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Edición Editors: Magdalena Bielska, Jerzy Pilawski, Katarzyna Skupniewicz

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Detalles de la revista
Formato
Revista
eISSN
2300-8733
Publicado por primera vez
25 Nov 2011
Periodo de publicación
4 veces al año
Idiomas
Inglés

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Volumen 15 (2015): Edición 3 (July 2015)

Detalles de la revista
Formato
Revista
eISSN
2300-8733
Publicado por primera vez
25 Nov 2011
Periodo de publicación
4 veces al año
Idiomas
Inglés

Buscar

19 Artículos

Review

Acceso abierto

Perception of environment in farm animals – A review

Publicado en línea: 29 Jul 2015
Páginas: 565 - 589

Resumen

Abstract

Perception of the environment by farm animals is fundamental for expression of behaviour and of their adaptation to different environmental conditions. From a breeding-environmental perspective, perception becomes increasingly important when a production system negatively impacts on animals such that their normal expression of behaviour is compromised. Therefore, research on the perceptual abilities of farm animals is of crucial importance to understand the animalenvironment relationship. This review is focused on research related to sensory perception of farm animals. It should be stressed that the world of animal senses is very difficult to explore, we have limited knowledge of the complexity of the animal’s ability to perceive and process environmental stimuli.

Keywords

  • farm animals
  • perception
  • senses
  • environment
Acceso abierto

Red deer farming: breeding practice, trends and potential in Poland – A Review

Publicado en línea: 29 Jul 2015
Páginas: 591 - 599

Resumen

Abstract

Red deer farming has started to play a greater role in modern agriculture and today is an interesting alternative for pig or cattle breeders. With regard to the low effort and high efficiency of maintenance, it may be expected that keeping these animals in fenced enclosures will be more popular over time. This trend is warranted by the fact that the demand on two main deer products: venison and antlers, is constantly rising, due to the quality of deer meat and prices of antler hunting trophies. Several countries of the world have already realized the scale of advantages to be derived from deer farming and today are world leaders in this area. Despite this expansion, the market still remains opened for deer products. Poland is a country with the climatic conditions, vast plain areas and varied vegetation that are fully sufficient to undertake large-scale deer farming, and to become a European leader. Therefore the aim of this review is to detail deer farming within the Polish framework and environmental conditions, and to illustrate its potential in sustainable modern agriculture and the economy.

Keywords

  • Cervus elaphus
  • sustainable farming
  • venison
  • velvet
  • antler
Acceso abierto

Pig behaviour in relation to weather conditions – a review

Publicado en línea: 29 Jul 2015
Páginas: 601 - 610

Resumen

Abstract

Weather conditions (temperature, humidity, solar radiation, air pressure, wind strength, wind direction and precipitation) have a significant impact on the behaviour of farm animals. Pigs have developed a wide range of thermoregulatory behaviours that are particular for this species. With increases in temperature the most characteristic behaviour for pigs is decreased activity and increased wallowing in wet surfaces. In addition to this, rooting and wallowing are highly influenced by temperature and humidity. The lack of possibility to express these behaviours leads to development of stereotypies. Interestingly, low temperatures do not increase the use of shelter if not in combination with wind or precipitation. Furthermore, wild pigs build stronger nests in severe conditions. Also, resting behaviour and reproduction may be disturbed by high temperatures. There is a negative impact of foehn wind on boars’ libido and semen parameters.

Keywords

  • pigs
  • atmospheric conditions
  • weather
  • behaviour

Animal genetics and breeding

Acceso abierto

A novel single nucleotide polymorphism of the POU1F1 gene associated with meat quality traits in rabbits

Publicado en línea: 29 Jul 2015
Páginas: 611 - 620

Resumen

Abstract

The purpose of this research was to investigate the effect of the POU1F1 gene on meat quality traits in the Hyla, Champagne, and Tianfu Black rabbit breeds. We detected one single nucleotide polymorphism and the SNP was located at 536 bp in intron 5 of this gene. Chi-square tests showed that the genotypic frequencies in the three rabbit populations were not in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. The PIC values indicated that the three populations had intermediate levels of genetic diversity. Rabbits with the CC genotype had a significantly greater pH0h than those with the CT genotype in the biceps femoris muscle. The least squares means for cooking loss in CT and CC rabbits were significantly higher than those for TT rabbits. Rabbits with the CC genotype had a significantly higher intramuscular fat content in the longissimus dorsi and biceps femoris muscles than those with genotype TT and CT. Thus, the results here indicate that this POU1F1 SNP may be of potential use in marker assisted selection for meat quality traits in rabbits.

Keywords

  • rabbit
  • POU1F1
  • SNP
  • meat quality
Acceso abierto

Evaluation of minimally invasive muscle biopsy method for genetic analysis in horse

Publicado en línea: 29 Jul 2015
Páginas: 621 - 627

Resumen

Abstract

In horses, muscle biopsy is widely used in veterinary practice for routine diagnosis of various muscle disorders. Development of genetic methods such as gene expression measurements using microarrays, RNA-seq, and real-time PCR leads to searching an alternative, less invasive biopsy method in order to obtain an appropriately representative group of animals for genetic testing. In the present study, we proposed a minimally invasive method of muscle sample biopsy using Pro- MagTM Ultra Automatic Biopsy Instrument (Surgical Specialties Corporation, US, Inc.), which is commonly utilized in human medicine. This approach does not require skin incisions and usage of stitches. The quantity of muscle sample gained in accordance with presented procedure was sufficient to obtain RNA with a good quality. Furthermore, application of the automatic biopsy instrument allows obtaining a sufficient amount of biological material for genetic analysis from a wide variety of tissues. Moreover, samples acquired according to this method could be used in other analyses.

Palabras clave

  • muscle biopsy
  • horse
  • automatic biopsy
  • genetic analysis
Acceso abierto

Effects of LEP, GYS1, MYOD1, and MYF5 polymorphisms on pig economic traits

Publicado en línea: 29 Jul 2015
Páginas: 629 - 640

Resumen

Abstract

In the present study, we examined the effect of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of leptin (LEP), skeletal muscle glycogen synthase (GYS1), myogenic differentiation 1 (MYOD1), and myogenic factor 5 (MYF5) genes on economic trait association in pigs. LEP/HindIII, MYOD1/DdeI, MYF5/FokI, and GYS1/FokI genotypes were identified by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) from 466 pigs comprised of Duroc, Landrace and Yorkshire breeds. The LEP/HindIII polymorphism differed significantly with respect to average daily gain (ADG) in Duroc pigs (P<0.05). However, the GYS1/FokI polymorphism was not significantly associated with any trait. The MYOD1/DdeI polymorphism was significantly associated with both ADG and meat percentage (MP) in Duroc pigs, and ADG, backfat thickness (BFT) and feed efficiency (FE) in Landrace pigs, whereas the MYOD1/DdeI polymorphism was not significantly associated with any trait in Yorkshire pigs. In addition, the MYF5/FokI polymorphism revealed a close relationship with ADG in Duroc pigs. In conclusion, we believe that the SNPs within LEP, MYOD1 and MYF5 in certain pig breeds play important roles as potential genetic markers for economic traits of pigs.

Keywords

  • LEP
  • GYS1
  • MYOD1
  • MYFS
  • economic traits

The biology, physiology, reproduction, and health

Acceso abierto

Effect of altitude on some male fertility related traits in Saudi ovine and caprine species

Publicado en línea: 29 Jul 2015
Páginas: 641 - 653

Resumen

Abstract

This study aimed to evaluate the effect of altitude on some male fertility related traits in Saudi sheep and goats. Testicular tissues were collected from a slaughterhouse in Taif governorate (1800 m above sea level) and Makkah governorate (sea level). Sperm characteristics (1 - individual motility, 2 - percent live sperm 3 - percent abnormal sperm) were examined. Semi-quantitative RT -PCR assay was used to evaluate the expression of IGF-II, StAR, LDLr and CYP11A genes. No significant effect of altitude on tested sperm parameters was revealed. Expression of IGF-II gene in both sheep and goats was significantly (P<0.05) higher at sea level compared to high altitude. A similar effect of altitude on StAR gene expression was only observed in goats, while in sheep the level of effect did not reach the significance threshold. Moreover, LDLr gene expression was significantly (P<0.05) higher for both sheep and goats at high altitude than at sea level. The CYP11A gene expression was significantly (P<0.05) higher in high altitude sheep than in those raised at sea level, while the opposite trend was observed for goats. In conclusion, high altitude had an effect on the expression of some studied male fertility related genes, but sperm parameters were not significantly affected.

Palabras clave

  • high altitude
  • fertility
  • sheep
  • goat
  • sperm parameters
  • gene expression
Acceso abierto

Pathophysiological response to experimental oral overdose of different forms of selenium in lambs

Publicado en línea: 29 Jul 2015
Páginas: 655 - 666

Resumen

Abstract

Twelve male lambs (30.5±2.1 kg) with cannulas in the rumen were divided into three groups to evaluate the accidental toxicity of selenium (Se) via digestive tract. The first group received intraruminal bolus without a Se source; the second group received intraruminal bolus with sodium selenite (SS: Na2SeO3); the third group received intraruminal bolus with barium selenate (BS: BaSeO4). The ruminal boluses were immediately degraded by a manufacturing defect, releasing an amount of 366 mg Se via rumen. All lambs had tachypnea (80 cycles per minute), a metallic smell in the oral cavity and laminitis foot. Analyses of necropsy and histopathology showed frequencies of lesions in the myocardium and skeletal muscle, lesions in the myocardium were more common in lambs intoxicated with SS or BS than the control group (P<0.05); the tissues were swollen and there were hyaline fibres (Zenker degeneration), as well as fragments and proliferation of the nuclei with necrosis. Se concentration in lambs intoxicated with SS and BS were: myocardium: 0.389 and 0.332; skeletal muscle: 0.583 and 0.492; and kidney: 2.871 and 2.841 μg/g fresh tissue, respectively. The Se concentration in blood increased over 2.5 times in the intoxicated lambs with both sources of Se (0.14 vs. 0.36 μg/mL) from baseline to the 22 days of sampling. There was a lower correlation (r=0.46) in SS intoxication group than the control and BS group (r≥0.93). As a conclusion, high dosages of 366 mg Se or 12 mg Se/kg BW in an accidental dosage did not cause a severe mortality but all lambs immediately showed reduced feed intake, metallic smell exhalation and depression.

Keywords

  • barium selenate
  • glutathione peroxidase
  • sodium selenite
  • toxicity
Acceso abierto

Hyperglycemia-induced changes in resistin gene expression in white adipose tissue in piglets

Publicado en línea: 29 Jul 2015
Páginas: 667 - 679

Resumen

Abstract

Previous data strongly indicated that resistin, an adipocyte-derived signalling peptide, plays an important role in metabolism and glucose homeostasis. Thus, the aim of the present study was to examine changes in synthesis and concentration of resistin in white adipose tissue in response to hyperglycemia in piglets. In order to develop hyperglycemia, piglets (10-week-old, Polish Landrace fatteners, female) received intraperitoneal (ip) injection of 150 mg streptozotocin (HI, n=6) or 60 mg synthetic glucocorticoid (HII, n=6). An injection of NaCl physiological saline was used as a control (n=6). Plasma resistin level was significantly higher in HII group compared with the control, while no difference was observed in HI. In epicardial adipose tissue (EAT ) the resistin mRNA level significantly increased whereas the opposite effect was observed for omental fat tissue (OAT ) in both experimental groups. Additionally, the resistin concentration did not change in EAT ; however, it was decreased in omental adipose tissue in response to hyperglycemia. The results obtained indicate that activity of resistin strongly depends on glycemic status as well as adipose tissue localization.

Palabras clave

  • resistin
  • white adipose tissue
  • hyperglycemia
  • piglets

Animal nutrition and feedstuffs

Acceso abierto

Effects of clinoptilolite (zeolite) on attenuation of lipopolysaccharide-induced stress, growth and immune response in broiler chickens

Publicado en línea: 29 Jul 2015
Páginas: 681 - 697

Resumen

Abstract

The effects of natural clinoptilolite (NCLI) and modified clinoptilolite (MCLI) were evaluated in broilers challenged with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in a 21-d feeding trial. A total of 288 one-day-old chickens were allocated into three treatment groups: control, NCLI (2%) and MCLI (2%). Half of the birds from each treatment group were challenged with either 0.9% NaCl solution or LPS (250 μg/kg body weight, orally administered) at 16, 18 and 21 d of age. Before the LPS challenge, no dietary effect on bird growth performance was found (P>0.05). When LPS was orally administered, no significant changes in growth performance of broilers was found (P>0.05). However, small intestinal morphology and development, malondialdehyde (MDA) content of the jejunual and ileal mucosa, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity of the ileal mucosa were significantly affected (P<0.05). Supplementation with NCLI and MCLI significantly decreased the MDA contents of the jejunual and ileal mucosa and improved the SOD activity of the ileal mucosa and the development of the small intestine compared with the control group (P<0.05). The results indicated that NCLI and MCLI additions in feed had protective effects on the gut health of broilers against LPS challenge.

Keywords

  • zeolite (clinoptilolite)
  • broiler
  • growth performance
  • gut health
Acceso abierto

Evaluation of Bacillus subtilis and Lactobacillus acidophilus probiotic supplementation on reproductive performance and noxious gas emission in sows

Publicado en línea: 29 Jul 2015
Páginas: 699 - 710

Resumen

Abstract

The impacts of probiotics supplementation on reproduction performance and noxious gas emission in sows was evaluated in an experiment with a total of thirty sows (second-parity), from 4 weeks prior to farrowing, to day 21 of lactation. The gestation and lactation diets of sows were supplemented with probiotics containing Bacillus subtilis (1.2 × 107 cfu/g) and Lactobacillus acidophilus (1.15 × 106 cfu/g). Treatment included: basal diet (CON), basal diet + 0.1% probiotics (PB0.1), and basal diet + 0.2% probiotics (PB0.2). The supplementation of dietary probiotics significantly improved average daily feed intake during the lactation period (quadratic, P = 0.0429), sow backfat thickness during the weaning period (linear, P = 0.0385), and initial body weight of piglets (linear, P = 0.0054) as compared with CON, respectively. Furthermore, the supplementation of dietary probiotics reduced noxious gas emission as compared with CON (linear, P<0.05 for day 5 and day 10), respectively. In conclusion, dietary probiotics containing B. subtilis and L. acidophilus improved the growth performance of sows, resulted in increased weaning body weight of piglets, and induced an effective and significant reduction in fecal noxious gas emission in lactating sows, as compared with CON.

Palabras clave

  • reproductive performance
  • noxious gas
  • piglet
  • probiotics
  • sow
Acceso abierto

The effect of a probiotic preparation containing Bacillus subtilis ATCC PTA-6737 on egg production and physiological parameters of laying hens

Publicado en línea: 29 Jul 2015
Páginas: 711 - 723

Resumen

Abstract

A total of 288 Lohmann Brown laying hens were randomly divided into two groups (9 replicates of 16 birds each). The hens were housed in three-tier battery cages for 26 weeks, including a two-week pre-laying period. All birds were fed iso-nitrogenous and iso-caloric diets, and had free access to water. Control group (C) hens were fed a basal diet, and experimental group (BS) hens received a basal diet supplemented with a commercial probiotic preparation of Bacillus subtilis ATCC PTA- 6737 at 1×108 CFU/kg feed. The number and weight of eggs laid, feed intake, feed conversion, egg quality, the fatty acid profile and cholesterol content of yolk lipids, and selected blood biochemical parameters of hens were determined throughout the experiment. No significant differences (P>0.05) were noted between the groups in average egg weight, laying performance (%), daily feed intake or feed conversion. Eggs laid by BS group hens received significantly higher scores for yolk color (Roche yolk color fan) and albumen quality (Haugh units), and they were characterized by a significant improvement in shell thickness and breaking strength (P<0.05) in comparison with eggs laid by control group hens. No significant differences (P>0.05) were observed between the groups in the fatty acid profile of yolk lipids, except for a significant increase (P<0.05) in oleic acid concentrations in group BS. No significant differences (P>0.05) were noted between the groups in selected blood biochemical parameters of laying hens. Group BS eggs had a significantly lower (P<0.05) cholesterol content of yolk lipids. It can be concluded that a probiotic preparation containing Bacillus subtilis ATCC PTA-6737 had a beneficial influence on selected performance parameters of laying hens, egg quality and the cholesterol content of yolk lipids.

Keywords

  • laying hens
  • Bacillus subtilis
  • performance
  • egg quality
Acceso abierto

The efficacy of selected feed additives in the prevention of broiler chicken coccidiosis under natural exposure to Eimeria spp

Publicado en línea: 29 Jul 2015
Páginas: 725 - 735

Resumen

Abstract

The aim of this study was to investigate, under conditions similar to commercial broiler production, the effect of the herbal extract blend (HE) at a quantity of 1 g per kg feed (200 mg of each herbal extract, Allium sativum, Salvia officinalis, Echinacea purpurea, Thymus vulgaris and Origanum

vulgare), used individually or in combination with mannan oligosaccharide (MOS; 1 g per kg feed) or chitosan (3 ml containing 2% deacetylated chitin per kg feed) on the performance parameters of broiler chickens, the results of the slaughter analysis, litter moisture and the number of oocysts excreted in feces. The experiment was conducted on 4,500 broiler chickens of both sexes kept in straw-bedded pens. Chickens were randomly assigned to 5 experimental treatments with 5 replicates (pens) of 180 birds. The experimental design included negative and positive (diclazuril, 1 mg per kg feed) control groups. The examined herbal extract blend used individually during natural exposure to the coccidia improved, compared to the negative control diet, the performance parameters to a greater extent than coccidiostat, lowered the litter moisture content and reduced the oocyst output. Combined dietary supplementation with a herbal extract blend of chitosan or mannan oligosaccharide did not result in further improvement.

Keywords

  • broiler chickens
  • performance
  • feed additives
  • Eimeria spp

Behavior, well-being, production technology, and environment

Acceso abierto

Aeration as an effective method for pathogen elimination in pig slurry

Publicado en línea: 29 Jul 2015
Páginas: 737 - 745

Resumen

Abstract

The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of aeration on the survival of indicator and pathogenic microorganisms in pig slurry. After inoculation of the aerated biomass with target bacteria, samples for the microbiological analyses were collected in different time intervals for the period of 12 days. The MPN method was used to determine the number of the investigated microorganisms. The results of statistical analysis showed the lack of significant differences in the theoretical time of survival, elimination rate and the time needed for 90% reduction between different Salmonella serotypes. Theoretical survival of Salmonella Typhimurium, Salmonella Senftenberg W775 and enterococci in the aerated slurry ranged from 13 to 25 days. Enterococci were the most resistant to aeration, and their survival time, compared to salmonellas, was significantly higher.

Palabras clave

  • pig slurry
  • aeration
  • Salmonella
  • enterococci
Acceso abierto

The productive lifetime of sows on two farms from the aspect of reasons for culling

Publicado en línea: 29 Jul 2015
Páginas: 747 - 758

Resumen

Abstract

The aim of this study was to compare the characteristics of the productive lifetime (PLT) of sows kept on two farms, from the aspect of reasons for culling. The study was based on data from animals from two breeding farms in Hungary, using the data of 3493 crossbred Dutch Large White and Dutch Landrace sows (DLW × DL) between their first farrowing until the time of culling (2006 and 2012). For six years, the annual culling rate for both farms averaged 45%. The most frequent reasons for removal on both farms were reproductive problems (40%, 51%), leg problems (29%, 23%) and mortality (19%, 15%). There was a significant difference between the distributions of reasons for culling on the two farms (χ2=41.7, P≤0.001). The distributions of reasons for culling differed in three periods of sow breeding (Farm A: χ2=264.7, P≤0.001; Farm B: χ2=511.1, P≤0.001). The percentage of main removal reasons decreased, whereas the frequency of culling due to age increased. Using survival analysis (Kaplan-Meier method and Cox proportional hazard model), significant differences were identified between the PLT of sows culled due to reproductive problems (P≤0.001), leg problems (P≤0.001) and old age (P≤0.001). Reproductive problems (HR: 1.34, P≤0.001) and leg problems (HR: 1.39, P≤0.001) were higher and culling due to old age (HR: 0.44, P≤0.001) was lower on Farm A compared to Farm B. There were no significant differences between the two farms in terms of mortality (HR: 0.99, P=0.923). Overall, the results can be useful for breeders of crossbred (DLW × DL) sow populations in more accurately defining their culling systems.

Keywords

  • reasons for culling
  • flooring system
  • productive lifetime
  • survival analysis
Acceso abierto

Does the activity of producer group organizations improve the production of pigs?

Publicado en línea: 29 Jul 2015
Páginas: 759 - 774

Resumen

Abstract

There are many works dealing with the activities of small farms, however there is a lack of papers about production and economic performance of small farms associated in producer group organizations. The aim of the study was to compare the production parameters of selected pig producer groups over two years (2010-2011). The basis for the analysis were the results of surveys carried out in 174 individual farms, which were members of 4 groups of pig producers. The study was conducted through direct interviews using a personal questionnaire. The average herd size of sows increased in the next year by 18.5% and the average annual production volume of fatteners by 9.3%. Average meatiness increased from 53.8% to 54.5%. In order to estimate the revenues a model of factors dependent on the farmer was created, expressed as the production of 1 kg of raw material. Three independent variables were introduced into the model: meatiness of fatteners (X1), the size of produced fatteners (X2), weight of fatteners (X3). The model developed in the study was proposed to groups as a tool to measure the efficiency of production and is currently being used by them. The results indicate that the activities of pig producers have a positive effect on production effectiveness and confirms the validity of horizontal integration in agriculture. Managing production in accordance with the statute imposed on the producer group showed a similar quality of produced raw materials, while the average annual sales of fatteners increased, which may contribute to the ability to negotiate purchase prices.

Palabras clave

  • integration
  • agricultural producer groups
  • pigs
  • production parameters

Quality and safety of animal origin products

Acceso abierto

Effect of different roe deer muscles on fatty acid composition in intramuscular fat

Publicado en línea: 29 Jul 2015
Páginas: 775 - 784

Resumen

Abstract

The aim of the work was to study the effect of different muscles on the fatty acid composition in the intramuscular fat of roe deer hunted in Lithuania. The samples were excised from the five muscles of different carcass sites: m. longissimus dorsi (LD), m. deltoideus (shoulder), m. tensor fascia e latae (hind quarter), m. cleidocipitalis (neck) and m. intercostales interni (brisket) of hunted animals. The data were subjected to the analysis of variance in general linear (GLM Multivariate) procedure in SPSS 17. The muscle location of roe deer males appeared to affect the fatty acid composition in the intramuscular fat. The total proportions of saturated (SFA ), monounsaturated (MUFA ) and polyunsaturated (PUFA), including individual SFA, MUFA and PUFA acids were affected by the muscle. The highest levels of SFA and MUFA and the lowest levels of PUFA were found in the intramuscular fat of neck and brisket muscles and vice versa, the lowest levels of SFA and MUFA and the highest levels of PUFA were found in the intramuscular fat of LD and hind quarter muscles. The muscle type of roe deer appeared to affect the lipid quality indices. The lowest atherogenic and thrombogenic indexes, and the highest hypocholesterolemic/hypercholesterolemic ratio were in the intramuscular fat of LD and hind quarter muscles.

Keywords

  • fatty acids
  • intramuscular fat
  • game meat
  • roe deer
Acceso abierto

Longissimus lumborum quality of Limousin suckler beef in relation to age and postmortem vacuum ageing

Publicado en línea: 29 Jul 2015
Páginas: 785 - 798

Resumen

Abstract

The aim of the research was to evaluate the influence of calf age on proximate composition, fatty acid composition and mineral contents, as well as postmortem ageing under vacuum on the inherent properties of musculus longissimus lumborum of Limousin suckler beef aged to 6, 7 or 8 months. The moisture, protein, fat, and ash content, fatty acid composition, mineral concentrations and intrinsic properties (pH, electrical conductivity, drip and cooking loss, shear force, and CIE colour parameters) were determined. The calf age significantly (P≤0.05) correlated with an increased protein content and energy value of meat and decreased water:protein proportion. Moreover, increased age correlated with higher concentrations of Mg (P≤0.01), Zn and Fe (P≤0.05) and reduced concentrations of Cu (P≤0.05). The fatty acid composition was similar irrespective of calf age, with the exception of CLA content, which was significantly (P≤0.01) reduced in older animals. Muscles of calves aged 6 months were significantly lighter, less red, and showed the most significant drip loss compared to the muscles of older animals. There was no significant (P>0.05) interaction between calf age and postmortem ageing for the intrinsic properties analysed. Postmortem ageing under vacuum resulted in a significant decrease (P≤0.05) in the shear force of meat (irrespective of the age of the calves). The lack of significant differences, especially with regard to the meat pH, shear force, fatty acid composition, and with the significantly higher content of protein and major elements (Fe, Mg and Zn) in relation to the slaughter age, indicates the validity of increasing the duration of fattening of the Limousin calves reared with their mothers on the pasture until the age of 8 months, which is a maximum in this category.

Keywords

  • suckler beef
  • veal
  • nutritional quality
  • inherent properties
  • vacuum ageing
Acceso abierto

Iodine concentration in Polish consumer milk

Publicado en línea: 29 Jul 2015
Páginas: 799 - 810

Resumen

Abstract

The aim of this study was monitoring the iodine concentration in Polish consumer milk in the years 2011-2012. The test material used in this study consisted of consumer UHT pasteurized milk with extended shelf life. Six randomly selected cartons of milk with different fat content (from 0.5% to 3.2%) were each purchased from large-sized stores located in 16 cities during the summer and in 13 cities during the cow’s winter feeding period. In total, 167 milk samples were collected. During the summer season, the milk’s iodine content averaged 143 μg iodine kg-1 and ranged from 103 to 196 μg iodine kg-1 (n=96 samples), with a standard deviation (SD) of ±31 and coefficient variability (CV) of 44%. During the winter season, the milk’s iodine content averaged 183 μg iodine kg-1 and ranged from 141 to 236 μg iodine kg-1 (n=77 samples), with a standard deviation (SD) of ±5 and coefficient of variability (%) (CV) of 26%. Iodine levels in Polish consumer milk increased from the last monitoring (2007-2008) from 100 to 143 μg iodine kg-1 in the summer season, and from 147 to 183 μg iodine kg-1 in the winter season (increases of 47% and 24%, respectively).

Palabras clave

  • Poland
  • iodine
  • consumer milk
  • region
  • season
19 Artículos

Review

Acceso abierto

Perception of environment in farm animals – A review

Publicado en línea: 29 Jul 2015
Páginas: 565 - 589

Resumen

Abstract

Perception of the environment by farm animals is fundamental for expression of behaviour and of their adaptation to different environmental conditions. From a breeding-environmental perspective, perception becomes increasingly important when a production system negatively impacts on animals such that their normal expression of behaviour is compromised. Therefore, research on the perceptual abilities of farm animals is of crucial importance to understand the animalenvironment relationship. This review is focused on research related to sensory perception of farm animals. It should be stressed that the world of animal senses is very difficult to explore, we have limited knowledge of the complexity of the animal’s ability to perceive and process environmental stimuli.

Keywords

  • farm animals
  • perception
  • senses
  • environment
Acceso abierto

Red deer farming: breeding practice, trends and potential in Poland – A Review

Publicado en línea: 29 Jul 2015
Páginas: 591 - 599

Resumen

Abstract

Red deer farming has started to play a greater role in modern agriculture and today is an interesting alternative for pig or cattle breeders. With regard to the low effort and high efficiency of maintenance, it may be expected that keeping these animals in fenced enclosures will be more popular over time. This trend is warranted by the fact that the demand on two main deer products: venison and antlers, is constantly rising, due to the quality of deer meat and prices of antler hunting trophies. Several countries of the world have already realized the scale of advantages to be derived from deer farming and today are world leaders in this area. Despite this expansion, the market still remains opened for deer products. Poland is a country with the climatic conditions, vast plain areas and varied vegetation that are fully sufficient to undertake large-scale deer farming, and to become a European leader. Therefore the aim of this review is to detail deer farming within the Polish framework and environmental conditions, and to illustrate its potential in sustainable modern agriculture and the economy.

Keywords

  • Cervus elaphus
  • sustainable farming
  • venison
  • velvet
  • antler
Acceso abierto

Pig behaviour in relation to weather conditions – a review

Publicado en línea: 29 Jul 2015
Páginas: 601 - 610

Resumen

Abstract

Weather conditions (temperature, humidity, solar radiation, air pressure, wind strength, wind direction and precipitation) have a significant impact on the behaviour of farm animals. Pigs have developed a wide range of thermoregulatory behaviours that are particular for this species. With increases in temperature the most characteristic behaviour for pigs is decreased activity and increased wallowing in wet surfaces. In addition to this, rooting and wallowing are highly influenced by temperature and humidity. The lack of possibility to express these behaviours leads to development of stereotypies. Interestingly, low temperatures do not increase the use of shelter if not in combination with wind or precipitation. Furthermore, wild pigs build stronger nests in severe conditions. Also, resting behaviour and reproduction may be disturbed by high temperatures. There is a negative impact of foehn wind on boars’ libido and semen parameters.

Keywords

  • pigs
  • atmospheric conditions
  • weather
  • behaviour

Animal genetics and breeding

Acceso abierto

A novel single nucleotide polymorphism of the POU1F1 gene associated with meat quality traits in rabbits

Publicado en línea: 29 Jul 2015
Páginas: 611 - 620

Resumen

Abstract

The purpose of this research was to investigate the effect of the POU1F1 gene on meat quality traits in the Hyla, Champagne, and Tianfu Black rabbit breeds. We detected one single nucleotide polymorphism and the SNP was located at 536 bp in intron 5 of this gene. Chi-square tests showed that the genotypic frequencies in the three rabbit populations were not in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. The PIC values indicated that the three populations had intermediate levels of genetic diversity. Rabbits with the CC genotype had a significantly greater pH0h than those with the CT genotype in the biceps femoris muscle. The least squares means for cooking loss in CT and CC rabbits were significantly higher than those for TT rabbits. Rabbits with the CC genotype had a significantly higher intramuscular fat content in the longissimus dorsi and biceps femoris muscles than those with genotype TT and CT. Thus, the results here indicate that this POU1F1 SNP may be of potential use in marker assisted selection for meat quality traits in rabbits.

Keywords

  • rabbit
  • POU1F1
  • SNP
  • meat quality
Acceso abierto

Evaluation of minimally invasive muscle biopsy method for genetic analysis in horse

Publicado en línea: 29 Jul 2015
Páginas: 621 - 627

Resumen

Abstract

In horses, muscle biopsy is widely used in veterinary practice for routine diagnosis of various muscle disorders. Development of genetic methods such as gene expression measurements using microarrays, RNA-seq, and real-time PCR leads to searching an alternative, less invasive biopsy method in order to obtain an appropriately representative group of animals for genetic testing. In the present study, we proposed a minimally invasive method of muscle sample biopsy using Pro- MagTM Ultra Automatic Biopsy Instrument (Surgical Specialties Corporation, US, Inc.), which is commonly utilized in human medicine. This approach does not require skin incisions and usage of stitches. The quantity of muscle sample gained in accordance with presented procedure was sufficient to obtain RNA with a good quality. Furthermore, application of the automatic biopsy instrument allows obtaining a sufficient amount of biological material for genetic analysis from a wide variety of tissues. Moreover, samples acquired according to this method could be used in other analyses.

Palabras clave

  • muscle biopsy
  • horse
  • automatic biopsy
  • genetic analysis
Acceso abierto

Effects of LEP, GYS1, MYOD1, and MYF5 polymorphisms on pig economic traits

Publicado en línea: 29 Jul 2015
Páginas: 629 - 640

Resumen

Abstract

In the present study, we examined the effect of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of leptin (LEP), skeletal muscle glycogen synthase (GYS1), myogenic differentiation 1 (MYOD1), and myogenic factor 5 (MYF5) genes on economic trait association in pigs. LEP/HindIII, MYOD1/DdeI, MYF5/FokI, and GYS1/FokI genotypes were identified by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) from 466 pigs comprised of Duroc, Landrace and Yorkshire breeds. The LEP/HindIII polymorphism differed significantly with respect to average daily gain (ADG) in Duroc pigs (P<0.05). However, the GYS1/FokI polymorphism was not significantly associated with any trait. The MYOD1/DdeI polymorphism was significantly associated with both ADG and meat percentage (MP) in Duroc pigs, and ADG, backfat thickness (BFT) and feed efficiency (FE) in Landrace pigs, whereas the MYOD1/DdeI polymorphism was not significantly associated with any trait in Yorkshire pigs. In addition, the MYF5/FokI polymorphism revealed a close relationship with ADG in Duroc pigs. In conclusion, we believe that the SNPs within LEP, MYOD1 and MYF5 in certain pig breeds play important roles as potential genetic markers for economic traits of pigs.

Keywords

  • LEP
  • GYS1
  • MYOD1
  • MYFS
  • economic traits

The biology, physiology, reproduction, and health

Acceso abierto

Effect of altitude on some male fertility related traits in Saudi ovine and caprine species

Publicado en línea: 29 Jul 2015
Páginas: 641 - 653

Resumen

Abstract

This study aimed to evaluate the effect of altitude on some male fertility related traits in Saudi sheep and goats. Testicular tissues were collected from a slaughterhouse in Taif governorate (1800 m above sea level) and Makkah governorate (sea level). Sperm characteristics (1 - individual motility, 2 - percent live sperm 3 - percent abnormal sperm) were examined. Semi-quantitative RT -PCR assay was used to evaluate the expression of IGF-II, StAR, LDLr and CYP11A genes. No significant effect of altitude on tested sperm parameters was revealed. Expression of IGF-II gene in both sheep and goats was significantly (P<0.05) higher at sea level compared to high altitude. A similar effect of altitude on StAR gene expression was only observed in goats, while in sheep the level of effect did not reach the significance threshold. Moreover, LDLr gene expression was significantly (P<0.05) higher for both sheep and goats at high altitude than at sea level. The CYP11A gene expression was significantly (P<0.05) higher in high altitude sheep than in those raised at sea level, while the opposite trend was observed for goats. In conclusion, high altitude had an effect on the expression of some studied male fertility related genes, but sperm parameters were not significantly affected.

Palabras clave

  • high altitude
  • fertility
  • sheep
  • goat
  • sperm parameters
  • gene expression
Acceso abierto

Pathophysiological response to experimental oral overdose of different forms of selenium in lambs

Publicado en línea: 29 Jul 2015
Páginas: 655 - 666

Resumen

Abstract

Twelve male lambs (30.5±2.1 kg) with cannulas in the rumen were divided into three groups to evaluate the accidental toxicity of selenium (Se) via digestive tract. The first group received intraruminal bolus without a Se source; the second group received intraruminal bolus with sodium selenite (SS: Na2SeO3); the third group received intraruminal bolus with barium selenate (BS: BaSeO4). The ruminal boluses were immediately degraded by a manufacturing defect, releasing an amount of 366 mg Se via rumen. All lambs had tachypnea (80 cycles per minute), a metallic smell in the oral cavity and laminitis foot. Analyses of necropsy and histopathology showed frequencies of lesions in the myocardium and skeletal muscle, lesions in the myocardium were more common in lambs intoxicated with SS or BS than the control group (P<0.05); the tissues were swollen and there were hyaline fibres (Zenker degeneration), as well as fragments and proliferation of the nuclei with necrosis. Se concentration in lambs intoxicated with SS and BS were: myocardium: 0.389 and 0.332; skeletal muscle: 0.583 and 0.492; and kidney: 2.871 and 2.841 μg/g fresh tissue, respectively. The Se concentration in blood increased over 2.5 times in the intoxicated lambs with both sources of Se (0.14 vs. 0.36 μg/mL) from baseline to the 22 days of sampling. There was a lower correlation (r=0.46) in SS intoxication group than the control and BS group (r≥0.93). As a conclusion, high dosages of 366 mg Se or 12 mg Se/kg BW in an accidental dosage did not cause a severe mortality but all lambs immediately showed reduced feed intake, metallic smell exhalation and depression.

Keywords

  • barium selenate
  • glutathione peroxidase
  • sodium selenite
  • toxicity
Acceso abierto

Hyperglycemia-induced changes in resistin gene expression in white adipose tissue in piglets

Publicado en línea: 29 Jul 2015
Páginas: 667 - 679

Resumen

Abstract

Previous data strongly indicated that resistin, an adipocyte-derived signalling peptide, plays an important role in metabolism and glucose homeostasis. Thus, the aim of the present study was to examine changes in synthesis and concentration of resistin in white adipose tissue in response to hyperglycemia in piglets. In order to develop hyperglycemia, piglets (10-week-old, Polish Landrace fatteners, female) received intraperitoneal (ip) injection of 150 mg streptozotocin (HI, n=6) or 60 mg synthetic glucocorticoid (HII, n=6). An injection of NaCl physiological saline was used as a control (n=6). Plasma resistin level was significantly higher in HII group compared with the control, while no difference was observed in HI. In epicardial adipose tissue (EAT ) the resistin mRNA level significantly increased whereas the opposite effect was observed for omental fat tissue (OAT ) in both experimental groups. Additionally, the resistin concentration did not change in EAT ; however, it was decreased in omental adipose tissue in response to hyperglycemia. The results obtained indicate that activity of resistin strongly depends on glycemic status as well as adipose tissue localization.

Palabras clave

  • resistin
  • white adipose tissue
  • hyperglycemia
  • piglets

Animal nutrition and feedstuffs

Acceso abierto

Effects of clinoptilolite (zeolite) on attenuation of lipopolysaccharide-induced stress, growth and immune response in broiler chickens

Publicado en línea: 29 Jul 2015
Páginas: 681 - 697

Resumen

Abstract

The effects of natural clinoptilolite (NCLI) and modified clinoptilolite (MCLI) were evaluated in broilers challenged with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in a 21-d feeding trial. A total of 288 one-day-old chickens were allocated into three treatment groups: control, NCLI (2%) and MCLI (2%). Half of the birds from each treatment group were challenged with either 0.9% NaCl solution or LPS (250 μg/kg body weight, orally administered) at 16, 18 and 21 d of age. Before the LPS challenge, no dietary effect on bird growth performance was found (P>0.05). When LPS was orally administered, no significant changes in growth performance of broilers was found (P>0.05). However, small intestinal morphology and development, malondialdehyde (MDA) content of the jejunual and ileal mucosa, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity of the ileal mucosa were significantly affected (P<0.05). Supplementation with NCLI and MCLI significantly decreased the MDA contents of the jejunual and ileal mucosa and improved the SOD activity of the ileal mucosa and the development of the small intestine compared with the control group (P<0.05). The results indicated that NCLI and MCLI additions in feed had protective effects on the gut health of broilers against LPS challenge.

Keywords

  • zeolite (clinoptilolite)
  • broiler
  • growth performance
  • gut health
Acceso abierto

Evaluation of Bacillus subtilis and Lactobacillus acidophilus probiotic supplementation on reproductive performance and noxious gas emission in sows

Publicado en línea: 29 Jul 2015
Páginas: 699 - 710

Resumen

Abstract

The impacts of probiotics supplementation on reproduction performance and noxious gas emission in sows was evaluated in an experiment with a total of thirty sows (second-parity), from 4 weeks prior to farrowing, to day 21 of lactation. The gestation and lactation diets of sows were supplemented with probiotics containing Bacillus subtilis (1.2 × 107 cfu/g) and Lactobacillus acidophilus (1.15 × 106 cfu/g). Treatment included: basal diet (CON), basal diet + 0.1% probiotics (PB0.1), and basal diet + 0.2% probiotics (PB0.2). The supplementation of dietary probiotics significantly improved average daily feed intake during the lactation period (quadratic, P = 0.0429), sow backfat thickness during the weaning period (linear, P = 0.0385), and initial body weight of piglets (linear, P = 0.0054) as compared with CON, respectively. Furthermore, the supplementation of dietary probiotics reduced noxious gas emission as compared with CON (linear, P<0.05 for day 5 and day 10), respectively. In conclusion, dietary probiotics containing B. subtilis and L. acidophilus improved the growth performance of sows, resulted in increased weaning body weight of piglets, and induced an effective and significant reduction in fecal noxious gas emission in lactating sows, as compared with CON.

Palabras clave

  • reproductive performance
  • noxious gas
  • piglet
  • probiotics
  • sow
Acceso abierto

The effect of a probiotic preparation containing Bacillus subtilis ATCC PTA-6737 on egg production and physiological parameters of laying hens

Publicado en línea: 29 Jul 2015
Páginas: 711 - 723

Resumen

Abstract

A total of 288 Lohmann Brown laying hens were randomly divided into two groups (9 replicates of 16 birds each). The hens were housed in three-tier battery cages for 26 weeks, including a two-week pre-laying period. All birds were fed iso-nitrogenous and iso-caloric diets, and had free access to water. Control group (C) hens were fed a basal diet, and experimental group (BS) hens received a basal diet supplemented with a commercial probiotic preparation of Bacillus subtilis ATCC PTA- 6737 at 1×108 CFU/kg feed. The number and weight of eggs laid, feed intake, feed conversion, egg quality, the fatty acid profile and cholesterol content of yolk lipids, and selected blood biochemical parameters of hens were determined throughout the experiment. No significant differences (P>0.05) were noted between the groups in average egg weight, laying performance (%), daily feed intake or feed conversion. Eggs laid by BS group hens received significantly higher scores for yolk color (Roche yolk color fan) and albumen quality (Haugh units), and they were characterized by a significant improvement in shell thickness and breaking strength (P<0.05) in comparison with eggs laid by control group hens. No significant differences (P>0.05) were observed between the groups in the fatty acid profile of yolk lipids, except for a significant increase (P<0.05) in oleic acid concentrations in group BS. No significant differences (P>0.05) were noted between the groups in selected blood biochemical parameters of laying hens. Group BS eggs had a significantly lower (P<0.05) cholesterol content of yolk lipids. It can be concluded that a probiotic preparation containing Bacillus subtilis ATCC PTA-6737 had a beneficial influence on selected performance parameters of laying hens, egg quality and the cholesterol content of yolk lipids.

Keywords

  • laying hens
  • Bacillus subtilis
  • performance
  • egg quality
Acceso abierto

The efficacy of selected feed additives in the prevention of broiler chicken coccidiosis under natural exposure to Eimeria spp

Publicado en línea: 29 Jul 2015
Páginas: 725 - 735

Resumen

Abstract

The aim of this study was to investigate, under conditions similar to commercial broiler production, the effect of the herbal extract blend (HE) at a quantity of 1 g per kg feed (200 mg of each herbal extract, Allium sativum, Salvia officinalis, Echinacea purpurea, Thymus vulgaris and Origanum

vulgare), used individually or in combination with mannan oligosaccharide (MOS; 1 g per kg feed) or chitosan (3 ml containing 2% deacetylated chitin per kg feed) on the performance parameters of broiler chickens, the results of the slaughter analysis, litter moisture and the number of oocysts excreted in feces. The experiment was conducted on 4,500 broiler chickens of both sexes kept in straw-bedded pens. Chickens were randomly assigned to 5 experimental treatments with 5 replicates (pens) of 180 birds. The experimental design included negative and positive (diclazuril, 1 mg per kg feed) control groups. The examined herbal extract blend used individually during natural exposure to the coccidia improved, compared to the negative control diet, the performance parameters to a greater extent than coccidiostat, lowered the litter moisture content and reduced the oocyst output. Combined dietary supplementation with a herbal extract blend of chitosan or mannan oligosaccharide did not result in further improvement.

Keywords

  • broiler chickens
  • performance
  • feed additives
  • Eimeria spp

Behavior, well-being, production technology, and environment

Acceso abierto

Aeration as an effective method for pathogen elimination in pig slurry

Publicado en línea: 29 Jul 2015
Páginas: 737 - 745

Resumen

Abstract

The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of aeration on the survival of indicator and pathogenic microorganisms in pig slurry. After inoculation of the aerated biomass with target bacteria, samples for the microbiological analyses were collected in different time intervals for the period of 12 days. The MPN method was used to determine the number of the investigated microorganisms. The results of statistical analysis showed the lack of significant differences in the theoretical time of survival, elimination rate and the time needed for 90% reduction between different Salmonella serotypes. Theoretical survival of Salmonella Typhimurium, Salmonella Senftenberg W775 and enterococci in the aerated slurry ranged from 13 to 25 days. Enterococci were the most resistant to aeration, and their survival time, compared to salmonellas, was significantly higher.

Palabras clave

  • pig slurry
  • aeration
  • Salmonella
  • enterococci
Acceso abierto

The productive lifetime of sows on two farms from the aspect of reasons for culling

Publicado en línea: 29 Jul 2015
Páginas: 747 - 758

Resumen

Abstract

The aim of this study was to compare the characteristics of the productive lifetime (PLT) of sows kept on two farms, from the aspect of reasons for culling. The study was based on data from animals from two breeding farms in Hungary, using the data of 3493 crossbred Dutch Large White and Dutch Landrace sows (DLW × DL) between their first farrowing until the time of culling (2006 and 2012). For six years, the annual culling rate for both farms averaged 45%. The most frequent reasons for removal on both farms were reproductive problems (40%, 51%), leg problems (29%, 23%) and mortality (19%, 15%). There was a significant difference between the distributions of reasons for culling on the two farms (χ2=41.7, P≤0.001). The distributions of reasons for culling differed in three periods of sow breeding (Farm A: χ2=264.7, P≤0.001; Farm B: χ2=511.1, P≤0.001). The percentage of main removal reasons decreased, whereas the frequency of culling due to age increased. Using survival analysis (Kaplan-Meier method and Cox proportional hazard model), significant differences were identified between the PLT of sows culled due to reproductive problems (P≤0.001), leg problems (P≤0.001) and old age (P≤0.001). Reproductive problems (HR: 1.34, P≤0.001) and leg problems (HR: 1.39, P≤0.001) were higher and culling due to old age (HR: 0.44, P≤0.001) was lower on Farm A compared to Farm B. There were no significant differences between the two farms in terms of mortality (HR: 0.99, P=0.923). Overall, the results can be useful for breeders of crossbred (DLW × DL) sow populations in more accurately defining their culling systems.

Keywords

  • reasons for culling
  • flooring system
  • productive lifetime
  • survival analysis
Acceso abierto

Does the activity of producer group organizations improve the production of pigs?

Publicado en línea: 29 Jul 2015
Páginas: 759 - 774

Resumen

Abstract

There are many works dealing with the activities of small farms, however there is a lack of papers about production and economic performance of small farms associated in producer group organizations. The aim of the study was to compare the production parameters of selected pig producer groups over two years (2010-2011). The basis for the analysis were the results of surveys carried out in 174 individual farms, which were members of 4 groups of pig producers. The study was conducted through direct interviews using a personal questionnaire. The average herd size of sows increased in the next year by 18.5% and the average annual production volume of fatteners by 9.3%. Average meatiness increased from 53.8% to 54.5%. In order to estimate the revenues a model of factors dependent on the farmer was created, expressed as the production of 1 kg of raw material. Three independent variables were introduced into the model: meatiness of fatteners (X1), the size of produced fatteners (X2), weight of fatteners (X3). The model developed in the study was proposed to groups as a tool to measure the efficiency of production and is currently being used by them. The results indicate that the activities of pig producers have a positive effect on production effectiveness and confirms the validity of horizontal integration in agriculture. Managing production in accordance with the statute imposed on the producer group showed a similar quality of produced raw materials, while the average annual sales of fatteners increased, which may contribute to the ability to negotiate purchase prices.

Palabras clave

  • integration
  • agricultural producer groups
  • pigs
  • production parameters

Quality and safety of animal origin products

Acceso abierto

Effect of different roe deer muscles on fatty acid composition in intramuscular fat

Publicado en línea: 29 Jul 2015
Páginas: 775 - 784

Resumen

Abstract

The aim of the work was to study the effect of different muscles on the fatty acid composition in the intramuscular fat of roe deer hunted in Lithuania. The samples were excised from the five muscles of different carcass sites: m. longissimus dorsi (LD), m. deltoideus (shoulder), m. tensor fascia e latae (hind quarter), m. cleidocipitalis (neck) and m. intercostales interni (brisket) of hunted animals. The data were subjected to the analysis of variance in general linear (GLM Multivariate) procedure in SPSS 17. The muscle location of roe deer males appeared to affect the fatty acid composition in the intramuscular fat. The total proportions of saturated (SFA ), monounsaturated (MUFA ) and polyunsaturated (PUFA), including individual SFA, MUFA and PUFA acids were affected by the muscle. The highest levels of SFA and MUFA and the lowest levels of PUFA were found in the intramuscular fat of neck and brisket muscles and vice versa, the lowest levels of SFA and MUFA and the highest levels of PUFA were found in the intramuscular fat of LD and hind quarter muscles. The muscle type of roe deer appeared to affect the lipid quality indices. The lowest atherogenic and thrombogenic indexes, and the highest hypocholesterolemic/hypercholesterolemic ratio were in the intramuscular fat of LD and hind quarter muscles.

Keywords

  • fatty acids
  • intramuscular fat
  • game meat
  • roe deer
Acceso abierto

Longissimus lumborum quality of Limousin suckler beef in relation to age and postmortem vacuum ageing

Publicado en línea: 29 Jul 2015
Páginas: 785 - 798

Resumen

Abstract

The aim of the research was to evaluate the influence of calf age on proximate composition, fatty acid composition and mineral contents, as well as postmortem ageing under vacuum on the inherent properties of musculus longissimus lumborum of Limousin suckler beef aged to 6, 7 or 8 months. The moisture, protein, fat, and ash content, fatty acid composition, mineral concentrations and intrinsic properties (pH, electrical conductivity, drip and cooking loss, shear force, and CIE colour parameters) were determined. The calf age significantly (P≤0.05) correlated with an increased protein content and energy value of meat and decreased water:protein proportion. Moreover, increased age correlated with higher concentrations of Mg (P≤0.01), Zn and Fe (P≤0.05) and reduced concentrations of Cu (P≤0.05). The fatty acid composition was similar irrespective of calf age, with the exception of CLA content, which was significantly (P≤0.01) reduced in older animals. Muscles of calves aged 6 months were significantly lighter, less red, and showed the most significant drip loss compared to the muscles of older animals. There was no significant (P>0.05) interaction between calf age and postmortem ageing for the intrinsic properties analysed. Postmortem ageing under vacuum resulted in a significant decrease (P≤0.05) in the shear force of meat (irrespective of the age of the calves). The lack of significant differences, especially with regard to the meat pH, shear force, fatty acid composition, and with the significantly higher content of protein and major elements (Fe, Mg and Zn) in relation to the slaughter age, indicates the validity of increasing the duration of fattening of the Limousin calves reared with their mothers on the pasture until the age of 8 months, which is a maximum in this category.

Keywords

  • suckler beef
  • veal
  • nutritional quality
  • inherent properties
  • vacuum ageing
Acceso abierto

Iodine concentration in Polish consumer milk

Publicado en línea: 29 Jul 2015
Páginas: 799 - 810

Resumen

Abstract

The aim of this study was monitoring the iodine concentration in Polish consumer milk in the years 2011-2012. The test material used in this study consisted of consumer UHT pasteurized milk with extended shelf life. Six randomly selected cartons of milk with different fat content (from 0.5% to 3.2%) were each purchased from large-sized stores located in 16 cities during the summer and in 13 cities during the cow’s winter feeding period. In total, 167 milk samples were collected. During the summer season, the milk’s iodine content averaged 143 μg iodine kg-1 and ranged from 103 to 196 μg iodine kg-1 (n=96 samples), with a standard deviation (SD) of ±31 and coefficient variability (CV) of 44%. During the winter season, the milk’s iodine content averaged 183 μg iodine kg-1 and ranged from 141 to 236 μg iodine kg-1 (n=77 samples), with a standard deviation (SD) of ±5 and coefficient of variability (%) (CV) of 26%. Iodine levels in Polish consumer milk increased from the last monitoring (2007-2008) from 100 to 143 μg iodine kg-1 in the summer season, and from 147 to 183 μg iodine kg-1 in the winter season (increases of 47% and 24%, respectively).

Palabras clave

  • Poland
  • iodine
  • consumer milk
  • region
  • season

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