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Edición Editors: Magdalena Bielska, Jerzy Pilawski, Katarzyna Skupniewicz

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Detalles de la revista
Formato
Revista
eISSN
2300-8733
Publicado por primera vez
25 Nov 2011
Periodo de publicación
4 veces al año
Idiomas
Inglés

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Volumen 19 (2019): Edición 1 (January 2019)

Detalles de la revista
Formato
Revista
eISSN
2300-8733
Publicado por primera vez
25 Nov 2011
Periodo de publicación
4 veces al año
Idiomas
Inglés

Buscar

15 Artículos

Review

Acceso abierto

Manipulation of Rumen Fermentation and Methane Gas Production by Plant Secondary Metabolites (Saponin, Tannin and Essential Oil) – A Review of Ten-Year Studies

Publicado en línea: 01 Feb 2019
Páginas: 3 - 29

Resumen

Abstract

A wide range of plant secondary metabolites (PSM) have been shown to have the potential to modulate the fermentation process in the rumen. The use of plants and plant extracts as natural feed additives has become an interesting topic not only among nutritionists but also other scientists. Although a large number of phytochemicals (e.g. saponins, tannins and essential oils) have recently been investigated for their methane (CH4) reduction potential, there have not yet been major breakthroughs that could be applied in practice. However, the effectiveness of these PSM depends on the source, type and the level of their presence in plant products. The aim of the present review was to assess ruminal CH4 emission through a comparison of integrating related studies from published papers, which described various levels of different PSM sources being added to ruminant feed. Apart from CH4, other related rumen fermentation parameters were also included in this review.

Palabras clave

  • rumen
  • methane
  • fermentation
  • plant secondary metabolite
Acceso abierto

How Pigs Influence Indoor Air Properties in Intensive Farming: Practical Implications – A Review

Publicado en línea: 01 Feb 2019
Páginas: 31 - 47

Resumen

Abstract

Indoor environmental conditions in intensive pig farms are influenced by both the outdoor air temperature and humidity, and the heat, moisture and gas exchanges between the animal and the air. As ventilation rate in pig facilities is usually estimated in temperature, moisture and even CO2 balances, estimation of heat losses or gains, and moisture and CO2 production from the animal is needed, but the contribution of other sources of the barn, such as slurry or wet surfaces have also to be taken into account. Some recent studies have been conducted to update total heat and moisture production at farm level, showing that current, historical standards of latent heat transfer are consistently lower than those reported recently at facility level, for both adult and growing animals. Also, CO2 production needs to be updated by including an estimation of its release from slurry. These new values will help with updating the standards for ventilation rate recommendations and design of the modern intensive pig buildings.

Palabras clave

  • pigs
  • heat production
  • moisture production
  • carbon dioxide
  • ventilation rate

Animal genetics and breeding

Acceso abierto

Genetic Variability of Cold-Blooded Horses Participating in Genetic Resources Conservation Programs, Using Pedigree Analysis

Publicado en línea: 01 Feb 2019
Páginas: 49 - 60

Resumen

Abstract

Two types of Polish local cold-blooded horses – Sztumski and Sokólski, covered by genetic resources conservation programs, were analyzed for founder’s contribution, genetic structure and inbreeding. In both populations, created in the early twentieth century, were used the same stallions, mainly Ardennes, Belgians and Bretons. The aim of the study was to analyze the genetic variability of Sztumski and Sokólski cold-blooded horses, using pedigree information. The reference population contained 2359 horses: 1129 Sztumski and 1230 Sokólski included in conservation programs in 2014. The data set consisted of a total of 12,821 ancestor pedigrees. The results showed that in the analyzed population the number of founders was 1139 for Sztumski and 1118 for Sokólski horses; effective population size and effective number of founders were 688.8; 156.9 and 704.5; 111.4, respectively. The mean coefficient of inbreeding was 1.54 for Sztumski and 1.56 for Sokólski horses. In the gene pool the most important contribution was of Ardennes horses (43.67% in Sztumski and 46.82% in Sokólski horses), followed by Belgian horses (18.32% and 9.3%, respectively). The most important ancestors in both populations were Ardennes sires Roll-tan 699 and Gustaw 2807, and German cold-blooded sires Elbgang 1504 and Bär.

Palabras clave

  • Sztumski and Sokólski cold-blooded horses
  • local population
  • inbreeding
  • founders contribution
Acceso abierto

Paternal Leakage of Mitochondrial DNA in the Raccoon Dog (Nyctereutes Procyonoides Gray 1834)

Publicado en línea: 01 Feb 2019
Páginas: 61 - 69

Resumen

Abstract

The aim of the study was to describe the mechanism of mitochondrial DNA inheritance in a group of farmed raccoon dogs. The study involved 354 individuals. Whole peripheral blood was the research material. DNA was isolated and PCR was performed for two fragments of mitochondrial genes: COX1 (cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 gene) and COX2 (cytochrome oxidase subunit 2 gene). The PCR products were sequenced and subjected to bioinformatics analyses. Three mitochondrial haplotypes were identified in the COX1 gene fragment and two in the COX2 gene fragment. The analysis of mtDNA inheritance in the paternal line confirmed the three cases of paternal mtDNA inheritance, i.e. the so-called “paternal leakage” in the analysed population. In two families, all offspring inherited paternal mitochondrial DNA, whereas in one family one descendant inherited paternal mtDNA and another one inherited maternal mtDNA. The lineage data indicated that one female which inherited maternal mitochondrial DNA transferred it onto the next generation. To sum up, the results of the study for the first time demonstrated the phenomenon of “paternal leakage” in farmed raccoon dogs, which facilitated description of mitochondrial DNA inheritance in the paternal line.

Palabras clave

  • gene
  • gene
  • paternal inheritance
  • polymorphism
  • raccoon dog
Acceso abierto

Analysis of FTO and PLIN2 Polymorphisms in Relation to Carcass and Meat Quality Traits in Pigs

Publicado en línea: 01 Feb 2019
Páginas: 71 - 83

Resumen

Abstract

The aim of this study was to analyze the association of polymorphisms in alpha-ketoglutarate-dependent dioxygenase (FTO) and perilipin 2 (PLIN2) genes with carcass and meat quality traits in pigs reared in Poland. The research covered 578 sows that belong to the following breeds: Duroc, Hampshire, Polish Landrace, Pietrain, Puławska and Polish Large White. FTO (FM244720:g.400C>G) and PLIN2 (GU461317:g.98G>A) genes variants were determined by means of PCR-RFLP and ACRS-PCR methods respectively. Association between individual genotypes and analyzed traits was calculated by means of GLM procedure for Polish Landrace, Polish Large White and Puławska breeds separately and for all six breeds together in case of FTO gene. The results showed that FTO variants were associated with weight of loin without backfat and skin (WL), loin eye area (AL) and meat percentage (MP) in Polish Large White (P≤0.05), mean backfat thickness from 5 measurements (BFT) and pH measured 45 min after slaughter in m. longissimus dorsi (pH24 ld) as well as with water holding-capacity (WHC) in Puławska breed (P≤0.01). PLIN2 genotypes, however were correlated with WL and height of the loin eye (HL) in Polish Large White and Puławska (P≤0.05), AL in Polish Large White (P≤0.01) as well as luminosity (L*) in Puławska (P≤0.05) pigs. We observed most consistent relationships of PLIN2 SNP with intramuscular fat content (IMF) and WHC. In 3 analyzed breeds GG genotype was connected with highest values of these traits (P≤0.05).

Palabras clave

  • SNP
  • carcass
  • meat
  • pigs

The biology, physiology, reproduction, and health

Acceso abierto

Influence of Type of Use, Age and Gender on Haematological and Biochemical Blood Parameters of Małopolski Horses

Publicado en línea: 01 Feb 2019
Páginas: 85 - 96

Resumen

Abstract

The purpose of the study was to determine whether the type of use, age and gender of Małopolski horses affect the level of selected haematological and biochemical parameters of their blood and whether there is an interaction between these factors. The research was carried out on 30 horses of the Małopolski breed, which were divided according to gender (18 mares and 12 stallions), age (2–6 years, 7–9 years and 10–16 years) and use (recreational vs. sport). To sum up, the gender of horses significantly affects erythrocyte indices, as evidenced by their significantly higher values in the stallions as compared to the mares, as well as by the interactions between gender and type of use and between the gender and age of the horse. The leukocyte and neutrophil counts increase with the age of horses, and the interaction between age and type of use indicates that the leukocyte and neutrophil counts in training horses is closely linked to their age. systematic physical exercise in sport horses increases leukocyte and lymphocyte counts and contributes to osteogenesis (increase in alp activity and plasma content of calcium and phosphorus), which has a beneficial effect on their health. The correlations obtained may improve breeders’ awareness of the effect of various factors, such as age, gender or type of use, on blood indices in horses and can be helpful in evaluating the health of Małopolski horses.

Palabras clave

  • horses
  • blood parameters
  • type of use
  • gender
  • age
Acceso abierto

Influence of in Ovo Administration of Some Water-Soluble Vitamins on Hatchability Traits, Growth, Carcass Traits and Blood Chemistry of Japanese Quails

Publicado en línea: 01 Feb 2019
Páginas: 97 - 111

Resumen

Abstract

A total of 450 fertile Japanese quail eggs were used to determine the impacts of in ovo administration of water-soluble vitamins (C, B6 and B12) on the growth performance, carcass traits, hematological and biochemical blood parameters as well as the immune response of Japanese quails. On the 7th day of incubation, the eggs were allocated to five groups: un-injected, 0.1 ml/egg saline, 1 mg/egg vitamin C, 150 µg/egg vitamin B6 and 20 µg/egg vitamin B12. The percentage of early embryonic mortality was increased (P≤0.001) in all treated groups versus the control group. Chicks that hatched from eggs injected with 1 mg/egg vitamin C exhibited a significantly greater (P≤0.05) live body weight (LBW) than those from the control and saline groups. During 0–2 weeks of age, the chicks hatched from eggs injected with vitamins displayed better feed conversion than the positive or negative controls. In ovo injection of vitamins had no significant effect on all carcass traits. In ovo injection with vitamins C, B6 and B12 increased plasma total protein and its fractions compared with the control. Plasma levels of total lipids and cholesterol were decreased in chicks hatched from eggs injected with 1 mg/egg vitamin C, 150 µg/egg vitamin B6 or 20 µg/egg vitamin B12 compared with those hatched from control eggs. Plasma T3 and T4 were increased in chicks hatched from eggs injected with vitamin C, vitamin B6 and vitamin B12. The relative weights of the bursa of Fabricius and thymus were significantly (P=0.002 or 0.003) increased in the birds hatched from eggs injected with vitamins compared with those in the control or saline group. Thus, in ovo injection of vitamins C, B6 and B12 improved the blood profile and immune response of Japanese quail.

Palabras clave

  • injection
  • growth
  • carcass
  • blood
  • immunity
  • quail
Acceso abierto

Body Temperature Responses and Hair Cortisol Levels in Dairy Holstein Cows Fed High- and Low-Forage Diet and Under Water Deprivation During Thermal-Humidity Exposure

Publicado en línea: 01 Feb 2019
Páginas: 113 - 125

Resumen

Abstract

Body temperature responses and hair cortisol levels in dairy Holstein cows fed high- and low-forage diet and under water deprivation during thermal-humidity exposure (THE) were evaluated. Two experiments (Exps.) were conducted between July and September 2012 and 2013 for 64 d and 74 d, respectively. First, twenty dairy Holstein cows (90±30 DIM; 37.2±1.7 l milk/d, 620±75 kg BW) were used. The practical forage:concentrate (F:C) ratios in the low forage (LF) and high forage (HF) group were 44:56 and 56:44, respectively, while they were designed to be 40:60 and 60:40. Second, thirty dairy cows (53.5±30.4 DIM; 41.7±1.5 l milk/d,650±53 kg BW) were allotted into two groups of free access to water (FAW) and 2 h water deprivation (2hWD) following feeding. The animals were subjected to having the hair cut (1 to 2 g) from their foreheads at the same time (12:00 h) twice at the beginning (prior to the beginning of heat stress) and the end of the experiment when the cows were under THE. Hair cortisol levels (initial hair cut as the baseline and re-grown hair) were measured using ELISA method. Body temperature (BT) was measured twice daily at 7 body points of cows including rectum, vagina, hip, udder, rumen-side (flank), ear, and forehead using non-contact forehead infrared thermometer (infrared gun having two modes: inner and skin) on the 7 d of the beginning and the last 7 d of the experiment at 1000 and 1400 h. Statistical analyses were carried out using the MIXED model of SAS as repeated measurements. The intra-assay and inter-assay coefficients of variations for hair cortisol measurements were 3.15 and 10.05, respectively. Hair cortisol (HC) levels were not different within the two groups in both Exps. (P>0.05); however, HC level was lower (P<0.0001) prior to temperature-humidity exposure (THE). Results of Exp. 1 showed that vagina inner temperature was higher (P=0.041) and rectal temperature tended to be higher (P=0.083) in the HF compared to the LF group. The inner ear temperature was lower and ear skin temperature was higher (P=0.032) in the HF compared to the LF group. Forehead inner temperature was higher (P=0.048) in the LF group than in the HF group while forehead skin temperature was lower in the HF group (P=0.041). No differences were observed in the hip, udder and rumen-side (flank) temperature (both in body and skin) between the HF and LF group (P=0.012). In Exp. 2, no temperature differences were observed at all of the body points, inner and skin, between the two groups (P>0.05). However, the skin temperature in the 2hWD groups tended to be higher than in the FAW group (P=0.093). Conclusions drawn indicate the beneficial use of measuring BT at different body points of the cow in addition to RT under THE.

Palabras clave

  • thermal-humidity exposure
  • body temperature
  • dairy cows
  • forage level
  • hair cortisol
  • water deprivation
Acceso abierto

Identifying Biomarkers of Autophagy and Apoptosis in Transfected Nuclear Donor Cells and Transgenic Cloned Pig Embryos

Publicado en línea: 01 Feb 2019
Páginas: 127 - 146

Resumen

Abstract

In this study, we first investigated the effects of 3-methyladenine (3-MA), an autophagy inhibitor, and the inducer – rapamycin (RAPA) on the incidence of programmed cell death (PCD) symptoms during in vitro development of porcine somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT)-derived embryos. The expression of autophagy inhibitor mTOR protein was decreased in porcine SCNT blastocysts treated with 3MA. The abundance of the autophagy marker LC3 increased in blastocysts following RAPA treatment. Exposure of porcine SCNT-derived embryos to 3-MA suppressed their developmental abilities to reach the blastocyst stage. No significant difference in the expression pattern of PCD-related proteins was found between non-transfected dermal cell and transfected dermal cell groups. Additionally, the pattern of PCD in SCNT-derived blastocysts generated using SC and TSC was not significantly different, and in terms of porcine SCNT-derived embryo development rates and total blastocyst cell numbers, there was no significant difference between non-transfected cells and transfected cells. In conclusion, regulation of autophagy affected the development of porcine SCNT embryos. Regardless of the type of nuclear donor cells (transfected or non-transfected dermal cells) used for SCNT, there was no difference in the developmental potential and quantitative profiles of autophagy/apoptosis biomarkers between porcine transgenic and non-transgenic cloned embryos. These results led us to conclude that PCD is important for controlling porcine SCNT-derived embryo development, and that transfected dermal cells can be utilized as a source of nuclear donors for the production of transgenic cloned progeny in pigs.

Palabras clave

  • porcine
  • 3-methyladenine
  • rapamycin
  • somatic cell nuclear transfer
  • autophagy
  • apoptosis
  • cloned embryo
Acceso abierto

Effect of Parity on Claw Horn Lesions in Holstein Dairy Cows: Clinical and Radiological Study

Publicado en línea: 01 Feb 2019
Páginas: 147 - 158

Resumen

Abstract

The aim of this study was to estimate the effect of parity on claw lesions prevalence in Holstein dairy cows through clinical and radiological observations. Ninety-seven cows were examined two months after calving to record body condition score, locomotion score, feet diagnostic imaging (X-ray), hoof trimming and clinical evaluation. According to the lactation, the cows were divided into three groups: first parity (Group 1, n=40), second parity (Group 2, n= 29) and third or more parity (Group 3, n=28). Several claw lesions were found. One-way analysis of variance was applied along with Pearson’s correlation coefficient. Significant effect of groups was evidenced on radiographic images. In particular, the radiographic images showed a significant increase of osteolysis from Group 1 to Group 3. The application of Pearson’s correlation coefficient showed a significantly positive correlation between locomotion score and some claw lesions in all groups. In conclusion, this study provides an overview of claw lesions in dairy cow through clinical and radiological observations.

Palabras clave

  • dairy cow
  • parity
  • locomotion score
  • radiology
  • claw lesions

Animal nutrition, and feedstuffs

Acceso abierto

Growth Performance, Diarrhoea Incidence, and Nutrient Digestibility in Weaned Piglets Fed an Antibiotic-Free Diet with Dehydrated Porcine Plasma or Potato Protein Concentrate

Publicado en línea: 01 Feb 2019
Páginas: 159 - 172

Resumen

Abstract

Two experiments were conducted to test if dehydrated porcine plasma (DPP) and potato protein concentrate (PPC) could be used as an alternative to antibiotics in starter diets for piglets. Experiment one was conducted to test if DPP and PPC in an antibiotic-free diet affected pig performance, and faecal consistency. Eighty-four piglets weaned at 22 days and weighing 6.9 kg were used. Piglets were fed for two weeks with one of four diets: a positive control diet with antibiotics (C+); and three other diets without antibiotics added with DPP, PPC, or DPP and PPC (DPP+PPC) to measure the average daily feed intake (ADFI), average daily gain (ADG), feed efficiency (FE), and incidence and severity of diarrhoea (ID and ISD respectively). In experiment two, twenty-four piglets weaned at 17 days and weighing 5.7 kg, were implanted at 21 days of age with a T-cannula at the terminal ileum to measure the apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of nutrients. Piglets were fed one of four diets: a positive control diet with antibiotics (C+); a negative control diet without antibiotics (C–), and two diets without antibiotics added with DPP, or PPC. The results of experiment one showed that the DPP diet was the most consumed diet during the first week, and the ADG and FE were similar among treatments. During the second week and the total experimental period the ADFI, ADG, and FE were similar among diets. The ID was lower in the C+ diet than other diets. The ISD was lower in the C+ diet than DPP and DPP+PPC diets; piglets fed PPC diet were similar to piglets fed C+ and DPP and DPP+PPC diets. The results of digestibility showed that crude protein AID was higher in piglets fed C+ and PPC diets than C– and DPP diets. Dry matter ATTD and energy ATTD were higher for piglets fed PPC than other diets. Further, crude protein ATTD of DPP and PPC diets tended to have a similar digestibility to that of C+ diet. The results suggest that PPC is a potential controller of post-weaning diarrhoea.

Palabras clave

  • weaning
  • piglets
  • potato protein
  • spray dried porcine plasma
  • digestibility
Acceso abierto

Effects of Dietary Conjugated Linoleic Acid and Selected Vegetable Oils or Vitamin E on Fatty Acid Composition of Hen Egg Yolks

Publicado en línea: 01 Feb 2019
Páginas: 173 - 188

Resumen

Abstract

The objective of this study was to produce eggs enriched with conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and ameliorate their fatty acid profile using the appropriate combination of dietary CLA with or without vegetable oils (olive oil or rapeseed oil) and vitamin E. In Experiment 1, 25-week-old laying hens were randomly distributed into eight groups of nine. Birds were fed with a standard diet with four different levels of CLA (0.0, 0.5, 0.75, 1.0%) and vegetable oils (olive oil or rapeseed oil, both in the amount of 1.46%). In Experiment 2, hens were randomly distributed into 12 groups of nine. The same four levels of CLA with three doses of vitamin E (0, 150, 300 mg/kg of diet) were applied. In both experiments, eggs were collected twice (at 4 and 8 weeks) for fatty acid profiling using GCMS. The differences between treatment means were considered significant at P<0.05. CLA treatments significantly increased the content of CLA, saturated fatty acids (SFA), and significantly decreased the content of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) in the egg yolk, whereas levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) were unaffected. The vegetable oils used did not prevent the negative effects of CLA effectively. Only after eight weeks of experiment 1 SFA levels were significantly lower, but MUFA levels were significantly higher in groups fed with rapeseed oil compared to groups fed with olive oil. In experiment 2, the addition of vitamin E to the hen diet did not have an essential influence on the lipid profile of egg yolks.

Palabras clave

  • CLA-enriched eggs
  • olive oil
  • rapeseed oil
  • vitamin E
  • fatty acid profile

Behavior, well-being, production technology, and environment

Acceso abierto

Effect of Age at First Calving on First Lactation Milk Yield, Lifetime Milk Production And Longevity of Cows

Publicado en línea: 01 Feb 2019
Páginas: 189 - 200

Resumen

Abstract

The objective of the study was to analyse the effect of age at first calving (AFC) on first lactation milk yield, lifetime milk production and longevity of dairy cows. The study used SYMLEK data on the milk yield and culling of 111 857 Polish Holstein-Friesian cows from the active population in Pomerania and Kujawy, Poland. The cows first calved during 2000–2009 and were used or removed from the herds until the end of 2015. For each cow, calculations were made of first lactation milk yield, lifetime milk production, first lactation milk yield per milking day, lifetime milk production per day, as well as the lifespan (length of productive life, duration of rearing) and number of calvings. Based on the age at first calving (duration of the rearing period), the cows were grouped as follows: ≤22, 22.1–24.0, 24.1–26.0, 26.1–28.0, 28.1–30.0, 30.1–32.0 and >32 months. The GLM, CORR PEARSON and FREQ procedures from the SAS package were used in the statistical calculations. Considering first lactation milk yield, lifetime milk production and longevity, it is recommended that the cows should be first milked between 22.1 and 26.0 months of age. This is supported by the approximately 24% higher lifetime milk production in relation to the latest calving cows (P<0.01). Late commencement of the first milking (especially after 28 months) causes a considerable decrease in the first lactation milk yield and lifetime milk production, shortens the productive period, reduces the number of calvings, and increases culling rate due to low milk yield and udder diseases.

Palabras clave

  • age at first calving
  • longevity
  • lifetime milk production
Acceso abierto

Impacts of Prepubertal Rearing Intensity and Calf Health on First-Lactation Yield and Lifetime Performance

Publicado en línea: 01 Feb 2019
Páginas: 201 - 214

Resumen

Abstract

The objective of the present study was to investigate possible long-term effects of calf and heifer feeding intensity on first-lactation milk yield and lifetime efficiency (milk per day of life). Detailed records from a total number of 2,252 female German Holstein calves from one commercial farm were obtained from birth to culling. Data regarding all information about calf’s birth, rearing time until first insemination, first calving, first-lactation yield and lifetime performance were collected over a 12-year period. This large data volume was merged, handled, checked for plausibility, classified and evaluated. Analyses revealed that body weight at an age of six months was significantly influenced by the average daily gain in the first two weeks of life (P<0.0001) and by the duration of treatment for respiratory diseases (P=0.0080). Moreover, first-lactation yield was affected by average daily gain in the whole first year of life (P=0.0013) and particularly in the period of month nine to twelve (P=0.00187). Lifetime efficiency was significantly influenced by body weight at first insemination (P=0.0051), average milk yield (P<0.0001) and reason for culling (P<0.0001). The results of this long-term study confirm that growth is important in general, but as shown by the negative correlation between average daily gain from month nine to twelve and the first lactation milk yield, nutrient intake (energy and protein) should be adapted to enable a controlled growth especially at certain periods of life. After six months of age, daily gain has to be controlled to avoid fat accumulation for a healthy and effective start of lactation. In addition, this analysis revealed that after passing first lactation, particularly health and fertility are the keys for a long efficient lifetime of dairy cows.

Palabras clave

  • dairy cows
  • lifetime production
  • lifetime efficiency
  • longevity
  • long-term effects
Acceso abierto

Redox and Immunological Status of Turkeys Fed Diets with Different Levels and Sources of Copper

Publicado en línea: 01 Feb 2019
Páginas: 215 - 227

Resumen

Abstract

This study, performed on turkeys aged 1 to 98 days, aimed to investigate whether different dietary inclusion levels (20, 10, 2 mg kg−1) of copper nanoparticles (Cu-NP) as a substitute for copper sulphate (Cu-SUL) affect redox and immunological status of turkeys’ tissues. No significant differences in the final body weights of turkeys were found across the dietary treatments. A comparison of the physiological effects of Cu-NP and Cu-SUL revealed equivocal metabolic responses including decreased superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in the liver, increased SOD and catalase activities in breast muscles, decreased total glutathione concentrations in breast muscles, and decreased plasma IgY concentrations. An analysis of the antioxidant and immune status parameters in the blood, liver and breast meat of turkeys indicates that 10 mg/kg is the optimal inclusion level of additional Cu. Both two-fold higher and five-fold lower Cu supplementation levels have a negative influence on selected parameters of the antioxidant and immune status of birds. Lower supplementation levels of Cu-NP (2 and 10 mg/kg) exert similar physiological effects to Cu-SUL, whereas higher addition of Cu-NP (20 mg/kg) may negatively affect selected redox parameters and stimulate the synthesis of the proinflammatory cytokine IL-6. The results of the present study indicate that further research is needed to establish the actual dietary requirements for Cu in turkeys and the efficacy of nanoparticles as a new additional Cu source in turkey nutrition.

Palabras clave

  • turkey
  • nano-copper
  • redox status
  • immunity
  • breast meat
15 Artículos

Review

Acceso abierto

Manipulation of Rumen Fermentation and Methane Gas Production by Plant Secondary Metabolites (Saponin, Tannin and Essential Oil) – A Review of Ten-Year Studies

Publicado en línea: 01 Feb 2019
Páginas: 3 - 29

Resumen

Abstract

A wide range of plant secondary metabolites (PSM) have been shown to have the potential to modulate the fermentation process in the rumen. The use of plants and plant extracts as natural feed additives has become an interesting topic not only among nutritionists but also other scientists. Although a large number of phytochemicals (e.g. saponins, tannins and essential oils) have recently been investigated for their methane (CH4) reduction potential, there have not yet been major breakthroughs that could be applied in practice. However, the effectiveness of these PSM depends on the source, type and the level of their presence in plant products. The aim of the present review was to assess ruminal CH4 emission through a comparison of integrating related studies from published papers, which described various levels of different PSM sources being added to ruminant feed. Apart from CH4, other related rumen fermentation parameters were also included in this review.

Palabras clave

  • rumen
  • methane
  • fermentation
  • plant secondary metabolite
Acceso abierto

How Pigs Influence Indoor Air Properties in Intensive Farming: Practical Implications – A Review

Publicado en línea: 01 Feb 2019
Páginas: 31 - 47

Resumen

Abstract

Indoor environmental conditions in intensive pig farms are influenced by both the outdoor air temperature and humidity, and the heat, moisture and gas exchanges between the animal and the air. As ventilation rate in pig facilities is usually estimated in temperature, moisture and even CO2 balances, estimation of heat losses or gains, and moisture and CO2 production from the animal is needed, but the contribution of other sources of the barn, such as slurry or wet surfaces have also to be taken into account. Some recent studies have been conducted to update total heat and moisture production at farm level, showing that current, historical standards of latent heat transfer are consistently lower than those reported recently at facility level, for both adult and growing animals. Also, CO2 production needs to be updated by including an estimation of its release from slurry. These new values will help with updating the standards for ventilation rate recommendations and design of the modern intensive pig buildings.

Palabras clave

  • pigs
  • heat production
  • moisture production
  • carbon dioxide
  • ventilation rate

Animal genetics and breeding

Acceso abierto

Genetic Variability of Cold-Blooded Horses Participating in Genetic Resources Conservation Programs, Using Pedigree Analysis

Publicado en línea: 01 Feb 2019
Páginas: 49 - 60

Resumen

Abstract

Two types of Polish local cold-blooded horses – Sztumski and Sokólski, covered by genetic resources conservation programs, were analyzed for founder’s contribution, genetic structure and inbreeding. In both populations, created in the early twentieth century, were used the same stallions, mainly Ardennes, Belgians and Bretons. The aim of the study was to analyze the genetic variability of Sztumski and Sokólski cold-blooded horses, using pedigree information. The reference population contained 2359 horses: 1129 Sztumski and 1230 Sokólski included in conservation programs in 2014. The data set consisted of a total of 12,821 ancestor pedigrees. The results showed that in the analyzed population the number of founders was 1139 for Sztumski and 1118 for Sokólski horses; effective population size and effective number of founders were 688.8; 156.9 and 704.5; 111.4, respectively. The mean coefficient of inbreeding was 1.54 for Sztumski and 1.56 for Sokólski horses. In the gene pool the most important contribution was of Ardennes horses (43.67% in Sztumski and 46.82% in Sokólski horses), followed by Belgian horses (18.32% and 9.3%, respectively). The most important ancestors in both populations were Ardennes sires Roll-tan 699 and Gustaw 2807, and German cold-blooded sires Elbgang 1504 and Bär.

Palabras clave

  • Sztumski and Sokólski cold-blooded horses
  • local population
  • inbreeding
  • founders contribution
Acceso abierto

Paternal Leakage of Mitochondrial DNA in the Raccoon Dog (Nyctereutes Procyonoides Gray 1834)

Publicado en línea: 01 Feb 2019
Páginas: 61 - 69

Resumen

Abstract

The aim of the study was to describe the mechanism of mitochondrial DNA inheritance in a group of farmed raccoon dogs. The study involved 354 individuals. Whole peripheral blood was the research material. DNA was isolated and PCR was performed for two fragments of mitochondrial genes: COX1 (cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 gene) and COX2 (cytochrome oxidase subunit 2 gene). The PCR products were sequenced and subjected to bioinformatics analyses. Three mitochondrial haplotypes were identified in the COX1 gene fragment and two in the COX2 gene fragment. The analysis of mtDNA inheritance in the paternal line confirmed the three cases of paternal mtDNA inheritance, i.e. the so-called “paternal leakage” in the analysed population. In two families, all offspring inherited paternal mitochondrial DNA, whereas in one family one descendant inherited paternal mtDNA and another one inherited maternal mtDNA. The lineage data indicated that one female which inherited maternal mitochondrial DNA transferred it onto the next generation. To sum up, the results of the study for the first time demonstrated the phenomenon of “paternal leakage” in farmed raccoon dogs, which facilitated description of mitochondrial DNA inheritance in the paternal line.

Palabras clave

  • gene
  • gene
  • paternal inheritance
  • polymorphism
  • raccoon dog
Acceso abierto

Analysis of FTO and PLIN2 Polymorphisms in Relation to Carcass and Meat Quality Traits in Pigs

Publicado en línea: 01 Feb 2019
Páginas: 71 - 83

Resumen

Abstract

The aim of this study was to analyze the association of polymorphisms in alpha-ketoglutarate-dependent dioxygenase (FTO) and perilipin 2 (PLIN2) genes with carcass and meat quality traits in pigs reared in Poland. The research covered 578 sows that belong to the following breeds: Duroc, Hampshire, Polish Landrace, Pietrain, Puławska and Polish Large White. FTO (FM244720:g.400C>G) and PLIN2 (GU461317:g.98G>A) genes variants were determined by means of PCR-RFLP and ACRS-PCR methods respectively. Association between individual genotypes and analyzed traits was calculated by means of GLM procedure for Polish Landrace, Polish Large White and Puławska breeds separately and for all six breeds together in case of FTO gene. The results showed that FTO variants were associated with weight of loin without backfat and skin (WL), loin eye area (AL) and meat percentage (MP) in Polish Large White (P≤0.05), mean backfat thickness from 5 measurements (BFT) and pH measured 45 min after slaughter in m. longissimus dorsi (pH24 ld) as well as with water holding-capacity (WHC) in Puławska breed (P≤0.01). PLIN2 genotypes, however were correlated with WL and height of the loin eye (HL) in Polish Large White and Puławska (P≤0.05), AL in Polish Large White (P≤0.01) as well as luminosity (L*) in Puławska (P≤0.05) pigs. We observed most consistent relationships of PLIN2 SNP with intramuscular fat content (IMF) and WHC. In 3 analyzed breeds GG genotype was connected with highest values of these traits (P≤0.05).

Palabras clave

  • SNP
  • carcass
  • meat
  • pigs

The biology, physiology, reproduction, and health

Acceso abierto

Influence of Type of Use, Age and Gender on Haematological and Biochemical Blood Parameters of Małopolski Horses

Publicado en línea: 01 Feb 2019
Páginas: 85 - 96

Resumen

Abstract

The purpose of the study was to determine whether the type of use, age and gender of Małopolski horses affect the level of selected haematological and biochemical parameters of their blood and whether there is an interaction between these factors. The research was carried out on 30 horses of the Małopolski breed, which were divided according to gender (18 mares and 12 stallions), age (2–6 years, 7–9 years and 10–16 years) and use (recreational vs. sport). To sum up, the gender of horses significantly affects erythrocyte indices, as evidenced by their significantly higher values in the stallions as compared to the mares, as well as by the interactions between gender and type of use and between the gender and age of the horse. The leukocyte and neutrophil counts increase with the age of horses, and the interaction between age and type of use indicates that the leukocyte and neutrophil counts in training horses is closely linked to their age. systematic physical exercise in sport horses increases leukocyte and lymphocyte counts and contributes to osteogenesis (increase in alp activity and plasma content of calcium and phosphorus), which has a beneficial effect on their health. The correlations obtained may improve breeders’ awareness of the effect of various factors, such as age, gender or type of use, on blood indices in horses and can be helpful in evaluating the health of Małopolski horses.

Palabras clave

  • horses
  • blood parameters
  • type of use
  • gender
  • age
Acceso abierto

Influence of in Ovo Administration of Some Water-Soluble Vitamins on Hatchability Traits, Growth, Carcass Traits and Blood Chemistry of Japanese Quails

Publicado en línea: 01 Feb 2019
Páginas: 97 - 111

Resumen

Abstract

A total of 450 fertile Japanese quail eggs were used to determine the impacts of in ovo administration of water-soluble vitamins (C, B6 and B12) on the growth performance, carcass traits, hematological and biochemical blood parameters as well as the immune response of Japanese quails. On the 7th day of incubation, the eggs were allocated to five groups: un-injected, 0.1 ml/egg saline, 1 mg/egg vitamin C, 150 µg/egg vitamin B6 and 20 µg/egg vitamin B12. The percentage of early embryonic mortality was increased (P≤0.001) in all treated groups versus the control group. Chicks that hatched from eggs injected with 1 mg/egg vitamin C exhibited a significantly greater (P≤0.05) live body weight (LBW) than those from the control and saline groups. During 0–2 weeks of age, the chicks hatched from eggs injected with vitamins displayed better feed conversion than the positive or negative controls. In ovo injection of vitamins had no significant effect on all carcass traits. In ovo injection with vitamins C, B6 and B12 increased plasma total protein and its fractions compared with the control. Plasma levels of total lipids and cholesterol were decreased in chicks hatched from eggs injected with 1 mg/egg vitamin C, 150 µg/egg vitamin B6 or 20 µg/egg vitamin B12 compared with those hatched from control eggs. Plasma T3 and T4 were increased in chicks hatched from eggs injected with vitamin C, vitamin B6 and vitamin B12. The relative weights of the bursa of Fabricius and thymus were significantly (P=0.002 or 0.003) increased in the birds hatched from eggs injected with vitamins compared with those in the control or saline group. Thus, in ovo injection of vitamins C, B6 and B12 improved the blood profile and immune response of Japanese quail.

Palabras clave

  • injection
  • growth
  • carcass
  • blood
  • immunity
  • quail
Acceso abierto

Body Temperature Responses and Hair Cortisol Levels in Dairy Holstein Cows Fed High- and Low-Forage Diet and Under Water Deprivation During Thermal-Humidity Exposure

Publicado en línea: 01 Feb 2019
Páginas: 113 - 125

Resumen

Abstract

Body temperature responses and hair cortisol levels in dairy Holstein cows fed high- and low-forage diet and under water deprivation during thermal-humidity exposure (THE) were evaluated. Two experiments (Exps.) were conducted between July and September 2012 and 2013 for 64 d and 74 d, respectively. First, twenty dairy Holstein cows (90±30 DIM; 37.2±1.7 l milk/d, 620±75 kg BW) were used. The practical forage:concentrate (F:C) ratios in the low forage (LF) and high forage (HF) group were 44:56 and 56:44, respectively, while they were designed to be 40:60 and 60:40. Second, thirty dairy cows (53.5±30.4 DIM; 41.7±1.5 l milk/d,650±53 kg BW) were allotted into two groups of free access to water (FAW) and 2 h water deprivation (2hWD) following feeding. The animals were subjected to having the hair cut (1 to 2 g) from their foreheads at the same time (12:00 h) twice at the beginning (prior to the beginning of heat stress) and the end of the experiment when the cows were under THE. Hair cortisol levels (initial hair cut as the baseline and re-grown hair) were measured using ELISA method. Body temperature (BT) was measured twice daily at 7 body points of cows including rectum, vagina, hip, udder, rumen-side (flank), ear, and forehead using non-contact forehead infrared thermometer (infrared gun having two modes: inner and skin) on the 7 d of the beginning and the last 7 d of the experiment at 1000 and 1400 h. Statistical analyses were carried out using the MIXED model of SAS as repeated measurements. The intra-assay and inter-assay coefficients of variations for hair cortisol measurements were 3.15 and 10.05, respectively. Hair cortisol (HC) levels were not different within the two groups in both Exps. (P>0.05); however, HC level was lower (P<0.0001) prior to temperature-humidity exposure (THE). Results of Exp. 1 showed that vagina inner temperature was higher (P=0.041) and rectal temperature tended to be higher (P=0.083) in the HF compared to the LF group. The inner ear temperature was lower and ear skin temperature was higher (P=0.032) in the HF compared to the LF group. Forehead inner temperature was higher (P=0.048) in the LF group than in the HF group while forehead skin temperature was lower in the HF group (P=0.041). No differences were observed in the hip, udder and rumen-side (flank) temperature (both in body and skin) between the HF and LF group (P=0.012). In Exp. 2, no temperature differences were observed at all of the body points, inner and skin, between the two groups (P>0.05). However, the skin temperature in the 2hWD groups tended to be higher than in the FAW group (P=0.093). Conclusions drawn indicate the beneficial use of measuring BT at different body points of the cow in addition to RT under THE.

Palabras clave

  • thermal-humidity exposure
  • body temperature
  • dairy cows
  • forage level
  • hair cortisol
  • water deprivation
Acceso abierto

Identifying Biomarkers of Autophagy and Apoptosis in Transfected Nuclear Donor Cells and Transgenic Cloned Pig Embryos

Publicado en línea: 01 Feb 2019
Páginas: 127 - 146

Resumen

Abstract

In this study, we first investigated the effects of 3-methyladenine (3-MA), an autophagy inhibitor, and the inducer – rapamycin (RAPA) on the incidence of programmed cell death (PCD) symptoms during in vitro development of porcine somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT)-derived embryos. The expression of autophagy inhibitor mTOR protein was decreased in porcine SCNT blastocysts treated with 3MA. The abundance of the autophagy marker LC3 increased in blastocysts following RAPA treatment. Exposure of porcine SCNT-derived embryos to 3-MA suppressed their developmental abilities to reach the blastocyst stage. No significant difference in the expression pattern of PCD-related proteins was found between non-transfected dermal cell and transfected dermal cell groups. Additionally, the pattern of PCD in SCNT-derived blastocysts generated using SC and TSC was not significantly different, and in terms of porcine SCNT-derived embryo development rates and total blastocyst cell numbers, there was no significant difference between non-transfected cells and transfected cells. In conclusion, regulation of autophagy affected the development of porcine SCNT embryos. Regardless of the type of nuclear donor cells (transfected or non-transfected dermal cells) used for SCNT, there was no difference in the developmental potential and quantitative profiles of autophagy/apoptosis biomarkers between porcine transgenic and non-transgenic cloned embryos. These results led us to conclude that PCD is important for controlling porcine SCNT-derived embryo development, and that transfected dermal cells can be utilized as a source of nuclear donors for the production of transgenic cloned progeny in pigs.

Palabras clave

  • porcine
  • 3-methyladenine
  • rapamycin
  • somatic cell nuclear transfer
  • autophagy
  • apoptosis
  • cloned embryo
Acceso abierto

Effect of Parity on Claw Horn Lesions in Holstein Dairy Cows: Clinical and Radiological Study

Publicado en línea: 01 Feb 2019
Páginas: 147 - 158

Resumen

Abstract

The aim of this study was to estimate the effect of parity on claw lesions prevalence in Holstein dairy cows through clinical and radiological observations. Ninety-seven cows were examined two months after calving to record body condition score, locomotion score, feet diagnostic imaging (X-ray), hoof trimming and clinical evaluation. According to the lactation, the cows were divided into three groups: first parity (Group 1, n=40), second parity (Group 2, n= 29) and third or more parity (Group 3, n=28). Several claw lesions were found. One-way analysis of variance was applied along with Pearson’s correlation coefficient. Significant effect of groups was evidenced on radiographic images. In particular, the radiographic images showed a significant increase of osteolysis from Group 1 to Group 3. The application of Pearson’s correlation coefficient showed a significantly positive correlation between locomotion score and some claw lesions in all groups. In conclusion, this study provides an overview of claw lesions in dairy cow through clinical and radiological observations.

Palabras clave

  • dairy cow
  • parity
  • locomotion score
  • radiology
  • claw lesions

Animal nutrition, and feedstuffs

Acceso abierto

Growth Performance, Diarrhoea Incidence, and Nutrient Digestibility in Weaned Piglets Fed an Antibiotic-Free Diet with Dehydrated Porcine Plasma or Potato Protein Concentrate

Publicado en línea: 01 Feb 2019
Páginas: 159 - 172

Resumen

Abstract

Two experiments were conducted to test if dehydrated porcine plasma (DPP) and potato protein concentrate (PPC) could be used as an alternative to antibiotics in starter diets for piglets. Experiment one was conducted to test if DPP and PPC in an antibiotic-free diet affected pig performance, and faecal consistency. Eighty-four piglets weaned at 22 days and weighing 6.9 kg were used. Piglets were fed for two weeks with one of four diets: a positive control diet with antibiotics (C+); and three other diets without antibiotics added with DPP, PPC, or DPP and PPC (DPP+PPC) to measure the average daily feed intake (ADFI), average daily gain (ADG), feed efficiency (FE), and incidence and severity of diarrhoea (ID and ISD respectively). In experiment two, twenty-four piglets weaned at 17 days and weighing 5.7 kg, were implanted at 21 days of age with a T-cannula at the terminal ileum to measure the apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of nutrients. Piglets were fed one of four diets: a positive control diet with antibiotics (C+); a negative control diet without antibiotics (C–), and two diets without antibiotics added with DPP, or PPC. The results of experiment one showed that the DPP diet was the most consumed diet during the first week, and the ADG and FE were similar among treatments. During the second week and the total experimental period the ADFI, ADG, and FE were similar among diets. The ID was lower in the C+ diet than other diets. The ISD was lower in the C+ diet than DPP and DPP+PPC diets; piglets fed PPC diet were similar to piglets fed C+ and DPP and DPP+PPC diets. The results of digestibility showed that crude protein AID was higher in piglets fed C+ and PPC diets than C– and DPP diets. Dry matter ATTD and energy ATTD were higher for piglets fed PPC than other diets. Further, crude protein ATTD of DPP and PPC diets tended to have a similar digestibility to that of C+ diet. The results suggest that PPC is a potential controller of post-weaning diarrhoea.

Palabras clave

  • weaning
  • piglets
  • potato protein
  • spray dried porcine plasma
  • digestibility
Acceso abierto

Effects of Dietary Conjugated Linoleic Acid and Selected Vegetable Oils or Vitamin E on Fatty Acid Composition of Hen Egg Yolks

Publicado en línea: 01 Feb 2019
Páginas: 173 - 188

Resumen

Abstract

The objective of this study was to produce eggs enriched with conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and ameliorate their fatty acid profile using the appropriate combination of dietary CLA with or without vegetable oils (olive oil or rapeseed oil) and vitamin E. In Experiment 1, 25-week-old laying hens were randomly distributed into eight groups of nine. Birds were fed with a standard diet with four different levels of CLA (0.0, 0.5, 0.75, 1.0%) and vegetable oils (olive oil or rapeseed oil, both in the amount of 1.46%). In Experiment 2, hens were randomly distributed into 12 groups of nine. The same four levels of CLA with three doses of vitamin E (0, 150, 300 mg/kg of diet) were applied. In both experiments, eggs were collected twice (at 4 and 8 weeks) for fatty acid profiling using GCMS. The differences between treatment means were considered significant at P<0.05. CLA treatments significantly increased the content of CLA, saturated fatty acids (SFA), and significantly decreased the content of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) in the egg yolk, whereas levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) were unaffected. The vegetable oils used did not prevent the negative effects of CLA effectively. Only after eight weeks of experiment 1 SFA levels were significantly lower, but MUFA levels were significantly higher in groups fed with rapeseed oil compared to groups fed with olive oil. In experiment 2, the addition of vitamin E to the hen diet did not have an essential influence on the lipid profile of egg yolks.

Palabras clave

  • CLA-enriched eggs
  • olive oil
  • rapeseed oil
  • vitamin E
  • fatty acid profile

Behavior, well-being, production technology, and environment

Acceso abierto

Effect of Age at First Calving on First Lactation Milk Yield, Lifetime Milk Production And Longevity of Cows

Publicado en línea: 01 Feb 2019
Páginas: 189 - 200

Resumen

Abstract

The objective of the study was to analyse the effect of age at first calving (AFC) on first lactation milk yield, lifetime milk production and longevity of dairy cows. The study used SYMLEK data on the milk yield and culling of 111 857 Polish Holstein-Friesian cows from the active population in Pomerania and Kujawy, Poland. The cows first calved during 2000–2009 and were used or removed from the herds until the end of 2015. For each cow, calculations were made of first lactation milk yield, lifetime milk production, first lactation milk yield per milking day, lifetime milk production per day, as well as the lifespan (length of productive life, duration of rearing) and number of calvings. Based on the age at first calving (duration of the rearing period), the cows were grouped as follows: ≤22, 22.1–24.0, 24.1–26.0, 26.1–28.0, 28.1–30.0, 30.1–32.0 and >32 months. The GLM, CORR PEARSON and FREQ procedures from the SAS package were used in the statistical calculations. Considering first lactation milk yield, lifetime milk production and longevity, it is recommended that the cows should be first milked between 22.1 and 26.0 months of age. This is supported by the approximately 24% higher lifetime milk production in relation to the latest calving cows (P<0.01). Late commencement of the first milking (especially after 28 months) causes a considerable decrease in the first lactation milk yield and lifetime milk production, shortens the productive period, reduces the number of calvings, and increases culling rate due to low milk yield and udder diseases.

Palabras clave

  • age at first calving
  • longevity
  • lifetime milk production
Acceso abierto

Impacts of Prepubertal Rearing Intensity and Calf Health on First-Lactation Yield and Lifetime Performance

Publicado en línea: 01 Feb 2019
Páginas: 201 - 214

Resumen

Abstract

The objective of the present study was to investigate possible long-term effects of calf and heifer feeding intensity on first-lactation milk yield and lifetime efficiency (milk per day of life). Detailed records from a total number of 2,252 female German Holstein calves from one commercial farm were obtained from birth to culling. Data regarding all information about calf’s birth, rearing time until first insemination, first calving, first-lactation yield and lifetime performance were collected over a 12-year period. This large data volume was merged, handled, checked for plausibility, classified and evaluated. Analyses revealed that body weight at an age of six months was significantly influenced by the average daily gain in the first two weeks of life (P<0.0001) and by the duration of treatment for respiratory diseases (P=0.0080). Moreover, first-lactation yield was affected by average daily gain in the whole first year of life (P=0.0013) and particularly in the period of month nine to twelve (P=0.00187). Lifetime efficiency was significantly influenced by body weight at first insemination (P=0.0051), average milk yield (P<0.0001) and reason for culling (P<0.0001). The results of this long-term study confirm that growth is important in general, but as shown by the negative correlation between average daily gain from month nine to twelve and the first lactation milk yield, nutrient intake (energy and protein) should be adapted to enable a controlled growth especially at certain periods of life. After six months of age, daily gain has to be controlled to avoid fat accumulation for a healthy and effective start of lactation. In addition, this analysis revealed that after passing first lactation, particularly health and fertility are the keys for a long efficient lifetime of dairy cows.

Palabras clave

  • dairy cows
  • lifetime production
  • lifetime efficiency
  • longevity
  • long-term effects
Acceso abierto

Redox and Immunological Status of Turkeys Fed Diets with Different Levels and Sources of Copper

Publicado en línea: 01 Feb 2019
Páginas: 215 - 227

Resumen

Abstract

This study, performed on turkeys aged 1 to 98 days, aimed to investigate whether different dietary inclusion levels (20, 10, 2 mg kg−1) of copper nanoparticles (Cu-NP) as a substitute for copper sulphate (Cu-SUL) affect redox and immunological status of turkeys’ tissues. No significant differences in the final body weights of turkeys were found across the dietary treatments. A comparison of the physiological effects of Cu-NP and Cu-SUL revealed equivocal metabolic responses including decreased superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in the liver, increased SOD and catalase activities in breast muscles, decreased total glutathione concentrations in breast muscles, and decreased plasma IgY concentrations. An analysis of the antioxidant and immune status parameters in the blood, liver and breast meat of turkeys indicates that 10 mg/kg is the optimal inclusion level of additional Cu. Both two-fold higher and five-fold lower Cu supplementation levels have a negative influence on selected parameters of the antioxidant and immune status of birds. Lower supplementation levels of Cu-NP (2 and 10 mg/kg) exert similar physiological effects to Cu-SUL, whereas higher addition of Cu-NP (20 mg/kg) may negatively affect selected redox parameters and stimulate the synthesis of the proinflammatory cytokine IL-6. The results of the present study indicate that further research is needed to establish the actual dietary requirements for Cu in turkeys and the efficacy of nanoparticles as a new additional Cu source in turkey nutrition.

Palabras clave

  • turkey
  • nano-copper
  • redox status
  • immunity
  • breast meat

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