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Detalles de la revista
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Revista
eISSN
2300-8733
Publicado por primera vez
25 Nov 2011
Periodo de publicación
4 veces al año
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Inglés

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Volumen 15 (2015): Edición 2 (April 2015)

Detalles de la revista
Formato
Revista
eISSN
2300-8733
Publicado por primera vez
25 Nov 2011
Periodo de publicación
4 veces al año
Idiomas
Inglés

Buscar

20 Artículos

Review

Acceso abierto

Effect of Piglet Birth Weight on Carcass Muscle and Fat Content and Pork Quality – A Review

Publicado en línea: 23 Apr 2015
Páginas: 271 - 287

Resumen

Abstract

Piglet birth weight is determined by the maternal environment, intrauterine crowding, and nutrition, which influence embryonic and fetal survival and, as a result, fertility. The internal environment regulates prenatal myogenesis and muscle fibre number nutritionally and hormonally. The growth and metabolic differentiation of muscle fibres take place during the postnatal period. The effect of intrauterine undernutrition on myogenesis and on fetal growth and development (IUGR) is reflected in the low piglet birth weight and its high within-litter variation. Slaughter traits are determined by many factors, including genetic (breed), environmental (nutrition) and preslaughter handling. Slaughter traits and the physico-chemical and sensory characteristics of meat are dependent on prenatal myogenesis and neonatal weight. Optimized body weight of newborn piglets is conducive to improving quantitative traits (meatiness, fatness) and qualitative traits. However, slaughter traits are also influenced by many other differentiating factors, which is reflected in research results. Muscle fibres become metabolically differentiated during postnatal development, and one of the factors of large variation in pig meat quality traits is variation in the proportions of different fibre types in mature muscle. Considering the divergent opinions among scientists about the effect of prenatal myogenesis and piglet birth weight on slaughter value and pork quality, as well as the existence of areas that have received little investigation, it is justified to continue research in this area.

Palabras clave

  • birth weight
  • myogenesis
  • slaughter value
  • pork quality
Acceso abierto

Changes of Nitrogen Compounds During Ensiling of High Protein Herbages – A Review

Publicado en línea: 23 Apr 2015
Páginas: 289 - 305

Resumen

Abstract

Losses of crude protein during ensiling of herbages, in contrast to carbohydrates, do not affect the reduction of its content; their form is changed into greater solubility non-protein compounds and also highly degraded forms, which lower the efficiency of the microbial protein synthesis in the rumen. These processes are accompanied by a change of amino acid composition of herbage protein and decrease in intestinal digestibility of protein from feeds as a result of the formation of indigestible complexes with carbohydrates (ADIN). Reduction of protein degradation in silages is achieved by accelerated acidity through addition of acids or dominance of homofermentative bacteria. The positive effects of fermentation inhibitors or sorbents use, as well as the wilting of raw material on the level and rate of protein degradation were demonstrated by many researchers. A greater contribution of protein nitrogen and reduction of deamination in silages can also be obtained by using bacteria inoculants. Increasing the proportion of protein nitrogen is accompanied by the improved efficiency of microbial protein synthesis.

Palabras clave

  • silage
  • legumes
  • proteolysis
  • crude protein
  • nitrogen fractions
Acceso abierto

The Effect of Season and Meteorological Stress Factors on Behavioural Responses and Activities of Donkeys (Equus Asinus) – A Review

Publicado en línea: 23 Apr 2015
Páginas: 307 - 321

Resumen

Abstract

The review examines the adaptation of donkeys to arid conditions, and the impact of meteorological stress on performance and welfare in donkeys. The impact of season, including meteorological and nutritional factors, on the behavioural responses and welfare of donkeys was also reviewed. Season influences the adaptation and behaviour of donkeys as they are subjected to uses, and the modulating role of feed availability on the grazing behaviour of donkeys was also examined. It is concluded that season, as influenced by meteorological stress conditions, modulates the behaviour, welfare and grazing of donkeys.

Palabras clave

  • season
  • behavioural responses
  • donkeys
  • meteorological factors

Animal genetics and breeding

Acceso abierto

Genetic Structure Analysis of Tatra Shepherd Dog Population From Tatra Mountain Region

Publicado en línea: 23 Apr 2015
Páginas: 323 - 335

Resumen

Abstract

The aim of the work was to analyze the genetic structure of the population of Tatra Shepherd dogs, registered in branches of Polish Kennel Club from Tatra Mountain Region. Data were pedigrees of 102 Tatra Shepherd dogs (33 males and 69 females) born between 1994 and 2011. Inbreeding and relationship coefficients, as well as effective number of founders and ancestors, were calculated. These statistics give the picture of genetic diversity of the population. Average inbreeding coefficient was 7.17%, whereas average relationship coefficient was 18.20%. The number of inbred animals and the mean FX values steadily increased over time. Twenty-six of 80 inbred animals had inbreeding coefficients higher than 10%. The effective number of founders was relatively high in relation to the population size (the effective number of ancestors was four times lower) and both were similar to the results of studies of other authors on different dog breeds. The total contribution of only 4 ancestors was enough to explain 50% of the gene pool of the population. Therefore, mating of related animals should be avoided in order to prevent the further increase of inbreeding level, because almost all Polish and foreign Tatra Shepherd dogs living now originate from the population under study.

Palabras clave

  • founders
  • ancestors
  • inbreeding
  • relationship
  • Tatra Shepherd dog
Acceso abierto

Polymorphism and Bioinformatics Analysis of Growth Differentiation Factor 9 Gene in Lori Sheep

Publicado en línea: 23 Apr 2015
Páginas: 337 - 348

Resumen

Abstract

Growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF9) is a fecundity major gene affecting prolificacy in sheep. In the present study, genetic variation of a 380-bp fragment in GDF9 gene exon 1 was investigated in 100 Lori ewes. Single-strand conformational polymorphism (SSCP) and DNA sequencing methods were used to detect single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of the studied fragment. A SNP (g.306G>A), known as G1 mutation, with two genotypes (GG and AG) was found in two different SSCP patterns of GDF9 gene exon 1, deducing an amino acid (AA) exchange (p.Arg87His). Frequencies of the AG and GG genotypes were 37.65% and 62.35%, respectively. Also, the estimated allelic frequencies for the A and G alleles were 18.825% and 81.175%, respectively. The observed nucleotide sequences were subjected to alignment analysis and it was found that the studied fragment had more than 99.7% similarity with some sequences reported for other breeds of sheep. Two different secondary and 3D protein structures were predicted for A and G alleles. Moreover, the A and G alleles had different isoelectric pH values (8.7 and 9, respectively). The observed genotypes tended to have a significant association with litter size (P<0.10) where average litter size of GG ewes was slightly (20%) higher than for AG animals. With respect to the results of the present study, it seems that more studies are needed to evaluate the mutations in other fragments of this gene or other genes in Lori sheep.

Palabras clave

  • GDF9
  • mutation
  • PCR-SSCP
  • bioinformatics analysis
  • sheep
Acceso abierto

Association of the Expression Level of the MYBPC1 Gene in Skeletal Muscle With Marbling Trait in Japanese Black Beef Cattle

Publicado en línea: 23 Apr 2015
Páginas: 349 - 358

Resumen

Abstract

Marbling characterized by the amount and distribution of intramuscular fat (IMF) in longissimus muscle (LM) and measured as beef marbling score (BMS), is an economically important trait of beef cattle in Japan. The myosin binding protein C, slow type (MYBPC1) gene, involved in efficient energy metabolism and homeostasis during muscle contraction in slow skeletal muscle, has been previously shown to be expressed at different levels in the LM between high-marbled and lowmarbled steer groups using differential-display PCR (ddPCR). In this study, we found that IMF area (%) in the sacrococcygeus muscle (SM) was positively correlated with BMS in the LM in Japanese Black steers (n=22, r=0.941, P<0.0001). This suggested that the IMF area (%) in the SM tends to equate marbling level in the LM. Furthermore, we showed that the MYBPC1 expression level in SM was significantly higher in the Japanese Black steers (n=5) with high BMS than in the Japanese Black steers (n=5) with low BMS (P<0.001). Moreover, correlation analyses showed that the expression level of the MYBPC1 gene was positively correlated with IMF area (%) (n=22, r=0.858, P<0.0001) and BMS (n=22, r=0.769, P<0.0001), indicating the association of MYBPC1 expression level with marbling trait. These results, together with the previous ddPCR result, suggested that high level of MYBPC1 expression may be associated with the development of marbling in Japanese Black beef cattle.

Palabras clave

  • intramuscular fat
  • Japanese Black breed
  • marbling
  • MYBPC1
  • skeletal muscle

The biology, physiology, reproduction, and health

Acceso abierto

Reproductive System Condition in Dairy Cows with Left-Sided Displacement of the Abomasums

Publicado en línea: 23 Apr 2015
Páginas: 359 - 371

Resumen

Abstract

The aim of the study was to evaluate selected parameters representing reproductive system conditions in cows suffering from left-sided displacement of the abomasum (LDA). Eighty Holstein- Friesian cows were divided into control (n=40) and LDA (n=40) groups. Haematological and biochemical evaluations were performed in the control group and in cows with LDA before and after surgical treatment. Cytological and ultrasound examinations of the uterus were performed at 21 (baseline), 35 and 63 days after parturition. In the LDA group, significantly decreased concentrations of calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, copper, potassium, glucose and total cholesterol were stated, while aspartate aminotransferase activity, white blood cell count, erythrocyte count, haematocrit, haemoglobin content and concentration of β-hydroxybutyrate, free fatty acids and bilirubin were increased (all P<0.05). Percentage of neutrophils in the uterus and the uterus diameter were increased in the LDA group at the baseline and at 35 days after parturition (P<0.001). The neutrophil percentage was also increased at 63 days after parturition in the LDA group (P<0.001). Number of days to first oestrus, number of services per conception and calving-to-conception interval were higher in the LDA group (P<0.001). This study has shown reproductive system changes and impaired fertility in dairy cows as the consequence of LDA occurrence. Thus, LDA treatment in cows should be combined with diagnostic evaluation of the uterus and reproductive system to improve reproductive performance. As indicated in the cytological examination, a subclinical inflammatory process may last even 60 days after parturition, leading to substantial impairment of reproductive function in dairy cows.

Palabras clave

  • cow
  • left-sided displacement of the abomasum
  • uterus
  • fertility
Acceso abierto

Influence of Ascites Syndrome on Growth Pattern of Chickens Reared at Normal or Cold Ambient Temperature

Publicado en línea: 23 Apr 2015
Páginas: 373 - 385

Resumen

Abstract

Ascites syndrome (AS) is a metabolic disorder usually seen in highly improved meat-type broiler strains. This syndrome causes major financial losses to the poultry industry. Previously it was believed that AS incidence was a side effect of intense selection for rapid growth rate (GR) or higher market weight. If this belief is the case, selection for further increase in GR will not be rational. However, it was later understood that there were significant genetic variations for both GR and susceptibility/resistance to AS; thus selective breeding could be helpful in diminishing the incidence of AS while improving GR. Furthermore, it was hypothesized that genes controlling the GR were not genetically dependent on those genes controlling susceptibility to AS. In the current research, we aimed to study the association of GR traits with AS% in a pure sire line. A total of 1458 1-day-old chicks from 67 sire families were used. The results revealed that ascitic chicks were not significantly superior in early GR traits (i.e. before day 28) than the healthy ones. At later ages, probably due to the commencement of the syndrome, the ascitic chicks were significantly lighter in body weight (BW) than their healthy counterparts. The lack of significant genetic correlations between the GR traits and AS% indicated that there was considerable scope for simultaneous selection of birds for increased BW and GR while controlling susceptibility to AS.

Palabras clave

  • ascites syndrome
  • Richards function
  • genetic correlation
  • growth curve
Acceso abierto

Responses of the Fertility, Semen Quality, Blood Constituents, Immunity and Antioxidant Status of Rabbit Bucks to Type and Magnetizing of Water

Publicado en línea: 23 Apr 2015
Páginas: 387 - 407

Resumen

Abstract

This work aimed to test the responses of the fertility, semen quality, blood constituents, immunity and antioxidant status of rabbit bucks to water type (e.g., tap water and well water) and magnetizing of water exposed or unexposed to a magnetic field of ≈4000 gauss. The experimental design was factorial 2 (type of water, e.g. tap vs. well water) × 2 (magnetic treatments, e.g. unexposed vs. exposed to magnetic field) using forty mature V-line rabbit bucks randomly distributed to four groups of 10 animals each. The rabbit bucks were provided free access to the water and same diet. Well water had lower quality than tap water, i.e. higher pH, conductivity, salinity, calcium, magnesium, and total hardness. Water magnetizing had less effect on tap water than on well water (e.g. on pH, conductivity, salinity, calcium, magnesium, total hardness and dissolved oxygen). Bucks that consumed tap water showed better semen quality, metabolic profiles and immunity than those that drank well water. Magnetized water significantly increased body weight, feed intake, reaction time, fertility, sperm concentration, mass motility and total live sperm of bucks consuming well water and tap water. The improvements in fertility and semen quality concurred with significant increases in testosterone hormone, immunoglobulin A, antioxidant enzymes, and with decreases in lipid peroxidation biomarker malondialdehyde and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances. In conclusion, well water induced a significant decrease in semen quality and hence fertility of males. Whereas magnetic treatment improved water quality, semen quality, blood picture and antioxidant status and hence buck fertility.

Palabras clave

  • rabbit bucks
  • magnetic water
  • semen quality
  • physiological traits
  • immunity
Acceso abierto

Synchronization Protocols in Spanish Merino Sheep: Reduction in Time to Estrus by the Addition of eCG to a Progesterone-Based Estrus Synchronization Protocol

Publicado en línea: 23 Apr 2015
Páginas: 409 - 418

Resumen

Abstract

An appropriate management of reproduction allows ewes to breed at a more intensive rhythm, more compatible with economic efficiency of farms. Hence, the objectives of the present work were to evaluate a traditional estrus synchronization protocol (based on medroxyprogesterone acetate-impregnated intravaginal sponges combined or not with equine chorionic gonadotropin) on a Merino sheep herd during the breeding season, in order to determine the best working protocol for this breed. A total of 277 sheep, blocked by age (200 ewes and 77 ewe lambs) were randomly allocated to four groups, two of ewes (E and Ee) and two of ewe lambs (L and Le). All females received 60 mg MAP (medroxyprogesterone acetate) sponges on the first day. At the day of removal the animals of groups Ee and Le received 450 IU of eCG (equine chorionic gonadotropin). Mean estrus synchronization rate was 92.06% and similar among groups. Time to estrus was shorter for Ee (46.93±12.44 h) and Le (44.34±10.76 h), when compared to treatments without eCG (60.60±20.46 h and 58.68±17.72 h for E and L, respectively; P<0.05 for both). Pregnancy rates were 71.35 and 72.86% for ewes and ewe lambs, respectively, and similar among groups. Lambing rates were lower in ewes (1.36) than in ewe lambs (1.85) with no significant effect of eCG. The study demonstrates the efficacy of the synchronization method with MAP and the reduction in the time to estrus induced by eCG in Spanish Merino ewes and ewe lambs during the breeding season.

Palabras clave

  • Spanish Merino sheep
  • age
  • estrus synchronization
  • reproductive response
  • eCG
Acceso abierto

Expression and Regulation of Haptoglobin in Tissues and in Differentiated Bovine Adipocytes

Publicado en línea: 23 Apr 2015
Páginas: 419 - 431

Resumen

Abstract

Haptoglobin (Hp) is a protein secreted mainly from the liver to bind hemoglobin and thus prevents iron loss and oxidative stress. Bovine Hp in blood increases during diseases such as mastitis and fatty liver syndrome. This study was conducted to examine the expression and regulation of Hp in differentiated mature bovine adipocytes. Hp expression was confirmed in various tissues and in mature adipocytes but not in the stromal vascular cell fraction using qualitative RT -PCR and quantitative northern blot analysis, respectively. Intravenous injection of Holstein cows with recombinant bovine tumor necrosis factor-α (rbTNF-α) and interferon gamma (rbIFN-γ) significantly increased the serum concentrations of Hp. When mature differentiated bovine adipocytes were incubated with short chain fatty acids, cytokines and hormones, Hp expression was altered. Acetate, butyrate and propionate at a dose of 1 mM significantly up-regulated Hp mRNA abundance. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and TNF-α also significantly up-regulated Hp mRNA abundance, while troglitazone and norepinephrine down-regulated it. Our study confirmed expression of Hp in differentiated mature adipocytes and identified LPS, TNF-α, short chain fatty acids, as regulators of Hp mRNA expression in these cells.

Palabras clave

  • adipocytes
  • bovine haptoglobin
  • expression
  • regulation
Acceso abierto

Incidence of Footpad Dermatitis and Hock Burns in Broilers as Affected by Genotype, Lighting Program and Litter Type

Publicado en línea: 23 Apr 2015
Páginas: 433 - 445

Resumen

Abstract

The aim of this study was to define the conditions for improving broiler leg health, thus ultimately promoting broiler welfare and greater economic efficiency of production, by investigating the effects of litter type, lighting program, or genetic predisposition on the incidence and severity of footpad dermatitis and hock burns. The study was conducted on broiler genotypes (G) Hubbard Classic and Ross 308. Litter (L) was either chopped straw or wood shavings. Lighting programs (LP) were applied when broilers were eight days old. One lighting program (LP1) was designed so that chicks between 8 to 39 days of age were exposed to 16L:4D:2L:2D, and received 23L:1D between 40 to 42 days of age. The other lighting program (LP2) was a gradual extension of photoperiod after restrictions in the second week: 16L:8D (8-14 days), 16L:3D:2L:3D (15-21 days), 16L:2D:4L:2D (22-28 days), 16L:1D:6L:1D (29-35 days) and 23L:1D (36-42 days). Evaluations of footpad lesions and hock burn, according to the method described by Thomas et al. (2004), were carried out individually for each bird, on days 21 and 42. Based on the average score and the frequency of the worst forms of footpad dermatitis, better growing conditions for broilers were found when wood shavings were used as litter material rather than the chopped straw (P<0.01), and when a lighting program with gradual lengthening of photoperiod and with intermittent light/ dark periods (LP2) was applied, compared to a moderate-constant photoperiod lighting program (LP1) (P<0.01). The Ross 308 broiler genotype, despite its lower body weight, showed a greater tendency to develop footpad dermatitis and hock burns. Hock burns developed more slowly than footpad dermatitis, and thereby, would be likely to exhibit a smaller adverse effect on broiler welfare and quality of chicken feet.

Palabras clave

  • broiler
  • genotype
  • lighting program
  • litter
  • dermatitis

Animal nutrition and feedstuffs

Acceso abierto

The Effect of Pleurotus Eryngii Stalk Residue Dietary Supplementation on Layer Performance, Egg Traits and Oxidative Status

Publicado en línea: 23 Apr 2015
Páginas: 447 - 461

Resumen

Abstract

This study was conducted to investigate the effects of Pleurotus eryngii stalk residue (PESR) on performance, egg traits and oxidative status of laying hens. One hundred and twenty 22-week-old laying hens (Hendrix) were randomly allocated into 4 dietary groups, each containing 30 birds, including 10 replicates per group and 3 birds per replicate. In addition, they were fed diets supplemented with 0 (control group, corn-soybean meal), 0.5, 1.0, or 2.0% dried PESR groups for 8 weeks, respectively. The results indicated that the different levels of dietary supplementation produced no significant differences in production performance among the experimental groups of laying hens. The Haugh unit was significantly higher in the 1.0% and 2.0% PESR groups compared to the control group. The eggs’ cholesterol content of the 1.0% and 2.0% PESR groups was significantly lower than that of the control group at 5-8 weeks. The blood triglyceride content and cholesterol content were significantly lower in the 1.0% and 2.0% PESR groups compared to the control group at the 4th and 8th weeks. Hence, the supplemented 1.0% and 2.0% of PESR groups showed higher levels for serum trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity, catalase and superoxide dismutase during the experimental period in comparison with the control group. This study indicated that a by-product of Pleurotus eryngii, PESR, could produce lower-cholesterol eggs and improve the oxidative stability with 1.0% and 2.0% PESR supplementation in laying hens.

Palabras clave

  • Pleurotus eryngii stalk residue
  • laying hens
  • egg traits
  • antioxidants
  • feed additive
Acceso abierto

Effects of Dietary Fiber and Benzoic Acid on Growth Performance, Nutrient Digestibility, Reduction of Harmful Gases, and Lipid Profiles in Growing Pigs

Publicado en línea: 23 Apr 2015
Páginas: 463 - 474

Resumen

Abstract

We assessed the possibly synergistic effects of dietary fiber (DF) and benzoic acid (BA) in growingfinishing pigs. In total, 96 growing pigs ([Landrace × Yorkshire] × Duroc) with an average initial body weight (BW) of 22.82 (±0.24) kg were selected and provided the dietary supplements based on their BW in a 2 × 2 factorial experiment, with the respective factors being fiber (low vs. high; 140 g/kg, 160 g/kg NSP, respectively) and BA (0, 5 g/kg benzoic acid) in six replicate pens consisting of four pigs per pen. Sugar beet pulp was used as a DF source, at 50 g/kg of the diet. All diets were formulated to contain 14.44 ME MJ/kg and 190 g/kg CP. This experiment was conducted to evaluate the growth performance, nutrient digestibility, and reduction of harmful gases and serum metabolites. There was no significant difference in feed intake and weight gains during treatments. Fiber levels and benzoic acid addition did not affect the dry matter, nitrogen and gross energy digestibility. Also, no interaction was found between fiber level and benzoic acid treatment. There was no difference in NH3, but RSH and H2S gases emissions show significant reduction with fiber and benzoic acid treatment. Serum metabolites, including lipoprotein and cholesterol, were also apparently unaffected by these treatments. Thus, the addition of 50 g sugar beet pulp per kg of growing feed as a DF source and the addition of BA had no significant impact on the growth performance of pigs during the growth period.

Palabras clave

  • fiber
  • benzoic acid
  • growing pigs
  • lipid profile
  • gas emission
Acceso abierto

Valuable Components of Dried Pomaces of Chokeberry, Black Currant, Strawberry, Apple and Carrot as a Source of Natural Antioxidants and Nutraceuticals in the Animal Diet

Publicado en línea: 23 Apr 2015
Páginas: 475 - 491

Resumen

Abstract

The chemical analysis of dried pomace of chokeberry, apple, black currant, strawberries and carrot was performed to determine the composition and content of nutrients and bioactive substances, among others the content of vitamins, phenolic acids, anthocyanins, and essential fatty acids. The antioxidant properties were determined in the extracts of pomace by determining the total antioxidant potential (TRAP) and antioxidant activity against DPPH radical. Tested pomaces contained 12-15% protein, approximately 18-20% crude fibre, approximately 2.7-4.0% ether extract and 1.8-3.0% ash. The highest level of anthocyanins was found in chokeberry pomace, followed by black currant pomace and several times less in strawberries and apples. The content of phenolic acids ranged from 12.91 mg/100 g in black currants to 630.30 mg/100 g in dried chokeberries. In terms of vitamins the richest source of vitamin E was chokeberry pomace (152.3 mg/100 g), while most of the carotenoids were found in dried carrot (15.35 mg/100 g). The chain of antioxidant activity was as follows: black currant>chokeberry>apple>strawberry>carrot, while in terms of antioxidative capacity it was chokeberry>apple>black currant>strawberry>carrot.

Palabras clave

  • apple
  • chokeberry
  • strawberry
  • black currant
  • pomace
  • antioxidants
Acceso abierto

Effect of Various Levels of Dietary Protein in Transition Period on Colostrum Quality and Serum Immunoglobulin Concentration in Holstein Cows and their Newborn Calves

Publicado en línea: 23 Apr 2015
Páginas: 493 - 504

Resumen

Abstract

This experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of 2 levels of crude protein (CP) content in the diet during transition period on lactation performance, colostrum quality and serum immunoglobulin concentration of dairy cows and their newborn calves. Thirty dry Holstein cows (607±75 kg) were blocked according to their parity and expected calving date, and then randomly assigned to one of 2 treatments of 15 cows in completely randomized block design. Dietary treatments were: 1) moderate CP level in transition diet (prepartum: 11.9%; postpartum: 14%); and 2) higher CP level in transition diet (prepartum: 14.2%; postpartum: 16.8%). Furthermore, milk samples were collected on two days (15 and 30) postpartum for milk composition analysis. At the same time, milk yield also was recorded. After parturition calves were fed mother’s colostrum. Colostrum samples were collected during the first milking postpartum. Blood samples of cows were taken on days 21 and 2 before projected calving date and on days 15 and 30 after parturition. Blood samples of calves were collected at 72 h postcalving and then on days 7, 14, 21 and 28 after birth. Applied treatment had no effect on average milk production on days 15 and 30 postpartum. Colostrum density was lower in cows fed higher CP level in transition diet than in those fed the diet with moderate CP content (P<0.05). However, the chemical composition of colostrum was not affected by CP level. Serum IgG concentration was higher for calves from higher CP group than for those from moderate CP level group at 21 days of age (P<0.05). In conclusion, the increased protein level during periparturient period tended to improve immune status of calves.

Palabras clave

  • Holstein cows
  • calf
  • dietary protein
  • colostral IgG
  • immunity

Behavior, well-being, production technology, and environment

Acceso abierto

Effects of Flock Size in Broilers Reared in a Floor System on Performance, Some Blood Parameters, Bone Quality and Musculus Pectoralis Ph Level

Publicado en línea: 23 Apr 2015
Páginas: 505 - 516

Resumen

Abstract

This research was conducted to compare performance, some blood parameters, bone quality and musculus pectoralis pH level in broiler flocks containing 15,000 (I), 25,000 (II) and 35,000 (III) birds. For this purpose, two different flocks from each capacity were simultaneously observed throughout two growth periods in summer and autumn seasons. A total of 20 broilers (10 males and 10 females) per different flock capacity, having stable live weight were selected on 32nd day of growing period. Broiler chickens were slaughtered by decapitation and their blood samples were drained into special tubes. Musculus pectoralis pH measurement was performed ten minutes after slaughter. Bones were extracted from meat and analyzed. Live weights of groups on days 1, 7, 14, 21, 28 and on the day of slaughter were similar to each other (P>0.05). The mortality rate was lower in group I (P≤0.01). Feed efficiency deteriorated negligibly in group III (P=0.078). Serum glucose and uric acid levels were high in group III (P≤0.01). Intergroup differences in serum total cholesterol, very-low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL), triglycerides, protein levels and enzyme activities of alkaline phosphatase and creatine kinase were statistically insignificant (P>0.05). Dimensions, weights and ash level of tibia and femur, bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral content (BMC) of tibia were observed to have similar values among the groups (P>0.05). Musculus

pectoralis pH level in groups I, II and III was determined as 5.93, 5.94 and 6.13, respectively (P≤0.05).

Palabras clave

  • broiler
  • flock size
  • performance
  • bone quality
  • welfare
Acceso abierto

Spatial and Temporal Distribution of Temperature, Relative Humidity and Air Velocity in a Parallel Milking Parlour During Summer Period

Publicado en línea: 23 Apr 2015
Páginas: 517 - 526

Resumen

Abstract

The research aimed at determining the most significant parameters affecting the microclimate of milking parlours, such as temperature, relative humidity and air movement in a parallel milking parlour in real operating conditions. The research was conducted in the summer period, when the risk of heat stress in cattle is higher. To check welfare of cows during milking, days with air temperature >25°C and days with temperature equal or lower than 25°C were analysed. Observation and analysis were performed for air flow in milking parlour, range of supplied air stream and how air movement affects cattle. It was observed that the irregular distribution of air movement led to the development of diverse air velocity in different zones of the milking parlour (0.2-9.0 m∙s-1). As a consequence, the conditions inside the barn were not homogenous for all the cattle. A significant effect of the cows and external air temperature (which depends indirectly on orientation of the milking parlour relative to cardinal directions) on temperature increase (approx 6°C) was concluded, with relative air humidity at the level of 85-90%, during the milking, which led to systematic decrease of microclimatic comfort for cattle. Based on the conducted research, it was concluded that the design of ventilation systems in parallel milking parlours should be preceded by increased research not only on ventilation system efficiency but also on the distribution of flow ventilated air.

Palabras clave

  • welfare
  • summer
  • ventilation
  • air temperature
  • air humidity
  • milking parlour

Quality and safety of animal origin products

Acceso abierto

The Quality of Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus Mykiss) Cultured in Various Polish Regions

Publicado en línea: 23 Apr 2015
Páginas: 527 - 539

Resumen

Abstract

There is a lack of regulations regarding labeling of the place of cultivation of freshwater fish, even though some research indicates that environmental factors can influence the quality of rainbow trout meat. The purpose of this study was to assess the necessity of such regulations and to determine the meat quality of rainbow trout cultivated in different regions of Poland. The analysis of color measurement, fatty acid profile, sensory evaluation and microbiological analysis of trout muscle were performed to assess the influence of cultivation region on the quality of trout meat. The place of cultivation did not influence the redness (a*) and yellowness (b*) of fillet, but had impact on lightness (L*). The microbiological analysis showed no pathogenic microorganisms on the fish surface. The fatty acids composition differed highly significantly (P<0.01) depending on the place of cultivation. Since there are significant differences in quality and nutritional value between studied samples, the necessity of labeling the place of cultivation of rainbow trout for the final consumer should be implemented.

Palabras clave

  • rainbow trout
  • quality
  • microbiological analysis
  • fatty acid profile
  • color
Acceso abierto

Effect of Caponization on Meat Quality of Greenleg Partridge Cockerels

Publicado en línea: 23 Apr 2015
Páginas: 541 - 553

Resumen

Abstract

The objective of the study was to determine the effect of caponizing Greenleg Partridge cockerels on slaughter parameters and meat quality. In total 80 Greenleg Partridge cockerels were assigned to two groups with 40 birds per group. Group I (control) consisted of uncastrated cockerels and group II contained birds that were castrated at 8 weeks of age. Birds were kept until 24 weeks of age and fed the same diet ad libitum. Body weight was recorded at 1, 8, 16 and 24 weeks of age. Dressing percentage, proportion of breast and leg muscles, giblets and abdominal fat, and microstructure of the pectoralis superficialis muscle were determined postmortem. Physicochemical characteristics of meat (pH, CIE L*a*b* colour, water holding capacity, drip loss, thawing loss, cooking loss, shear force, texture parameters and chemical composition) were determined and sensory evaluation was performed. The castration of Greenleg Partridge cockerels contributed to increases in body weight, dressing percentage, and carcass muscle and fat content, and changed the colour of bird skin and muscles. The leg muscles of capons were characterized by higher pH24h, better water holding capacity, a tendency for higher fat concentration, and better sensory quality. The breast muscles of castrated cockerels lost more water and were tougher than the same muscles from uncastrated cockerels, but received better scores for flavour. In conclusion, the results of this study indicate that the caponized Greenleg Partridge cockerels can be used as a valuable material for production of high quality meat.

Palabras clave

  • caponization
  • males
  • native breed
  • growth performance
  • meat quality
20 Artículos

Review

Acceso abierto

Effect of Piglet Birth Weight on Carcass Muscle and Fat Content and Pork Quality – A Review

Publicado en línea: 23 Apr 2015
Páginas: 271 - 287

Resumen

Abstract

Piglet birth weight is determined by the maternal environment, intrauterine crowding, and nutrition, which influence embryonic and fetal survival and, as a result, fertility. The internal environment regulates prenatal myogenesis and muscle fibre number nutritionally and hormonally. The growth and metabolic differentiation of muscle fibres take place during the postnatal period. The effect of intrauterine undernutrition on myogenesis and on fetal growth and development (IUGR) is reflected in the low piglet birth weight and its high within-litter variation. Slaughter traits are determined by many factors, including genetic (breed), environmental (nutrition) and preslaughter handling. Slaughter traits and the physico-chemical and sensory characteristics of meat are dependent on prenatal myogenesis and neonatal weight. Optimized body weight of newborn piglets is conducive to improving quantitative traits (meatiness, fatness) and qualitative traits. However, slaughter traits are also influenced by many other differentiating factors, which is reflected in research results. Muscle fibres become metabolically differentiated during postnatal development, and one of the factors of large variation in pig meat quality traits is variation in the proportions of different fibre types in mature muscle. Considering the divergent opinions among scientists about the effect of prenatal myogenesis and piglet birth weight on slaughter value and pork quality, as well as the existence of areas that have received little investigation, it is justified to continue research in this area.

Palabras clave

  • birth weight
  • myogenesis
  • slaughter value
  • pork quality
Acceso abierto

Changes of Nitrogen Compounds During Ensiling of High Protein Herbages – A Review

Publicado en línea: 23 Apr 2015
Páginas: 289 - 305

Resumen

Abstract

Losses of crude protein during ensiling of herbages, in contrast to carbohydrates, do not affect the reduction of its content; their form is changed into greater solubility non-protein compounds and also highly degraded forms, which lower the efficiency of the microbial protein synthesis in the rumen. These processes are accompanied by a change of amino acid composition of herbage protein and decrease in intestinal digestibility of protein from feeds as a result of the formation of indigestible complexes with carbohydrates (ADIN). Reduction of protein degradation in silages is achieved by accelerated acidity through addition of acids or dominance of homofermentative bacteria. The positive effects of fermentation inhibitors or sorbents use, as well as the wilting of raw material on the level and rate of protein degradation were demonstrated by many researchers. A greater contribution of protein nitrogen and reduction of deamination in silages can also be obtained by using bacteria inoculants. Increasing the proportion of protein nitrogen is accompanied by the improved efficiency of microbial protein synthesis.

Palabras clave

  • silage
  • legumes
  • proteolysis
  • crude protein
  • nitrogen fractions
Acceso abierto

The Effect of Season and Meteorological Stress Factors on Behavioural Responses and Activities of Donkeys (Equus Asinus) – A Review

Publicado en línea: 23 Apr 2015
Páginas: 307 - 321

Resumen

Abstract

The review examines the adaptation of donkeys to arid conditions, and the impact of meteorological stress on performance and welfare in donkeys. The impact of season, including meteorological and nutritional factors, on the behavioural responses and welfare of donkeys was also reviewed. Season influences the adaptation and behaviour of donkeys as they are subjected to uses, and the modulating role of feed availability on the grazing behaviour of donkeys was also examined. It is concluded that season, as influenced by meteorological stress conditions, modulates the behaviour, welfare and grazing of donkeys.

Palabras clave

  • season
  • behavioural responses
  • donkeys
  • meteorological factors

Animal genetics and breeding

Acceso abierto

Genetic Structure Analysis of Tatra Shepherd Dog Population From Tatra Mountain Region

Publicado en línea: 23 Apr 2015
Páginas: 323 - 335

Resumen

Abstract

The aim of the work was to analyze the genetic structure of the population of Tatra Shepherd dogs, registered in branches of Polish Kennel Club from Tatra Mountain Region. Data were pedigrees of 102 Tatra Shepherd dogs (33 males and 69 females) born between 1994 and 2011. Inbreeding and relationship coefficients, as well as effective number of founders and ancestors, were calculated. These statistics give the picture of genetic diversity of the population. Average inbreeding coefficient was 7.17%, whereas average relationship coefficient was 18.20%. The number of inbred animals and the mean FX values steadily increased over time. Twenty-six of 80 inbred animals had inbreeding coefficients higher than 10%. The effective number of founders was relatively high in relation to the population size (the effective number of ancestors was four times lower) and both were similar to the results of studies of other authors on different dog breeds. The total contribution of only 4 ancestors was enough to explain 50% of the gene pool of the population. Therefore, mating of related animals should be avoided in order to prevent the further increase of inbreeding level, because almost all Polish and foreign Tatra Shepherd dogs living now originate from the population under study.

Palabras clave

  • founders
  • ancestors
  • inbreeding
  • relationship
  • Tatra Shepherd dog
Acceso abierto

Polymorphism and Bioinformatics Analysis of Growth Differentiation Factor 9 Gene in Lori Sheep

Publicado en línea: 23 Apr 2015
Páginas: 337 - 348

Resumen

Abstract

Growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF9) is a fecundity major gene affecting prolificacy in sheep. In the present study, genetic variation of a 380-bp fragment in GDF9 gene exon 1 was investigated in 100 Lori ewes. Single-strand conformational polymorphism (SSCP) and DNA sequencing methods were used to detect single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of the studied fragment. A SNP (g.306G>A), known as G1 mutation, with two genotypes (GG and AG) was found in two different SSCP patterns of GDF9 gene exon 1, deducing an amino acid (AA) exchange (p.Arg87His). Frequencies of the AG and GG genotypes were 37.65% and 62.35%, respectively. Also, the estimated allelic frequencies for the A and G alleles were 18.825% and 81.175%, respectively. The observed nucleotide sequences were subjected to alignment analysis and it was found that the studied fragment had more than 99.7% similarity with some sequences reported for other breeds of sheep. Two different secondary and 3D protein structures were predicted for A and G alleles. Moreover, the A and G alleles had different isoelectric pH values (8.7 and 9, respectively). The observed genotypes tended to have a significant association with litter size (P<0.10) where average litter size of GG ewes was slightly (20%) higher than for AG animals. With respect to the results of the present study, it seems that more studies are needed to evaluate the mutations in other fragments of this gene or other genes in Lori sheep.

Palabras clave

  • GDF9
  • mutation
  • PCR-SSCP
  • bioinformatics analysis
  • sheep
Acceso abierto

Association of the Expression Level of the MYBPC1 Gene in Skeletal Muscle With Marbling Trait in Japanese Black Beef Cattle

Publicado en línea: 23 Apr 2015
Páginas: 349 - 358

Resumen

Abstract

Marbling characterized by the amount and distribution of intramuscular fat (IMF) in longissimus muscle (LM) and measured as beef marbling score (BMS), is an economically important trait of beef cattle in Japan. The myosin binding protein C, slow type (MYBPC1) gene, involved in efficient energy metabolism and homeostasis during muscle contraction in slow skeletal muscle, has been previously shown to be expressed at different levels in the LM between high-marbled and lowmarbled steer groups using differential-display PCR (ddPCR). In this study, we found that IMF area (%) in the sacrococcygeus muscle (SM) was positively correlated with BMS in the LM in Japanese Black steers (n=22, r=0.941, P<0.0001). This suggested that the IMF area (%) in the SM tends to equate marbling level in the LM. Furthermore, we showed that the MYBPC1 expression level in SM was significantly higher in the Japanese Black steers (n=5) with high BMS than in the Japanese Black steers (n=5) with low BMS (P<0.001). Moreover, correlation analyses showed that the expression level of the MYBPC1 gene was positively correlated with IMF area (%) (n=22, r=0.858, P<0.0001) and BMS (n=22, r=0.769, P<0.0001), indicating the association of MYBPC1 expression level with marbling trait. These results, together with the previous ddPCR result, suggested that high level of MYBPC1 expression may be associated with the development of marbling in Japanese Black beef cattle.

Palabras clave

  • intramuscular fat
  • Japanese Black breed
  • marbling
  • MYBPC1
  • skeletal muscle

The biology, physiology, reproduction, and health

Acceso abierto

Reproductive System Condition in Dairy Cows with Left-Sided Displacement of the Abomasums

Publicado en línea: 23 Apr 2015
Páginas: 359 - 371

Resumen

Abstract

The aim of the study was to evaluate selected parameters representing reproductive system conditions in cows suffering from left-sided displacement of the abomasum (LDA). Eighty Holstein- Friesian cows were divided into control (n=40) and LDA (n=40) groups. Haematological and biochemical evaluations were performed in the control group and in cows with LDA before and after surgical treatment. Cytological and ultrasound examinations of the uterus were performed at 21 (baseline), 35 and 63 days after parturition. In the LDA group, significantly decreased concentrations of calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, copper, potassium, glucose and total cholesterol were stated, while aspartate aminotransferase activity, white blood cell count, erythrocyte count, haematocrit, haemoglobin content and concentration of β-hydroxybutyrate, free fatty acids and bilirubin were increased (all P<0.05). Percentage of neutrophils in the uterus and the uterus diameter were increased in the LDA group at the baseline and at 35 days after parturition (P<0.001). The neutrophil percentage was also increased at 63 days after parturition in the LDA group (P<0.001). Number of days to first oestrus, number of services per conception and calving-to-conception interval were higher in the LDA group (P<0.001). This study has shown reproductive system changes and impaired fertility in dairy cows as the consequence of LDA occurrence. Thus, LDA treatment in cows should be combined with diagnostic evaluation of the uterus and reproductive system to improve reproductive performance. As indicated in the cytological examination, a subclinical inflammatory process may last even 60 days after parturition, leading to substantial impairment of reproductive function in dairy cows.

Palabras clave

  • cow
  • left-sided displacement of the abomasum
  • uterus
  • fertility
Acceso abierto

Influence of Ascites Syndrome on Growth Pattern of Chickens Reared at Normal or Cold Ambient Temperature

Publicado en línea: 23 Apr 2015
Páginas: 373 - 385

Resumen

Abstract

Ascites syndrome (AS) is a metabolic disorder usually seen in highly improved meat-type broiler strains. This syndrome causes major financial losses to the poultry industry. Previously it was believed that AS incidence was a side effect of intense selection for rapid growth rate (GR) or higher market weight. If this belief is the case, selection for further increase in GR will not be rational. However, it was later understood that there were significant genetic variations for both GR and susceptibility/resistance to AS; thus selective breeding could be helpful in diminishing the incidence of AS while improving GR. Furthermore, it was hypothesized that genes controlling the GR were not genetically dependent on those genes controlling susceptibility to AS. In the current research, we aimed to study the association of GR traits with AS% in a pure sire line. A total of 1458 1-day-old chicks from 67 sire families were used. The results revealed that ascitic chicks were not significantly superior in early GR traits (i.e. before day 28) than the healthy ones. At later ages, probably due to the commencement of the syndrome, the ascitic chicks were significantly lighter in body weight (BW) than their healthy counterparts. The lack of significant genetic correlations between the GR traits and AS% indicated that there was considerable scope for simultaneous selection of birds for increased BW and GR while controlling susceptibility to AS.

Palabras clave

  • ascites syndrome
  • Richards function
  • genetic correlation
  • growth curve
Acceso abierto

Responses of the Fertility, Semen Quality, Blood Constituents, Immunity and Antioxidant Status of Rabbit Bucks to Type and Magnetizing of Water

Publicado en línea: 23 Apr 2015
Páginas: 387 - 407

Resumen

Abstract

This work aimed to test the responses of the fertility, semen quality, blood constituents, immunity and antioxidant status of rabbit bucks to water type (e.g., tap water and well water) and magnetizing of water exposed or unexposed to a magnetic field of ≈4000 gauss. The experimental design was factorial 2 (type of water, e.g. tap vs. well water) × 2 (magnetic treatments, e.g. unexposed vs. exposed to magnetic field) using forty mature V-line rabbit bucks randomly distributed to four groups of 10 animals each. The rabbit bucks were provided free access to the water and same diet. Well water had lower quality than tap water, i.e. higher pH, conductivity, salinity, calcium, magnesium, and total hardness. Water magnetizing had less effect on tap water than on well water (e.g. on pH, conductivity, salinity, calcium, magnesium, total hardness and dissolved oxygen). Bucks that consumed tap water showed better semen quality, metabolic profiles and immunity than those that drank well water. Magnetized water significantly increased body weight, feed intake, reaction time, fertility, sperm concentration, mass motility and total live sperm of bucks consuming well water and tap water. The improvements in fertility and semen quality concurred with significant increases in testosterone hormone, immunoglobulin A, antioxidant enzymes, and with decreases in lipid peroxidation biomarker malondialdehyde and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances. In conclusion, well water induced a significant decrease in semen quality and hence fertility of males. Whereas magnetic treatment improved water quality, semen quality, blood picture and antioxidant status and hence buck fertility.

Palabras clave

  • rabbit bucks
  • magnetic water
  • semen quality
  • physiological traits
  • immunity
Acceso abierto

Synchronization Protocols in Spanish Merino Sheep: Reduction in Time to Estrus by the Addition of eCG to a Progesterone-Based Estrus Synchronization Protocol

Publicado en línea: 23 Apr 2015
Páginas: 409 - 418

Resumen

Abstract

An appropriate management of reproduction allows ewes to breed at a more intensive rhythm, more compatible with economic efficiency of farms. Hence, the objectives of the present work were to evaluate a traditional estrus synchronization protocol (based on medroxyprogesterone acetate-impregnated intravaginal sponges combined or not with equine chorionic gonadotropin) on a Merino sheep herd during the breeding season, in order to determine the best working protocol for this breed. A total of 277 sheep, blocked by age (200 ewes and 77 ewe lambs) were randomly allocated to four groups, two of ewes (E and Ee) and two of ewe lambs (L and Le). All females received 60 mg MAP (medroxyprogesterone acetate) sponges on the first day. At the day of removal the animals of groups Ee and Le received 450 IU of eCG (equine chorionic gonadotropin). Mean estrus synchronization rate was 92.06% and similar among groups. Time to estrus was shorter for Ee (46.93±12.44 h) and Le (44.34±10.76 h), when compared to treatments without eCG (60.60±20.46 h and 58.68±17.72 h for E and L, respectively; P<0.05 for both). Pregnancy rates were 71.35 and 72.86% for ewes and ewe lambs, respectively, and similar among groups. Lambing rates were lower in ewes (1.36) than in ewe lambs (1.85) with no significant effect of eCG. The study demonstrates the efficacy of the synchronization method with MAP and the reduction in the time to estrus induced by eCG in Spanish Merino ewes and ewe lambs during the breeding season.

Palabras clave

  • Spanish Merino sheep
  • age
  • estrus synchronization
  • reproductive response
  • eCG
Acceso abierto

Expression and Regulation of Haptoglobin in Tissues and in Differentiated Bovine Adipocytes

Publicado en línea: 23 Apr 2015
Páginas: 419 - 431

Resumen

Abstract

Haptoglobin (Hp) is a protein secreted mainly from the liver to bind hemoglobin and thus prevents iron loss and oxidative stress. Bovine Hp in blood increases during diseases such as mastitis and fatty liver syndrome. This study was conducted to examine the expression and regulation of Hp in differentiated mature bovine adipocytes. Hp expression was confirmed in various tissues and in mature adipocytes but not in the stromal vascular cell fraction using qualitative RT -PCR and quantitative northern blot analysis, respectively. Intravenous injection of Holstein cows with recombinant bovine tumor necrosis factor-α (rbTNF-α) and interferon gamma (rbIFN-γ) significantly increased the serum concentrations of Hp. When mature differentiated bovine adipocytes were incubated with short chain fatty acids, cytokines and hormones, Hp expression was altered. Acetate, butyrate and propionate at a dose of 1 mM significantly up-regulated Hp mRNA abundance. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and TNF-α also significantly up-regulated Hp mRNA abundance, while troglitazone and norepinephrine down-regulated it. Our study confirmed expression of Hp in differentiated mature adipocytes and identified LPS, TNF-α, short chain fatty acids, as regulators of Hp mRNA expression in these cells.

Palabras clave

  • adipocytes
  • bovine haptoglobin
  • expression
  • regulation
Acceso abierto

Incidence of Footpad Dermatitis and Hock Burns in Broilers as Affected by Genotype, Lighting Program and Litter Type

Publicado en línea: 23 Apr 2015
Páginas: 433 - 445

Resumen

Abstract

The aim of this study was to define the conditions for improving broiler leg health, thus ultimately promoting broiler welfare and greater economic efficiency of production, by investigating the effects of litter type, lighting program, or genetic predisposition on the incidence and severity of footpad dermatitis and hock burns. The study was conducted on broiler genotypes (G) Hubbard Classic and Ross 308. Litter (L) was either chopped straw or wood shavings. Lighting programs (LP) were applied when broilers were eight days old. One lighting program (LP1) was designed so that chicks between 8 to 39 days of age were exposed to 16L:4D:2L:2D, and received 23L:1D between 40 to 42 days of age. The other lighting program (LP2) was a gradual extension of photoperiod after restrictions in the second week: 16L:8D (8-14 days), 16L:3D:2L:3D (15-21 days), 16L:2D:4L:2D (22-28 days), 16L:1D:6L:1D (29-35 days) and 23L:1D (36-42 days). Evaluations of footpad lesions and hock burn, according to the method described by Thomas et al. (2004), were carried out individually for each bird, on days 21 and 42. Based on the average score and the frequency of the worst forms of footpad dermatitis, better growing conditions for broilers were found when wood shavings were used as litter material rather than the chopped straw (P<0.01), and when a lighting program with gradual lengthening of photoperiod and with intermittent light/ dark periods (LP2) was applied, compared to a moderate-constant photoperiod lighting program (LP1) (P<0.01). The Ross 308 broiler genotype, despite its lower body weight, showed a greater tendency to develop footpad dermatitis and hock burns. Hock burns developed more slowly than footpad dermatitis, and thereby, would be likely to exhibit a smaller adverse effect on broiler welfare and quality of chicken feet.

Palabras clave

  • broiler
  • genotype
  • lighting program
  • litter
  • dermatitis

Animal nutrition and feedstuffs

Acceso abierto

The Effect of Pleurotus Eryngii Stalk Residue Dietary Supplementation on Layer Performance, Egg Traits and Oxidative Status

Publicado en línea: 23 Apr 2015
Páginas: 447 - 461

Resumen

Abstract

This study was conducted to investigate the effects of Pleurotus eryngii stalk residue (PESR) on performance, egg traits and oxidative status of laying hens. One hundred and twenty 22-week-old laying hens (Hendrix) were randomly allocated into 4 dietary groups, each containing 30 birds, including 10 replicates per group and 3 birds per replicate. In addition, they were fed diets supplemented with 0 (control group, corn-soybean meal), 0.5, 1.0, or 2.0% dried PESR groups for 8 weeks, respectively. The results indicated that the different levels of dietary supplementation produced no significant differences in production performance among the experimental groups of laying hens. The Haugh unit was significantly higher in the 1.0% and 2.0% PESR groups compared to the control group. The eggs’ cholesterol content of the 1.0% and 2.0% PESR groups was significantly lower than that of the control group at 5-8 weeks. The blood triglyceride content and cholesterol content were significantly lower in the 1.0% and 2.0% PESR groups compared to the control group at the 4th and 8th weeks. Hence, the supplemented 1.0% and 2.0% of PESR groups showed higher levels for serum trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity, catalase and superoxide dismutase during the experimental period in comparison with the control group. This study indicated that a by-product of Pleurotus eryngii, PESR, could produce lower-cholesterol eggs and improve the oxidative stability with 1.0% and 2.0% PESR supplementation in laying hens.

Palabras clave

  • Pleurotus eryngii stalk residue
  • laying hens
  • egg traits
  • antioxidants
  • feed additive
Acceso abierto

Effects of Dietary Fiber and Benzoic Acid on Growth Performance, Nutrient Digestibility, Reduction of Harmful Gases, and Lipid Profiles in Growing Pigs

Publicado en línea: 23 Apr 2015
Páginas: 463 - 474

Resumen

Abstract

We assessed the possibly synergistic effects of dietary fiber (DF) and benzoic acid (BA) in growingfinishing pigs. In total, 96 growing pigs ([Landrace × Yorkshire] × Duroc) with an average initial body weight (BW) of 22.82 (±0.24) kg were selected and provided the dietary supplements based on their BW in a 2 × 2 factorial experiment, with the respective factors being fiber (low vs. high; 140 g/kg, 160 g/kg NSP, respectively) and BA (0, 5 g/kg benzoic acid) in six replicate pens consisting of four pigs per pen. Sugar beet pulp was used as a DF source, at 50 g/kg of the diet. All diets were formulated to contain 14.44 ME MJ/kg and 190 g/kg CP. This experiment was conducted to evaluate the growth performance, nutrient digestibility, and reduction of harmful gases and serum metabolites. There was no significant difference in feed intake and weight gains during treatments. Fiber levels and benzoic acid addition did not affect the dry matter, nitrogen and gross energy digestibility. Also, no interaction was found between fiber level and benzoic acid treatment. There was no difference in NH3, but RSH and H2S gases emissions show significant reduction with fiber and benzoic acid treatment. Serum metabolites, including lipoprotein and cholesterol, were also apparently unaffected by these treatments. Thus, the addition of 50 g sugar beet pulp per kg of growing feed as a DF source and the addition of BA had no significant impact on the growth performance of pigs during the growth period.

Palabras clave

  • fiber
  • benzoic acid
  • growing pigs
  • lipid profile
  • gas emission
Acceso abierto

Valuable Components of Dried Pomaces of Chokeberry, Black Currant, Strawberry, Apple and Carrot as a Source of Natural Antioxidants and Nutraceuticals in the Animal Diet

Publicado en línea: 23 Apr 2015
Páginas: 475 - 491

Resumen

Abstract

The chemical analysis of dried pomace of chokeberry, apple, black currant, strawberries and carrot was performed to determine the composition and content of nutrients and bioactive substances, among others the content of vitamins, phenolic acids, anthocyanins, and essential fatty acids. The antioxidant properties were determined in the extracts of pomace by determining the total antioxidant potential (TRAP) and antioxidant activity against DPPH radical. Tested pomaces contained 12-15% protein, approximately 18-20% crude fibre, approximately 2.7-4.0% ether extract and 1.8-3.0% ash. The highest level of anthocyanins was found in chokeberry pomace, followed by black currant pomace and several times less in strawberries and apples. The content of phenolic acids ranged from 12.91 mg/100 g in black currants to 630.30 mg/100 g in dried chokeberries. In terms of vitamins the richest source of vitamin E was chokeberry pomace (152.3 mg/100 g), while most of the carotenoids were found in dried carrot (15.35 mg/100 g). The chain of antioxidant activity was as follows: black currant>chokeberry>apple>strawberry>carrot, while in terms of antioxidative capacity it was chokeberry>apple>black currant>strawberry>carrot.

Palabras clave

  • apple
  • chokeberry
  • strawberry
  • black currant
  • pomace
  • antioxidants
Acceso abierto

Effect of Various Levels of Dietary Protein in Transition Period on Colostrum Quality and Serum Immunoglobulin Concentration in Holstein Cows and their Newborn Calves

Publicado en línea: 23 Apr 2015
Páginas: 493 - 504

Resumen

Abstract

This experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of 2 levels of crude protein (CP) content in the diet during transition period on lactation performance, colostrum quality and serum immunoglobulin concentration of dairy cows and their newborn calves. Thirty dry Holstein cows (607±75 kg) were blocked according to their parity and expected calving date, and then randomly assigned to one of 2 treatments of 15 cows in completely randomized block design. Dietary treatments were: 1) moderate CP level in transition diet (prepartum: 11.9%; postpartum: 14%); and 2) higher CP level in transition diet (prepartum: 14.2%; postpartum: 16.8%). Furthermore, milk samples were collected on two days (15 and 30) postpartum for milk composition analysis. At the same time, milk yield also was recorded. After parturition calves were fed mother’s colostrum. Colostrum samples were collected during the first milking postpartum. Blood samples of cows were taken on days 21 and 2 before projected calving date and on days 15 and 30 after parturition. Blood samples of calves were collected at 72 h postcalving and then on days 7, 14, 21 and 28 after birth. Applied treatment had no effect on average milk production on days 15 and 30 postpartum. Colostrum density was lower in cows fed higher CP level in transition diet than in those fed the diet with moderate CP content (P<0.05). However, the chemical composition of colostrum was not affected by CP level. Serum IgG concentration was higher for calves from higher CP group than for those from moderate CP level group at 21 days of age (P<0.05). In conclusion, the increased protein level during periparturient period tended to improve immune status of calves.

Palabras clave

  • Holstein cows
  • calf
  • dietary protein
  • colostral IgG
  • immunity

Behavior, well-being, production technology, and environment

Acceso abierto

Effects of Flock Size in Broilers Reared in a Floor System on Performance, Some Blood Parameters, Bone Quality and Musculus Pectoralis Ph Level

Publicado en línea: 23 Apr 2015
Páginas: 505 - 516

Resumen

Abstract

This research was conducted to compare performance, some blood parameters, bone quality and musculus pectoralis pH level in broiler flocks containing 15,000 (I), 25,000 (II) and 35,000 (III) birds. For this purpose, two different flocks from each capacity were simultaneously observed throughout two growth periods in summer and autumn seasons. A total of 20 broilers (10 males and 10 females) per different flock capacity, having stable live weight were selected on 32nd day of growing period. Broiler chickens were slaughtered by decapitation and their blood samples were drained into special tubes. Musculus pectoralis pH measurement was performed ten minutes after slaughter. Bones were extracted from meat and analyzed. Live weights of groups on days 1, 7, 14, 21, 28 and on the day of slaughter were similar to each other (P>0.05). The mortality rate was lower in group I (P≤0.01). Feed efficiency deteriorated negligibly in group III (P=0.078). Serum glucose and uric acid levels were high in group III (P≤0.01). Intergroup differences in serum total cholesterol, very-low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL), triglycerides, protein levels and enzyme activities of alkaline phosphatase and creatine kinase were statistically insignificant (P>0.05). Dimensions, weights and ash level of tibia and femur, bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral content (BMC) of tibia were observed to have similar values among the groups (P>0.05). Musculus

pectoralis pH level in groups I, II and III was determined as 5.93, 5.94 and 6.13, respectively (P≤0.05).

Palabras clave

  • broiler
  • flock size
  • performance
  • bone quality
  • welfare
Acceso abierto

Spatial and Temporal Distribution of Temperature, Relative Humidity and Air Velocity in a Parallel Milking Parlour During Summer Period

Publicado en línea: 23 Apr 2015
Páginas: 517 - 526

Resumen

Abstract

The research aimed at determining the most significant parameters affecting the microclimate of milking parlours, such as temperature, relative humidity and air movement in a parallel milking parlour in real operating conditions. The research was conducted in the summer period, when the risk of heat stress in cattle is higher. To check welfare of cows during milking, days with air temperature >25°C and days with temperature equal or lower than 25°C were analysed. Observation and analysis were performed for air flow in milking parlour, range of supplied air stream and how air movement affects cattle. It was observed that the irregular distribution of air movement led to the development of diverse air velocity in different zones of the milking parlour (0.2-9.0 m∙s-1). As a consequence, the conditions inside the barn were not homogenous for all the cattle. A significant effect of the cows and external air temperature (which depends indirectly on orientation of the milking parlour relative to cardinal directions) on temperature increase (approx 6°C) was concluded, with relative air humidity at the level of 85-90%, during the milking, which led to systematic decrease of microclimatic comfort for cattle. Based on the conducted research, it was concluded that the design of ventilation systems in parallel milking parlours should be preceded by increased research not only on ventilation system efficiency but also on the distribution of flow ventilated air.

Palabras clave

  • welfare
  • summer
  • ventilation
  • air temperature
  • air humidity
  • milking parlour

Quality and safety of animal origin products

Acceso abierto

The Quality of Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus Mykiss) Cultured in Various Polish Regions

Publicado en línea: 23 Apr 2015
Páginas: 527 - 539

Resumen

Abstract

There is a lack of regulations regarding labeling of the place of cultivation of freshwater fish, even though some research indicates that environmental factors can influence the quality of rainbow trout meat. The purpose of this study was to assess the necessity of such regulations and to determine the meat quality of rainbow trout cultivated in different regions of Poland. The analysis of color measurement, fatty acid profile, sensory evaluation and microbiological analysis of trout muscle were performed to assess the influence of cultivation region on the quality of trout meat. The place of cultivation did not influence the redness (a*) and yellowness (b*) of fillet, but had impact on lightness (L*). The microbiological analysis showed no pathogenic microorganisms on the fish surface. The fatty acids composition differed highly significantly (P<0.01) depending on the place of cultivation. Since there are significant differences in quality and nutritional value between studied samples, the necessity of labeling the place of cultivation of rainbow trout for the final consumer should be implemented.

Palabras clave

  • rainbow trout
  • quality
  • microbiological analysis
  • fatty acid profile
  • color
Acceso abierto

Effect of Caponization on Meat Quality of Greenleg Partridge Cockerels

Publicado en línea: 23 Apr 2015
Páginas: 541 - 553

Resumen

Abstract

The objective of the study was to determine the effect of caponizing Greenleg Partridge cockerels on slaughter parameters and meat quality. In total 80 Greenleg Partridge cockerels were assigned to two groups with 40 birds per group. Group I (control) consisted of uncastrated cockerels and group II contained birds that were castrated at 8 weeks of age. Birds were kept until 24 weeks of age and fed the same diet ad libitum. Body weight was recorded at 1, 8, 16 and 24 weeks of age. Dressing percentage, proportion of breast and leg muscles, giblets and abdominal fat, and microstructure of the pectoralis superficialis muscle were determined postmortem. Physicochemical characteristics of meat (pH, CIE L*a*b* colour, water holding capacity, drip loss, thawing loss, cooking loss, shear force, texture parameters and chemical composition) were determined and sensory evaluation was performed. The castration of Greenleg Partridge cockerels contributed to increases in body weight, dressing percentage, and carcass muscle and fat content, and changed the colour of bird skin and muscles. The leg muscles of capons were characterized by higher pH24h, better water holding capacity, a tendency for higher fat concentration, and better sensory quality. The breast muscles of castrated cockerels lost more water and were tougher than the same muscles from uncastrated cockerels, but received better scores for flavour. In conclusion, the results of this study indicate that the caponized Greenleg Partridge cockerels can be used as a valuable material for production of high quality meat.

Palabras clave

  • caponization
  • males
  • native breed
  • growth performance
  • meat quality

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