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Edition Editors: Magdalena Bielska, Jerzy Pilawski, Katarzyna Skupniewicz

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Détails du magazine
Format
Magazine
eISSN
2300-8733
Première publication
25 Nov 2011
Période de publication
4 fois par an
Langues
Anglais

Chercher

Volume 14 (2014): Edition 4 (October 2014)

Détails du magazine
Format
Magazine
eISSN
2300-8733
Première publication
25 Nov 2011
Période de publication
4 fois par an
Langues
Anglais

Chercher

20 Articles

Review

Accès libre

Effect of feed structure on nutrient digestibility, growth performance, and gastrointestinal tract of pigs – A Review

Publié en ligne: 15 Nov 2014
Pages: 757 - 768

Résumé

Abstract

The objective of this manuscript has been to analyse published data on the effect of feed structure (coarse/fine, meal/pelleted) on some parameters of the nutritional value of feed, performance of pigs and their gastrointestinal tract. The papers reporting mean geometric particle size or distribution of particles on sieves for the feeds used, were mainly considered. The literature data have indicated that finely ground feeds have a higher ileal digestibility of crude protein and amino acids and higher faecal digestibility of nutrients. They also contain more digestible and metabolisable energy than coarser ground feeds. Reduction of feed particle size has a stronger impact on the gain/feed ratio increase than on the daily gain of pigs. However, coarser feed structure and roller milling are efficient in maintaining the health of stomach. Lactic bacteria, stomach pH, short chain fatty acids in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT), as well as the volume and character of mucins positively responded to coarser and to non-pelleted feeds. Less intensively ground feeds, especially before pelleting, are also better at protecting the GIT of pigs against microbial infection by Salmonella enterica. Based on the references, some recommendations of grinding intensity have also been included.

Keywords

  • particle size
  • digestibility
  • performance
  • gastrointestinal tract
  • pigs
Accès libre

Capon Production – Breeding Stock, Rooster Castration And Rearing Methods, And Meat Quality – A Review

Publié en ligne: 15 Nov 2014
Pages: 769 - 777

Résumé

Abstract

Over the last decade, there has been an increased consumer interest in niche food products with special aroma and flavour, and rich in nutrients. Poland has a large (19 lines) and valuable collection of laying hens enrolled in the genetic resources conservation programme. Research to date has shown these hen breeds to vary in phenotype, productivity, and biological quality of hatching eggs and meat. A significant problem in using hens for both egg and meat production is that the number of unwanted cockerels increases with increasing intensity of egg production. This problem can be overcome by castration of cockerels. Roosters were sterilized long before Christ, first as a religious ritual and then to increase the body weight of birds. The qualities of capon meat were noticed much later when it turned out to be more delicate, juicy and tender compared to rooster meat. The aim of this paper was to review the literature on capon production, including the effects of castration on the bird’s body and on the quality of meat obtained.

Keywords

  • capon
  • castration
  • rearing methods
  • meat quality
Accès libre

Significance of Nutrient Digestibility in Horse Nutrition – A Review

Publié en ligne: 15 Nov 2014
Pages: 779 - 797

Résumé

Abstract

The aim of the review is to present mechanisms of digestion in horses through a functional description of the digestive system’s structure with emphasis on nutrient digestibility. In the era of an increasingly intensive and specialised sport usage of horses, also the significance of balancing their dietary nutrient value in accordance with individual requirements of these animals is gaining in importance. At the same time, it is not possible to meet nutritional requirements of a sport horse without knowledge about feed utilisation. In many farm animal species, digestibility is measured postmortem or via complicated and expensive cannulation of the digestive system. In horses, these methods are not applied due to ethical approaches or other limitations (e.g. sport horses); therefore, the importance of marker-based techniques is growing, although not much data is published in the available literature (Sales, 2012). Moreover, in contrast to other non-ruminants, horses are naturally adapted to a constant intake of large quantities of roughages. However, during intensive sport training, they are primarily fed concentrated diets with high amounts of easily digestible, non-structural carbohydrates and reduced amounts of dietary fibre fractions. Therefore, the risk of metabolic diseases and behavioural disorders in the horse increases.

Keywords

  • horses
  • nutrients
  • digestion

Animal genetics and breeding

Accès libre

Analysis of Prolactin and Kappa-Casein Genes Polymorphism in Four Cattle Breeds in Turkey

Publié en ligne: 15 Nov 2014
Pages: 799 - 806

Résumé

Abstract

The objective of this study was to identify allele and genotype frequencies of CSN3 and PRL genes in four cattle breeds in Turkey. For this purpose, a total of 390 cattle of East Anatolian Red (EAR), Zavot, Brown Swiss (BS) and Simmental (SIM) breeds were genotyped by PCR-RFLP method. A 443 bp fragment of CSN3 and a 156 bp fragment of PRL were amplified and digested with HindIII and RsaI restriction enzymes, respectively. For CSN3 and PRL genes, two types of alleles (A and B) and three types of genotypes (AA, BB, and AB) were observed. The highest frequencies for CSN3-A and CSN3-B alleles were estimated for the EAR breed (0.743) and for the BS breed (0.556), respectively. The highest frequency for PRL-A and PRL-B alleles was estimated for the SIM breed (0.801) and for the BS breed (0.315), respectively. The Chi-square test among the investigated cattle breeds showed that only the Zavot breed was in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) for both loci.

Keywords

  • gene polymorphism
  • kappa-casein
  • local cattle breed
  • prolactin
Accès libre

Genetic Differentiation of Common Fox Vulpes Vulpes (Linnaeus, 1758) on the Basis of the Insulin-Like Growth Factor 1 (Igf1), Myosin-Xv (Myo15a) and Paired Box Homeotic 3 (Pax3) Genes Fragments Polymorphism

Publié en ligne: 15 Nov 2014
Pages: 807 - 819

Résumé

Abstract

Single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) was analysed for selected fragments of three genes - insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1), myosin-XV (MYO15A) and paired box homeotic gene 3 (PAX3) - in farm and wild red foxes from two continents. The study was undertaken in order to verify whether the SNP characteristics of these genes enable farm-bred foxes to be distinguished from free-living foxes. The greatest number of changes were detected in the IGF1 gene. For each of the genes investigated specific SNP profiles characteristic only for farm foxes and only for wild foxes were noted. At the same time, specific SNP profiles were noted for wild foxes from North America and from Europe. The frequency of SNP (bases per SNP) in the gene fragments examined was 22 bp for IGF1, 34 bp for PAX3 and 56 bp for MYO15A. Single-nucleotide polymorphism is a very good molecular marker enabling characterization of nucleotide variation in the genes investigated between wild and farm individuals

Mots clés

  • SNP
  • IGF1
  • MYO15A
  • PAX3
  • Vulpes vulpes
Accès libre

Impact of Prl and Fst Loci Polymorphism on Sexual Activity of Puławska Gilts* *

Publié en ligne: 15 Nov 2014
Pages: 821 - 830

Résumé

Abstract

PRL (prolactin) and FST (follistatin) genes were investigated and analysed with regard to values of selected indices determining the reproductive activity of gilts in heat. The performed analyses comprised gilts of Puławska breed kept within the framework of the Genetic Resources Protection Programme of Farm Animals. Ninety-six gilts were phenotyped (one set for FST and one set for PRL). Each genotype (PRL, FST) group was represented by an equinumerous population of 32 gilts. The analysis took into consideration the second and third spontaneous oestrus during which the following parameters were assessed: age, body weight, duration of the tolerance reflex in the phase of true oestrus and intensity of reproductive responses during the oestrus period. The sexual behaviour was estimated with the assistance of: the manual method, mounting with a simultaneous pressure with knees of the lumbosacral area, and using a teaser boar in accordance with a 3-point score. The performed experiments revealed a significant impact of polymorphism in the FST locus on oestrous activity. On the other hand, the PRL gene was found to affect feeding behaviour, motor activity (including oestrous) and contributed to lack of motor activity treated as rest or sleep.

Keywords

  • polymorphism
  • PRL
  • FST
  • sexual behaviour
  • Puławska breed
Accès libre

Genetic Parameters of Conformation Traits in Young Polish Holstein-Friesian Bulls

Publié en ligne: 15 Nov 2014
Pages: 831 - 840

Résumé

Abstract

The objective of this study was to estimate the genetic parameters of conformation traits in Polish Holstein-Friesian bulls evaluated for registration in the herd book and for entry into progeny testing. Data were 8 linearly scored (1-9 scale) and 6 composite (scored from 50 to 100) conformation traits of 2,738 young bulls born between 2001 and 2011. The multiple-trait REML method was applied for (co)variance component estimation. The linear model included fixed linear regressions on age at evaluation (from 10 to 23 months), fixed effects of year of birth, fixed effects of herd-classifier, and random animal effect. Heritability estimates for all analysed traits were within the range of 0.04-0.37. Among the 6 composite type traits, heritability was highest for size and for overall conformation score. The lowest heritability was for feet and legs. Among the linearly scored traits, heritability was the lowest for rear legs - side view and foot angle, and the highest for rump angle and muscularity of front end. Composite traits showed the highest genetic correlations with muscularity and final score playing the dominant role. Genetic correlations among linear traits were low and moderate (0.02-0.53). The relatively low genetic and phenotypic correlations indicated that no conformation trait of bulls can be improved by indirect selection alone. More research is needed to establish relationship between bull conformation traits and the conformation of their progeny.

Keywords

  • conformation traits
  • young bulls
  • genetic parameters
Accès libre

Genetic Variation of Two Horse Breeds in Cpg Islands of Oas1 Locus

Publié en ligne: 15 Nov 2014
Pages: 841 - 850

Résumé

Abstract

Allelic and haplotypic variations at 27 SNP sites identified in four CpG islands of OAS1 were described in a group of Anglo-Arabian and Hucul horses. Variation in the type of less frequent alleles was the source of variability among breeds. A number of putative LD blocks were identified which could be used to study changes in the genetic structure between generations of both breeds concerning susceptibility to flaviviral infections. Some of the identified SNPs may have an impact on the transcriptional activity of OAS1 or could lead to amino acid substitution influencing proper function of OAS1 enzyme. In the light of recent studies, the described genetic variability of investigated CpG islands might be important in view of the effectiveness of viral incorporation into the host genome.

Mots clés

  • OAS1
  • genetic variation
  • CpG islands
  • horses

The biology, physiology, reproduction, and health

Accès libre

Effect of Single and Multiple Pregnancies and Calf Sex on Parturition Process and Perinatal Mortality

Publié en ligne: 15 Nov 2014
Pages: 851 - 858

Résumé

Keywords

  • cattle
  • calf
  • twin
  • perinatal mortality
Accès libre

Characteristics of Staphylococcus Xylosus Isolated from Subclinical Mastitis in Cows

Publié en ligne: 15 Nov 2014
Pages: 859 - 867

Résumé

Abstract

The aim of the present study was to determine virulence factors and antibiotic susceptibility of Staphylococcus xylosus isolated from subclinical mastitis in cows. The material consisted of 42 isolates of S. xylosus obtained from 276 samples of milk collected from cows with subclinical mastitis. The isolates were obtained from the udder secretions of 33 cows from farms in the Lublin region (Poland). S. xylosus was found in 15.2% of tested milk samples. The study did not reveal any macroscopic changes in the milk or symptoms in the cow’s body. The number of somatic cells in milk samples ranged from 245,000 to 416,000/ml of milk (on average 268,000/ml of milk). The ability to produce slime was observed in 42.9% of S. xylosus isolates. None of the tested isolates demonstrated the ability to produce protease or cause haemolysis. Five isolates of S. xylosus (11.9%) were classified to the methicillin-resistant group. The mecA gene was not found in any of these isolates. The enzyme β-lactamase was detected in 28.6% of S. xylosus isolates. The highest efficacy against S. xylosus was demonstrated for cephalosporin antibiotics: cefacetrile and cefoperazone (80.1% and 76.2% of susceptible isolates of S. xylosus, respectively). A significant quantity of isolates was resistant to streptomycin, linkomycin, penicillin and neomycin (approximately 10% of susceptible isolates of S. xylosus).

Keywords

  • cows
  • subclinical mastitis
  • S. xylosus
Accès libre

Influence of Increased Dietary Selenium on Glutathione Peroxidase Activity and Glutathione Concentration in Erythrocytes of Lactating Sows

Publié en ligne: 15 Nov 2014
Pages: 869 - 882

Résumé

Abstract

We studied the influence of different selenium (Se) levels on some parameters of the antioxidant potential of lactating sows. The experiment involved 15 sows of the Large White breed divided into 3 equal groups. The addition of Se (from Se-enriched yeast) amounted to 0.0, 0.25 and 0.50 mg per kg of diet in the control, Se1 and Se2 groups, respectively. Erythrocyte Se concentration, glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity and reduced/oxygenated glutathione ratio were measured as some of the indicators of the sow’s antioxidant status. Supplementation of Se at 0.25 mg/kg of diet increased Se concentration (by 50.0%; P<0.01), GPx activity (by 17.0%: P<0.05) and reduced/ oxygenated glutathione ratio (by 29.7%; P<0.05). Addition of Se at 0.50 mg/kg of diet increased Se concentration (by 63.6%; P<0.01), GPx activity (by 34.7%; P<0.01) and reduced/oxygenated glutathione ratio (by 64.0%; P<0.01). A significant relationship (P<0.01) was found between the Se concentrations and activity of GPx in erythrocytes from sows in the Se1 and Se2 groups (r=0.76 and 0.77, respectively). Percentage of piglets weaned/born was higher (P>0.05) in the Se2 than in the Se1 and control groups. In summary, addition of 0.25 or 0.50 mg Se/kg of diet can improve antioxidant status of lactating sows, but addition of 0.25 mg Se/kg may be also sufficient.

Keywords

  • selenium
  • antioxidant
  • erythrocytes
  • sows
  • piglets

Animal nutrition and feedstuffs

Accès libre

The Effects of Dietary Cinnamon (Cinnamomum Zeylanicum) Oil Supplementation on Broiler Feeding Behaviour, Growth Performance, Carcass Traits and Meat Quality Characteristics

Publié en ligne: 15 Nov 2014
Pages: 883 - 895

Résumé

Abstract

The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of dietary supplementation with cinnamon oil on growth performance, behaviour, carcass traits and meat quality of broilers. One hundred and thirty-five Cobb 700 day-old broiler chickens were randomly assigned into three equal treatment groups with three replicates (pens) of fifteen chickens each. The dietary treatments consisted of the basal diet as control (C) and basal diet supplemented with 0.5 (C1) or 1.0 (C2) ml of cinnamon oil per kg of feed. On day 49, 5 birds from each pen (15 per treatment) were slaughtered and the pectoralis major muscle samples were collected for meat quality evaluation. No effect of cinnamon oil supplementation on the probability of a bird standing at the feeder or the drinker was observed until the age of 17 days. Moreover, cinnamon oil supplementation did not affect body weight, feed intake and feed conversion ratio. No significant differences were also found in internal organs’ weights and carcass characteristics among the treatments, although cold carcass weight was the lightest in the C1 group. At the same time, colour parameters, pH24, cooking loss, intramuscular fat and shear values were not affected by diets. The extent of lipid oxidation in raw pectoralis major muscle stored at 4ºC for up to 9 days or at -20ºC for up to 6 months was also not influenced by the dietary treatment. The present findings suggest that cinnamon oil at the selected concentrations may not have the potential to improve broiler growth performance, carcass and meat quality characteristics.

Mots clés

  • cinnamon
  • broiler
  • performance
  • meat quality
  • behaviour
Accès libre

Growth Performance and Intestinal Microflora Population of Broilers Fed Aged Brown Rice

Publié en ligne: 15 Nov 2014
Pages: 897 - 909

Résumé

Abstract

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the growth performance and intestinal microflora population of broilers fed diets with aged brown rice (ABR) that had been stored for 3 years. The ABR was the material chosen to analyse the grain quality, which included the physical properties as well as nutrient analysis to evaluate its applicability in broiler diet. The germination rate, pH value, whiteness value of grains and fatty acid content of aged rice are significantly reduced during storage (P<0.05), while the nutritional value and content of essential amino acids do not differ from those of fresh brown rice (P>0.05). A total of five hundred 1-day-old broilers (Ross 308) were evenly divided by gender and randomly allocated into 5 groups (with 4 replicates of 25 birds), including: 1) control (corn-soybean meal), 2) 25% of corn replaced with 25% of ABR (ABR 25), 3) 50% of corn replaced with 50% of ABR (ABR 50), 4) 75% of corn replaced with 75% of ABR (ABR 75), 5) 100% of ABR replaced with yellow corn (ABR 100), respectively, in order to evaluate growth performance as well as intestinal microflora population of broilers fed ABR. The diets were formulated to contain similar levels of the main nutrient requirements of broilers. The results indicated that the replacement of ABR for corn in feed had no significant impact on the growth traits of broilers (P>0.05). The pH value of ileal digesta decreased as the replacement of ABR increased at the age of 21 days (P<0.05). The volatile fatty acids of ileal digesta of the ABR 75 and ABR 100 groups were significantly lower than those of the control group at the age of 21 days (P<0.05), but not caecum. There was no difference with lactic acid bacteria and coliform counts in ileum and caecum, respectively, of broilers among the groups during the entire feeding period (P>0.05). In conclusion, this study found that ABR may replace 100% of yellow corn and did not influence growth performance of broilers, thus providing an alternative for the use of stored rice in broiler diets.

Keywords

  • aged brown rice
  • grain quality
  • performance
  • microflora
  • broilers
Accès libre

The Effect òf Inulin Extraction Method or Powder From Inulin-Producing Plants in Fattener Diets on Performance, Carcass Traits and Meat Quality

Publié en ligne: 15 Nov 2014
Pages: 911 - 920

Résumé

Abstract

Inulin or plant materials containing this polysaccharide are deemed interesting additives to feed mixtures for pigs. The experiment was conducted with 120 weaners, hybrids of (PLW × PL) × Duroc breeds with the initial body weight of 30.0±0.5 kg, which were divided into 5 feeding groups. Inulin was added to feed mixtures in the following forms: 2% inulin obtained from chicory roots with two extraction methods: water (group II) and water-alcohol (group III), and 4% powder from Jerusalem artichoke tubers (group IV) or from chicory roots (group V). Body weight of the animals and feed intake were controlled at two-week intervals, and carcasses were analysed postslaughter. Determinations were carried out for physicochemical properties of longissimus dorsi muscle of fatteners. Additional measurements were made for pH value, electrical conductivity and colour (CIE L*a*b* system) of fresh and thermally-treated meat samples. The highest body weight gains were recorded in group IV (powder from Jerusalem artichoke tubers) and group II (water additive of inulin). Dietary inclusion of both types of powders contributed to decreased thickness of backfat. The study showed also the effect of adding inulin or inulin-producing materials on the quality of raw and cooked pork. Significant differences between the control and experimental groups were demonstrated for hardness, chewiness and gumminess of cooked meat. The highest colour saturation (L* and b*) and hue value were noted in raw loin of the fatteners administered feed mixtures with inulin from water-alcohol extraction. Inclusion of 2% inulin preparation with differing degrees of polymerization (water or water-alcohol extraction) or inulin-producing materials (topinambur or chicory powder) in fattener diets is likely to improve animal performance, but the application of Jerusalem artichoke appears to be more justified.

Keywords

  • inulin
  • pig
  • performance
  • carcass
  • meat quality
Accès libre

Legume Seeds and Rapeseed Press Cake as Replacers of Soybean Meal in Feed for Fattening Pigs

Publié en ligne: 15 Nov 2014
Pages: 921 - 934

Résumé

Abstract

The possibility of replacing soybean meal with a mixture of legume seeds and rapeseed press cake (RPC) was evaluated on 60 pigs weighing about 30 kg at the beginning of the experiment. Pigs were allocated to 5 experimental groups. Group I (control) received standard feed mixture containing soybean meal as a main protein source. Next groups received rapeseed press cake (RPC) mixed with fodder pea (Pisum sativum var. Ramrod) - group II, field bean (Vicia faba var. Kasztelan) - group III, blue lupin (Lupinus angustifolius var. Regent) - group IV or yellow lupin (Lupinus luteus var. Mister) - group V. Soybean protein was replaced by experimental protein sources at about 30% in grower (17% legumes, 13% rapeseed press cake) and at 100% in finisher diets (experimental proteins in equal ratio accounted for about 55% of mixture protein). Limited feeding was used, water was available ad libitum. Half the animals in each group received mixtures supplemented with fibrolytic enzymes Ronozyme VP and Ronozyme WX. Apparent digestibility of feed nutrients was estimated using the balance method on 30 fatteners not used in the fattening experiment, weighing about 40 kg for grower and 70 kg for finisher diets. Gross composition of legume seeds and RPC, amino acid composition of their protein, glucosinolate content in RPC and tannin content in faba bean and alkaloids in lupins were analysed. Carcass traits and meat quality were also estimated. Legume protein content ranged from 19.6% (pea) to 39.8% (yellow lupin). RPC protein contained more sulphur amino acids than legume protein. There was no significant difference in protein and fat digestibility. Body weight gains of fatteners fed with blue lupin were comparable to controls but significantly lower than those of the remaining groups. Supplemental enzymes improved body weight gains of fatteners receiving field bean. There was no significant difference in carcass traits and meat quality except for sensory analysis. It is concluded that the mixture of RPC and legume seeds can replace soybean meal in fattener feed.

Keywords

  • legume seeds
  • rapeseed press cake
  • pig fattening
  • feed enzymes
Accès libre

Blood Immunological and Biochemical Indicators in Turkey Hens Fed Diets With a Different Content of the Yeast Yarrowia Lipolytica

Publié en ligne: 15 Nov 2014
Pages: 935 - 946

Résumé

Abstract

The aim of this study was to determine immunological and biochemical blood indicators of turkey hens administered feed mixtures with 3 or 6% of Yarrowia lipolytica strain yeast as a dietary nutrient. The experiment was carried out on 240 turkey hens, aged from 1 to 16 weeks. The hens were randomly assigned to 3 experimental groups of 80 birds. Group I served as a control (K) and did not receive any experimental compounds. The turkey hens from experimental groups (YL3, YL6) were administered dried Yarrowia lipolytica yeast in two doses: 3% (YL3) and 6% (YL6) in feed mixtures. The study showed that the addition of Yarrowia lipolytica yeast in a dose of 3% but mainly in a dose of 6% stimulated the body’s immune defence mechanisms, which was evidenced by the increase in plasma lysozyme, % KF, IF, and reduction of monocyte ratio H/L in turkey hens. The advantage of using Yarrowia lipolytica in the nutrition of turkey hens was also a decrease in the content of blood indicators of lipid peroxidation such as CHOL, TG and LDL-cholesterol fraction, and an increase in the percentage of HDL-cholesterol fraction. The use of yeast component in the feeding of turkey hens affected the health status of birds and contributed to proper (not deviating from the reference values) biochemical indicators of metabolism.

Keywords:

  • Yarrowia lipolytica
  • yeast
  • turkey hens
  • blood
  • immunological indices

Behavior, well-being, production technology, and environment

Accès libre

Effect of Different Environmental Conditions on Some Haematological Parameters in Cow

Publié en ligne: 15 Nov 2014
Pages: 947 - 954

Résumé

Abstract

The aim of this study was to establish physiological responses of Piemontese cows to different environmental conditions (ambient temperature, relative humidity and temperature-humidity index). To this end, 43 clinically healthy Piemontese cows aged 2-12 years were used to evaluate the effect of environmental conditions on haematological parameters. For each period, ambient temperature and relative humidity were recorded by means of a data logger and the temperature-humidity index (THI) was calculated as indicator of thermal comfort for cattle. Blood samples were collected at 4 time points under different environmental conditions (T1, T2, T3 and T4) and analysed for haematological parameters. One way repeated measure analysis of variance showed a statistically significant effect of time (P<0.0001) on RBC, Hb, Hct, MCV, MCH, MCHC, Plt, WBC, neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes and eosinophils. The majority of haematological values obtained in the present study, even though within the physiological range for cattle, showed that variations in haematological parameters are related to changes in ambient temperature, relative humidity and temperature-humidity index. These results provide insight into the physiological responses of Piemontese cows to different environmental conditions, allowing to better evaluate its ability to adapt and cope with environmental stress.

Keywords

  • cow
  • haematological parameters
  • ambient temperature
  • relative humidity
  • temperature- humidity index

Quality and safety of animal origin products

Accès libre

Histological Profile of the Longissimus Dorsi Muscle in Polish Large White and Polish Landrace Pigs and its Effect on Loin Parameters and Intramuscular Fat Content*

Publié en ligne: 15 Nov 2014
Pages: 955 - 966

Résumé

Abstract

The objective of this study was to analyse differences in individual fibre types in the histological profile of the longissimus dorsi muscle and their effect on pork carcass lean content and level of intramuscular fat (IMF) content, which determines palatability of meat and meat products. Analysis showed that the amount of type IIB fibres had a statistically significant (P<0.05) effect on the IMF content of the longissimus dorsi muscle. Animals with more than 70% of type IIB fibres in this muscle were also characterized by larger loin eye area (P<0.01) and loin eye height (P<0.05). Analogous relationships were noted when the analysed group of animals was divided according to the diameter of type IIA fibres. IMF was negatively correlated to the percentage of type IIB fibres (rP= -0.162). Relationships with the other two fibre types were positive (IIA - rP= 0.097; I - rP= 0.187). It was found that increased percentage of type IIB fibres resulted in a slightly greater loin weight (rP= 0.176), higher loin eye height (rP= 0.136), larger loin eye area (rP= 0.265) and higher carcass lean content (rP= 0.204). Likewise, the increase in the number of type IIA and type I fibres decreased these parameters.

Keywords

  • pigs
  • histological profile
  • intramuscular fat
Accès libre

Effect of Piglet Birth Weight on Selected Characteristics of Pork

Publié en ligne: 15 Nov 2014
Pages: 967 - 975

Résumé

Abstract

The objective of the study was to determine how different birth weights of piglets influence some chemical and physical characteristics of pig meat. Piglets were grouped according to birth weight: ≤1.30 kg (group I), 1.31-1.70 kg (group II), ≥1.71 kg (group III). Animals were reared and fattened under standardized housing and feeding conditions. Tests were conducted with 60 samples of meat (20 per group) collected from the right side of the carcasses (M. longissimus lumborum) of threebreed crosses of (Polish Landrace × Polish Large White) × Duroc (barrows to gilts, 1:1), which were slaughtered at about 180 days of age. Determinations were made of basic chemical composition, colour of meat, drip loss, shear force value, and fatty acid profile. It was found that the birth weight of the piglets affects meat colour (redness), crude fat content and the proportion of some fatty acids (C16:1, C20:1 n-9, C20:2 n-6, C20:5 n-3).

Keywords

  • piglets
  • body weight
  • fatteners
  • meat quality
Accès libre

Evaluation of the Technological Suitability of Beef Muscles: M. Semitendinosus, M. Semimembranosus, Mm. Psoas Major And Minor as Entire Primal Cuts in the Production Of Raw Fermented Meats With Regard to the Raw Pork Products

Publié en ligne: 15 Nov 2014
Pages: 977 - 987

Résumé

Abstract

The aim of the study was to evaluate the technological suitability of selected beef muscles: m. semitendinosus (BST), m. semimembranosus (BSM), mm. psoas major and minor (BPM) as entire primal cuts in the production of raw fermented meats, compared to the raw pork rump (RSR) and loin (RSL), widely known in the Podlasie region. The 4-week maturation was conducted by the same traditional method in a genuine ripening room, and the texture, colour and sensory parameters of the pork and beef products were compared. The lowest water activity (0.89 and 0.83), pH (5.16 and 4.75) as well as the highest WB shear force (8.50 and 19.96 kG/cm2) and TPA hardness (52.12 and 199.24 N) were found in the ready-to-eat RSL and BST, respectively. The RSR and BPM were characterized by the lowest values of WB shear force (7.63 and 9.49 kG/cm2), TPA hardness (48.17 and 105.18 N) and TPA chewiness (8.39 and 32.68 N), as well as the highest grades for overall impression (4.50 pts), cross-section colour (4.60 pts), structure (4.60 pts), tenderness (4.30 and 4.70 pts) and flavour desirability (4.60 pts) in the sensory evaluation while the RSL and BPM were the juiciest (4.60 and 4.70 pts). The a* values and chroma showed an increase in redness during the first 2 weeks of beef aging and during the entire aging period in the pork products. The most significant colour differences were found for BSM, BST and BPM products (ΔEL*a*b*=6.48, 5.27 and 4.24, respectively).

Keywords

  • beef
  • pork
  • ripening
  • texture
  • colour
  • sensory evaluation
20 Articles

Review

Accès libre

Effect of feed structure on nutrient digestibility, growth performance, and gastrointestinal tract of pigs – A Review

Publié en ligne: 15 Nov 2014
Pages: 757 - 768

Résumé

Abstract

The objective of this manuscript has been to analyse published data on the effect of feed structure (coarse/fine, meal/pelleted) on some parameters of the nutritional value of feed, performance of pigs and their gastrointestinal tract. The papers reporting mean geometric particle size or distribution of particles on sieves for the feeds used, were mainly considered. The literature data have indicated that finely ground feeds have a higher ileal digestibility of crude protein and amino acids and higher faecal digestibility of nutrients. They also contain more digestible and metabolisable energy than coarser ground feeds. Reduction of feed particle size has a stronger impact on the gain/feed ratio increase than on the daily gain of pigs. However, coarser feed structure and roller milling are efficient in maintaining the health of stomach. Lactic bacteria, stomach pH, short chain fatty acids in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT), as well as the volume and character of mucins positively responded to coarser and to non-pelleted feeds. Less intensively ground feeds, especially before pelleting, are also better at protecting the GIT of pigs against microbial infection by Salmonella enterica. Based on the references, some recommendations of grinding intensity have also been included.

Keywords

  • particle size
  • digestibility
  • performance
  • gastrointestinal tract
  • pigs
Accès libre

Capon Production – Breeding Stock, Rooster Castration And Rearing Methods, And Meat Quality – A Review

Publié en ligne: 15 Nov 2014
Pages: 769 - 777

Résumé

Abstract

Over the last decade, there has been an increased consumer interest in niche food products with special aroma and flavour, and rich in nutrients. Poland has a large (19 lines) and valuable collection of laying hens enrolled in the genetic resources conservation programme. Research to date has shown these hen breeds to vary in phenotype, productivity, and biological quality of hatching eggs and meat. A significant problem in using hens for both egg and meat production is that the number of unwanted cockerels increases with increasing intensity of egg production. This problem can be overcome by castration of cockerels. Roosters were sterilized long before Christ, first as a religious ritual and then to increase the body weight of birds. The qualities of capon meat were noticed much later when it turned out to be more delicate, juicy and tender compared to rooster meat. The aim of this paper was to review the literature on capon production, including the effects of castration on the bird’s body and on the quality of meat obtained.

Keywords

  • capon
  • castration
  • rearing methods
  • meat quality
Accès libre

Significance of Nutrient Digestibility in Horse Nutrition – A Review

Publié en ligne: 15 Nov 2014
Pages: 779 - 797

Résumé

Abstract

The aim of the review is to present mechanisms of digestion in horses through a functional description of the digestive system’s structure with emphasis on nutrient digestibility. In the era of an increasingly intensive and specialised sport usage of horses, also the significance of balancing their dietary nutrient value in accordance with individual requirements of these animals is gaining in importance. At the same time, it is not possible to meet nutritional requirements of a sport horse without knowledge about feed utilisation. In many farm animal species, digestibility is measured postmortem or via complicated and expensive cannulation of the digestive system. In horses, these methods are not applied due to ethical approaches or other limitations (e.g. sport horses); therefore, the importance of marker-based techniques is growing, although not much data is published in the available literature (Sales, 2012). Moreover, in contrast to other non-ruminants, horses are naturally adapted to a constant intake of large quantities of roughages. However, during intensive sport training, they are primarily fed concentrated diets with high amounts of easily digestible, non-structural carbohydrates and reduced amounts of dietary fibre fractions. Therefore, the risk of metabolic diseases and behavioural disorders in the horse increases.

Keywords

  • horses
  • nutrients
  • digestion

Animal genetics and breeding

Accès libre

Analysis of Prolactin and Kappa-Casein Genes Polymorphism in Four Cattle Breeds in Turkey

Publié en ligne: 15 Nov 2014
Pages: 799 - 806

Résumé

Abstract

The objective of this study was to identify allele and genotype frequencies of CSN3 and PRL genes in four cattle breeds in Turkey. For this purpose, a total of 390 cattle of East Anatolian Red (EAR), Zavot, Brown Swiss (BS) and Simmental (SIM) breeds were genotyped by PCR-RFLP method. A 443 bp fragment of CSN3 and a 156 bp fragment of PRL were amplified and digested with HindIII and RsaI restriction enzymes, respectively. For CSN3 and PRL genes, two types of alleles (A and B) and three types of genotypes (AA, BB, and AB) were observed. The highest frequencies for CSN3-A and CSN3-B alleles were estimated for the EAR breed (0.743) and for the BS breed (0.556), respectively. The highest frequency for PRL-A and PRL-B alleles was estimated for the SIM breed (0.801) and for the BS breed (0.315), respectively. The Chi-square test among the investigated cattle breeds showed that only the Zavot breed was in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) for both loci.

Keywords

  • gene polymorphism
  • kappa-casein
  • local cattle breed
  • prolactin
Accès libre

Genetic Differentiation of Common Fox Vulpes Vulpes (Linnaeus, 1758) on the Basis of the Insulin-Like Growth Factor 1 (Igf1), Myosin-Xv (Myo15a) and Paired Box Homeotic 3 (Pax3) Genes Fragments Polymorphism

Publié en ligne: 15 Nov 2014
Pages: 807 - 819

Résumé

Abstract

Single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) was analysed for selected fragments of three genes - insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1), myosin-XV (MYO15A) and paired box homeotic gene 3 (PAX3) - in farm and wild red foxes from two continents. The study was undertaken in order to verify whether the SNP characteristics of these genes enable farm-bred foxes to be distinguished from free-living foxes. The greatest number of changes were detected in the IGF1 gene. For each of the genes investigated specific SNP profiles characteristic only for farm foxes and only for wild foxes were noted. At the same time, specific SNP profiles were noted for wild foxes from North America and from Europe. The frequency of SNP (bases per SNP) in the gene fragments examined was 22 bp for IGF1, 34 bp for PAX3 and 56 bp for MYO15A. Single-nucleotide polymorphism is a very good molecular marker enabling characterization of nucleotide variation in the genes investigated between wild and farm individuals

Mots clés

  • SNP
  • IGF1
  • MYO15A
  • PAX3
  • Vulpes vulpes
Accès libre

Impact of Prl and Fst Loci Polymorphism on Sexual Activity of Puławska Gilts* *

Publié en ligne: 15 Nov 2014
Pages: 821 - 830

Résumé

Abstract

PRL (prolactin) and FST (follistatin) genes were investigated and analysed with regard to values of selected indices determining the reproductive activity of gilts in heat. The performed analyses comprised gilts of Puławska breed kept within the framework of the Genetic Resources Protection Programme of Farm Animals. Ninety-six gilts were phenotyped (one set for FST and one set for PRL). Each genotype (PRL, FST) group was represented by an equinumerous population of 32 gilts. The analysis took into consideration the second and third spontaneous oestrus during which the following parameters were assessed: age, body weight, duration of the tolerance reflex in the phase of true oestrus and intensity of reproductive responses during the oestrus period. The sexual behaviour was estimated with the assistance of: the manual method, mounting with a simultaneous pressure with knees of the lumbosacral area, and using a teaser boar in accordance with a 3-point score. The performed experiments revealed a significant impact of polymorphism in the FST locus on oestrous activity. On the other hand, the PRL gene was found to affect feeding behaviour, motor activity (including oestrous) and contributed to lack of motor activity treated as rest or sleep.

Keywords

  • polymorphism
  • PRL
  • FST
  • sexual behaviour
  • Puławska breed
Accès libre

Genetic Parameters of Conformation Traits in Young Polish Holstein-Friesian Bulls

Publié en ligne: 15 Nov 2014
Pages: 831 - 840

Résumé

Abstract

The objective of this study was to estimate the genetic parameters of conformation traits in Polish Holstein-Friesian bulls evaluated for registration in the herd book and for entry into progeny testing. Data were 8 linearly scored (1-9 scale) and 6 composite (scored from 50 to 100) conformation traits of 2,738 young bulls born between 2001 and 2011. The multiple-trait REML method was applied for (co)variance component estimation. The linear model included fixed linear regressions on age at evaluation (from 10 to 23 months), fixed effects of year of birth, fixed effects of herd-classifier, and random animal effect. Heritability estimates for all analysed traits were within the range of 0.04-0.37. Among the 6 composite type traits, heritability was highest for size and for overall conformation score. The lowest heritability was for feet and legs. Among the linearly scored traits, heritability was the lowest for rear legs - side view and foot angle, and the highest for rump angle and muscularity of front end. Composite traits showed the highest genetic correlations with muscularity and final score playing the dominant role. Genetic correlations among linear traits were low and moderate (0.02-0.53). The relatively low genetic and phenotypic correlations indicated that no conformation trait of bulls can be improved by indirect selection alone. More research is needed to establish relationship between bull conformation traits and the conformation of their progeny.

Keywords

  • conformation traits
  • young bulls
  • genetic parameters
Accès libre

Genetic Variation of Two Horse Breeds in Cpg Islands of Oas1 Locus

Publié en ligne: 15 Nov 2014
Pages: 841 - 850

Résumé

Abstract

Allelic and haplotypic variations at 27 SNP sites identified in four CpG islands of OAS1 were described in a group of Anglo-Arabian and Hucul horses. Variation in the type of less frequent alleles was the source of variability among breeds. A number of putative LD blocks were identified which could be used to study changes in the genetic structure between generations of both breeds concerning susceptibility to flaviviral infections. Some of the identified SNPs may have an impact on the transcriptional activity of OAS1 or could lead to amino acid substitution influencing proper function of OAS1 enzyme. In the light of recent studies, the described genetic variability of investigated CpG islands might be important in view of the effectiveness of viral incorporation into the host genome.

Mots clés

  • OAS1
  • genetic variation
  • CpG islands
  • horses

The biology, physiology, reproduction, and health

Accès libre

Effect of Single and Multiple Pregnancies and Calf Sex on Parturition Process and Perinatal Mortality

Publié en ligne: 15 Nov 2014
Pages: 851 - 858

Résumé

Keywords

  • cattle
  • calf
  • twin
  • perinatal mortality
Accès libre

Characteristics of Staphylococcus Xylosus Isolated from Subclinical Mastitis in Cows

Publié en ligne: 15 Nov 2014
Pages: 859 - 867

Résumé

Abstract

The aim of the present study was to determine virulence factors and antibiotic susceptibility of Staphylococcus xylosus isolated from subclinical mastitis in cows. The material consisted of 42 isolates of S. xylosus obtained from 276 samples of milk collected from cows with subclinical mastitis. The isolates were obtained from the udder secretions of 33 cows from farms in the Lublin region (Poland). S. xylosus was found in 15.2% of tested milk samples. The study did not reveal any macroscopic changes in the milk or symptoms in the cow’s body. The number of somatic cells in milk samples ranged from 245,000 to 416,000/ml of milk (on average 268,000/ml of milk). The ability to produce slime was observed in 42.9% of S. xylosus isolates. None of the tested isolates demonstrated the ability to produce protease or cause haemolysis. Five isolates of S. xylosus (11.9%) were classified to the methicillin-resistant group. The mecA gene was not found in any of these isolates. The enzyme β-lactamase was detected in 28.6% of S. xylosus isolates. The highest efficacy against S. xylosus was demonstrated for cephalosporin antibiotics: cefacetrile and cefoperazone (80.1% and 76.2% of susceptible isolates of S. xylosus, respectively). A significant quantity of isolates was resistant to streptomycin, linkomycin, penicillin and neomycin (approximately 10% of susceptible isolates of S. xylosus).

Keywords

  • cows
  • subclinical mastitis
  • S. xylosus
Accès libre

Influence of Increased Dietary Selenium on Glutathione Peroxidase Activity and Glutathione Concentration in Erythrocytes of Lactating Sows

Publié en ligne: 15 Nov 2014
Pages: 869 - 882

Résumé

Abstract

We studied the influence of different selenium (Se) levels on some parameters of the antioxidant potential of lactating sows. The experiment involved 15 sows of the Large White breed divided into 3 equal groups. The addition of Se (from Se-enriched yeast) amounted to 0.0, 0.25 and 0.50 mg per kg of diet in the control, Se1 and Se2 groups, respectively. Erythrocyte Se concentration, glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity and reduced/oxygenated glutathione ratio were measured as some of the indicators of the sow’s antioxidant status. Supplementation of Se at 0.25 mg/kg of diet increased Se concentration (by 50.0%; P<0.01), GPx activity (by 17.0%: P<0.05) and reduced/ oxygenated glutathione ratio (by 29.7%; P<0.05). Addition of Se at 0.50 mg/kg of diet increased Se concentration (by 63.6%; P<0.01), GPx activity (by 34.7%; P<0.01) and reduced/oxygenated glutathione ratio (by 64.0%; P<0.01). A significant relationship (P<0.01) was found between the Se concentrations and activity of GPx in erythrocytes from sows in the Se1 and Se2 groups (r=0.76 and 0.77, respectively). Percentage of piglets weaned/born was higher (P>0.05) in the Se2 than in the Se1 and control groups. In summary, addition of 0.25 or 0.50 mg Se/kg of diet can improve antioxidant status of lactating sows, but addition of 0.25 mg Se/kg may be also sufficient.

Keywords

  • selenium
  • antioxidant
  • erythrocytes
  • sows
  • piglets

Animal nutrition and feedstuffs

Accès libre

The Effects of Dietary Cinnamon (Cinnamomum Zeylanicum) Oil Supplementation on Broiler Feeding Behaviour, Growth Performance, Carcass Traits and Meat Quality Characteristics

Publié en ligne: 15 Nov 2014
Pages: 883 - 895

Résumé

Abstract

The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of dietary supplementation with cinnamon oil on growth performance, behaviour, carcass traits and meat quality of broilers. One hundred and thirty-five Cobb 700 day-old broiler chickens were randomly assigned into three equal treatment groups with three replicates (pens) of fifteen chickens each. The dietary treatments consisted of the basal diet as control (C) and basal diet supplemented with 0.5 (C1) or 1.0 (C2) ml of cinnamon oil per kg of feed. On day 49, 5 birds from each pen (15 per treatment) were slaughtered and the pectoralis major muscle samples were collected for meat quality evaluation. No effect of cinnamon oil supplementation on the probability of a bird standing at the feeder or the drinker was observed until the age of 17 days. Moreover, cinnamon oil supplementation did not affect body weight, feed intake and feed conversion ratio. No significant differences were also found in internal organs’ weights and carcass characteristics among the treatments, although cold carcass weight was the lightest in the C1 group. At the same time, colour parameters, pH24, cooking loss, intramuscular fat and shear values were not affected by diets. The extent of lipid oxidation in raw pectoralis major muscle stored at 4ºC for up to 9 days or at -20ºC for up to 6 months was also not influenced by the dietary treatment. The present findings suggest that cinnamon oil at the selected concentrations may not have the potential to improve broiler growth performance, carcass and meat quality characteristics.

Mots clés

  • cinnamon
  • broiler
  • performance
  • meat quality
  • behaviour
Accès libre

Growth Performance and Intestinal Microflora Population of Broilers Fed Aged Brown Rice

Publié en ligne: 15 Nov 2014
Pages: 897 - 909

Résumé

Abstract

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the growth performance and intestinal microflora population of broilers fed diets with aged brown rice (ABR) that had been stored for 3 years. The ABR was the material chosen to analyse the grain quality, which included the physical properties as well as nutrient analysis to evaluate its applicability in broiler diet. The germination rate, pH value, whiteness value of grains and fatty acid content of aged rice are significantly reduced during storage (P<0.05), while the nutritional value and content of essential amino acids do not differ from those of fresh brown rice (P>0.05). A total of five hundred 1-day-old broilers (Ross 308) were evenly divided by gender and randomly allocated into 5 groups (with 4 replicates of 25 birds), including: 1) control (corn-soybean meal), 2) 25% of corn replaced with 25% of ABR (ABR 25), 3) 50% of corn replaced with 50% of ABR (ABR 50), 4) 75% of corn replaced with 75% of ABR (ABR 75), 5) 100% of ABR replaced with yellow corn (ABR 100), respectively, in order to evaluate growth performance as well as intestinal microflora population of broilers fed ABR. The diets were formulated to contain similar levels of the main nutrient requirements of broilers. The results indicated that the replacement of ABR for corn in feed had no significant impact on the growth traits of broilers (P>0.05). The pH value of ileal digesta decreased as the replacement of ABR increased at the age of 21 days (P<0.05). The volatile fatty acids of ileal digesta of the ABR 75 and ABR 100 groups were significantly lower than those of the control group at the age of 21 days (P<0.05), but not caecum. There was no difference with lactic acid bacteria and coliform counts in ileum and caecum, respectively, of broilers among the groups during the entire feeding period (P>0.05). In conclusion, this study found that ABR may replace 100% of yellow corn and did not influence growth performance of broilers, thus providing an alternative for the use of stored rice in broiler diets.

Keywords

  • aged brown rice
  • grain quality
  • performance
  • microflora
  • broilers
Accès libre

The Effect òf Inulin Extraction Method or Powder From Inulin-Producing Plants in Fattener Diets on Performance, Carcass Traits and Meat Quality

Publié en ligne: 15 Nov 2014
Pages: 911 - 920

Résumé

Abstract

Inulin or plant materials containing this polysaccharide are deemed interesting additives to feed mixtures for pigs. The experiment was conducted with 120 weaners, hybrids of (PLW × PL) × Duroc breeds with the initial body weight of 30.0±0.5 kg, which were divided into 5 feeding groups. Inulin was added to feed mixtures in the following forms: 2% inulin obtained from chicory roots with two extraction methods: water (group II) and water-alcohol (group III), and 4% powder from Jerusalem artichoke tubers (group IV) or from chicory roots (group V). Body weight of the animals and feed intake were controlled at two-week intervals, and carcasses were analysed postslaughter. Determinations were carried out for physicochemical properties of longissimus dorsi muscle of fatteners. Additional measurements were made for pH value, electrical conductivity and colour (CIE L*a*b* system) of fresh and thermally-treated meat samples. The highest body weight gains were recorded in group IV (powder from Jerusalem artichoke tubers) and group II (water additive of inulin). Dietary inclusion of both types of powders contributed to decreased thickness of backfat. The study showed also the effect of adding inulin or inulin-producing materials on the quality of raw and cooked pork. Significant differences between the control and experimental groups were demonstrated for hardness, chewiness and gumminess of cooked meat. The highest colour saturation (L* and b*) and hue value were noted in raw loin of the fatteners administered feed mixtures with inulin from water-alcohol extraction. Inclusion of 2% inulin preparation with differing degrees of polymerization (water or water-alcohol extraction) or inulin-producing materials (topinambur or chicory powder) in fattener diets is likely to improve animal performance, but the application of Jerusalem artichoke appears to be more justified.

Keywords

  • inulin
  • pig
  • performance
  • carcass
  • meat quality
Accès libre

Legume Seeds and Rapeseed Press Cake as Replacers of Soybean Meal in Feed for Fattening Pigs

Publié en ligne: 15 Nov 2014
Pages: 921 - 934

Résumé

Abstract

The possibility of replacing soybean meal with a mixture of legume seeds and rapeseed press cake (RPC) was evaluated on 60 pigs weighing about 30 kg at the beginning of the experiment. Pigs were allocated to 5 experimental groups. Group I (control) received standard feed mixture containing soybean meal as a main protein source. Next groups received rapeseed press cake (RPC) mixed with fodder pea (Pisum sativum var. Ramrod) - group II, field bean (Vicia faba var. Kasztelan) - group III, blue lupin (Lupinus angustifolius var. Regent) - group IV or yellow lupin (Lupinus luteus var. Mister) - group V. Soybean protein was replaced by experimental protein sources at about 30% in grower (17% legumes, 13% rapeseed press cake) and at 100% in finisher diets (experimental proteins in equal ratio accounted for about 55% of mixture protein). Limited feeding was used, water was available ad libitum. Half the animals in each group received mixtures supplemented with fibrolytic enzymes Ronozyme VP and Ronozyme WX. Apparent digestibility of feed nutrients was estimated using the balance method on 30 fatteners not used in the fattening experiment, weighing about 40 kg for grower and 70 kg for finisher diets. Gross composition of legume seeds and RPC, amino acid composition of their protein, glucosinolate content in RPC and tannin content in faba bean and alkaloids in lupins were analysed. Carcass traits and meat quality were also estimated. Legume protein content ranged from 19.6% (pea) to 39.8% (yellow lupin). RPC protein contained more sulphur amino acids than legume protein. There was no significant difference in protein and fat digestibility. Body weight gains of fatteners fed with blue lupin were comparable to controls but significantly lower than those of the remaining groups. Supplemental enzymes improved body weight gains of fatteners receiving field bean. There was no significant difference in carcass traits and meat quality except for sensory analysis. It is concluded that the mixture of RPC and legume seeds can replace soybean meal in fattener feed.

Keywords

  • legume seeds
  • rapeseed press cake
  • pig fattening
  • feed enzymes
Accès libre

Blood Immunological and Biochemical Indicators in Turkey Hens Fed Diets With a Different Content of the Yeast Yarrowia Lipolytica

Publié en ligne: 15 Nov 2014
Pages: 935 - 946

Résumé

Abstract

The aim of this study was to determine immunological and biochemical blood indicators of turkey hens administered feed mixtures with 3 or 6% of Yarrowia lipolytica strain yeast as a dietary nutrient. The experiment was carried out on 240 turkey hens, aged from 1 to 16 weeks. The hens were randomly assigned to 3 experimental groups of 80 birds. Group I served as a control (K) and did not receive any experimental compounds. The turkey hens from experimental groups (YL3, YL6) were administered dried Yarrowia lipolytica yeast in two doses: 3% (YL3) and 6% (YL6) in feed mixtures. The study showed that the addition of Yarrowia lipolytica yeast in a dose of 3% but mainly in a dose of 6% stimulated the body’s immune defence mechanisms, which was evidenced by the increase in plasma lysozyme, % KF, IF, and reduction of monocyte ratio H/L in turkey hens. The advantage of using Yarrowia lipolytica in the nutrition of turkey hens was also a decrease in the content of blood indicators of lipid peroxidation such as CHOL, TG and LDL-cholesterol fraction, and an increase in the percentage of HDL-cholesterol fraction. The use of yeast component in the feeding of turkey hens affected the health status of birds and contributed to proper (not deviating from the reference values) biochemical indicators of metabolism.

Keywords:

  • Yarrowia lipolytica
  • yeast
  • turkey hens
  • blood
  • immunological indices

Behavior, well-being, production technology, and environment

Accès libre

Effect of Different Environmental Conditions on Some Haematological Parameters in Cow

Publié en ligne: 15 Nov 2014
Pages: 947 - 954

Résumé

Abstract

The aim of this study was to establish physiological responses of Piemontese cows to different environmental conditions (ambient temperature, relative humidity and temperature-humidity index). To this end, 43 clinically healthy Piemontese cows aged 2-12 years were used to evaluate the effect of environmental conditions on haematological parameters. For each period, ambient temperature and relative humidity were recorded by means of a data logger and the temperature-humidity index (THI) was calculated as indicator of thermal comfort for cattle. Blood samples were collected at 4 time points under different environmental conditions (T1, T2, T3 and T4) and analysed for haematological parameters. One way repeated measure analysis of variance showed a statistically significant effect of time (P<0.0001) on RBC, Hb, Hct, MCV, MCH, MCHC, Plt, WBC, neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes and eosinophils. The majority of haematological values obtained in the present study, even though within the physiological range for cattle, showed that variations in haematological parameters are related to changes in ambient temperature, relative humidity and temperature-humidity index. These results provide insight into the physiological responses of Piemontese cows to different environmental conditions, allowing to better evaluate its ability to adapt and cope with environmental stress.

Keywords

  • cow
  • haematological parameters
  • ambient temperature
  • relative humidity
  • temperature- humidity index

Quality and safety of animal origin products

Accès libre

Histological Profile of the Longissimus Dorsi Muscle in Polish Large White and Polish Landrace Pigs and its Effect on Loin Parameters and Intramuscular Fat Content*

Publié en ligne: 15 Nov 2014
Pages: 955 - 966

Résumé

Abstract

The objective of this study was to analyse differences in individual fibre types in the histological profile of the longissimus dorsi muscle and their effect on pork carcass lean content and level of intramuscular fat (IMF) content, which determines palatability of meat and meat products. Analysis showed that the amount of type IIB fibres had a statistically significant (P<0.05) effect on the IMF content of the longissimus dorsi muscle. Animals with more than 70% of type IIB fibres in this muscle were also characterized by larger loin eye area (P<0.01) and loin eye height (P<0.05). Analogous relationships were noted when the analysed group of animals was divided according to the diameter of type IIA fibres. IMF was negatively correlated to the percentage of type IIB fibres (rP= -0.162). Relationships with the other two fibre types were positive (IIA - rP= 0.097; I - rP= 0.187). It was found that increased percentage of type IIB fibres resulted in a slightly greater loin weight (rP= 0.176), higher loin eye height (rP= 0.136), larger loin eye area (rP= 0.265) and higher carcass lean content (rP= 0.204). Likewise, the increase in the number of type IIA and type I fibres decreased these parameters.

Keywords

  • pigs
  • histological profile
  • intramuscular fat
Accès libre

Effect of Piglet Birth Weight on Selected Characteristics of Pork

Publié en ligne: 15 Nov 2014
Pages: 967 - 975

Résumé

Abstract

The objective of the study was to determine how different birth weights of piglets influence some chemical and physical characteristics of pig meat. Piglets were grouped according to birth weight: ≤1.30 kg (group I), 1.31-1.70 kg (group II), ≥1.71 kg (group III). Animals were reared and fattened under standardized housing and feeding conditions. Tests were conducted with 60 samples of meat (20 per group) collected from the right side of the carcasses (M. longissimus lumborum) of threebreed crosses of (Polish Landrace × Polish Large White) × Duroc (barrows to gilts, 1:1), which were slaughtered at about 180 days of age. Determinations were made of basic chemical composition, colour of meat, drip loss, shear force value, and fatty acid profile. It was found that the birth weight of the piglets affects meat colour (redness), crude fat content and the proportion of some fatty acids (C16:1, C20:1 n-9, C20:2 n-6, C20:5 n-3).

Keywords

  • piglets
  • body weight
  • fatteners
  • meat quality
Accès libre

Evaluation of the Technological Suitability of Beef Muscles: M. Semitendinosus, M. Semimembranosus, Mm. Psoas Major And Minor as Entire Primal Cuts in the Production Of Raw Fermented Meats With Regard to the Raw Pork Products

Publié en ligne: 15 Nov 2014
Pages: 977 - 987

Résumé

Abstract

The aim of the study was to evaluate the technological suitability of selected beef muscles: m. semitendinosus (BST), m. semimembranosus (BSM), mm. psoas major and minor (BPM) as entire primal cuts in the production of raw fermented meats, compared to the raw pork rump (RSR) and loin (RSL), widely known in the Podlasie region. The 4-week maturation was conducted by the same traditional method in a genuine ripening room, and the texture, colour and sensory parameters of the pork and beef products were compared. The lowest water activity (0.89 and 0.83), pH (5.16 and 4.75) as well as the highest WB shear force (8.50 and 19.96 kG/cm2) and TPA hardness (52.12 and 199.24 N) were found in the ready-to-eat RSL and BST, respectively. The RSR and BPM were characterized by the lowest values of WB shear force (7.63 and 9.49 kG/cm2), TPA hardness (48.17 and 105.18 N) and TPA chewiness (8.39 and 32.68 N), as well as the highest grades for overall impression (4.50 pts), cross-section colour (4.60 pts), structure (4.60 pts), tenderness (4.30 and 4.70 pts) and flavour desirability (4.60 pts) in the sensory evaluation while the RSL and BPM were the juiciest (4.60 and 4.70 pts). The a* values and chroma showed an increase in redness during the first 2 weeks of beef aging and during the entire aging period in the pork products. The most significant colour differences were found for BSM, BST and BPM products (ΔEL*a*b*=6.48, 5.27 and 4.24, respectively).

Keywords

  • beef
  • pork
  • ripening
  • texture
  • colour
  • sensory evaluation

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