord. Moreover, nesfatin-1 has been also expressed in peripheral tissues, colocalizing with ghrelin in the gastric mucosa and insulin in β-cells of the endocrine pancreas and adipose tissue. Functional studies have revealed that exogenous nesfatin-1 administered into the brain ventricles, subcutaneously or intraperitoneally, was able to decrease both food intake in the dark phase as well as body weight gain in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, recent findings suggest the involvement of nesfatin-1 in the control of insulin secretion as well as immune and stress-related responses. However, since there is still a deficiency of data concerning the nesfatin-1 receptor, the possible implementation of nesfatin-1 analogs during human metabolic disorders requires further study.

Keywords

  • nesfatin-1
  • feeding behaviour
  • hypothalamus
  • metabolism
  • anorexia
Accès libre

The role of creatine in the organism of pigs and its effect on the quality of pork: a review / Rola kreatyny w organizmie świń i jej wpływ na jakość mięsa wieprzowego: artykuł przeglądowy

Publié en ligne: 24 Apr 2013
Pages: 207 - 215

Résumé

Abstract

In pigs, creatine is synthesized mainly in the liver, kidneys and pancreas from amino acids such as glycine, arginine and methionine. It is located mainly in skeletal muscle (approximately 95-98%) in the form of phosphocreatine. It is a source of energy for muscles, thus delaying the postmortem metabolism of glycogen and lactate formation and a decrease in pH during conversion of muscle to meat. Use of supplemental creatine monohydrate in pig feed may contribute to the improvement of pork quality parameters such as pH, colour, water holding capacity and drip loss. These parameters are also improved in pigs carrying the RN- and RYR1T gene. Creatine contained in meat can also be a precursor of heterocyclic aromatic amines mutagenic to humans, formed during thermal processing of meat.

Keywords

  • pig
  • meat
  • muscle
  • creatine
  • creatine monohydrate
  • heterocyclic aromatic amines
Accès libre

Alternative methods for the control of gastrointestinal parasites in horses with a special focus on nematode predatory fungi: a review / Alternatywne metody kontroli pasożytów przewodu pokarmowego u koni ze szczególnym uwzględnieniem drapieżnych grzybów nicieniobójczych: artykuł przeglądowy

Publié en ligne: 24 Apr 2013
Pages: 217 - 227

Résumé

Abstract

The paper describes a review of alternative methods of horse parasite control. Horses serve as hosts for a wide array of parasites, among which strongylid nematodes (Strongylidae) constitute considerable pathogens. Due to the short and monoxenous life cycle of these parasites and also the resistance to benzimidazole and other drugs, the control strategies are often ineffective. Thus, the treatment of strongylids constitutes a priority aiming at the improvement of animal welfare, with special attention paid to the stable and pasture organization. The treatment carried out in the stable should consider the frequent exchange of horse bedding at regular time intervals, periodic disinfection of stalls and maximum limitation of contact of feed and water with the stable substratum. An application of feed supplements, i.e. plants or plant extracts, which act as natural dewormers, also constitutes an important factor in the control of parasitic infections. Among the treatments applied to the pasture, the regular removal of waste, quarter pasturing, as well as an alternate pasturing with other animal species, are of special importance. The use of deworming properties of fungi, which constitute a natural component of green growth in pasture, seems to be the next method of nematode control, already confirmed by several studies.

Keywords

  • horses
  • parasites
  • control
  • pasture management
  • strongylid nematodes
  • alternative methods

Genetics and farm animal breeding

Accès libre

Application of 7 STR markers for parentage testing and genetic distance study of Equidae / Zastosowanie siedmiu markerów STR do weryfikacji pochodzenia i badania dystansu genetycznego u koniowatych

Publié en ligne: 24 Apr 2013
Pages: 229 - 239

Résumé

Abstract

The genotyping efficiency and polymorphism of 7 microsatellite markers (AHT084, COR006, COR017, COR018, COR040, COR055, COR088) was evaluated in order to apply them to parentage testing among a number of warm-blooded, cold-blooded and primitive horse breeds and to illustrate genetic differences between the breeds investigated. The amplification and sequence structure of these STR markers was also verified in other Equidae like zebra, kulan, donkey and Przewalski horse. Microsatellite allelic differentiation was similar to the allele numbers reported, with an extremely wide allelic range observed at AHT084 locus. However, due to genotyping difficulties AHT084 is not a suitable marker for parentage testing. The use of the other 6 STR markers among most of the horse breeds studied allows excluding wrongly assigned parentage with a probability of 0.99. Fragment analysis and sequencing of STR alleles confirmed the presence of investigated tandem repeats in other Equidae species. Clustering of investigated horse breeds on the tree of Fst distance was consistent with their breeding history, clearly separating breeds into 3 horse types mentioned above.

Keywords

  • Equidae
  • parentage testing
  • STR
Accès libre

Polymorphisms of the osteopontin gene and level of its expression in the reproductive tract of sows / Polimorfizm w genie osteopontyny i poziom jej ekspresji w układzie rozrodczym loch

Publié en ligne: 24 Apr 2013
Pages: 241 - 252

Résumé

Abstract

The aim of the study was to find osteopontin gene (OPN) polymorphisms as potential mutations affecting the expression level of genes in the ovaries, uterus and oviduct of sows. The material consisted of 71 F1 sows (Polish Large White × Polish Landrace). In the first stage several polymorphisms in the promoter region, intron 6, exon 6 and 7 of the OPN gene were found. The parameters estimated were the frequency of alleles and genotypes, observed heterozygosity and gene diversity, PIC, and chi2 factors. Chi2 values allow for assessment of genetic equilibrium in the population. Thus, the loci OPNp3-4 and OPNe6-1 were in genetic disequilibrium while locus OPNe6-Knoll showed genetic equilibrium. Also real-time PCR analysis to determine the expression dynamics of the OPN gene in examined tissues was performed in relation to “housekeeping” genes. A comparison was made for relative expression in different tissues and different mutations. The highest expression pattern was observed in the oviduct. Based on the novel polymorphisms a significant correlation between the OPN genotype and OPN expression (mRNA) level in the ovary, oviduct, uterine body and uterine horn was observed. In the second stage, the levels of expression of the OPN gene in individual tissues, traits of reproductive performance and reproductive tract traits of sows were also compared. The expression levels in the uterine body and oviduct were related to the age of mating, cervical length, litter weight at birth, number of active nipples, age at slaughter and body weight at mating.

Keywords

  • sow
  • reproduction
  • OPN polymorphism
  • gene expression
Accès libre

Evaluation of inbreeding and relationship coefficients in Hovawart dogs and analysis of trends in coat colour changes / Ocena stopnia zinbredowania i spokrewnienia psów rasy hovawart oraz analiza tendencji zmian umaszczenia

Publié en ligne: 24 Apr 2013
Pages: 253 - 262

Résumé

Abstract

Analyses were conducted on pedigrees of 845 animals registered at the Hovawart Club in Poland (113 dogs and their ancestors). The degree of inbreeding was calculated for the whole population (0.0026) and separately for male dogs (0.0021) and bitches (0.0031), and the coefficient of mean relationship was calculated for the entire population (0.0064), among male dogs (0.0064), among females (0.0073) and between males and females (0.0061). The inbreeding and relationship coefficients obtained are lower than those estimated for Polish populations of other dog breeds. The calculated effective number of founders (268) and ancestors (233) may indicate rather low genetic diversity. Preferences of breeders concerning coat colour were discussed. Black and tan coat dogs dominated at first, followed by blond ones, and over the last five of the analysed years black coat dogs emerged.

Keywords

  • Hovawart dog
  • inbreeding

The biology, physiology and reproduction of animals

Accès libre

Emotional reactions of horses and trainers during natural method training / Reakcje emocjonalne koni i trenerów podczas treningu metodami naturalnymi

Publié en ligne: 24 Apr 2013
Pages: 263 - 273

Résumé

Abstract

The first aim of the present study was to evaluate whether the trainer factor and the sex of the horse affect the heart rate (HR) of the trainer-horse pair. The second aim was to estimate the level of the trainer-horse pair’s emotions and to find the relationship of the HR between the trainer and the horse during the preliminary, natural-method training. The animals used in the study were 40 three-year-old purebred Arabian horses trained by two trainers from the Silversand Horsemanship School. Each trainer worked with 20 randomly selected horses, equally grouped by sex. The study was carried out during the first day of the training cycle. The aim was to have a horse accept a rider. The following items were subject to analysis: deconcentration, concentration, desensitizing, putting on the lungeing surcingle, and saddling. The emotional status of the horses and the trainers was evaluated based on HR variations which were measured by applying Polar S810 telemetric devices. The device produced continuous measurements with readings every 60 seconds. Two-factor analysis of variance and Pearson correlations were determined with the use of SAS software. Significance of differences between mean values was verified using Tukey’s test. The results obtained revealed that the sex of the trained horses was not an important factor in the evaluation of trainer’s emotions, despite the fact that fillies were characterized as having a more uniform HR. The trainer is very responsible for the emotions of a trained horse, especially at the beginning of training and during saddling. From a trainer’s point of view, it is important to complete the horse concentration task as quickly as possible. The lack of an emotional relationship in the trainer-horse pair during some training elements, suggests that it is not only the trainer’s experience, but mainly the trainer’s personality that determines the probable success in naturalmethod work.

Keywords

  • emotions
  • horses
  • natural methods
  • trainers
Accès libre

Creation of cloned pig embryos using contact-inhibited or serum-starved fibroblast cells analysed intravitam for apoptosis occurrence / Uzyskiwanie klonalnych zarodków świni z wykorzystaniem komórek fibroblastycznych poddanych inhibicji kontaktowej lub deprywacji troficznej oraz analizowanych przyżyciowo w kierunku apoptozy

Publié en ligne: 24 Apr 2013
Pages: 275 - 293

Résumé

Abstract

Somatic cell cloning efficiency is determined by many factors. One of the most important factors is the structure-functional quality of nuclear donor cells. Morphologic criteria that have been used to date for qualitative evaluation of somatic cells may be insufficient for practical application in the cloning. Biochemical and biophysical changes that are one of the earliest symptoms in the transduction of apoptotic signal may be not reflected in the morphologic changes of somatic cells. For this reason, adult cutaneous or foetal fibroblast cells that, in our experiments, provided the source of genomic DNA for the cloning procedure had been previously analysed for biochemical and biophysical proapoptotic alterations with the use of live-DNA (YO-PRO-1) and plasma membrane (Annexin V-eGFP) fluorescent markers. In Groups IA and IB, the generation of nucleartransferred (NT) embryos using non-apoptotic/non-necrotic contact-inhibited or serum-starved adult cutaneous fibroblast cells yielded the morula and blastocyst formation rates of 125/231 (54.1%) and 68/231 (29.4%) or 99/237 (41.8%) and 43/237 (18.1%), respectively. In Groups IIA and IIB, the frequencies of embryos reconstituted with non-apoptotic/non-necrotic contact-inhibited or serum-starved foetal fibroblast cell nuclei that reached the morula and blastocyst stages were 171/245 (69.8%) and 97/245 (39.6%) or 132/227 (58.1%) and 63/227 (27.8%), respectively. In conclusion, contact inhibition of migration and proliferative activity among the subpopulations of adult dermal fibroblast cells and foetal fibroblast cells resulted in considerably higher morula and blastocyst formation rates of in vitro cultured cloned pig embryos compared to serum starvation of either type of fibroblast cell line. Moreover, irrespective of the methods applied to artificially synchronize the mitotic cycle of nuclear donor cells at the G0/G1 phases, developmental abilities to reach the morula/blastocyst stages were significantly higher for porcine NT embryos that had been reconstructed with non-apoptotic/non-necrotic foetal fibroblast cells than those for NT embryos that had been reconstructed with non-apoptotic/non-necrotic adult dermal fibroblast cells. To our knowledge, the generation of cloned pig embryos using abattoir-derived oocytes receiving cell nuclei descended from contact-inhibited or serum-deprived somatic cells undergoing comprehensive vital diagnostics for the absence of biochemical and biophysical proapoptotic alterations within their plasmalemmas has not been reported so far.

Keywords

  • pig
  • somatic cell cloning
  • adult cutaneous fibroblast cell
  • foetal fibroblast cell
  • contact inhibition
  • serum starvation
  • apoptosis
  • nuclear-transferred embryo
Accès libre

Effects of isoflavones on testicular weight and testosterone secretion in ISA Brown roosters

Publié en ligne: 24 Apr 2013
Pages: 295 - 301

Résumé

Abstract

Isoflavones are phytoestrogens which have estrogen-like activity in animals and humans. Because of this characteristic influence, the aim of this investigation was to examine the effect of genistein and daidzein on testicular weight and testosterone secretion in ISA Brown roosters. Genistein and daidzein as non-steroid phytoestrogens were added in large amounts to the feed of roosters. Soy isoflavones were added to rooster diets in amounts of 0, 300, 600, 1200 and 1800 mg/kg of feed. At the end of the 37th week no significant differences were found between the groups in testicular weight (P>0.05) and testosterone secretion (P>0.05) measured in the blood of birds. Blood testosterone concentration was significantly higher in younger (20-week-old) roosters than in 37-weekold roosters (P<0.01). Genistein and daidzein present in the feed did not influence the weight of testes and no significant differences were found. Further studies are required to investigate the effect of isoflavones on other androgenic characteristics.

Keywords

  • roosters
  • isoflavones
  • testicles
  • testosterone

Animal nutrition and feedstuffs

Accès libre

Effect of xylanase supplementation to cereal-based diets on apparent fecal digestibility and growth performance of pigs / Wpływ suplementacji diet z udziałem zbóż ksylanazą na pozorną strawność kałową i wskaźniki tuczu świń

Publié en ligne: 24 Apr 2013
Pages: 303 - 311

Résumé

Abstract

A total of 300 growing-finishing pigs (30-110 kg BW), the offspring of Naima sows and Duroc boars, were allocated to three dietary treatments (five pens per treatment, 10 males and 10 females per pen). The growth performance of pigs was determined, and the apparent digestibility of nutrients and energy in animals fed grower diets was calculated by the simple balance method. Complete diets with a high content of triticale (70%-73%) and barley (6.8%-12%) were supplemented with endo-1,4-beta-xylanase (6200 EPU per g). The minimum xylanase activity per kg feed was 1050 and 1500 EPU. Xylanase, at activity levels of 1050 and 1500 EPU kg-1 complete diet, significantly (P≤0.05) increased the apparent digestibility of total protein and highly significantly (P≤0.01) that of crude fat. No significant differences in the digestibility of N-free extractives and energy were found between groups. The increased activity of xylanase (1500 EPU kg-1 feed) contributed to an increase in the digestibility of dry matter, crude fibre (P≤0.05) and organic matter (P≤0.01), compared with the control group. Higher (P≤0.01) daily gains and average final body weights were noted in pigs fed diets supplemented with the mono-enzyme preparation. The feed conversion ratio (FCR) tended to improve in pigs receiving xylanase-supplemented diets, but the observed differences were statistically non-significant.

Keywords

  • pigs
  • xylanase
  • fecal digestibility
  • growth performance
Accès libre

Effect of corn distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) in diets with NSP-hydrolyzing enzymes on growth performance, carcass traits and meat quality of pigs / Wpływ DDGS z kukurydzy w mieszankach z udziałem enzymów hydrolizujących NSP na wyniki tuczu, cechy półtuszy oraz jakość mięsa świń

Publié en ligne: 24 Apr 2013
Pages: 313 - 326

Résumé

Abstract

The effect of corn distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS), used in grower-finisher diets with or without supplemental enzymes, on growth performance and carcass and meat quality was determined in an experiment with 48 pigs. Group I (control) received a standard grain-soybean meal mixture without DDGS and without enzymes; Group II was fed a mixture containing 15% (grower) or 20% (finisher) of corn DDGS but without the enzymes; Group III received a mixture containing 15% (grower) or 20% (finisher) of corn DDGS with NSP-hydrolyzing enzymes (200 g t-1). The feed mixtures were isonitrogenous and isoenergetic. All pigs were fattened from 30 to 112 kg. At the end of the experiment all pigs were slaughtered, right carcass sides were evaluated and samples of longissimus muscle were taken for analysis. Inclusion of corn DDGS did not significantly affect pig fattening results and meat quality. The addition of NSP-hydrolyzing enzymes to feed mixtures containing corn DDGS tended to positively influence pig performance. The carcasses of pigs receiving the diet with corn DDGS and NSP-hydrolyzing enzymes were characterized by thinner backfat and greater weight of the primal cuts.

Mots clés

  • pigs
  • corn DDGS
  • NSP-hydrolyzing enzymes
  • fattening performance
  • meat quality

Environment, hygiene and animal production technology

Accès libre

Effect of outdoor access and increased amounts of local feed materials in the diets of hens covered by the gene-pool protection programme for farm animals in Poland on quality of eggs during peak egg production / Wpływ dostępu do wybiegu i zwiększonego udziału krajowych komponentów paszowych w żywieniu rodów kur objętych programem ochrony na jakość jaj w szczycie nieśności

Publié en ligne: 24 Apr 2013
Pages: 327 - 339

Résumé

Abstract

The objective of the study was to test the hypothesis that eggs from native breed laying hens fed a diet containing increased amounts of local feed materials are not inferior in quality to eggs from laying hens receiving a standard diet but raised without outdoor access. The study involved Greenleg Partridge (Z-11) and Rhode Island Red hens (R-11). Within each breed, the control group (C) consisted of 60 hens kept on litter without outdoor access, stocked at 5 birds/m2 and fed a diet containing 65.3% of local feed materials. The experimental group (E) contained 60 layers maintained on litter with access to an outdoor area (11 m2 per bird) and fed a diet containing 77.1% of local feed materials. Eggs from hens of both breeds, which received diets containing increased proportions of local feed materials had lower weight but higher yolk percentage. The quality of eggshells from hens fed the diet with increased amounts of local materials was similar to that of eggshells from confined hens. Egg yolk lipids from experimental groups were characterized by a more beneficial n-6/n-3 acid ratio and elevated vitamin A levels. These eggs had better sensory scores for colour, flavour and aroma, which suggests that it is appropriate to raise native breeds of chickens with outdoor access and local feed materials can be used in extensive husbandry systems.

Keywords

  • protected breeds/lines
  • egg quality
  • outdoor system
  • nutrition
Accès libre

Optimization of rearing dairy breed calves according to organic principles / Optymalizacja odchowu cieląt ras mlecznych według wymogów ekologicznych

Publié en ligne: 24 Apr 2013
Pages: 341 - 355

Résumé

Abstract

The aim of the study was to determine the degree to which different whole milk feeding systems according to ecological standards affect the results of rearing, some blood biochemical and haematological parameters, and health status of Polish Holstein-Friesian calves. The experiment was conducted from birth to 150 days of age with 32 calves (16 heifer and 16 bull calves), assigned to four analogous groups (8 animals: 4 ♀ and 4 ♂ per group). In group I, calves suckled colostrum (ad

libitum) and mother’s milk from 5 to 90 days of age (twice daily for 30 minutes); in group II, they suckled colostrum (ad libitum), mother’s milk from 5 to 42 days of age (twice daily for 30 minutes), and received milk from nipple buckets (6 l twice daily) from 43 to 90 days of age; in groups III and IV calves received from nipple buckets a limited amount of colostrum (4.5-6 l/day) and milk (on average 5.82 and 4.82 l/day, respectively). Feeding limited whole milk from nipple buckets to the calves did not cause significant differences in haematological blood indices, serum concentrations of glucose and IgG, and health status of calves compared to those suckling their mothers. Calves which remained with their mothers during colostrum feeding were characterized by a significantly lower concentration of serum cortisol at 2 days of age compared to calves that received colostrum from nipple buckets. Compared to the calves suckling their mothers (group I), the use of economical milk feeding system (III and IV groups) reduced rearing costs and increased the amount of milk intended for sale by 700-760 l/cow.

Keywords

  • calves
  • ecology
  • feeding
  • rearing results and costs
  • blood parameters
Accès libre

The iron content in organs of free ranging European bison from the Białowieża herd / Zawartość żelaza w tkankach żubra ze stada białowieskiego

Publié en ligne: 24 Apr 2013
Pages: 357 - 364

Résumé

Abstract

The aim of the study was to determine iron status in chosen organs of the European bison free ranging in Białowieża Primeval Forest. The material for analyses was obtained from animals eliminated during annual selection. Segments of liver, kidney, muscle, rib, and hoof were collected. Animals were divided depending on gender (males and females) and age (calves up to 1 year and animals older than 2 years). Mean iron concentration in liver was 263.59 mg ∙ kg-1 fresh tissue. The iron content was significantly higher in the group of animals older than 2 years (P≤0.05). The average content of iron in kidneys amounted to 156.70 mg ∙ kg-1 fresh tissue. The average iron content in muscles amounted to 79.95 mg ∙ kg-1 fresh tissue. Similarly to the liver samples a statistically significant difference (P≤0.05) was demonstrated depending on age. The average iron content in ribs and in the horn of the hoof wall of all European bison amounted to 38.90 mg ∙ kg-1 fresh tissue and 47.87 mg ∙ kg-1 dry matter, respectively. No statistically significant differences in the iron content were observed depending on gender.

Mots clés

  • European bison
  • iron status
Accès libre

Current status of prevalence of yeast-like fungi in the environment of horses bred in Poland / Aktualny status występowania grzybów drożdżopodobnych w środowisku hodowlanym koni w Polsce

Publié en ligne: 24 Apr 2013
Pages: 365 - 374

Résumé

Abstract

This study presents an analysis of the yeast-like fungi population in the healthy horses’ living environment. The study material was sampled from various elements and equipment of a stable. We compared the yeast-like fungi population from the breeding environment of five groups of horses (English Thoroughbred horses, Arabian horses, Polish Half-Bred horses, cold-blooded horses, and Hucul horses and Highland ponies). The samples were collected in the summer and winter period. The laboratory examination involved 260 samples and resulted in identification of yeast-like fungi belonging to 13 species. Over 50% of the samples collected from the horse environment in wintertime and fewer than 18% of the summer samples displayed fungal growth. The largest amounts of yeast fungi were isolated from samples collected from water and feed troughs. The laboratory analysis demonstrated qualitative diversity of the yeast-like fungi population depending on the breeding environment of the individual horse groups. Quantitative differences of isolates were additionally related to the season of the year.

Keywords

  • horses
  • yeast-like fungi
  • qualitative analysis
  • winter/summer period
Accès libre

Performance characteristics of a rapid method for iodine determination in milk / Szybka metoda oznaczania jodu w mleku – walidacja i akredytacja zgodnie z normą ISO/IEC 17025:2005

Publié en ligne: 24 Apr 2013
Pages: 375 - 385

Résumé

Keywords

  • iodine in milk
  • validation
  • uncertainty
  • repeatability
  • within-laboratory reproducibility
  • accreditation
  • ISO/IEC 17025

Quality and safety of animal origin products

Accès libre

A comparison of selected biochemical characteristics of meat from nutrias (Myocastor coypus Mol.) and rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) / Porównanie wskaźników biochemicznych mięsa nutrii (Myocastor coypus Mol.) i królików (Oryctolagus cuniculus)

Publié en ligne: 24 Apr 2013
Pages: 387 - 400

Résumé

Abstract

The aim of this study was to compare major biochemical properties of nutria meat with relevant composition and texture data of rabbit carcasses. The meat from nutria m. semimembranosus (MS; thigh muscle) contained 29.54% dry matter (DM), 20.05% total protein (TP), 7.83% total fat (TF) and 1.23% total ash (TA). The ratio of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) to saturated fatty acids (SFA) was lower in nutria than in rabbit meat (0.55-0.58 and 0.93-0.94, respectively). The n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio was 15.3 (MS) and 11.22 (m. longissimus dorsi, MLD; loin) in nutria meat and 7.55 and 8.08 respectively in rabbit meat, which appeared more beneficial for the consumer. Among the most important texture parameters, hardness ranged from 66 for MS to 73 N for MLD, and overall chewiness was 23 N. The collagen content was between 0.68 and 0.72%. The results show that in comparison with rabbit meat, nutria meat has valuable properties and is recommended for the human diet.

Keywords

  • nutria
  • rabbit
  • meat
  • chemical composition
  • amino acids
  • fatty acids
  • texture parameters
Accès libre

The relationship between colour and pH in cold-stored quail breast muscle / Zależność między barwą a pH w mięśniach piersiowych przepiórek przechowywanych w warunkach chłodniczych

Publié en ligne: 24 Apr 2013
Pages: 401 - 413

Résumé

Abstract

The purpose of this study was to analyse the colour of the breast muscles of Japanese Pharaoh quail on the first day after slaughter and again after further six days of cold storage, in relation to their muscle pH. The material for the study consisted of 40 breast muscles taken from the carcasses of six-week-old Japanese Pharaoh quail. Based on pH results, the muscles were divided into three groups: I (pH = 5.51-5.70), II (pH = 5.71-5.90) and III (pH = 5.91-6.10). After this the muscles were stored for a further 6 days at 4°C. It was found that the pH of freshly dissected quail breast muscle is a good indicator of the colour stability of muscles cold-stored at 4°C for six days. The lowest degree of colour stability was observed in the pH range 5.51-5.70. In the sensory evaluation muscles displaying this degree of colour instability were considered unacceptable or barely acceptable. In contrast, muscles in the pH ranges 5.71-5.90 and 5.91-6.10 displayed a high degree of colour stability and were considered acceptable in the sensory evaluation. The colour changes that occurred during storage of the muscles were due to changes in the values of all of the colour parameters (L*, a*, b*, C* and hº); however, the greatest changes were found in the case of redness (a*) and the hue angle (hº). The changes were caused both by alterations in the amount of pigment reached by light, and by changes in the relative amounts of the chemical forms of myoglobin.

Keywords

  • colour
  • muscle
  • pH
  • quail
19 Articles

Review

Accès libre

Metabolism of arachidonic acid, its concentration in animal products and influence on inflammatory processes in the human body: a review / Metabolizm kwasu arachidonowego, jego stężenie w produktach zwierzęcych i wpływ na procesy zapalne w organizmie człowieka – artykuł przeglądowy

Publié en ligne: 24 Apr 2013
Pages: 177 - 194

Résumé

Abstract

In this review paper we focused on the metabolism of arachidonic acid (AA), an n-6 fatty acid. It can be metabolized to many compounds having a broad effect in the body. Their homeostasis and human health depend on the ratio of dietary n-6 to n-3 fatty acids. These compounds, taken together with the products of animal origin and vegetables should be better balanced in the human diet. This can be achieved by reducing arachidonic acid and its precursors through a diet that modifies the content of AA in animal products such as eggs, milk and meat

Mots clés

  • arachidonic acid
  • inflammatory processes
  • omega-6 fatty acids
  • eicosanoids
  • metabolism of arachidonic acid
Accès libre

The role of nesfatin-1 in metabolism regulation: an overview / Rola nesfatyny-1 w regulacji metabolizmu: artykuł przeglądowy

Publié en ligne: 24 Apr 2013
Pages: 195 - 205

Résumé

Abstract

The hypothalamus synthesizes molecules involved in the regulation of feeding behaviour. Nesfatin- 1 is a recently discovered substance expressed in both the brain and peripheral tissues and exerts a strong anorectic action. Nesfatin-1-immunoreactive cell bodies are distributed in arcuate (ARC), paraventricular (PVN) and supraoptic (SON) nuclei, where the peptide has been found to be co-expressed with pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) and cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART), oxytocin (OX) and vasopressin (VP). More detailed studies have shown a wide distribution of nesfatin-1-positive neurons in several brain areas, such as the forebrain, hindbrain, brainstem and spinal cord. Moreover, nesfatin-1 has been also expressed in peripheral tissues, colocalizing with ghrelin in the gastric mucosa and insulin in β-cells of the endocrine pancreas and adipose tissue. Functional studies have revealed that exogenous nesfatin-1 administered into the brain ventricles, subcutaneously or intraperitoneally, was able to decrease both food intake in the dark phase as well as body weight gain in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, recent findings suggest the involvement of nesfatin-1 in the control of insulin secretion as well as immune and stress-related responses. However, since there is still a deficiency of data concerning the nesfatin-1 receptor, the possible implementation of nesfatin-1 analogs during human metabolic disorders requires further study.

Keywords

  • nesfatin-1
  • feeding behaviour
  • hypothalamus
  • metabolism
  • anorexia
Accès libre

The role of creatine in the organism of pigs and its effect on the quality of pork: a review / Rola kreatyny w organizmie świń i jej wpływ na jakość mięsa wieprzowego: artykuł przeglądowy

Publié en ligne: 24 Apr 2013
Pages: 207 - 215

Résumé

Abstract

In pigs, creatine is synthesized mainly in the liver, kidneys and pancreas from amino acids such as glycine, arginine and methionine. It is located mainly in skeletal muscle (approximately 95-98%) in the form of phosphocreatine. It is a source of energy for muscles, thus delaying the postmortem metabolism of glycogen and lactate formation and a decrease in pH during conversion of muscle to meat. Use of supplemental creatine monohydrate in pig feed may contribute to the improvement of pork quality parameters such as pH, colour, water holding capacity and drip loss. These parameters are also improved in pigs carrying the RN- and RYR1T gene. Creatine contained in meat can also be a precursor of heterocyclic aromatic amines mutagenic to humans, formed during thermal processing of meat.

Keywords

  • pig
  • meat
  • muscle
  • creatine
  • creatine monohydrate
  • heterocyclic aromatic amines
Accès libre

Alternative methods for the control of gastrointestinal parasites in horses with a special focus on nematode predatory fungi: a review / Alternatywne metody kontroli pasożytów przewodu pokarmowego u koni ze szczególnym uwzględnieniem drapieżnych grzybów nicieniobójczych: artykuł przeglądowy

Publié en ligne: 24 Apr 2013
Pages: 217 - 227

Résumé

Abstract

The paper describes a review of alternative methods of horse parasite control. Horses serve as hosts for a wide array of parasites, among which strongylid nematodes (Strongylidae) constitute considerable pathogens. Due to the short and monoxenous life cycle of these parasites and also the resistance to benzimidazole and other drugs, the control strategies are often ineffective. Thus, the treatment of strongylids constitutes a priority aiming at the improvement of animal welfare, with special attention paid to the stable and pasture organization. The treatment carried out in the stable should consider the frequent exchange of horse bedding at regular time intervals, periodic disinfection of stalls and maximum limitation of contact of feed and water with the stable substratum. An application of feed supplements, i.e. plants or plant extracts, which act as natural dewormers, also constitutes an important factor in the control of parasitic infections. Among the treatments applied to the pasture, the regular removal of waste, quarter pasturing, as well as an alternate pasturing with other animal species, are of special importance. The use of deworming properties of fungi, which constitute a natural component of green growth in pasture, seems to be the next method of nematode control, already confirmed by several studies.

Keywords

  • horses
  • parasites
  • control
  • pasture management
  • strongylid nematodes
  • alternative methods

Genetics and farm animal breeding

Accès libre

Application of 7 STR markers for parentage testing and genetic distance study of Equidae / Zastosowanie siedmiu markerów STR do weryfikacji pochodzenia i badania dystansu genetycznego u koniowatych

Publié en ligne: 24 Apr 2013
Pages: 229 - 239

Résumé

Abstract

The genotyping efficiency and polymorphism of 7 microsatellite markers (AHT084, COR006, COR017, COR018, COR040, COR055, COR088) was evaluated in order to apply them to parentage testing among a number of warm-blooded, cold-blooded and primitive horse breeds and to illustrate genetic differences between the breeds investigated. The amplification and sequence structure of these STR markers was also verified in other Equidae like zebra, kulan, donkey and Przewalski horse. Microsatellite allelic differentiation was similar to the allele numbers reported, with an extremely wide allelic range observed at AHT084 locus. However, due to genotyping difficulties AHT084 is not a suitable marker for parentage testing. The use of the other 6 STR markers among most of the horse breeds studied allows excluding wrongly assigned parentage with a probability of 0.99. Fragment analysis and sequencing of STR alleles confirmed the presence of investigated tandem repeats in other Equidae species. Clustering of investigated horse breeds on the tree of Fst distance was consistent with their breeding history, clearly separating breeds into 3 horse types mentioned above.

Keywords

  • Equidae
  • parentage testing
  • STR
Accès libre

Polymorphisms of the osteopontin gene and level of its expression in the reproductive tract of sows / Polimorfizm w genie osteopontyny i poziom jej ekspresji w układzie rozrodczym loch

Publié en ligne: 24 Apr 2013
Pages: 241 - 252

Résumé

Abstract

The aim of the study was to find osteopontin gene (OPN) polymorphisms as potential mutations affecting the expression level of genes in the ovaries, uterus and oviduct of sows. The material consisted of 71 F1 sows (Polish Large White × Polish Landrace). In the first stage several polymorphisms in the promoter region, intron 6, exon 6 and 7 of the OPN gene were found. The parameters estimated were the frequency of alleles and genotypes, observed heterozygosity and gene diversity, PIC, and chi2 factors. Chi2 values allow for assessment of genetic equilibrium in the population. Thus, the loci OPNp3-4 and OPNe6-1 were in genetic disequilibrium while locus OPNe6-Knoll showed genetic equilibrium. Also real-time PCR analysis to determine the expression dynamics of the OPN gene in examined tissues was performed in relation to “housekeeping” genes. A comparison was made for relative expression in different tissues and different mutations. The highest expression pattern was observed in the oviduct. Based on the novel polymorphisms a significant correlation between the OPN genotype and OPN expression (mRNA) level in the ovary, oviduct, uterine body and uterine horn was observed. In the second stage, the levels of expression of the OPN gene in individual tissues, traits of reproductive performance and reproductive tract traits of sows were also compared. The expression levels in the uterine body and oviduct were related to the age of mating, cervical length, litter weight at birth, number of active nipples, age at slaughter and body weight at mating.

Keywords

  • sow
  • reproduction
  • OPN polymorphism
  • gene expression
Accès libre

Evaluation of inbreeding and relationship coefficients in Hovawart dogs and analysis of trends in coat colour changes / Ocena stopnia zinbredowania i spokrewnienia psów rasy hovawart oraz analiza tendencji zmian umaszczenia

Publié en ligne: 24 Apr 2013
Pages: 253 - 262

Résumé

Abstract

Analyses were conducted on pedigrees of 845 animals registered at the Hovawart Club in Poland (113 dogs and their ancestors). The degree of inbreeding was calculated for the whole population (0.0026) and separately for male dogs (0.0021) and bitches (0.0031), and the coefficient of mean relationship was calculated for the entire population (0.0064), among male dogs (0.0064), among females (0.0073) and between males and females (0.0061). The inbreeding and relationship coefficients obtained are lower than those estimated for Polish populations of other dog breeds. The calculated effective number of founders (268) and ancestors (233) may indicate rather low genetic diversity. Preferences of breeders concerning coat colour were discussed. Black and tan coat dogs dominated at first, followed by blond ones, and over the last five of the analysed years black coat dogs emerged.

Keywords

  • Hovawart dog
  • inbreeding

The biology, physiology and reproduction of animals

Accès libre

Emotional reactions of horses and trainers during natural method training / Reakcje emocjonalne koni i trenerów podczas treningu metodami naturalnymi

Publié en ligne: 24 Apr 2013
Pages: 263 - 273

Résumé

Abstract

The first aim of the present study was to evaluate whether the trainer factor and the sex of the horse affect the heart rate (HR) of the trainer-horse pair. The second aim was to estimate the level of the trainer-horse pair’s emotions and to find the relationship of the HR between the trainer and the horse during the preliminary, natural-method training. The animals used in the study were 40 three-year-old purebred Arabian horses trained by two trainers from the Silversand Horsemanship School. Each trainer worked with 20 randomly selected horses, equally grouped by sex. The study was carried out during the first day of the training cycle. The aim was to have a horse accept a rider. The following items were subject to analysis: deconcentration, concentration, desensitizing, putting on the lungeing surcingle, and saddling. The emotional status of the horses and the trainers was evaluated based on HR variations which were measured by applying Polar S810 telemetric devices. The device produced continuous measurements with readings every 60 seconds. Two-factor analysis of variance and Pearson correlations were determined with the use of SAS software. Significance of differences between mean values was verified using Tukey’s test. The results obtained revealed that the sex of the trained horses was not an important factor in the evaluation of trainer’s emotions, despite the fact that fillies were characterized as having a more uniform HR. The trainer is very responsible for the emotions of a trained horse, especially at the beginning of training and during saddling. From a trainer’s point of view, it is important to complete the horse concentration task as quickly as possible. The lack of an emotional relationship in the trainer-horse pair during some training elements, suggests that it is not only the trainer’s experience, but mainly the trainer’s personality that determines the probable success in naturalmethod work.

Keywords

  • emotions
  • horses
  • natural methods
  • trainers
Accès libre

Creation of cloned pig embryos using contact-inhibited or serum-starved fibroblast cells analysed intravitam for apoptosis occurrence / Uzyskiwanie klonalnych zarodków świni z wykorzystaniem komórek fibroblastycznych poddanych inhibicji kontaktowej lub deprywacji troficznej oraz analizowanych przyżyciowo w kierunku apoptozy

Publié en ligne: 24 Apr 2013
Pages: 275 - 293

Résumé

Abstract

Somatic cell cloning efficiency is determined by many factors. One of the most important factors is the structure-functional quality of nuclear donor cells. Morphologic criteria that have been used to date for qualitative evaluation of somatic cells may be insufficient for practical application in the cloning. Biochemical and biophysical changes that are one of the earliest symptoms in the transduction of apoptotic signal may be not reflected in the morphologic changes of somatic cells. For this reason, adult cutaneous or foetal fibroblast cells that, in our experiments, provided the source of genomic DNA for the cloning procedure had been previously analysed for biochemical and biophysical proapoptotic alterations with the use of live-DNA (YO-PRO-1) and plasma membrane (Annexin V-eGFP) fluorescent markers. In Groups IA and IB, the generation of nucleartransferred (NT) embryos using non-apoptotic/non-necrotic contact-inhibited or serum-starved adult cutaneous fibroblast cells yielded the morula and blastocyst formation rates of 125/231 (54.1%) and 68/231 (29.4%) or 99/237 (41.8%) and 43/237 (18.1%), respectively. In Groups IIA and IIB, the frequencies of embryos reconstituted with non-apoptotic/non-necrotic contact-inhibited or serum-starved foetal fibroblast cell nuclei that reached the morula and blastocyst stages were 171/245 (69.8%) and 97/245 (39.6%) or 132/227 (58.1%) and 63/227 (27.8%), respectively. In conclusion, contact inhibition of migration and proliferative activity among the subpopulations of adult dermal fibroblast cells and foetal fibroblast cells resulted in considerably higher morula and blastocyst formation rates of in vitro cultured cloned pig embryos compared to serum starvation of either type of fibroblast cell line. Moreover, irrespective of the methods applied to artificially synchronize the mitotic cycle of nuclear donor cells at the G0/G1 phases, developmental abilities to reach the morula/blastocyst stages were significantly higher for porcine NT embryos that had been reconstructed with non-apoptotic/non-necrotic foetal fibroblast cells than those for NT embryos that had been reconstructed with non-apoptotic/non-necrotic adult dermal fibroblast cells. To our knowledge, the generation of cloned pig embryos using abattoir-derived oocytes receiving cell nuclei descended from contact-inhibited or serum-deprived somatic cells undergoing comprehensive vital diagnostics for the absence of biochemical and biophysical proapoptotic alterations within their plasmalemmas has not been reported so far.

Keywords

  • pig
  • somatic cell cloning
  • adult cutaneous fibroblast cell
  • foetal fibroblast cell
  • contact inhibition
  • serum starvation
  • apoptosis
  • nuclear-transferred embryo
Accès libre

Effects of isoflavones on testicular weight and testosterone secretion in ISA Brown roosters

Publié en ligne: 24 Apr 2013
Pages: 295 - 301

Résumé

Abstract

Isoflavones are phytoestrogens which have estrogen-like activity in animals and humans. Because of this characteristic influence, the aim of this investigation was to examine the effect of genistein and daidzein on testicular weight and testosterone secretion in ISA Brown roosters. Genistein and daidzein as non-steroid phytoestrogens were added in large amounts to the feed of roosters. Soy isoflavones were added to rooster diets in amounts of 0, 300, 600, 1200 and 1800 mg/kg of feed. At the end of the 37th week no significant differences were found between the groups in testicular weight (P>0.05) and testosterone secretion (P>0.05) measured in the blood of birds. Blood testosterone concentration was significantly higher in younger (20-week-old) roosters than in 37-weekold roosters (P<0.01). Genistein and daidzein present in the feed did not influence the weight of testes and no significant differences were found. Further studies are required to investigate the effect of isoflavones on other androgenic characteristics.

Keywords

  • roosters
  • isoflavones
  • testicles
  • testosterone

Animal nutrition and feedstuffs

Accès libre

Effect of xylanase supplementation to cereal-based diets on apparent fecal digestibility and growth performance of pigs / Wpływ suplementacji diet z udziałem zbóż ksylanazą na pozorną strawność kałową i wskaźniki tuczu świń

Publié en ligne: 24 Apr 2013
Pages: 303 - 311

Résumé

Abstract

A total of 300 growing-finishing pigs (30-110 kg BW), the offspring of Naima sows and Duroc boars, were allocated to three dietary treatments (five pens per treatment, 10 males and 10 females per pen). The growth performance of pigs was determined, and the apparent digestibility of nutrients and energy in animals fed grower diets was calculated by the simple balance method. Complete diets with a high content of triticale (70%-73%) and barley (6.8%-12%) were supplemented with endo-1,4-beta-xylanase (6200 EPU per g). The minimum xylanase activity per kg feed was 1050 and 1500 EPU. Xylanase, at activity levels of 1050 and 1500 EPU kg-1 complete diet, significantly (P≤0.05) increased the apparent digestibility of total protein and highly significantly (P≤0.01) that of crude fat. No significant differences in the digestibility of N-free extractives and energy were found between groups. The increased activity of xylanase (1500 EPU kg-1 feed) contributed to an increase in the digestibility of dry matter, crude fibre (P≤0.05) and organic matter (P≤0.01), compared with the control group. Higher (P≤0.01) daily gains and average final body weights were noted in pigs fed diets supplemented with the mono-enzyme preparation. The feed conversion ratio (FCR) tended to improve in pigs receiving xylanase-supplemented diets, but the observed differences were statistically non-significant.

Keywords

  • pigs
  • xylanase
  • fecal digestibility
  • growth performance
Accès libre

Effect of corn distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) in diets with NSP-hydrolyzing enzymes on growth performance, carcass traits and meat quality of pigs / Wpływ DDGS z kukurydzy w mieszankach z udziałem enzymów hydrolizujących NSP na wyniki tuczu, cechy półtuszy oraz jakość mięsa świń

Publié en ligne: 24 Apr 2013
Pages: 313 - 326

Résumé

Abstract

The effect of corn distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS), used in grower-finisher diets with or without supplemental enzymes, on growth performance and carcass and meat quality was determined in an experiment with 48 pigs. Group I (control) received a standard grain-soybean meal mixture without DDGS and without enzymes; Group II was fed a mixture containing 15% (grower) or 20% (finisher) of corn DDGS but without the enzymes; Group III received a mixture containing 15% (grower) or 20% (finisher) of corn DDGS with NSP-hydrolyzing enzymes (200 g t-1). The feed mixtures were isonitrogenous and isoenergetic. All pigs were fattened from 30 to 112 kg. At the end of the experiment all pigs were slaughtered, right carcass sides were evaluated and samples of longissimus muscle were taken for analysis. Inclusion of corn DDGS did not significantly affect pig fattening results and meat quality. The addition of NSP-hydrolyzing enzymes to feed mixtures containing corn DDGS tended to positively influence pig performance. The carcasses of pigs receiving the diet with corn DDGS and NSP-hydrolyzing enzymes were characterized by thinner backfat and greater weight of the primal cuts.

Mots clés

  • pigs
  • corn DDGS
  • NSP-hydrolyzing enzymes
  • fattening performance
  • meat quality

Environment, hygiene and animal production technology

Accès libre

Effect of outdoor access and increased amounts of local feed materials in the diets of hens covered by the gene-pool protection programme for farm animals in Poland on quality of eggs during peak egg production / Wpływ dostępu do wybiegu i zwiększonego udziału krajowych komponentów paszowych w żywieniu rodów kur objętych programem ochrony na jakość jaj w szczycie nieśności

Publié en ligne: 24 Apr 2013
Pages: 327 - 339

Résumé

Abstract

The objective of the study was to test the hypothesis that eggs from native breed laying hens fed a diet containing increased amounts of local feed materials are not inferior in quality to eggs from laying hens receiving a standard diet but raised without outdoor access. The study involved Greenleg Partridge (Z-11) and Rhode Island Red hens (R-11). Within each breed, the control group (C) consisted of 60 hens kept on litter without outdoor access, stocked at 5 birds/m2 and fed a diet containing 65.3% of local feed materials. The experimental group (E) contained 60 layers maintained on litter with access to an outdoor area (11 m2 per bird) and fed a diet containing 77.1% of local feed materials. Eggs from hens of both breeds, which received diets containing increased proportions of local feed materials had lower weight but higher yolk percentage. The quality of eggshells from hens fed the diet with increased amounts of local materials was similar to that of eggshells from confined hens. Egg yolk lipids from experimental groups were characterized by a more beneficial n-6/n-3 acid ratio and elevated vitamin A levels. These eggs had better sensory scores for colour, flavour and aroma, which suggests that it is appropriate to raise native breeds of chickens with outdoor access and local feed materials can be used in extensive husbandry systems.

Keywords

  • protected breeds/lines
  • egg quality
  • outdoor system
  • nutrition
Accès libre

Optimization of rearing dairy breed calves according to organic principles / Optymalizacja odchowu cieląt ras mlecznych według wymogów ekologicznych

Publié en ligne: 24 Apr 2013
Pages: 341 - 355

Résumé

Abstract

The aim of the study was to determine the degree to which different whole milk feeding systems according to ecological standards affect the results of rearing, some blood biochemical and haematological parameters, and health status of Polish Holstein-Friesian calves. The experiment was conducted from birth to 150 days of age with 32 calves (16 heifer and 16 bull calves), assigned to four analogous groups (8 animals: 4 ♀ and 4 ♂ per group). In group I, calves suckled colostrum (ad

libitum) and mother’s milk from 5 to 90 days of age (twice daily for 30 minutes); in group II, they suckled colostrum (ad libitum), mother’s milk from 5 to 42 days of age (twice daily for 30 minutes), and received milk from nipple buckets (6 l twice daily) from 43 to 90 days of age; in groups III and IV calves received from nipple buckets a limited amount of colostrum (4.5-6 l/day) and milk (on average 5.82 and 4.82 l/day, respectively). Feeding limited whole milk from nipple buckets to the calves did not cause significant differences in haematological blood indices, serum concentrations of glucose and IgG, and health status of calves compared to those suckling their mothers. Calves which remained with their mothers during colostrum feeding were characterized by a significantly lower concentration of serum cortisol at 2 days of age compared to calves that received colostrum from nipple buckets. Compared to the calves suckling their mothers (group I), the use of economical milk feeding system (III and IV groups) reduced rearing costs and increased the amount of milk intended for sale by 700-760 l/cow.

Keywords

  • calves
  • ecology
  • feeding
  • rearing results and costs
  • blood parameters
Accès libre

The iron content in organs of free ranging European bison from the Białowieża herd / Zawartość żelaza w tkankach żubra ze stada białowieskiego

Publié en ligne: 24 Apr 2013
Pages: 357 - 364

Résumé

Abstract

The aim of the study was to determine iron status in chosen organs of the European bison free ranging in Białowieża Primeval Forest. The material for analyses was obtained from animals eliminated during annual selection. Segments of liver, kidney, muscle, rib, and hoof were collected. Animals were divided depending on gender (males and females) and age (calves up to 1 year and animals older than 2 years). Mean iron concentration in liver was 263.59 mg ∙ kg-1 fresh tissue. The iron content was significantly higher in the group of animals older than 2 years (P≤0.05). The average content of iron in kidneys amounted to 156.70 mg ∙ kg-1 fresh tissue. The average iron content in muscles amounted to 79.95 mg ∙ kg-1 fresh tissue. Similarly to the liver samples a statistically significant difference (P≤0.05) was demonstrated depending on age. The average iron content in ribs and in the horn of the hoof wall of all European bison amounted to 38.90 mg ∙ kg-1 fresh tissue and 47.87 mg ∙ kg-1 dry matter, respectively. No statistically significant differences in the iron content were observed depending on gender.

Mots clés

  • European bison
  • iron status
Accès libre

Current status of prevalence of yeast-like fungi in the environment of horses bred in Poland / Aktualny status występowania grzybów drożdżopodobnych w środowisku hodowlanym koni w Polsce

Publié en ligne: 24 Apr 2013
Pages: 365 - 374

Résumé

Abstract

This study presents an analysis of the yeast-like fungi population in the healthy horses’ living environment. The study material was sampled from various elements and equipment of a stable. We compared the yeast-like fungi population from the breeding environment of five groups of horses (English Thoroughbred horses, Arabian horses, Polish Half-Bred horses, cold-blooded horses, and Hucul horses and Highland ponies). The samples were collected in the summer and winter period. The laboratory examination involved 260 samples and resulted in identification of yeast-like fungi belonging to 13 species. Over 50% of the samples collected from the horse environment in wintertime and fewer than 18% of the summer samples displayed fungal growth. The largest amounts of yeast fungi were isolated from samples collected from water and feed troughs. The laboratory analysis demonstrated qualitative diversity of the yeast-like fungi population depending on the breeding environment of the individual horse groups. Quantitative differences of isolates were additionally related to the season of the year.

Keywords

  • horses
  • yeast-like fungi
  • qualitative analysis
  • winter/summer period
Accès libre

Performance characteristics of a rapid method for iodine determination in milk / Szybka metoda oznaczania jodu w mleku – walidacja i akredytacja zgodnie z normą ISO/IEC 17025:2005

Publié en ligne: 24 Apr 2013
Pages: 375 - 385

Résumé

Keywords

  • iodine in milk
  • validation
  • uncertainty
  • repeatability
  • within-laboratory reproducibility
  • accreditation
  • ISO/IEC 17025

Quality and safety of animal origin products

Accès libre

A comparison of selected biochemical characteristics of meat from nutrias (Myocastor coypus Mol.) and rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) / Porównanie wskaźników biochemicznych mięsa nutrii (Myocastor coypus Mol.) i królików (Oryctolagus cuniculus)

Publié en ligne: 24 Apr 2013
Pages: 387 - 400

Résumé

Abstract

The aim of this study was to compare major biochemical properties of nutria meat with relevant composition and texture data of rabbit carcasses. The meat from nutria m. semimembranosus (MS; thigh muscle) contained 29.54% dry matter (DM), 20.05% total protein (TP), 7.83% total fat (TF) and 1.23% total ash (TA). The ratio of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) to saturated fatty acids (SFA) was lower in nutria than in rabbit meat (0.55-0.58 and 0.93-0.94, respectively). The n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio was 15.3 (MS) and 11.22 (m. longissimus dorsi, MLD; loin) in nutria meat and 7.55 and 8.08 respectively in rabbit meat, which appeared more beneficial for the consumer. Among the most important texture parameters, hardness ranged from 66 for MS to 73 N for MLD, and overall chewiness was 23 N. The collagen content was between 0.68 and 0.72%. The results show that in comparison with rabbit meat, nutria meat has valuable properties and is recommended for the human diet.

Keywords

  • nutria
  • rabbit
  • meat
  • chemical composition
  • amino acids
  • fatty acids
  • texture parameters
Accès libre

The relationship between colour and pH in cold-stored quail breast muscle / Zależność między barwą a pH w mięśniach piersiowych przepiórek przechowywanych w warunkach chłodniczych

Publié en ligne: 24 Apr 2013
Pages: 401 - 413

Résumé

Abstract

The purpose of this study was to analyse the colour of the breast muscles of Japanese Pharaoh quail on the first day after slaughter and again after further six days of cold storage, in relation to their muscle pH. The material for the study consisted of 40 breast muscles taken from the carcasses of six-week-old Japanese Pharaoh quail. Based on pH results, the muscles were divided into three groups: I (pH = 5.51-5.70), II (pH = 5.71-5.90) and III (pH = 5.91-6.10). After this the muscles were stored for a further 6 days at 4°C. It was found that the pH of freshly dissected quail breast muscle is a good indicator of the colour stability of muscles cold-stored at 4°C for six days. The lowest degree of colour stability was observed in the pH range 5.51-5.70. In the sensory evaluation muscles displaying this degree of colour instability were considered unacceptable or barely acceptable. In contrast, muscles in the pH ranges 5.71-5.90 and 5.91-6.10 displayed a high degree of colour stability and were considered acceptable in the sensory evaluation. The colour changes that occurred during storage of the muscles were due to changes in the values of all of the colour parameters (L*, a*, b*, C* and hº); however, the greatest changes were found in the case of redness (a*) and the hue angle (hº). The changes were caused both by alterations in the amount of pigment reached by light, and by changes in the relative amounts of the chemical forms of myoglobin.

Keywords

  • colour
  • muscle
  • pH
  • quail

Planifiez votre conférence à distance avec Sciendo