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Detalles de la revista
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Revista
eISSN
2300-8733
Publicado por primera vez
25 Nov 2011
Periodo de publicación
4 veces al año
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Inglés

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Volumen 17 (2017): Edición 1 (January 2017)

Detalles de la revista
Formato
Revista
eISSN
2300-8733
Publicado por primera vez
25 Nov 2011
Periodo de publicación
4 veces al año
Idiomas
Inglés

Buscar

20 Artículos

Review

Acceso abierto

Cocaine- and Amphetamine-Regulated Transcript (CART ) Peptide in Mammals Gastrointestinal System – A Review

Publicado en línea: 08 Feb 2017
Páginas: 3 - 21

Resumen

Abstract

Since its first description over 30 years ago, cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) peptide has been the subject of many studies. Most of these investigations pertain to occurrence and functions of CART within the central nervous system, where this peptide first of all takes part in regulation of feeding, stress reactions, as well as neuroprotective and neuroregenerative processes. However, in recent years more and more studies concern the presence of CART in the gastrointestinal system. This peptide has been described both in stomach and intestine, as well as in other digestive organs such as pancreas or gallbladder. Particularly much information relates to distribution of CART in the enteric nervous system, which is located within the wall of digestive tract. Other studies have described this peptide in intestinal endocrinal cells. Moreover, it is known that CART can be present in various types of neuronal cells and may co-localize with different types of other neuronal active substances, which play roles of neuromediators and/or neuromodulators. On the other hand precise functions of CART in the gastrointestinal system still remain unknown. It is assumed that this peptide is involved in the regulation of gastrointestinal motility, intestinal blood flow, secretion of intestinal juice, somatostatin and/or insulin, as well as takes part in pathological processes within the gastrointestinal tract. The large number of recent studies concerning the above mentioned problems makes that knowledge about occurrence and functions of CART in the digestive system rather piecemeal and requires clarifying, which is the aim of the present article.

Palabras clave

  • CART peptide
  • digestive system
  • enteric nervous system
Acceso abierto

Genetic and Nutritional Factors Determining the Production and Quality of Sheep Meat – A Review

Publicado en línea: 08 Feb 2017
Páginas: 23 - 40

Resumen

Abstract

In the last 20 years, the importance of sheep and especially lamb meat as the main product of the sheep industry in European conditions increased noticeably. In the same period, people’s interest in food quality grew. This contributed to a significant intensification of research to improve the meat production and quality traits in sheep. The aim of the research performed mainly focuses on the effects of nutrition, the environmental and genetic factors on the value of fattening, slaughter and meat quality characteristics. Much of the research concentrates on determining the fatty acid profile of intramuscular fat, which is important for sensory traits and dietetic value of lamb. Modulation of healthy qualities of lamb is aimed, inter alia, to modify the fatty acid profile, in particular to maintain the proper ratio of polyunsaturated (PUFA ) to saturated fatty acids (SFA). It is also desirable to increase the content of omega-3 fatty acids and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA). Furthermore, it has been proven that changes in the expression of genes involved in lipid metabolism are associated with the change in lipid profile in skeletal muscle. The aim of this review was to summarize the information currently available about the influence of genetic and nutritional factors on meat production and quality traits in different sheep breeds.

Palabras clave

  • sheep
  • gene expression
  • nutrition
  • fatty acids
  • lamb
Acceso abierto

Polyphenols in Monogastric Nutrition – A Review

Publicado en línea: 08 Feb 2017
Páginas: 41 - 58

Resumen

Abstract

The popularity of plant-based feed additives in livestock production has increased significantly in the last decade. Polyphenols are secondary plant metabolites which contain bioactive components and deliver positive effects for humans and animals. They are renowned for their anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory and anti-mutagenic effects. Polyphenols have antioxidant properties, and they minimize the negative consequences of oxidative stress. Their antioxidant capacity is comparable to that of the major biological antioxidants: vitamins E and C. Despite those advantages, polyphenols are characterized by low bioavailability, and further research is needed to harness their full potential in livestock farming. This article presents a review of findings from recent studies investigating the efficacy of polyphenols in monogastric nutrition, with special emphasis on their antioxidant properties.

Palabras clave

  • polyphenols
  • immunomodulatory effect
  • growth performance
  • gut health
  • antioxidant activity
Acceso abierto

Towards Heat Stress Management in Small Ruminants – A Review

Publicado en línea: 08 Feb 2017
Páginas: 59 - 88

Resumen

Abstract

Small ruminants (sheep and goats) play a predominant role in the economy of million people, and have provided meat, milk, skin, wool and fiber for centuries. Animals undergo various kinds of stressors, i.e. physical, nutritional, chemical, psychological and heat stress (HS). Among all, HS is the most concerning at present in the ever-changing climatic scenario. Climate change is the most serious long-term challenge faced by small ruminants’ owners worldwide. HS results in decreased growth, reproduction, production, milk quantity and quality, as well as natural immunity, making animals more vulnerable to diseases, and even death. Thus, HS results in great economic losses, emphasizing the necessity to objectively assess animal welfare. The increasing demand for animal products paralleled by the frequent hot climate is a serious threat for the agriculture sector. The ability of sheep and goats to cope with HS without harming their welfare and productive performance has been often overrated. To date, little attention has been paid to comprehensive detailed data on the adverse effect of HS on sheep and goats. Therefore, this review discusses in detail the sheep and goats’ behavioral, physiological, molecular/cellular, hematological, biochemical and immunological responses under HS conditions. In addition, this review also presents the adverse effects of HS on reproduction and fertility, milk quantity and quality, feed intake, and water consumption of sheep and goats. Finally, this review suggests various methods for HS alleviation. In conclusion, HS impairs productivity and well-being in sheep and goats. The improved understanding of the impact of HS on small ruminants will help in developing management techniques to alleviate HS and highlighting the need for future researches on HS in sheep and goats.

Palabras clave

  • small ruminants
  • heat stress
  • management
  • harsh environment

Animal genetics and breeding

Acceso abierto

Evaluation of Polymorphism in IGF-I and IGFB-3 Genes and their Relationship tith Twinning Rate and Growth Traits in Markhoz Goats

Publicado en línea: 08 Feb 2017
Páginas: 89 - 103

Resumen

Abstract

Growth rate and twinning rate are economic traits that can be used in goat breeding objectives. The aim of this study was to investigate polymorphisms in the insulin-like growth factor 1(IGF-I) and insulin-like growth factor binding protein (IGFBP-3) genes and their relationship with growth traits and twinning in Markhoz goats. Two sets of specific primers were used to amplify a 249bp fragment of IGF-I gene and a 316bp fragment of IGFBP-3 gene. PCR-SSCP analysis revealed three banding patterns for each gene that confirmed presence of a mutation in position 1617 of the IGF-I gene and a mutation in position 58 of IGFBP-3 gene. The genotype frequencies of IGF-I gene were 0.81 (GG), 0.16 (GA) and 0.03 (AA). Also, the genotype frequencies of IGFBP-3 gene were 0.79 (TT), 0.17 (TC) and 0.04 (CC). The Odds Ratio estimated for twinning rate was 1.11 for second on first parity, 0.19 for third on first parity and 5.71 for second on third parity. The chi-square statistics were 6.46 for IGF-I gene and 3.32 for IGFBP-3 gene. The results also indicated that different genotypes of these genes had no significant effect on birth weight, weight at 6 months, at 9 months and at 12 months but the interactions between different genotypes of IGF-I and IGFBP-3 genes were significant for weaning weight and average daily gain from birth to weaning. These results suggest that twinning rate in Markhoz breed is statistically affected by these genes and can be considered in breeding programs.

Palabras clave

  • IGF-I gene
  • IGFBP-3 gene
  • twinning
  • growth traits
  • PCR-SSCP
Acceso abierto

Genetic Analysis of Basic and Composite Reproduction Traits in Guilan Sheep

Publicado en línea: 08 Feb 2017
Páginas: 105 - 116

Resumen

Abstract

The objective of the present study was to estimate genetic parameters for reproductive traits in Guilan sheep. Data were comprised of 14,534 records of lambs from 136 sires and 2,021 dams which were collected during 1994 to 2011 by the Agriculture Organization of Guilan Province in the north of Iran. The basic reproductive traits were litter size at birth (LSB), litter size at weaning (LSW), litter mean weight per lamb born (LMWLB), and litter mean weight per lamb weaned (LMWLW). The composite reproductive traits were total litter weight at birth per ewe lambing (TLWB) and total litter weight at weaning per ewe lambing (TLWW). The general linear model procedure of SAS was used for determining the fixed effects which had significant effect on the traits under study. The flock-year-season of lambing had significant effect on studied traits (P<0.01). The genetic parameters were estimated with repeatability animal model using restricted maximum likelihood (REML) procedure of the Wombat program. Direct heritability estimates were 0.00, 0.00, 0.01, 0.01, and 0.03 for LSB, LSW, LMWLW, TLWB, and TLWW, respectively, and corresponding repeatabilities were 0.2, 0.00006, 0.01, 0.972 and 0.034, respectively. Genetic correlation estimates between traits ranged from -0.99 for LSB-LSW to 0.99 for LMWLW-TLWW. Phenotypic correlations ranged from -0.09 for LSB-TLWB to 0.98 for LMWLW-TLWW and environmental correlations ranged from -0.03 for LSW-TLWW to 0.98 for LMWLW-TLWW. The results showed that strong positive genetic correlations of LMWLB and LMWLW with other traits may improve meat production efficiency in Guilan sheep. The low estimates of heritability and repeatability obtained for ewe productivity traits indicate that selection based on the ewe’s own performance may result in slow genetic improvement.

Palabras clave

  • fat-tailed sheep
  • genetic correlation
  • heritability
  • reproductive traits
Acceso abierto

Association of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in the FABP4 Gene with Carcass Characteristics and Meat Quality in Holstein Bulls

Publicado en línea: 08 Feb 2017
Páginas: 117 - 130

Resumen

Abstract

The aim of this study was to characterize the bovine fatty acid binding protein (FABP4) gene 3691G>A and 2834C>G polymorphisms and to evaluate interaction effects on the live weight, carcass characteristics and meat quality of Holstein bulls in the South Marmara region of Turkey. A total of 400 Holstein bulls grown on a private farm and slaughtered at 14-21 months of age, were randomly selected for use in this study. Initially, genotyping was performed by PCR-RFLP method and statistical analysis was carried out using least square methods of the GLM procedure. A SNP located in intron 1 (2834C>G) was associated with desirable increases in live weight, hot carcass weight and chilled carcass weight, and a SNP located in exon 3 (3691G>A) was associated with significant increases in marbling scores and first compressive stress point of the longissimus

dorsi muscle (P<0.05). The interaction analysis of the 3691G>A and the 2834C>G polymorphisms revealed significant effects for hot carcass weight, chilled carcass weight and backfat thickness (P<0.05). There were no significant associations between the SNPs and carcass measurements. Results indicated that the FABP4 3691G>A and 2834C>G polymorphisms and the 3691G>A and 2834C>G interactions can be used as selection parameters in breeding programmes to improve meat yield and carcass characteristics.

Palabras clave

  • FABP4
  • gene polymorphism
  • carcass characteristics
  • meat quality
  • Holstein
Acceso abierto

Analysis af Maternal Traits in Native Puławska Sows of Known Genotype (Ins/Del) at the PRL Locus

Publicado en línea: 08 Feb 2017
Páginas: 131 - 141

Resumen

Abstract

The objective of the study was to analyse periparturient behaviour and the reproductive parameters of native Puławska sows with regard to polymorphism (insertion/deletion) at the PRL locus as components in the assessment of maternal value. The analysis included 45 sows of known genotype at the PRL locus, which were managed under a conservation breeding programme in individual farms. Behaviour was assessed by using an ethogram of sow responses to the stockpersons and piglets during the rearing period. The production parameters included litter size between days 1 and 21, mortality, body weight and daily weight gains of the piglets during that period. The performed analyses and observations show an association between the polymorphism of PRL gene and the maternal parameters of Puławska sows. Del/Del homozygous sows exhibited significantly higher realised fertility, but the maternal characteristics were generally more favourable in sows of the PRL Ins/Ins genotype. These animals were more docile towards the stockpersons and piglets, and were characterised by lower crushing rates, generally lower litter mortality, and higher parameters of piglet growth and development.

Palabras clave

  • pigs
  • native breed
  • PRL
  • maternal traits
  • behaviour
Acceso abierto

Polymorphisms of the COL9A2, AOAH and FRZB Genes in the Horse Genome and their Association with the Occurrence of Osteochondrosis

Publicado en línea: 08 Feb 2017
Páginas: 143 - 153

Resumen

Abstract

The aim of the study was to evaluate the chosen polymorphisms of the COL9A2, AOAH and FRZB genes and find their potential effect on the occurrence of osteochondrosis in Polish sport horses population. During two successive years, all 198 performance tested horses were checked for osteochondrosis. The health status of the horses was assessed based on 10 x-ray images of three joints: fetlock, hock and stifle, and scored on a 0-3 scale. The methodology of analysis of selected candidate genes using the PCR-RFLP technique was developed. The analysis of variance was performed to evaluate significance of the effect of the COL9A2, AOAH and FRZB genotype on the occurrence of osteochondrosis in individual joints. Fixed effects of breed, gender and training centre were taken into account in the analysis. The results showed a significant influence (P≤0.05) of the COL9A2 genotypes on the occurrence of osteochondrosis in fetlock and hock joints. Polymorphism of this gene, even not proved a causal mutation, appears to have effect on symptoms of the disease. In genes AOAH and FRZB there was no significant effect for investigated SNPs. Further analysis of the discussed genes/polymorphisms seems to be important.

Palabras clave

  • Equus caballus
  • osteochondrosis (OC)
  • gene polymorphism

The biology, physiology, reproduction, and health

Acceso abierto

Induction of the Secretion of LH and GH by Orexin A and Ghrelin is Controlled in Vivo by Leptin and Photoperiod in Sheep

Publicado en línea: 08 Feb 2017
Páginas: 155 - 168

Resumen

Abstract

The influence of leptin on orexin A and the interaction of leptin with ghrelin in regulating the gonadotropic and somatotropic axes in seasonally polyestrous animals are not well understood. This study examined the effects of these factors as well as the mediating roles of specific ovine leptin antagonist (SOLA; mutant D23L/L39A/D40A/F41A) and photoperiod on luteinizing hormone (LH) and growth hormone (GH) secretion. Twenty-four ovariectomized, estradiol-implanted ewes were used in a replicated switchback design. The ewes were assigned randomly to 1 of 6 treatments (infused into the third ventricle 3 times at 0 (dusk), 1, and 2 h) as follows: control, Ringer-Locke buffer; leptin, 0.5 μg/kg b.w.; orexin A, 0.3 μg/kg b.w.; ghrelin, 2.5 μg/kg b.w.; SOLA, 50 μg/kg b.w. + orexin A, 0.3 μg/kg b.w.; and SOLA, 50 μg/kg b.w. + ghrelin, 2.5 μg/kg b.w. Blood samples (5 ml) were collected at 15-min intervals for 4 h. SOLA + orexin A resulted in an increase (P<0.01) in the LH plasma concentration during short-day (SD) and long-day (LD) photoperiods. However, ghrelin and SOLA + ghrelin had the opposite effect. SOLA + orexin A resulted in an increase (P<0.001) in the GH concentration compared with leptin or orexin A during the LD season. Ghrelin and SOLA + ghrelin increased the GH concentration (P<0.01) regardless of the season. In summary, LH and GH secretion are seasonally dependent on relationships that are subject to photoperiodic regulation, and leptin is an important regulator of the effects of ghrelin and orexin A on the activities of the gonadotropic and somatotropic axes in sheep.

Palabras clave

  • leptin antagonist
  • orexigenic hormones
  • luteinizing hormone
  • growth hormone
  • sheep
Acceso abierto

A Short Presynchronization with PGF2α and GnRH Improves Ovarian Response and Fertility in Lactating Holstein Cows Subjected to a Heatsynch Protocol

Publicado en línea: 08 Feb 2017
Páginas: 169 - 177

Resumen

Abstract

The objective of this study was to assess the efficacy of a single injection of Prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α) combined with or without GnRH before initiation of a Heatsynch protocol (GnRH-7d- PGF2α-2d-EB-1d-AI) on ovarian response and fertility in lactating Holstein cows. A total of 252 cows with a corpus luteum (CL; ≥10 mm) were assigned to one of three synchronization groups; 1 - Control (n=84), cows received two injections of PGF2α 14 days apart; 2 - Heatsynch with GnRH (PGH, n=88) the cows received PGF2α followed by GnRH four days later and then a Heatsynch protocol was initiated eight days after GnRH treatment; and 3 - Heatsynch without GnRH (PH, n=80) cows received a single injection of PGF2α followed by a Heatsynch protocol initiated 12 days after PGF2α. Cows detected in estrus were inseminated approximately 12 h after onset of estrus. Ovarian response and pregnancy diagnosis were determined by ultrasonography during the synchronization protocol and 30 days after AI, respectively. Results showed the percentage of cows with plasma P4≤0.4 ng/mL at AI were greater in PGH group compared to other groups (90.3 vs. 75.0%, P=0.03). The percentage of cows that ovulated in response to the GnRH injection of Heatsynch was affected (P<0.01) by synchronization protocol, because PGH cows were more likely to ovulate (77.2%) than PH (56.0%) cows. The proportion of cows displaying estrus was greater in PGH (70.4%) and PH (72.5%) groups compared with control (47.0%, P=0.04). Percentage of cows pregnant at 30 days after AI was (P=0.01) affected by synchronization treatment and was greater in PGH (45.16%) compared to control (25.0%) and PH (34.48%) groups. In summary, a short presynchronization that includes an injection of PGF2α and four days later GnRH increased fertility in Holstein cows subjected to a Heatsynch protocol. The enhanced fertility was due to a greater ovulatory response to GnRH of Heatsynch, more adequate plasma P4 concentrations during follicle development and a greater luteal regression following PGF2α prior to AI.

Palabras clave

  • short presynchronization
  • Heatsynch
  • functional corpus luteum
  • Holstein dairy cow
Acceso abierto

Performance and Small Intestine Morphology and Ultrastructure of Male Broilers Injected in Ovo with Bioactive Substances

Publicado en línea: 08 Feb 2017
Páginas: 179 - 195

Resumen

Abstract

The objective of the present study was to determine the effect of prebiotic and synbiotic preparations injected in ovo on day 12 of embryogenesis on both development of intestinal villi and the number of neutral goblet cells in the small intestine of male broiler chickens on day 35 of rearing. Eggs containing live embryos were randomly separated into five experimental groups (1800 eggs per group), and treated with different bioactive compounds by in ovo injection. The control group (C) was injected with physiological saline. The prebiotic groups (PI and PB) were injected with a solution containing 1.76 mg of inulin or with a solution containing 0.528 mg of Bi2tos. The injection solution for both synbiotic groups (SI and SB) consisted of 1.76 mg Inulin + 1000 CFU of L. lactis spp. lactis 2955 (SL1) or 0.528 mg Bi2tos + 1000 CFU of L. lactis spp. cremoris 477 (SC1). Samples for histological analysis were taken from the three segments of the small intestine: the duodenum, jejunum and ileum. Broiler performance increased in the prebiotic group injected with Bi2tos when compared to both the control group and the prebiotic group injected with inulin. In relation to other groups, in the duodenum and ileum the highest intestinal villi were observed in chickens with the lowest body weight, i.e. groups C and PI. The smaller surface area of villi was found in the jejunum and ileum in group SB. As far as the jejunum and ileum are concerned, a significantly higher number of goblet cells was noted in groups PB and SB.

Palabras clave

  • broiler chicken
  • in ovo
  • bioactive substances
  • small intestine
Acceso abierto

Iron Metabolism Modification During Repeated Show Jumping Event in Equine Athletes

Publicado en línea: 08 Feb 2017
Páginas: 197 - 204

Resumen

Abstract

In athletic horse the evaluation of iron status is of great importance to improve physical performance and health status of animal. The aim of this study was to evaluate the changes of iron indices following show jumping. Ten regularly trained Italian Saddlebred horses aged 7-8 years (mean body weight 467±12 kg) were subjected to three days jumping competition. Blood samples were collected at 5 time points: T0 (the day before competitions), T1 (immediately after exercise at day 1), T2 (immediately after exercise at day 2), T3 (immediately after exercise at day 3) and during the recovery period T4 (24 h after day 3). On each blood sample the values of red blood cell (RBC), hemoglobin concentration (Hb), hematocrit (Hct), serum iron, ferritin, transferrin, total iron-binding capacity (TIBC) and unsaturated iron-binding capacity (UIBC) were assessed. One-way repeated measure analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed a statistical significant effect of exercise (P<0.05) on all studied parameters. The application of Bonferroni’s post-hoc comparison showed a statistical significant increase in all studied parameters after exercise. These results provide new information about the changes in iron profile of jumper horse following exercise allowing for better evaluation of the health status and physical performance of this athlete horse.

Palabras clave

  • exercise
  • ferritin
  • horse
  • iron
  • transferrin
  • show jumping

Animal nutrition, and feedstuffs

Acceso abierto

Performance and Phosphorus Utilization of Broiler Chickens Fed Low Phytate Barley and Pea Based Diets with Graded Levels of Inorganic Phosphorus

Publicado en línea: 08 Feb 2017
Páginas: 205 - 215

Resumen

Abstract

The effects of feeding diets based on soybean meal, low phytate hulless barley (Lphybarley) and low phytate pea (Lphypea) with inorganic phosphorus (iP) reduced by 50 or 100% to broiler chickens on performance, P digestibility and bone characteristics were investigated. Two hundred and ten day-old (Ross 308 strain) broiler chicks (5 birds per cage; 6 cages per diet) were randomly allocated to 7 dietary treatments for a 21-day study. Diets were formulated based on soybean meal-normal phytate hulless barley (SBM-normbarley) with added inorganic P (iP) to meet NRC (1994) P requirements (SBM-normbarley100) or with 50% less iP (SBM-normbarley50), soybean meal-Lphybarley-Lphypea with added iP (Lphybarley-Lphypea100) or iP reduced by 50% (Lphybarley-Lphypea50) or 100% (Lphybarley-Lphypea0), and soybean meal-normbarleynormal phytate pea (normpea) with added iP (normbarley-normpea100) or iP reduced by 50% (normbarley-normpea50). Birds fed the Lphybarley-Lphypea0 diet had the lowest (P<0.001) ADG compared with those fed the other diets. Reducing iP by 50% led to a reduction (P<0.05) in ADG for birds fed the SBM-normbarley- and normbarley-normpea-based diets but not in the Lphybarley- Lphypea-based diet. Reducing iP by 50% led to a reduction (P<0.05) in ADFI in birds fed the SBM-normbarley-based diet and normbarley-normpea-based diet compared with those fed adequate iP. Feed conversion ratio was not affected by diet throughout the experimental period (P>0.10). Reducing iP content reduced P retention in the SBM-normbarley-based diet but not in the normbarley-normpea-based diet but tibia ash and length were reduced in birds fed both diets (P<0.05). Reducing dietary iP content linearly increased (P < 0.05) P retention and linearly decreased (P<0.05) tibia ash and length in the Lphypea-Lphybarley-based diets. In conclusion, feeding a low phytate hulless barley-low phytate pea based diet with iP reduced by 50% supported similar performance as control and increased P retention, suggesting that utilizing a combination of low phytate ingredients can reduce the need for supplemental iP with significant cost and environmental implication.

Palabras clave

  • broilers
  • bone mineralization
  • low phytate pea
  • phosphorus
  • performance
Acceso abierto

Effects of Galactooligosaccharide and Pediococcus Acidilactici on Antioxidant Defence and Disease Resistance of Rainbow Trout, Oncorhynchus Mykiss

Publicado en línea: 08 Feb 2017
Páginas: 217 - 227

Resumen

Abstract

The present study investigated the effects of dietary prebiotic galactooligosaccharide [(GOS), 1%], probiotic (Pediococcus acidilactici) [7.57 log CFU g-1] and synbiotic (GOS + P. acidilactici) on antioxidant enzymes activity and disease resistance of rainbow trout (15.04±0.52 g). After 8 weeks feeding on the experimental diets, liver catalase (CAT ), glutathione S-transferases (GST), glutathione reductase (GR) activities, and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were measured. Thereafter, all fish were challenged by Streptococcus iniae. Probiotic, prebiotic and synbiotic had no significant effect on liver MDA level compared to the control group (P>0.05). However, CAT , GST and GR activities were significantly higher in the fish fed probiotic, prebiotic and synbiotic, compared to the control group (P<0.05). The highest CAT and GST activities were observed in the fish fed diet supplemented with synbiotic. There were no significant differences in GR activity among different groups (P>0.05). Bacterial challenge showed that feeding on probiotic, prebiotic and synbiotic remarkably increased resistance against S. iniae (P<0.05), with the highest resistance observed in the synbiotic group. The results indicated that although both GOS and P. acidilactici significantly increased antioxidant defence and improved disease resistance, combination of GOS and P. acidilactici had an additive effect. Combination of GOS and P. acidilactici is recommended to increase trout antioxidant capacity and streptococcosis.

Palabras clave

  • rainbow trout
  • galactooligosaccharide
  • Pediococcus acidilactici
  • antioxidant defence
  • disease resistance
Acceso abierto

Metabolic Attributes, Milk Production and Ovarian Activity of Ewes Supplemented with a Soluble Sugar or a Protected-Fat as Different Energy Sources During Postpartum Period

Publicado en línea: 08 Feb 2017
Páginas: 229 - 240

Resumen

Abstract

The effects of two dietary supplemental energy sources on metabolic attributes, milk production and ovarian activity of ewes during early to mid-postpartum period were studied using thirty multiparous lactating ewes (Rahmani × Barki) weighing 43.10±1.22 kg and 3-6 years old. The ewes were assigned to three groups (n=10 per group). All ewes received the same diet supplemented with isocaloric and isonitrogenous protected-palm oil (50 g/ewe/d, F-group) or a sugar cane molasses (140 g/ewe/d, M-group) or without supplementation (control, C-group), for 60 days starting 2 weeks postpartum. Results showed that, during the experimental period, both energy sources reduced (P<0.05) body weight loss of ewes compared with the control (2.57 kg in F-group, 0.911 kg in M-group and 4.71 kg in C-group). The metabolic profiles of ewes were affected by the sources of energy, the highest (P<0.05) concentration of serum triglycerides was in the F-group, whereas the highest (P<0.05) concentration of serum insulin was in the M-group. The lowest serum glucose concentration was (P<0.05) in the F-group (73.20 mg/dL) and the highest in the C-group (76.85 mg/dL), whereas it was intermediate in the M-group (74.69 mg/dL). Ewes in the F-group had (P<0.05) the highest milk yield and energy-corrected milk (531.72 g/d and 554.40 g/d, respectively) compared with those in the M-group (491.76 g/d and 525.12 g/d, respectively) and C-group (429.96 g/d and 462.00 g/d, respectively). The highest (P<0.05) number of corpora lutea (CL; ovulation activity) was in the F-group (0.45), whereas it was not different between the M-group (0.25) and the C-group (0.15). In conclusion, during early to mid-postpartum period, protected-fat supplementation increased serum triglycerides concentration which was effectively used as an energyyielding nutrient for improving milk production. It could also be suggested that specific fatty acid in protected-fat improved quality of the ovulatory follicle and thus occurrence of ovulation.

Palabras clave

  • energy source
  • lactation
  • postpartum ewes
  • ovulation
Acceso abierto

Evaluation of Humic Acid as an Aflatoxin Binder in Broiler Chickens

Publicado en línea: 08 Feb 2017
Páginas: 241 - 255

Resumen

Abstract

The efficacy of humic acid (HA) as an aflatoxin (AF) binder in broiler chickens exposed to aflatoxin- contaminated feed from 1 to 42 days of age was assessed. A total of 200 birds were assigned to 20 pens, with 10 birds per pen. The following treatments (T) were applied: T1: basal diet (B); T2: B + AFB1 (100 μg/kg); T3: B + AFB1 (100 μg/kg) + HA (0.1%); T4: B +AFB1 (100 μg/kg) + HA (0.2%); T5: B + AFB1 (100 μg/kg) + HA (0.3%). Each treatment consisted of 4 replicates. Oxihumate was effective in diminishing the adverse effects caused by aflatoxin on body weight (BW) of broilers (P<0.05). Humic acid also showed protective effects against liver damage and some of the hematological and serum biochemical changes associated with aflatoxin toxicity (P<0.05). The supplementation of HA also enhanced the humoral immunity by counteracting the aflatoxin contamination. Results indicated that HA could alleviate some of the toxic effects of aflatoxin in growing broilers. Humic acid (0.1 to 0.3%) might, therefore, prove to be beneficial in the management of aflatoxin-contaminated feedstuffs for poultry when used in combination with other mycotoxin management practices.

Palabras clave

  • humic acid
  • broiler
  • aflatoxin B1
  • serum biochemistry
  • immunity

Behavior, well-being, production technology, and environment

Acceso abierto

Eligibility of Lying Boxes at Different THI Levels in a Freestall Barn

Publicado en línea: 08 Feb 2017
Páginas: 257 - 269

Resumen

Abstract

Cattle show a high sensitivity to changeability of microclimate conditions and heat stress that causes changes in the welfare and behaviour of cows. The presented study aimed at determining the relationship between the temperature humidity index (THI) value during the summer period and daily behaviour of dairy cows, including eligibility of lying boxes. All these aspects were measured under real production conditions. The investigated area, where microclimate conditions measurements were conducted, was a free-stall barn with single and double boxes, with manure and feeding alleys, housing 40 Holstein-Friesian cows. Observations were made on the behaviour of the cows based on a preference test concerning their choice of the best areas with respect to three ranges of THI values: neutral (N), warm (W) and hot (H). During the warm and hot period the research demonstrated a positive correlation between the level of THI and the share of standing cows (in period W - P<0.03 and H - P<0.008), and an inversely proportional one between the level of THI with participation of lying down cows (periods: W - P<0.06; H - P<0.004) and the length of their laying bouts in double boxes. The double boxes area was predominantly occupied, whereas single boxes area was the least often used. The occupation of manure alley areas was positively correlated with the level of THI.

Palabras clave

  • temperature-humidity index
  • dairy cow
  • behaviour
  • lying bout length

Quality and safety of animal origin products

Acceso abierto

Evaluation of Effect of Thymol Combined with Lactic Acid or Sodium Lactate on Psychrophilic Bacteria and Salmonella Spp. on Chicken Drumstick

Publicado en línea: 08 Feb 2017
Páginas: 271 - 280

Resumen

Abstract

This study was carried out to evaluate the combined antimicrobial effect of thymol with lactic acid or sodium lactate on Salmonella and psychrophilic bacteria on chicken drumstick. Drumstick samples were artificially contaminated with Salmonella spp., then sprayed with sterile 0.85% NaCl solution (control), and thymol (0.25% w/v) with lactic acid (2% and 4% v/v) or sodium lactate (2% and 4% v/v), alone or in combination, for 30 s. The samples were stored at 4°C and analyzed on days 0, 2 and 4 for Salmonella and psychrophilic bacteria. Thymol alone did not show antibacterial effect on Salmonella and psychrophilic bacteria on chicken drumstick when compared with the control group during storage period. Spray with 4% lactic acid + thymol reduced Salmonella and psychrophilic bacteria by 1.4 and 1.8 log10 CFU/ml on day 0, respectively. A significant decrease in the number of Salmonella and psychrophilic bacteria was observed in the samples sprayed with 4% lactic acid and 4% lactic acid + thymol on days 2 and 4 when compared to the control (P<0.05). The combinations of thymol with lactic acid or sodium lactate did not show synergistic or additive effect on Salmonella and psychrophilic bacteria present on chicken drumstick with skin.

Palabras clave

  • chicken drumstick
  • thymol
  • lactic acid
  • Salmonella
  • psychrophilic bacteria
Acceso abierto

The Effect of Crossing the Native Złotnicka Spott Ed Pigs with Other Breeds on Slaughter Value of Fatt Eners and Quality of Dry-Cured Meat Products

Publicado en línea: 08 Feb 2017
Páginas: 281 - 299

Resumen

Abstract

The dry-cured necks and hams produced from the meat of Złotnicka Spotted (ZS) pigs and their crossbreds with Duroc and Polish Large White, were tested. The slaughter value of the fatteners was determined (lean meat content, backfat thickness, area of the loin cross-section). The water, fat, protein and NaCl content was established in the final products. The meat colour (L* a* b*) and pH were measured. The final products were subjected to sensory evaluation and ranked on the scale of 1-5 points. Crossing the Złotnicka Spotted with the PLW resulted in higher lean meat content by approx. 4 percentage points (p.p.) and in thinner back fat thickness by 0.6 cm. Dry-cured ham produced from the meat of different fattener groups did not differ significantly in terms of physico-chemical traits as well as sensory traits. The sensory characteristics of both ham and neck received high scores (on average above 4.5 points). It was found that the tested products differed in terms of chemical content. The dry-cured necks contained approx. 19.45% of fat in the group of the ZS × PLW crossbreds whereas in other groups this figure was 2 to 6 p.p. higher. The dry-cured ham that was produced was based on the meat of purebred pigs containing 3 to 4.6 p.p. less fat compared to the crossbreds with the Duroc. The research proved that crossing the ZS with PLW and Duroc did not make the quality of the dry-cured products deteriorate.

Palabras clave

  • pigs
  • breeds
  • slaughter value
  • product quality
20 Artículos

Review

Acceso abierto

Cocaine- and Amphetamine-Regulated Transcript (CART ) Peptide in Mammals Gastrointestinal System – A Review

Publicado en línea: 08 Feb 2017
Páginas: 3 - 21

Resumen

Abstract

Since its first description over 30 years ago, cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) peptide has been the subject of many studies. Most of these investigations pertain to occurrence and functions of CART within the central nervous system, where this peptide first of all takes part in regulation of feeding, stress reactions, as well as neuroprotective and neuroregenerative processes. However, in recent years more and more studies concern the presence of CART in the gastrointestinal system. This peptide has been described both in stomach and intestine, as well as in other digestive organs such as pancreas or gallbladder. Particularly much information relates to distribution of CART in the enteric nervous system, which is located within the wall of digestive tract. Other studies have described this peptide in intestinal endocrinal cells. Moreover, it is known that CART can be present in various types of neuronal cells and may co-localize with different types of other neuronal active substances, which play roles of neuromediators and/or neuromodulators. On the other hand precise functions of CART in the gastrointestinal system still remain unknown. It is assumed that this peptide is involved in the regulation of gastrointestinal motility, intestinal blood flow, secretion of intestinal juice, somatostatin and/or insulin, as well as takes part in pathological processes within the gastrointestinal tract. The large number of recent studies concerning the above mentioned problems makes that knowledge about occurrence and functions of CART in the digestive system rather piecemeal and requires clarifying, which is the aim of the present article.

Palabras clave

  • CART peptide
  • digestive system
  • enteric nervous system
Acceso abierto

Genetic and Nutritional Factors Determining the Production and Quality of Sheep Meat – A Review

Publicado en línea: 08 Feb 2017
Páginas: 23 - 40

Resumen

Abstract

In the last 20 years, the importance of sheep and especially lamb meat as the main product of the sheep industry in European conditions increased noticeably. In the same period, people’s interest in food quality grew. This contributed to a significant intensification of research to improve the meat production and quality traits in sheep. The aim of the research performed mainly focuses on the effects of nutrition, the environmental and genetic factors on the value of fattening, slaughter and meat quality characteristics. Much of the research concentrates on determining the fatty acid profile of intramuscular fat, which is important for sensory traits and dietetic value of lamb. Modulation of healthy qualities of lamb is aimed, inter alia, to modify the fatty acid profile, in particular to maintain the proper ratio of polyunsaturated (PUFA ) to saturated fatty acids (SFA). It is also desirable to increase the content of omega-3 fatty acids and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA). Furthermore, it has been proven that changes in the expression of genes involved in lipid metabolism are associated with the change in lipid profile in skeletal muscle. The aim of this review was to summarize the information currently available about the influence of genetic and nutritional factors on meat production and quality traits in different sheep breeds.

Palabras clave

  • sheep
  • gene expression
  • nutrition
  • fatty acids
  • lamb
Acceso abierto

Polyphenols in Monogastric Nutrition – A Review

Publicado en línea: 08 Feb 2017
Páginas: 41 - 58

Resumen

Abstract

The popularity of plant-based feed additives in livestock production has increased significantly in the last decade. Polyphenols are secondary plant metabolites which contain bioactive components and deliver positive effects for humans and animals. They are renowned for their anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory and anti-mutagenic effects. Polyphenols have antioxidant properties, and they minimize the negative consequences of oxidative stress. Their antioxidant capacity is comparable to that of the major biological antioxidants: vitamins E and C. Despite those advantages, polyphenols are characterized by low bioavailability, and further research is needed to harness their full potential in livestock farming. This article presents a review of findings from recent studies investigating the efficacy of polyphenols in monogastric nutrition, with special emphasis on their antioxidant properties.

Palabras clave

  • polyphenols
  • immunomodulatory effect
  • growth performance
  • gut health
  • antioxidant activity
Acceso abierto

Towards Heat Stress Management in Small Ruminants – A Review

Publicado en línea: 08 Feb 2017
Páginas: 59 - 88

Resumen

Abstract

Small ruminants (sheep and goats) play a predominant role in the economy of million people, and have provided meat, milk, skin, wool and fiber for centuries. Animals undergo various kinds of stressors, i.e. physical, nutritional, chemical, psychological and heat stress (HS). Among all, HS is the most concerning at present in the ever-changing climatic scenario. Climate change is the most serious long-term challenge faced by small ruminants’ owners worldwide. HS results in decreased growth, reproduction, production, milk quantity and quality, as well as natural immunity, making animals more vulnerable to diseases, and even death. Thus, HS results in great economic losses, emphasizing the necessity to objectively assess animal welfare. The increasing demand for animal products paralleled by the frequent hot climate is a serious threat for the agriculture sector. The ability of sheep and goats to cope with HS without harming their welfare and productive performance has been often overrated. To date, little attention has been paid to comprehensive detailed data on the adverse effect of HS on sheep and goats. Therefore, this review discusses in detail the sheep and goats’ behavioral, physiological, molecular/cellular, hematological, biochemical and immunological responses under HS conditions. In addition, this review also presents the adverse effects of HS on reproduction and fertility, milk quantity and quality, feed intake, and water consumption of sheep and goats. Finally, this review suggests various methods for HS alleviation. In conclusion, HS impairs productivity and well-being in sheep and goats. The improved understanding of the impact of HS on small ruminants will help in developing management techniques to alleviate HS and highlighting the need for future researches on HS in sheep and goats.

Palabras clave

  • small ruminants
  • heat stress
  • management
  • harsh environment

Animal genetics and breeding

Acceso abierto

Evaluation of Polymorphism in IGF-I and IGFB-3 Genes and their Relationship tith Twinning Rate and Growth Traits in Markhoz Goats

Publicado en línea: 08 Feb 2017
Páginas: 89 - 103

Resumen

Abstract

Growth rate and twinning rate are economic traits that can be used in goat breeding objectives. The aim of this study was to investigate polymorphisms in the insulin-like growth factor 1(IGF-I) and insulin-like growth factor binding protein (IGFBP-3) genes and their relationship with growth traits and twinning in Markhoz goats. Two sets of specific primers were used to amplify a 249bp fragment of IGF-I gene and a 316bp fragment of IGFBP-3 gene. PCR-SSCP analysis revealed three banding patterns for each gene that confirmed presence of a mutation in position 1617 of the IGF-I gene and a mutation in position 58 of IGFBP-3 gene. The genotype frequencies of IGF-I gene were 0.81 (GG), 0.16 (GA) and 0.03 (AA). Also, the genotype frequencies of IGFBP-3 gene were 0.79 (TT), 0.17 (TC) and 0.04 (CC). The Odds Ratio estimated for twinning rate was 1.11 for second on first parity, 0.19 for third on first parity and 5.71 for second on third parity. The chi-square statistics were 6.46 for IGF-I gene and 3.32 for IGFBP-3 gene. The results also indicated that different genotypes of these genes had no significant effect on birth weight, weight at 6 months, at 9 months and at 12 months but the interactions between different genotypes of IGF-I and IGFBP-3 genes were significant for weaning weight and average daily gain from birth to weaning. These results suggest that twinning rate in Markhoz breed is statistically affected by these genes and can be considered in breeding programs.

Palabras clave

  • IGF-I gene
  • IGFBP-3 gene
  • twinning
  • growth traits
  • PCR-SSCP
Acceso abierto

Genetic Analysis of Basic and Composite Reproduction Traits in Guilan Sheep

Publicado en línea: 08 Feb 2017
Páginas: 105 - 116

Resumen

Abstract

The objective of the present study was to estimate genetic parameters for reproductive traits in Guilan sheep. Data were comprised of 14,534 records of lambs from 136 sires and 2,021 dams which were collected during 1994 to 2011 by the Agriculture Organization of Guilan Province in the north of Iran. The basic reproductive traits were litter size at birth (LSB), litter size at weaning (LSW), litter mean weight per lamb born (LMWLB), and litter mean weight per lamb weaned (LMWLW). The composite reproductive traits were total litter weight at birth per ewe lambing (TLWB) and total litter weight at weaning per ewe lambing (TLWW). The general linear model procedure of SAS was used for determining the fixed effects which had significant effect on the traits under study. The flock-year-season of lambing had significant effect on studied traits (P<0.01). The genetic parameters were estimated with repeatability animal model using restricted maximum likelihood (REML) procedure of the Wombat program. Direct heritability estimates were 0.00, 0.00, 0.01, 0.01, and 0.03 for LSB, LSW, LMWLW, TLWB, and TLWW, respectively, and corresponding repeatabilities were 0.2, 0.00006, 0.01, 0.972 and 0.034, respectively. Genetic correlation estimates between traits ranged from -0.99 for LSB-LSW to 0.99 for LMWLW-TLWW. Phenotypic correlations ranged from -0.09 for LSB-TLWB to 0.98 for LMWLW-TLWW and environmental correlations ranged from -0.03 for LSW-TLWW to 0.98 for LMWLW-TLWW. The results showed that strong positive genetic correlations of LMWLB and LMWLW with other traits may improve meat production efficiency in Guilan sheep. The low estimates of heritability and repeatability obtained for ewe productivity traits indicate that selection based on the ewe’s own performance may result in slow genetic improvement.

Palabras clave

  • fat-tailed sheep
  • genetic correlation
  • heritability
  • reproductive traits
Acceso abierto

Association of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in the FABP4 Gene with Carcass Characteristics and Meat Quality in Holstein Bulls

Publicado en línea: 08 Feb 2017
Páginas: 117 - 130

Resumen

Abstract

The aim of this study was to characterize the bovine fatty acid binding protein (FABP4) gene 3691G>A and 2834C>G polymorphisms and to evaluate interaction effects on the live weight, carcass characteristics and meat quality of Holstein bulls in the South Marmara region of Turkey. A total of 400 Holstein bulls grown on a private farm and slaughtered at 14-21 months of age, were randomly selected for use in this study. Initially, genotyping was performed by PCR-RFLP method and statistical analysis was carried out using least square methods of the GLM procedure. A SNP located in intron 1 (2834C>G) was associated with desirable increases in live weight, hot carcass weight and chilled carcass weight, and a SNP located in exon 3 (3691G>A) was associated with significant increases in marbling scores and first compressive stress point of the longissimus

dorsi muscle (P<0.05). The interaction analysis of the 3691G>A and the 2834C>G polymorphisms revealed significant effects for hot carcass weight, chilled carcass weight and backfat thickness (P<0.05). There were no significant associations between the SNPs and carcass measurements. Results indicated that the FABP4 3691G>A and 2834C>G polymorphisms and the 3691G>A and 2834C>G interactions can be used as selection parameters in breeding programmes to improve meat yield and carcass characteristics.

Palabras clave

  • FABP4
  • gene polymorphism
  • carcass characteristics
  • meat quality
  • Holstein
Acceso abierto

Analysis af Maternal Traits in Native Puławska Sows of Known Genotype (Ins/Del) at the PRL Locus

Publicado en línea: 08 Feb 2017
Páginas: 131 - 141

Resumen

Abstract

The objective of the study was to analyse periparturient behaviour and the reproductive parameters of native Puławska sows with regard to polymorphism (insertion/deletion) at the PRL locus as components in the assessment of maternal value. The analysis included 45 sows of known genotype at the PRL locus, which were managed under a conservation breeding programme in individual farms. Behaviour was assessed by using an ethogram of sow responses to the stockpersons and piglets during the rearing period. The production parameters included litter size between days 1 and 21, mortality, body weight and daily weight gains of the piglets during that period. The performed analyses and observations show an association between the polymorphism of PRL gene and the maternal parameters of Puławska sows. Del/Del homozygous sows exhibited significantly higher realised fertility, but the maternal characteristics were generally more favourable in sows of the PRL Ins/Ins genotype. These animals were more docile towards the stockpersons and piglets, and were characterised by lower crushing rates, generally lower litter mortality, and higher parameters of piglet growth and development.

Palabras clave

  • pigs
  • native breed
  • PRL
  • maternal traits
  • behaviour
Acceso abierto

Polymorphisms of the COL9A2, AOAH and FRZB Genes in the Horse Genome and their Association with the Occurrence of Osteochondrosis

Publicado en línea: 08 Feb 2017
Páginas: 143 - 153

Resumen

Abstract

The aim of the study was to evaluate the chosen polymorphisms of the COL9A2, AOAH and FRZB genes and find their potential effect on the occurrence of osteochondrosis in Polish sport horses population. During two successive years, all 198 performance tested horses were checked for osteochondrosis. The health status of the horses was assessed based on 10 x-ray images of three joints: fetlock, hock and stifle, and scored on a 0-3 scale. The methodology of analysis of selected candidate genes using the PCR-RFLP technique was developed. The analysis of variance was performed to evaluate significance of the effect of the COL9A2, AOAH and FRZB genotype on the occurrence of osteochondrosis in individual joints. Fixed effects of breed, gender and training centre were taken into account in the analysis. The results showed a significant influence (P≤0.05) of the COL9A2 genotypes on the occurrence of osteochondrosis in fetlock and hock joints. Polymorphism of this gene, even not proved a causal mutation, appears to have effect on symptoms of the disease. In genes AOAH and FRZB there was no significant effect for investigated SNPs. Further analysis of the discussed genes/polymorphisms seems to be important.

Palabras clave

  • Equus caballus
  • osteochondrosis (OC)
  • gene polymorphism

The biology, physiology, reproduction, and health

Acceso abierto

Induction of the Secretion of LH and GH by Orexin A and Ghrelin is Controlled in Vivo by Leptin and Photoperiod in Sheep

Publicado en línea: 08 Feb 2017
Páginas: 155 - 168

Resumen

Abstract

The influence of leptin on orexin A and the interaction of leptin with ghrelin in regulating the gonadotropic and somatotropic axes in seasonally polyestrous animals are not well understood. This study examined the effects of these factors as well as the mediating roles of specific ovine leptin antagonist (SOLA; mutant D23L/L39A/D40A/F41A) and photoperiod on luteinizing hormone (LH) and growth hormone (GH) secretion. Twenty-four ovariectomized, estradiol-implanted ewes were used in a replicated switchback design. The ewes were assigned randomly to 1 of 6 treatments (infused into the third ventricle 3 times at 0 (dusk), 1, and 2 h) as follows: control, Ringer-Locke buffer; leptin, 0.5 μg/kg b.w.; orexin A, 0.3 μg/kg b.w.; ghrelin, 2.5 μg/kg b.w.; SOLA, 50 μg/kg b.w. + orexin A, 0.3 μg/kg b.w.; and SOLA, 50 μg/kg b.w. + ghrelin, 2.5 μg/kg b.w. Blood samples (5 ml) were collected at 15-min intervals for 4 h. SOLA + orexin A resulted in an increase (P<0.01) in the LH plasma concentration during short-day (SD) and long-day (LD) photoperiods. However, ghrelin and SOLA + ghrelin had the opposite effect. SOLA + orexin A resulted in an increase (P<0.001) in the GH concentration compared with leptin or orexin A during the LD season. Ghrelin and SOLA + ghrelin increased the GH concentration (P<0.01) regardless of the season. In summary, LH and GH secretion are seasonally dependent on relationships that are subject to photoperiodic regulation, and leptin is an important regulator of the effects of ghrelin and orexin A on the activities of the gonadotropic and somatotropic axes in sheep.

Palabras clave

  • leptin antagonist
  • orexigenic hormones
  • luteinizing hormone
  • growth hormone
  • sheep
Acceso abierto

A Short Presynchronization with PGF2α and GnRH Improves Ovarian Response and Fertility in Lactating Holstein Cows Subjected to a Heatsynch Protocol

Publicado en línea: 08 Feb 2017
Páginas: 169 - 177

Resumen

Abstract

The objective of this study was to assess the efficacy of a single injection of Prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α) combined with or without GnRH before initiation of a Heatsynch protocol (GnRH-7d- PGF2α-2d-EB-1d-AI) on ovarian response and fertility in lactating Holstein cows. A total of 252 cows with a corpus luteum (CL; ≥10 mm) were assigned to one of three synchronization groups; 1 - Control (n=84), cows received two injections of PGF2α 14 days apart; 2 - Heatsynch with GnRH (PGH, n=88) the cows received PGF2α followed by GnRH four days later and then a Heatsynch protocol was initiated eight days after GnRH treatment; and 3 - Heatsynch without GnRH (PH, n=80) cows received a single injection of PGF2α followed by a Heatsynch protocol initiated 12 days after PGF2α. Cows detected in estrus were inseminated approximately 12 h after onset of estrus. Ovarian response and pregnancy diagnosis were determined by ultrasonography during the synchronization protocol and 30 days after AI, respectively. Results showed the percentage of cows with plasma P4≤0.4 ng/mL at AI were greater in PGH group compared to other groups (90.3 vs. 75.0%, P=0.03). The percentage of cows that ovulated in response to the GnRH injection of Heatsynch was affected (P<0.01) by synchronization protocol, because PGH cows were more likely to ovulate (77.2%) than PH (56.0%) cows. The proportion of cows displaying estrus was greater in PGH (70.4%) and PH (72.5%) groups compared with control (47.0%, P=0.04). Percentage of cows pregnant at 30 days after AI was (P=0.01) affected by synchronization treatment and was greater in PGH (45.16%) compared to control (25.0%) and PH (34.48%) groups. In summary, a short presynchronization that includes an injection of PGF2α and four days later GnRH increased fertility in Holstein cows subjected to a Heatsynch protocol. The enhanced fertility was due to a greater ovulatory response to GnRH of Heatsynch, more adequate plasma P4 concentrations during follicle development and a greater luteal regression following PGF2α prior to AI.

Palabras clave

  • short presynchronization
  • Heatsynch
  • functional corpus luteum
  • Holstein dairy cow
Acceso abierto

Performance and Small Intestine Morphology and Ultrastructure of Male Broilers Injected in Ovo with Bioactive Substances

Publicado en línea: 08 Feb 2017
Páginas: 179 - 195

Resumen

Abstract

The objective of the present study was to determine the effect of prebiotic and synbiotic preparations injected in ovo on day 12 of embryogenesis on both development of intestinal villi and the number of neutral goblet cells in the small intestine of male broiler chickens on day 35 of rearing. Eggs containing live embryos were randomly separated into five experimental groups (1800 eggs per group), and treated with different bioactive compounds by in ovo injection. The control group (C) was injected with physiological saline. The prebiotic groups (PI and PB) were injected with a solution containing 1.76 mg of inulin or with a solution containing 0.528 mg of Bi2tos. The injection solution for both synbiotic groups (SI and SB) consisted of 1.76 mg Inulin + 1000 CFU of L. lactis spp. lactis 2955 (SL1) or 0.528 mg Bi2tos + 1000 CFU of L. lactis spp. cremoris 477 (SC1). Samples for histological analysis were taken from the three segments of the small intestine: the duodenum, jejunum and ileum. Broiler performance increased in the prebiotic group injected with Bi2tos when compared to both the control group and the prebiotic group injected with inulin. In relation to other groups, in the duodenum and ileum the highest intestinal villi were observed in chickens with the lowest body weight, i.e. groups C and PI. The smaller surface area of villi was found in the jejunum and ileum in group SB. As far as the jejunum and ileum are concerned, a significantly higher number of goblet cells was noted in groups PB and SB.

Palabras clave

  • broiler chicken
  • in ovo
  • bioactive substances
  • small intestine
Acceso abierto

Iron Metabolism Modification During Repeated Show Jumping Event in Equine Athletes

Publicado en línea: 08 Feb 2017
Páginas: 197 - 204

Resumen

Abstract

In athletic horse the evaluation of iron status is of great importance to improve physical performance and health status of animal. The aim of this study was to evaluate the changes of iron indices following show jumping. Ten regularly trained Italian Saddlebred horses aged 7-8 years (mean body weight 467±12 kg) were subjected to three days jumping competition. Blood samples were collected at 5 time points: T0 (the day before competitions), T1 (immediately after exercise at day 1), T2 (immediately after exercise at day 2), T3 (immediately after exercise at day 3) and during the recovery period T4 (24 h after day 3). On each blood sample the values of red blood cell (RBC), hemoglobin concentration (Hb), hematocrit (Hct), serum iron, ferritin, transferrin, total iron-binding capacity (TIBC) and unsaturated iron-binding capacity (UIBC) were assessed. One-way repeated measure analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed a statistical significant effect of exercise (P<0.05) on all studied parameters. The application of Bonferroni’s post-hoc comparison showed a statistical significant increase in all studied parameters after exercise. These results provide new information about the changes in iron profile of jumper horse following exercise allowing for better evaluation of the health status and physical performance of this athlete horse.

Palabras clave

  • exercise
  • ferritin
  • horse
  • iron
  • transferrin
  • show jumping

Animal nutrition, and feedstuffs

Acceso abierto

Performance and Phosphorus Utilization of Broiler Chickens Fed Low Phytate Barley and Pea Based Diets with Graded Levels of Inorganic Phosphorus

Publicado en línea: 08 Feb 2017
Páginas: 205 - 215

Resumen

Abstract

The effects of feeding diets based on soybean meal, low phytate hulless barley (Lphybarley) and low phytate pea (Lphypea) with inorganic phosphorus (iP) reduced by 50 or 100% to broiler chickens on performance, P digestibility and bone characteristics were investigated. Two hundred and ten day-old (Ross 308 strain) broiler chicks (5 birds per cage; 6 cages per diet) were randomly allocated to 7 dietary treatments for a 21-day study. Diets were formulated based on soybean meal-normal phytate hulless barley (SBM-normbarley) with added inorganic P (iP) to meet NRC (1994) P requirements (SBM-normbarley100) or with 50% less iP (SBM-normbarley50), soybean meal-Lphybarley-Lphypea with added iP (Lphybarley-Lphypea100) or iP reduced by 50% (Lphybarley-Lphypea50) or 100% (Lphybarley-Lphypea0), and soybean meal-normbarleynormal phytate pea (normpea) with added iP (normbarley-normpea100) or iP reduced by 50% (normbarley-normpea50). Birds fed the Lphybarley-Lphypea0 diet had the lowest (P<0.001) ADG compared with those fed the other diets. Reducing iP by 50% led to a reduction (P<0.05) in ADG for birds fed the SBM-normbarley- and normbarley-normpea-based diets but not in the Lphybarley- Lphypea-based diet. Reducing iP by 50% led to a reduction (P<0.05) in ADFI in birds fed the SBM-normbarley-based diet and normbarley-normpea-based diet compared with those fed adequate iP. Feed conversion ratio was not affected by diet throughout the experimental period (P>0.10). Reducing iP content reduced P retention in the SBM-normbarley-based diet but not in the normbarley-normpea-based diet but tibia ash and length were reduced in birds fed both diets (P<0.05). Reducing dietary iP content linearly increased (P < 0.05) P retention and linearly decreased (P<0.05) tibia ash and length in the Lphypea-Lphybarley-based diets. In conclusion, feeding a low phytate hulless barley-low phytate pea based diet with iP reduced by 50% supported similar performance as control and increased P retention, suggesting that utilizing a combination of low phytate ingredients can reduce the need for supplemental iP with significant cost and environmental implication.

Palabras clave

  • broilers
  • bone mineralization
  • low phytate pea
  • phosphorus
  • performance
Acceso abierto

Effects of Galactooligosaccharide and Pediococcus Acidilactici on Antioxidant Defence and Disease Resistance of Rainbow Trout, Oncorhynchus Mykiss

Publicado en línea: 08 Feb 2017
Páginas: 217 - 227

Resumen

Abstract

The present study investigated the effects of dietary prebiotic galactooligosaccharide [(GOS), 1%], probiotic (Pediococcus acidilactici) [7.57 log CFU g-1] and synbiotic (GOS + P. acidilactici) on antioxidant enzymes activity and disease resistance of rainbow trout (15.04±0.52 g). After 8 weeks feeding on the experimental diets, liver catalase (CAT ), glutathione S-transferases (GST), glutathione reductase (GR) activities, and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were measured. Thereafter, all fish were challenged by Streptococcus iniae. Probiotic, prebiotic and synbiotic had no significant effect on liver MDA level compared to the control group (P>0.05). However, CAT , GST and GR activities were significantly higher in the fish fed probiotic, prebiotic and synbiotic, compared to the control group (P<0.05). The highest CAT and GST activities were observed in the fish fed diet supplemented with synbiotic. There were no significant differences in GR activity among different groups (P>0.05). Bacterial challenge showed that feeding on probiotic, prebiotic and synbiotic remarkably increased resistance against S. iniae (P<0.05), with the highest resistance observed in the synbiotic group. The results indicated that although both GOS and P. acidilactici significantly increased antioxidant defence and improved disease resistance, combination of GOS and P. acidilactici had an additive effect. Combination of GOS and P. acidilactici is recommended to increase trout antioxidant capacity and streptococcosis.

Palabras clave

  • rainbow trout
  • galactooligosaccharide
  • Pediococcus acidilactici
  • antioxidant defence
  • disease resistance
Acceso abierto

Metabolic Attributes, Milk Production and Ovarian Activity of Ewes Supplemented with a Soluble Sugar or a Protected-Fat as Different Energy Sources During Postpartum Period

Publicado en línea: 08 Feb 2017
Páginas: 229 - 240

Resumen

Abstract

The effects of two dietary supplemental energy sources on metabolic attributes, milk production and ovarian activity of ewes during early to mid-postpartum period were studied using thirty multiparous lactating ewes (Rahmani × Barki) weighing 43.10±1.22 kg and 3-6 years old. The ewes were assigned to three groups (n=10 per group). All ewes received the same diet supplemented with isocaloric and isonitrogenous protected-palm oil (50 g/ewe/d, F-group) or a sugar cane molasses (140 g/ewe/d, M-group) or without supplementation (control, C-group), for 60 days starting 2 weeks postpartum. Results showed that, during the experimental period, both energy sources reduced (P<0.05) body weight loss of ewes compared with the control (2.57 kg in F-group, 0.911 kg in M-group and 4.71 kg in C-group). The metabolic profiles of ewes were affected by the sources of energy, the highest (P<0.05) concentration of serum triglycerides was in the F-group, whereas the highest (P<0.05) concentration of serum insulin was in the M-group. The lowest serum glucose concentration was (P<0.05) in the F-group (73.20 mg/dL) and the highest in the C-group (76.85 mg/dL), whereas it was intermediate in the M-group (74.69 mg/dL). Ewes in the F-group had (P<0.05) the highest milk yield and energy-corrected milk (531.72 g/d and 554.40 g/d, respectively) compared with those in the M-group (491.76 g/d and 525.12 g/d, respectively) and C-group (429.96 g/d and 462.00 g/d, respectively). The highest (P<0.05) number of corpora lutea (CL; ovulation activity) was in the F-group (0.45), whereas it was not different between the M-group (0.25) and the C-group (0.15). In conclusion, during early to mid-postpartum period, protected-fat supplementation increased serum triglycerides concentration which was effectively used as an energyyielding nutrient for improving milk production. It could also be suggested that specific fatty acid in protected-fat improved quality of the ovulatory follicle and thus occurrence of ovulation.

Palabras clave

  • energy source
  • lactation
  • postpartum ewes
  • ovulation
Acceso abierto

Evaluation of Humic Acid as an Aflatoxin Binder in Broiler Chickens

Publicado en línea: 08 Feb 2017
Páginas: 241 - 255

Resumen

Abstract

The efficacy of humic acid (HA) as an aflatoxin (AF) binder in broiler chickens exposed to aflatoxin- contaminated feed from 1 to 42 days of age was assessed. A total of 200 birds were assigned to 20 pens, with 10 birds per pen. The following treatments (T) were applied: T1: basal diet (B); T2: B + AFB1 (100 μg/kg); T3: B + AFB1 (100 μg/kg) + HA (0.1%); T4: B +AFB1 (100 μg/kg) + HA (0.2%); T5: B + AFB1 (100 μg/kg) + HA (0.3%). Each treatment consisted of 4 replicates. Oxihumate was effective in diminishing the adverse effects caused by aflatoxin on body weight (BW) of broilers (P<0.05). Humic acid also showed protective effects against liver damage and some of the hematological and serum biochemical changes associated with aflatoxin toxicity (P<0.05). The supplementation of HA also enhanced the humoral immunity by counteracting the aflatoxin contamination. Results indicated that HA could alleviate some of the toxic effects of aflatoxin in growing broilers. Humic acid (0.1 to 0.3%) might, therefore, prove to be beneficial in the management of aflatoxin-contaminated feedstuffs for poultry when used in combination with other mycotoxin management practices.

Palabras clave

  • humic acid
  • broiler
  • aflatoxin B1
  • serum biochemistry
  • immunity

Behavior, well-being, production technology, and environment

Acceso abierto

Eligibility of Lying Boxes at Different THI Levels in a Freestall Barn

Publicado en línea: 08 Feb 2017
Páginas: 257 - 269

Resumen

Abstract

Cattle show a high sensitivity to changeability of microclimate conditions and heat stress that causes changes in the welfare and behaviour of cows. The presented study aimed at determining the relationship between the temperature humidity index (THI) value during the summer period and daily behaviour of dairy cows, including eligibility of lying boxes. All these aspects were measured under real production conditions. The investigated area, where microclimate conditions measurements were conducted, was a free-stall barn with single and double boxes, with manure and feeding alleys, housing 40 Holstein-Friesian cows. Observations were made on the behaviour of the cows based on a preference test concerning their choice of the best areas with respect to three ranges of THI values: neutral (N), warm (W) and hot (H). During the warm and hot period the research demonstrated a positive correlation between the level of THI and the share of standing cows (in period W - P<0.03 and H - P<0.008), and an inversely proportional one between the level of THI with participation of lying down cows (periods: W - P<0.06; H - P<0.004) and the length of their laying bouts in double boxes. The double boxes area was predominantly occupied, whereas single boxes area was the least often used. The occupation of manure alley areas was positively correlated with the level of THI.

Palabras clave

  • temperature-humidity index
  • dairy cow
  • behaviour
  • lying bout length

Quality and safety of animal origin products

Acceso abierto

Evaluation of Effect of Thymol Combined with Lactic Acid or Sodium Lactate on Psychrophilic Bacteria and Salmonella Spp. on Chicken Drumstick

Publicado en línea: 08 Feb 2017
Páginas: 271 - 280

Resumen

Abstract

This study was carried out to evaluate the combined antimicrobial effect of thymol with lactic acid or sodium lactate on Salmonella and psychrophilic bacteria on chicken drumstick. Drumstick samples were artificially contaminated with Salmonella spp., then sprayed with sterile 0.85% NaCl solution (control), and thymol (0.25% w/v) with lactic acid (2% and 4% v/v) or sodium lactate (2% and 4% v/v), alone or in combination, for 30 s. The samples were stored at 4°C and analyzed on days 0, 2 and 4 for Salmonella and psychrophilic bacteria. Thymol alone did not show antibacterial effect on Salmonella and psychrophilic bacteria on chicken drumstick when compared with the control group during storage period. Spray with 4% lactic acid + thymol reduced Salmonella and psychrophilic bacteria by 1.4 and 1.8 log10 CFU/ml on day 0, respectively. A significant decrease in the number of Salmonella and psychrophilic bacteria was observed in the samples sprayed with 4% lactic acid and 4% lactic acid + thymol on days 2 and 4 when compared to the control (P<0.05). The combinations of thymol with lactic acid or sodium lactate did not show synergistic or additive effect on Salmonella and psychrophilic bacteria present on chicken drumstick with skin.

Palabras clave

  • chicken drumstick
  • thymol
  • lactic acid
  • Salmonella
  • psychrophilic bacteria
Acceso abierto

The Effect of Crossing the Native Złotnicka Spott Ed Pigs with Other Breeds on Slaughter Value of Fatt Eners and Quality of Dry-Cured Meat Products

Publicado en línea: 08 Feb 2017
Páginas: 281 - 299

Resumen

Abstract

The dry-cured necks and hams produced from the meat of Złotnicka Spotted (ZS) pigs and their crossbreds with Duroc and Polish Large White, were tested. The slaughter value of the fatteners was determined (lean meat content, backfat thickness, area of the loin cross-section). The water, fat, protein and NaCl content was established in the final products. The meat colour (L* a* b*) and pH were measured. The final products were subjected to sensory evaluation and ranked on the scale of 1-5 points. Crossing the Złotnicka Spotted with the PLW resulted in higher lean meat content by approx. 4 percentage points (p.p.) and in thinner back fat thickness by 0.6 cm. Dry-cured ham produced from the meat of different fattener groups did not differ significantly in terms of physico-chemical traits as well as sensory traits. The sensory characteristics of both ham and neck received high scores (on average above 4.5 points). It was found that the tested products differed in terms of chemical content. The dry-cured necks contained approx. 19.45% of fat in the group of the ZS × PLW crossbreds whereas in other groups this figure was 2 to 6 p.p. higher. The dry-cured ham that was produced was based on the meat of purebred pigs containing 3 to 4.6 p.p. less fat compared to the crossbreds with the Duroc. The research proved that crossing the ZS with PLW and Duroc did not make the quality of the dry-cured products deteriorate.

Palabras clave

  • pigs
  • breeds
  • slaughter value
  • product quality

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