Revista y Edición

AHEAD OF PRINT

Volumen 22 (2022): Edición 3 (July 2022)

Volumen 22 (2022): Edición 2 (April 2022)

Volumen 22 (2022): Edición 1 (January 2022)

Volumen 21 (2021): Edición 4 (October 2021)

Volumen 21 (2021): Edición 3 (July 2021)

Volumen 21 (2021): Edición 2 (April 2021)

Volumen 21 (2021): Edición 1 (January 2021)

Volumen 20 (2020): Edición 4 (October 2020)

Volumen 20 (2020): Edición 3 (July 2020)

Volumen 20 (2020): Edición 2 (April 2020)

Volumen 20 (2020): Edición 1 (January 2020)

Volumen 19 (2019): Edición 4 (October 2019)

Volumen 19 (2019): Edición 3 (July 2019)

Volumen 19 (2019): Edición 2 (April 2019)

Volumen 19 (2019): Edición 1 (January 2019)

Volumen 18 (2018): Edición 4 (October 2018)

Volumen 18 (2018): Edición 3 (July 2018)

Volumen 18 (2018): Edición 2 (May 2018)

Volumen 18 (2018): Edición 1 (January 2018)

Volumen 17 (2017): Edición 4 (October 2017)

Volumen 17 (2017): Edición 3 (July 2017)

Volumen 17 (2017): Edición 2 (May 2017)

Volumen 17 (2017): Edición 1 (January 2017)

Volumen 16 (2016): Edición 4 (October 2016)

Volumen 16 (2016): Edición 3 (July 2016)

Volumen 16 (2016): Edición 2 (April 2016)

Volumen 16 (2016): Edición 1 (January 2016)

Volumen 15 (2015): Edición 4 (October 2015)

Volumen 15 (2015): Edición 3 (July 2015)

Volumen 15 (2015): Edición 2 (April 2015)

Volumen 15 (2015): Edición 1 (January 2015)

Volumen 14 (2014): Edición 4 (October 2014)

Volumen 14 (2014): Edición 3 (July 2014)

Volumen 14 (2014): Edición 2 (April 2014)

Volumen 14 (2014): Edición 1 (January 2014)

Volumen 13 (2013): Edición 4 (October 2013)
Edición Editors: Magdalena Bielska, Jerzy Pilawski, Katarzyna Skupniewicz

Volumen 13 (2013): Edición 3 (July 2013)

Volumen 13 (2013): Edición 2 (April 2013)

Volumen 13 (2013): Edición 1 (January 2013)

Volumen 12 (2012): Edición 4 (October 2012)

Volumen 12 (2012): Edición 3 (July 2012)

Volumen 12 (2012): Edición 2 (April 2012)

Volumen 12 (2012): Edición 1 (January 2012)

Volumen 11 (2011): Edición 4 (August 2011)

Detalles de la revista
Formato
Revista
eISSN
2300-8733
Publicado por primera vez
25 Nov 2011
Periodo de publicación
4 veces al año
Idiomas
Inglés

Buscar

Volumen 15 (2015): Edición 4 (October 2015)

Detalles de la revista
Formato
Revista
eISSN
2300-8733
Publicado por primera vez
25 Nov 2011
Periodo de publicación
4 veces al año
Idiomas
Inglés

Buscar

20 Artículos

Review

Acceso abierto

Factors Determining the Susceptibility of Cows to Mastitis and Losses Incurred by Producers Due to the Disease – A Review

Publicado en línea: 29 Oct 2015
Páginas: 819 - 831

Resumen

Abstract

The aim of the paper was to discuss the factors determining the susceptibility of cows to mastitis, the most important for breeders, including losses incurred by milk producers due to the disease. Inflammations of mammary gland are common and the most awkward problem which dairy farmers face around the world. In the case of clinical udder inflammation, it is estimated that the cost of mastitis is about 200 € per cow with fluctuations from 100 even up to 1000 €. Resistance, i.e. the susceptibility of cows to mastitis, is conditioned genetically. The possibility of BoLA and lactoferrin gene polymorphism, using in the selection cows resistant to mastitis, is indicated. Bacteria inhabiting the mammary gland, and the living environment of animals are primarily the main etiological factor. Moreover, many authors indicate the differences between breeds of cows in resistance to mastitis. High-productive breeds are generally more susceptible to the udder inflammation, in comparison to the local breeds. The greatest reduction in milk yield is observed in the case of these breeds, and especially in Holstein-Friesian breed, in which the decline of daily yield at somatic cell count (SCC) amounting above 500,000 per ml of milk can reach 25%. The probability of mastitis occurrence increases with an age of cows and following lactation, and dry period is a time of increased risk. Higher incidence of inflammation is also associated with abnormalities in the construction of the udder (unevenly developed quarters, too long or too short teats). In recent years, a possible relationship between feeding system of cows with their resistance to udder infections has been reported. It is emphasized that a deficiency of selenium and vitamins A and E in the ration may contribute to the increase in the number of mastitis incidences. There are, however, unclear opinions of various authors on the effect of automatic milking system on udder health.

Palabras clave

  • udder inflammations
  • cow breed
  • hygiene and system of milking
  • losses of milk producers
Acceso abierto

The Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (Mers-CoV) – What is the Risk? A Review of Recent Studies

Publicado en línea: 29 Oct 2015
Páginas: 833 - 848

Resumen

Abstract

MERS (Middle East Respiratory Syndrome) is a viral disease of the respiratory system caused by coronaviruses (CoV), which can be contagious to both animals and humans. It was first described in 2012 in Saudi Arabia and very quickly its occurrence was found in European countries. Initially, it was associated with mild changes within the respiratory system, until a new type of virus was isolated in a patient with severe pneumonia and renal failure, who died. The study showed a close relationship between the virus isolated from the patient’s cells with HKU4 and HKU5 coronaviruses, previously isolated from bats. The presence of the same virus was found in a patient from Qatar with a similar clinical image. MERS infections, despite relatively low infectivity, are characterized by high mortality (30%). It is believed that the most likely source of the virus for humans are camels. The objective of this article is to review and discuss data on the risk factors of MERS-CoV zoonotic transmission from animals to humans.

Palabras clave

  • MERS
  • SARS
  • betacoronavirus
  • CoV
  • camels
  • bats
Acceso abierto

The Role of Melatonin and Bromocriptine in the Regulation of Prolactin Secretion in Animals – A Review

Publicado en línea: 29 Oct 2015
Páginas: 849 - 860

Resumen

Abstract

Changes in the concentration of melatonin and prolactin are associated with response to day length. The factors that stimulate the release of PRL include, among others, TRH, VIP, endorphins, oestrogen, and adrenaline. PRL secretion inhibitors include DA, GABA, progesterone and bromocriptine (exogenous compound), used in the treatment of hyperprolactinemia D2 receptor agonist. The biological activity of this compound is to stimulate dopamine D2 receptors in the pituitary, which inhibits PRL secretion via the tuberoinfundibular pathway (Fitzgerald and Dinan, 2008). In sheep treated with bromocriptine there is a decrease in PRL concentration and an increase in the sensitivity of cells producing LH to GnRH, but there is no disturbance in the course of the estrous cycle. Rams show decreased libido and changes in sexual behaviour. The administration of bromocriptine throughout the period of sexual activity and the period of rearing offspring affects maternal instinct, which involves the inhibition of PRL secretion. It is not clarified whether the effect of bromocriptine on sexual behaviour is associated with its direct impact on behavioural centres in the brain, or indirectly through the regulation of PRL secretion. However, the seasonal variations in the effects of bromocriptine on sexual behaviour can strengthen the hypothesis that the effect of bromocriptine on sexual development behaviour is associated with changes in the intensity of PRL secretion rather than by the inhibition of behavioural bromocriptine brain centres. The process of regulation of prolactin secretion by bromocriptine requires further examination.

Palabras clave

  • bromocriptine
  • prolactin
  • melatonin
  • seasonality

Animal Genetics and Breeding

Acceso abierto

Inbreeding in Pembroke Welsh Corgi Population in Poland

Publicado en línea: 29 Oct 2015
Páginas: 861 - 866

Resumen

Abstract

The objective of this study was to determine changes in the coefficients of inbreeding for a comparatively new Polish population of Pembroke Welsh Corgis. Calculations were based on 780 pedigrees of dogs born between 1979 and 2010 and registered with the Polish Kennel Club. The mean inbreeding coefficients for animals born during those years varied from 0.4% to 8.93%. The lowest individual inbreeding coefficient was 0.06%, whereas the highest reached 25.1%.

Palabras clave

  • Welsh Corgi Pembroke
  • pedigrees
  • inbreeding coefficients
Acceso abierto

Guanine Nucleotide Binding Protein (GNAS Complex Locus) Gene Produces Biallelically Expressed and Paternally Expressed Transcripts in Pigs

Publicado en línea: 29 Oct 2015
Páginas: 867 - 877

Resumen

Abstract

Imprinted loci are a subset of genes expressed only from one parental allele. Guanine nucleotide binding protein (GNAS complex locus) produces a few different proteins and noncoding RNAs. It is imprinted in mice and humans, while in pigs imprinting status of only one of them - NESP55 (neuroendocrine secretory protein-55) has been established. In the present study we aimed to establish imprinting status of the other two GNAS transcripts. We collected a panel of tissues (muscle, liver, kidney cortex, heart, fat, ovary, brain, blood) from the animals (aged 40-210 days) heterozygous in rs#333005482 polymorphism. We performed several RT -PCRs (Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reactions) with variant specific primers and sequenced the cDNA products obtained. We observed only paternal allele in all tissues at all developmental stages after sequencing with primers specific to variant 8 of GNAS gene and both alleles when sequencing with primers specific to variant 6. Our results show for the first time that, in pigs, GNAS complex locus produces biallelically expressed and paternally expressed transcripts, in the same way as previously demonstrated in mice and humans

Palabras clave

  • GNAS
  • imprinting
  • pigs
  • NESP55
Acceso abierto

Evaluation of Breeding Value Based on Scores Achieved in the Polish Championships for Young Horses

Publicado en línea: 29 Oct 2015
Páginas: 879 - 887

Resumen

Abstract

Genetic improvement of show jumping horses is problematic, given the multitude of physical traits that determine sport usability and the specific mental predispositions required during training and competitions. The Polish Championships for Young Horses (PCYH) provide an opportunity to evaluate usability traits in Polish horses, which, however, is not a basis for evaluation of the breeding value. The aim of the study was to propose a model for evaluation of the breeding value of horses taking part in the Championships. In total, 1232 starts of 894 4-, 5-, 6-, and 7-year-old horses were analysed. Indices of BLUP breeding values were calculated based on 7 traits with known genetic parameters (ranking in the championship, style rating on days 1, 2, and 3, and penalty points on days 1, 2, and 3). A low and irregular genetic trend, significant only in the case of penalties scored on days 1 and 2 of the championships, was shown. Compatibility of the evaluation of the breeding value estimated on the basis of scores achieved in the Polish Championships for Young Horses with the scores of the performance test carried out in Training Centres was shown. It was also demonstrated that the “sum penalty” and “sum style” measured during the three days of the Championships is sufficient for evaluation of the BLUP breeding value. It was suggested that the evaluation combined with the results achieved at the PCYH (in four age categories) would provide a more detailed picture of the genetic predispositions of jumping horses.

Palabras clave

  • horse breeding
  • BLUP animal model
  • show jumping
Acceso abierto

Analysis of Genetic Variability in Farmed and Wild Populations of Raccoon Dog (Nyctereutes Procyonoides) Using Microsatellite Sequences

Publicado en línea: 29 Oct 2015
Páginas: 889 - 901

Resumen

Abstract

The aim of this study was to detect possible differences between farmed and wild-living raccoon dogs. Analysis of polymorphism in 15 microsatellite sequences led to the conclusion that raccoon dogs raised on Polish farms and wild raccoon dogs living in Poland are two genetically distinct groups of animals. Wild Polish raccoon dogs are genetically more similar to the population of wild animals from the Kaliningrad Region than to farmed animals. The analysis of microsatellite loci showed clear genetic differences between farmed and wild-living populations of raccoon dog, despite only 50 years of isolation of the two groups of animals. The farmed population was characterized by higher genetic variation than the wild-living population. On the basis of the analyses three microsatellite loci (INU014, Ren13J22 and Ren41D20) were proposed for determination of the origin of animals that have escaped from farms.

Palabras clave

  • Nyctereutes procyonoides
  • wild and farmed animals
  • microsatellites
  • population assignment
Acceso abierto

Genetic Relationships Among Linear Type Traits and Milk Production Traits of Holstein Dairy Cattle

Publicado en línea: 29 Oct 2015
Páginas: 903 - 917

Resumen

Abstract

The aim of this study was to estimate genetic relationships among milk production and linear type traits of Holstein dairy cattle from seven herds in Isfahan province of Iran. Phenotypic data was collected from 2004 to 2012 and included milk yield (MY), fat yield (FY) and protein yield (PY) for first three lactations, six body traits (stature, ST; chest width, CW; body depth, BD; angularity, AN; rump angle, RA; rump width, RW), three feet and legs traits (rear legs side view, RLSV; rear legs rear view, RLRV; foot angle, FA) and eight udder traits (fore udder attachment, FUA; rear udder height, RUH; rear udder width, RUW; central ligament, CL; udder depth, UD; fore teat placement, FTP; rear teat placement, RTP; teat length, TL). The number of animals for each linear type trait was 3505. Multi-trait animal models were used to estimate the (co)variance components based on restricted maximum likelihood method (REML) using WOMBAT software. Heritability estimates of first, second and third lactations for MY were 0.28, 0.41 and 0.36; for FY were 0.22, 0.23 and 0.36 and for PY were 0.31, 0.33 and 0.25, respectively. The heritability estimates ranged from 0.17±0.04 to 0.24±0.04 for body traits, 0.06±0.03 to 0.15±0.04 for feet and leg traits and from 0.12±0.04 to 0.25±0.05 for udder traits. Genetic correlations among the recorded type traits ranged from -0.76±0.01 (between AN and RLRV) to 0.65±0.02 (between AN and RW). The low to moderate positive genetic correlations between AN and FUA with milk production traits indicate that cows with high AN and good FUA have higher milk, fat and protein yields. The results of this study indicated that considerable genetic variation exists for different type traits within this sample of the Iranian Holstein population and additive genetic variability of type traits can provide moderate genetic gains through selection.

Palabras clave

  • dairy cattle
  • genetic parameters
  • production traits
  • type traits

The Biology, Physiology, Reproduction, and Health

Acceso abierto

Application of The UV-Irradiated Homologous and Heterologous Sperm for Activa Tion of the Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus Mykiss) Eggs and Production of the Gynogenetic Stocks

Publicado en línea: 29 Oct 2015
Páginas: 919 - 928

Resumen

Abstract

Meiotic gynogenetic development of the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss, Walbaum 1792) was induced in the course of egg activation performed by the UV-irradiated homologous and heterologous (European grayling Thymallus thymallus Linnaeus, 1758) spermatozoa. To recover diploidy in the gynogenetic zygotes, activated eggs were subjected to the high pressure shock in order to inhibit extrusion of the second polar body. Gynogenetic rainbow trout progeny hatched from the eggs activated by the irradiated rainbow trout and grayling milt with similar hatching rates of 28.19% and 29.22%, respectively. However, gynogenetic rainbow trout produced with grayling semen had shown lower survival than gynogenotes provided with the homologous spermatozoa during two years of rearing. Viable hybrids are not produced between rainbow trout and grayling which ensured that fish obtained in this experiment were true gynogenetic progenies. A Robertsonian polymorphism characteristic for the rainbow trout from the studied strain was also observed among the gynogenetic specimens that exhibited diploid chromosome number ranging from 58 to 62 and stable chromosome arm number (FN= 104). No radiation-induced fragments of the paternal chromosomes were observed in the gynogenetic individuals. Fish produced in both experimental variants were genotypic (XX) and phenotypic (gonads) females. The results confirmed that the gynogenetic protocol used in the present research is an efficient means of producing all-female gynogenetic rainbow trout stocks.

Palabras clave

  • all female
  • gynogenesis
  • sex chromosomes
  • Salmonids
  • UV light

Animal Nutrition, and Feedstuffs

Acceso abierto

Evaluation of the Usefulness of Hybrid Rye in Feeding Polish Holstein-Friesian Dairy Cows in Early Lactation

Publicado en línea: 29 Oct 2015
Páginas: 929 - 943

Resumen

Abstract

The aim of the study was to compare the effect of feeding a hybrid rye grain in rations for dairy cows during the first 100 days of lactation on body condition, milk yield and milk composition. Feeding cows with concentrates containing in its composition 25% or 40% of the ground hybrid rye did not decrease the intake of concentrate or PMR rations as compared to the control group. The introduction of 25% or 40% of the rye hybrid variety Visello to the concentrates did not reduce the milk yield of the cows during the first 100 days of lactation. No significant differences in the chemical composition of the milk were observed. The cows fed rye maintained their weight and body condition during the first 100 days of lactation at the same level. The addition of hybrid rye grains in the amount of 25% to concentrate had no significant effect on the fatty acid profile of the milk whereas 40% of rye improved fatty acids composition by decreasing C18:0 and increasing C18:1 n-9 in the milk.

Palabras clave

  • rye hybrid
  • dairy cows
  • milk yield
  • milk composition
Acceso abierto

Effect of Level of Spirulina Supplementation on the Fatty Acid Compositions of Adipose, Muscle, Heart, Kidney and Liver Tissues in Australian Dual-Purpose Lambs

Publicado en línea: 29 Oct 2015
Páginas: 945 - 960

Resumen

Abstract

This study investigated the effect of level of Spirulina supplementation on the fatty acid (FA ) compositions of subcutaneous adipose, longissimus dorsi muscle, kidney, heart, and liver tissues in purebred and crossbred Australian Merino sheep. Forty-eight lambs sired by Black Suffolk, White Suffolk, Dorset and Merino rams were assigned into 4 treatment groups of daily Spirulina supplementation levels per lamb of 0 mL (control), 50 mL (low), 100 mL (medium) and 200 mL (high) referred to as 0, 5, 10 and 20% groups. The lambs were slaughtered after 9 weeks of supplementation and heart, kidney, adipose, liver and muscle tissue samples were collected. The results demonstrated significant variations in growth and body conformation traits and tissue and organ FA composition in response to the Spirulina supplementation. The medium-level Spirulina treatment group increased the ω-3 and ω-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA ) composition in all tissues and organs significantly. The results suggest the use of medium level (100 mL/head/day) of Spirulina supplementation in order to increase lamb production with more ω-3 and ω-6 PUFA and therefore higher nutritional meat quality.

Palabras clave

  • Spirulina
  • fatty acids
  • sheep
  • liver
  • kidney
Acceso abierto

The Effect of Garlic (Allium Sativum L.) on Growth Performance, Mortality Rate, Meat and Blood Parameters in Broilers

Publicado en línea: 29 Oct 2015
Páginas: 961 - 975

Resumen

Abstract

The effect of garlic extract on body weight, feed intake, feed conversion rate, mortality rate, dressing percentage, carcass traits, chemical composition of breast muscles and blood plasma parameters was investigated in a feeding trial with 640 Ross 308 broiler chickens of both sexes. The experiment was characterised by a two-factor design, with liquid garlic extract (GFA ) and sex as factors. In comparison with the unsupplemented control group, supplementing diets with 1.00 (GFA 1), 1.50 (GFA 2), and 2.25 (GFA 3) ml kg-1 for 42 days increased body weight, with a significant difference for the GFA3 group (P≤0.01). Bird mortality was 2.78% in the control group and 0.10%, 0.63%, and 0.60% in the GFA1, GFA2, and GFA3 supplemented groups, respectively (P≤0.01). Feed intake (kg/42 days) was 4.50 per broiler in the control group and 4.51, 4.68, and 4.85 kg-1 per broiler in the experimental groups (P≥0.05), respectively. Feed conversion rate was 1.80 in the control group and 1.77, 1.76, and 1.80 kg/kg in the GFA1, GFA2, and GFA3 groups, respectively (P≥0.05). GFA increased European Production Efficacy Factor (EPEF) from 331 in the control group to 347, 363, and 356 points in the experimental groups, respectively (P≤0.01). Dressing percentage in the GFA3 group was significantly higher than in the control group (74.8% vs 72.5%; P≤0.01). GFA at the concentration of 2.25 ml kg-1 significantly increased the weight of breast muscles. Supplementing the diet with GFA at the level of 1.50 ml kg-1 caused a significant increase in liver weight (P≤0.01). Feeding with GFA at a rate of 1.5 ml kg-1 caused a significant increase in the protein and crude ash content of breast meat compared to the control group (P≤0.05). The highest dose of GFA significantly increased total protein content of serum compared to the control group (P≤0.01). No significant interaction of GFA by sex on the analysed parameters was found. It is concluded that GFA at 2.25 ml kg-1 caused a significant improvement in the body weight of broilers and their carcass parameters, while a significant reduction in bird mortality for the GFAsupplemented groups was observed during the rearing period. It appears that the optimum level of GFA , when the crude protein concentration in the commercial starter and grower diets ranges between 210 and 220 g kg-1 is 1.5-2.25 ml kg-1 of the starter and grower diets.

Palabras clave

  • broiler chickens
  • garlic
  • body weight
  • mortality
  • feed utilisation
  • meat and serum parameters

Quality and Safety of Animal Origin Products

Acceso abierto

Content of Macro- and Microelements in the Meat of Young Bulls of Three Native Breeds (Polish Red, White-Backed and Polish Black-and-White) in Comparison with Simmental and Polish Holstein-Friesian

Publicado en línea: 29 Oct 2015
Páginas: 977 - 985

Resumen

Abstract

The material for the study consisted of 80 samples taken from the longissimus lumborum (LL) and semitendinosus (ST) muscles of young bulls of five breeds (8 samples of each muscle per breed), including three native breeds included in the genetic resources conservation programme, i.e. Polish Red, White-Backed and Polish Black-and-White, which together with the Simmental and Polish Holstein-Friesian breeds. The content of the elements (K, Na, Mg, Ca, Zn, Fe, Mn, and Cu) analysed in the meat of the young bulls (fattened in a semi-intensive system on fodder from permanent grassland) was found to depend (in varying degrees) on the breed of cattle. The greatest differences (P<0.01 and P<0.05) were noted between the Polish Holstein-Friesians (PHF) and the remaining breeds, mainly in the content of Mg, Ca, Zn and Mn. The results obtained in the four other breeds for most of the macro- and microelements were more uniform, with the highest content noted in the muscles of the young bulls of the native breeds.

Palabras clave

  • beef
  • minerals
  • young bulls
  • native breeds
Acceso abierto

Development of ZP Method for Seurop Pig Carcass Grading in Poland

Publicado en línea: 29 Oct 2015
Páginas: 987 - 996

Resumen

Abstract

In the present study, ZP method for lean meat content (LMC) evaluation in pig carcasses was tested. The experiment was carried out on 141 pigs selected from animals delivered for slaughter to the SKIBA S.A. meat plant located in Chojnice. The selected pigs originated from three country regions, and differed in respect of subcutaneous fat thickness (7-32 mm), carcass weight (60-120 kg) and sex (50% gilts and 50% castrated males). The main result of the study was a rectilinear regression equation for lean meat content assessment. Two linear measurements were used in the equation, i.e. backfat thickness measured on sacral vertebra and thickness of the muscle layer located between the beginning of the cross section of gluteus medius and back edge of the spinal cord. The evaluation error RMSEP was 2.33% and did not exceed the limit defined in EU regulations. Based on the Commission Decision 2011/506/EU the ZP method was approved to be used for pig carcass grading in Poland. A special measuring template was developed for the industrial use of the ZP method.

Palabras clave

  • pig carcasses
  • lean meat content evaluation
  • the ZP method
Acceso abierto

The Influence of WPC 80 Additive on the Stability of Water-In-Oil Emulsions

Publicado en línea: 29 Oct 2015
Páginas: 997 - 1008

Resumen

Abstract

The effect of 0, 1.5, 5, 10 and 15 (g 100 g-1 of emulsion) WPC 80 additive (80% whey protein concentrate) on the pH, physical, oxidative and microbiological stability of the water-in-oil emulsion was studied during 16-week storage at ~20°C at 4-week intervals. All determined features were significantly affected by the supplementation. The most beneficial as regards storage stability was the emulsion with 5% of WPC 80. This treatment was the most resistant to oxidative changes showing low increase of the concentration of conjugated diene hydroperoxides (from 0.92 to 1.04 mg g-1) and of the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (from 0.83 to 1.37 mg malondialdehyde g-1) as well as only slight increment (by 0.47 log CFU g-1) of the microorganisms number during storage. Thus, the results of the present study revealed that whey proteins can be applied in the proper amount to produce cosmetic emulsions composed of natural ingredients and with reasonable storage stability.

Palabras clave

  • whey protein concentrate
  • water-in-oil emulsion
  • stability
  • oxidation
Acceso abierto

Prediction of Pork Belly Composition Using the Computer Vision Method on Transverse Cross-Sections

Publicado en línea: 29 Oct 2015
Páginas: 1009 - 1018

Resumen

Abstract

The objective of this study was to identify the pig belly characteristics and to develop regression equations predicting its composition. Based on video image and chemical analysis of 216 bellies, the predictive variables were selected according to their relation to chemically determined belly lipid contents. To estimate the belly fat percentage (BF%), the two best equations constructed were: Equation 1: BF% = 49.960 - 0.7174 × SHME2 + 0.5047 × HE2A (R2 = 0.66, RMSE = 3.22); Equation 2: BF% = 43.888 - 0.6014 × SHME2 + 0.4769 × HE2A + 0.0014 × ARTO2 - 0.2697 × HE3A (R2 = 0.70, RMSE = 2.25), where: SHME2 = lean meat percentage area of the belly 2 from total cut area, HE2A = the Belly2 height at point 1, ARTO2 = the Belly2 total cut area, HE3A = the Belly3 height at point 1. Compared to lean meat, the percentage of belly fat (BF%) appears to be a more appropriate criterion for the objective evaluation of belly composition due to the simplicity and accuracy of the final regression equation (higher R2).

Palabras clave

  • pig
  • pork belly
  • belly composition
  • image analysis
Acceso abierto

Effect of Feed Restriction on Performance, Carcass Composition and Physicochemical Properties of the M. Pectoralis Superficialis of Broiler Chickens

Publicado en línea: 29 Oct 2015
Páginas: 1019 - 1029

Resumen

Abstract

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of feed restriction on carcass composition, breast meat quality and microstructure of the m. pectoralis superficialis of broiler chickens. A total of 315 day-old female broilers (Ross 308) were randomly assigned to 3 groups of 105 birds each in 3 pen replicates. They were fed ad libitum as the control (I), and restricted for 6 h/day (from 08:00 to 14:00 h) as group II (3 and 4 weeks of age) and group III from 4 to 5 weeks of age. On day 42 of growth, 6 broilers with average body weight were chosen from each group for slaughter to analyse dressing percentage, carcass quality, physicochemical properties of breast muscles, including pH, colour (CIE L*a*b*), expressible juice, drip loss, thawing loss, cooking loss, Warner-Bratzler shear force, texture (TPA) and chemical composition, as well as histochemical profile of the m. pectoralis superficialis. Temporary feed restriction did not significantly alter the final body weight, dressing percentage and the proportion of breast and leg muscles, but increased the proportion of abdominal fat. No differences were found in the microstructure of the m. pectoralis

superficialis of restricted and ad libitum fed chickens. Restricted feeding had an effect on water holding capacity and tenderness of breast muscles, and a non-significant effect on texture parameters and chemical composition. Restricted feeding of chickens changed their meat quality to a greater extent when applied from 3 to 4 weeks compared to analogous procedures introduced from 4 to 5 weeks of age.

Palabras clave

  • broiler chickens
  • female
  • feed restriction
  • meat quality
  • carcass composition
Acceso abierto

The Relation Between Intramuscular Fat Level in the Longissimus Muscle and the Quality of Pig Carcasses and Meat

Publicado en línea: 29 Oct 2015
Páginas: 1031 - 1041

Resumen

Abstract

This study evaluated the effect of intramuscular fat (IMF) content on the quality of pig carcass and meat. One hundred and twenty right half-carcasses of crossbred pigs (Pietrain × Duroc boars and Polish Large White × Polish Landrace sows) from a commercial farm were divided into two groups depending on the content of IMF in the longissimus muscle (LM): LIMF - lower content (mean 2.05% IMF; 28 gilts and 30 barrows) and HIMF - higher content (mean 3.08% IMF; 32 gilts and 30 barrows) were used. Pigs with a higher IMF content in LM (HIMF group) had a significantly lower (P≤0.01) percentage of lean meat in carcass, loin muscle area, level of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and PUFAs/SFAs ratio, whereas backfat thickness, content of cholesterol in LM, levels of saturated fatty acids (SFAs) and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) were significantly greater (P≤0.01) than those in pigs with lower IMF content (LIMF group).

Palabras clave

  • pigs
  • intramuscular fat
  • meat quality
  • carcass traits
Acceso abierto

The Effect of Varying Distances from the Wind Turbine on Meat Quality of Growing-Finishing Pigs

Publicado en línea: 29 Oct 2015
Páginas: 1043 - 1054

Resumen

Abstract

This study was conducted to assess the effect of rearing pigs at three different distances from a wind turbine (50, 500 and 1000 m) on the physicochemical properties and fatty acid composition of loin and neck muscles. The experiment was carried out on 30 growing-finishing pigs, derived from Polish Landrace × Polish Large White sows mated to a Duroc × Pietrain boar. The results obtained during the noise measurement showed that the highest level of noise in the audible and infrasound range was recorded 50 m from the wind turbine. Rearing pigs in close proximity to the wind turbine (50 m) resulted in decreased muscle pH, total heme pigments and heme iron as well as reduced content of C18:3n-3 fatty acid in the loin muscle. Loins of pigs reared 50 m from the wind turbine were characterized by significantly lower iron content (6.7 ppm g-1) compared to the loins of pigs reared 500 and 1000 m from the wind turbine (10.0-10.5 ppm g-1). The concentration of α-linolenic acid (C18:3n-3) in loin and neck muscles decreased as the distance from the wind turbine increased. Avoiding noise-induced stress is important not only for maintaining meat quality but also for improving animal welfare.

Palabras clave

  • pigs
  • noise-induced stress
  • muscles
  • physicochemical properties
  • fatty acid composition
Acceso abierto

The Effect of Sex on the Dressing Percentage, Carcass, and Organ Quality in the Fallow Deer (Dama Dama)

Publicado en línea: 29 Oct 2015
Páginas: 1055 - 1075

Resumen

Abstract

Basic carcass characteristics, the quality traits of meat and internal organs from 10 fallow deer bucks and 10 does aged from 31 to 32 months were investigated. No sex effects on the bled body weight, meat yield and carcass composition were found. A significantly higher weight of mesenteric and omental fat (by 0.44 kg) was found for does. The combined share of muscle and fat in the carcass parts ranged from 77.9 to 78.5%, and the share of bones from 21.5 to 22.1%. No sex effects were found for the pH and water holding capacity measurements. Venison from males was characterized by a significantly higher thermal drip value (P=0.043) and higher L* (P=0.026), a* (P=0.010) and b* (P=0.036) values compared to does. The extracted fat content was significantly higher for females compared to males (P=0.009). The chemical analysis of deer edible by-products indicated the highest level of protein for the liver (17%), and the highest level of dry matter and fat for the tongue (33-34% and 15-18%, respectively).

Palabras clave

  • fallow deer
  • sex
  • venison quality
  • carcass quality
20 Artículos

Review

Acceso abierto

Factors Determining the Susceptibility of Cows to Mastitis and Losses Incurred by Producers Due to the Disease – A Review

Publicado en línea: 29 Oct 2015
Páginas: 819 - 831

Resumen

Abstract

The aim of the paper was to discuss the factors determining the susceptibility of cows to mastitis, the most important for breeders, including losses incurred by milk producers due to the disease. Inflammations of mammary gland are common and the most awkward problem which dairy farmers face around the world. In the case of clinical udder inflammation, it is estimated that the cost of mastitis is about 200 € per cow with fluctuations from 100 even up to 1000 €. Resistance, i.e. the susceptibility of cows to mastitis, is conditioned genetically. The possibility of BoLA and lactoferrin gene polymorphism, using in the selection cows resistant to mastitis, is indicated. Bacteria inhabiting the mammary gland, and the living environment of animals are primarily the main etiological factor. Moreover, many authors indicate the differences between breeds of cows in resistance to mastitis. High-productive breeds are generally more susceptible to the udder inflammation, in comparison to the local breeds. The greatest reduction in milk yield is observed in the case of these breeds, and especially in Holstein-Friesian breed, in which the decline of daily yield at somatic cell count (SCC) amounting above 500,000 per ml of milk can reach 25%. The probability of mastitis occurrence increases with an age of cows and following lactation, and dry period is a time of increased risk. Higher incidence of inflammation is also associated with abnormalities in the construction of the udder (unevenly developed quarters, too long or too short teats). In recent years, a possible relationship between feeding system of cows with their resistance to udder infections has been reported. It is emphasized that a deficiency of selenium and vitamins A and E in the ration may contribute to the increase in the number of mastitis incidences. There are, however, unclear opinions of various authors on the effect of automatic milking system on udder health.

Palabras clave

  • udder inflammations
  • cow breed
  • hygiene and system of milking
  • losses of milk producers
Acceso abierto

The Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (Mers-CoV) – What is the Risk? A Review of Recent Studies

Publicado en línea: 29 Oct 2015
Páginas: 833 - 848

Resumen

Abstract

MERS (Middle East Respiratory Syndrome) is a viral disease of the respiratory system caused by coronaviruses (CoV), which can be contagious to both animals and humans. It was first described in 2012 in Saudi Arabia and very quickly its occurrence was found in European countries. Initially, it was associated with mild changes within the respiratory system, until a new type of virus was isolated in a patient with severe pneumonia and renal failure, who died. The study showed a close relationship between the virus isolated from the patient’s cells with HKU4 and HKU5 coronaviruses, previously isolated from bats. The presence of the same virus was found in a patient from Qatar with a similar clinical image. MERS infections, despite relatively low infectivity, are characterized by high mortality (30%). It is believed that the most likely source of the virus for humans are camels. The objective of this article is to review and discuss data on the risk factors of MERS-CoV zoonotic transmission from animals to humans.

Palabras clave

  • MERS
  • SARS
  • betacoronavirus
  • CoV
  • camels
  • bats
Acceso abierto

The Role of Melatonin and Bromocriptine in the Regulation of Prolactin Secretion in Animals – A Review

Publicado en línea: 29 Oct 2015
Páginas: 849 - 860

Resumen

Abstract

Changes in the concentration of melatonin and prolactin are associated with response to day length. The factors that stimulate the release of PRL include, among others, TRH, VIP, endorphins, oestrogen, and adrenaline. PRL secretion inhibitors include DA, GABA, progesterone and bromocriptine (exogenous compound), used in the treatment of hyperprolactinemia D2 receptor agonist. The biological activity of this compound is to stimulate dopamine D2 receptors in the pituitary, which inhibits PRL secretion via the tuberoinfundibular pathway (Fitzgerald and Dinan, 2008). In sheep treated with bromocriptine there is a decrease in PRL concentration and an increase in the sensitivity of cells producing LH to GnRH, but there is no disturbance in the course of the estrous cycle. Rams show decreased libido and changes in sexual behaviour. The administration of bromocriptine throughout the period of sexual activity and the period of rearing offspring affects maternal instinct, which involves the inhibition of PRL secretion. It is not clarified whether the effect of bromocriptine on sexual behaviour is associated with its direct impact on behavioural centres in the brain, or indirectly through the regulation of PRL secretion. However, the seasonal variations in the effects of bromocriptine on sexual behaviour can strengthen the hypothesis that the effect of bromocriptine on sexual development behaviour is associated with changes in the intensity of PRL secretion rather than by the inhibition of behavioural bromocriptine brain centres. The process of regulation of prolactin secretion by bromocriptine requires further examination.

Palabras clave

  • bromocriptine
  • prolactin
  • melatonin
  • seasonality

Animal Genetics and Breeding

Acceso abierto

Inbreeding in Pembroke Welsh Corgi Population in Poland

Publicado en línea: 29 Oct 2015
Páginas: 861 - 866

Resumen

Abstract

The objective of this study was to determine changes in the coefficients of inbreeding for a comparatively new Polish population of Pembroke Welsh Corgis. Calculations were based on 780 pedigrees of dogs born between 1979 and 2010 and registered with the Polish Kennel Club. The mean inbreeding coefficients for animals born during those years varied from 0.4% to 8.93%. The lowest individual inbreeding coefficient was 0.06%, whereas the highest reached 25.1%.

Palabras clave

  • Welsh Corgi Pembroke
  • pedigrees
  • inbreeding coefficients
Acceso abierto

Guanine Nucleotide Binding Protein (GNAS Complex Locus) Gene Produces Biallelically Expressed and Paternally Expressed Transcripts in Pigs

Publicado en línea: 29 Oct 2015
Páginas: 867 - 877

Resumen

Abstract

Imprinted loci are a subset of genes expressed only from one parental allele. Guanine nucleotide binding protein (GNAS complex locus) produces a few different proteins and noncoding RNAs. It is imprinted in mice and humans, while in pigs imprinting status of only one of them - NESP55 (neuroendocrine secretory protein-55) has been established. In the present study we aimed to establish imprinting status of the other two GNAS transcripts. We collected a panel of tissues (muscle, liver, kidney cortex, heart, fat, ovary, brain, blood) from the animals (aged 40-210 days) heterozygous in rs#333005482 polymorphism. We performed several RT -PCRs (Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reactions) with variant specific primers and sequenced the cDNA products obtained. We observed only paternal allele in all tissues at all developmental stages after sequencing with primers specific to variant 8 of GNAS gene and both alleles when sequencing with primers specific to variant 6. Our results show for the first time that, in pigs, GNAS complex locus produces biallelically expressed and paternally expressed transcripts, in the same way as previously demonstrated in mice and humans

Palabras clave

  • GNAS
  • imprinting
  • pigs
  • NESP55
Acceso abierto

Evaluation of Breeding Value Based on Scores Achieved in the Polish Championships for Young Horses

Publicado en línea: 29 Oct 2015
Páginas: 879 - 887

Resumen

Abstract

Genetic improvement of show jumping horses is problematic, given the multitude of physical traits that determine sport usability and the specific mental predispositions required during training and competitions. The Polish Championships for Young Horses (PCYH) provide an opportunity to evaluate usability traits in Polish horses, which, however, is not a basis for evaluation of the breeding value. The aim of the study was to propose a model for evaluation of the breeding value of horses taking part in the Championships. In total, 1232 starts of 894 4-, 5-, 6-, and 7-year-old horses were analysed. Indices of BLUP breeding values were calculated based on 7 traits with known genetic parameters (ranking in the championship, style rating on days 1, 2, and 3, and penalty points on days 1, 2, and 3). A low and irregular genetic trend, significant only in the case of penalties scored on days 1 and 2 of the championships, was shown. Compatibility of the evaluation of the breeding value estimated on the basis of scores achieved in the Polish Championships for Young Horses with the scores of the performance test carried out in Training Centres was shown. It was also demonstrated that the “sum penalty” and “sum style” measured during the three days of the Championships is sufficient for evaluation of the BLUP breeding value. It was suggested that the evaluation combined with the results achieved at the PCYH (in four age categories) would provide a more detailed picture of the genetic predispositions of jumping horses.

Palabras clave

  • horse breeding
  • BLUP animal model
  • show jumping
Acceso abierto

Analysis of Genetic Variability in Farmed and Wild Populations of Raccoon Dog (Nyctereutes Procyonoides) Using Microsatellite Sequences

Publicado en línea: 29 Oct 2015
Páginas: 889 - 901

Resumen

Abstract

The aim of this study was to detect possible differences between farmed and wild-living raccoon dogs. Analysis of polymorphism in 15 microsatellite sequences led to the conclusion that raccoon dogs raised on Polish farms and wild raccoon dogs living in Poland are two genetically distinct groups of animals. Wild Polish raccoon dogs are genetically more similar to the population of wild animals from the Kaliningrad Region than to farmed animals. The analysis of microsatellite loci showed clear genetic differences between farmed and wild-living populations of raccoon dog, despite only 50 years of isolation of the two groups of animals. The farmed population was characterized by higher genetic variation than the wild-living population. On the basis of the analyses three microsatellite loci (INU014, Ren13J22 and Ren41D20) were proposed for determination of the origin of animals that have escaped from farms.

Palabras clave

  • Nyctereutes procyonoides
  • wild and farmed animals
  • microsatellites
  • population assignment
Acceso abierto

Genetic Relationships Among Linear Type Traits and Milk Production Traits of Holstein Dairy Cattle

Publicado en línea: 29 Oct 2015
Páginas: 903 - 917

Resumen

Abstract

The aim of this study was to estimate genetic relationships among milk production and linear type traits of Holstein dairy cattle from seven herds in Isfahan province of Iran. Phenotypic data was collected from 2004 to 2012 and included milk yield (MY), fat yield (FY) and protein yield (PY) for first three lactations, six body traits (stature, ST; chest width, CW; body depth, BD; angularity, AN; rump angle, RA; rump width, RW), three feet and legs traits (rear legs side view, RLSV; rear legs rear view, RLRV; foot angle, FA) and eight udder traits (fore udder attachment, FUA; rear udder height, RUH; rear udder width, RUW; central ligament, CL; udder depth, UD; fore teat placement, FTP; rear teat placement, RTP; teat length, TL). The number of animals for each linear type trait was 3505. Multi-trait animal models were used to estimate the (co)variance components based on restricted maximum likelihood method (REML) using WOMBAT software. Heritability estimates of first, second and third lactations for MY were 0.28, 0.41 and 0.36; for FY were 0.22, 0.23 and 0.36 and for PY were 0.31, 0.33 and 0.25, respectively. The heritability estimates ranged from 0.17±0.04 to 0.24±0.04 for body traits, 0.06±0.03 to 0.15±0.04 for feet and leg traits and from 0.12±0.04 to 0.25±0.05 for udder traits. Genetic correlations among the recorded type traits ranged from -0.76±0.01 (between AN and RLRV) to 0.65±0.02 (between AN and RW). The low to moderate positive genetic correlations between AN and FUA with milk production traits indicate that cows with high AN and good FUA have higher milk, fat and protein yields. The results of this study indicated that considerable genetic variation exists for different type traits within this sample of the Iranian Holstein population and additive genetic variability of type traits can provide moderate genetic gains through selection.

Palabras clave

  • dairy cattle
  • genetic parameters
  • production traits
  • type traits

The Biology, Physiology, Reproduction, and Health

Acceso abierto

Application of The UV-Irradiated Homologous and Heterologous Sperm for Activa Tion of the Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus Mykiss) Eggs and Production of the Gynogenetic Stocks

Publicado en línea: 29 Oct 2015
Páginas: 919 - 928

Resumen

Abstract

Meiotic gynogenetic development of the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss, Walbaum 1792) was induced in the course of egg activation performed by the UV-irradiated homologous and heterologous (European grayling Thymallus thymallus Linnaeus, 1758) spermatozoa. To recover diploidy in the gynogenetic zygotes, activated eggs were subjected to the high pressure shock in order to inhibit extrusion of the second polar body. Gynogenetic rainbow trout progeny hatched from the eggs activated by the irradiated rainbow trout and grayling milt with similar hatching rates of 28.19% and 29.22%, respectively. However, gynogenetic rainbow trout produced with grayling semen had shown lower survival than gynogenotes provided with the homologous spermatozoa during two years of rearing. Viable hybrids are not produced between rainbow trout and grayling which ensured that fish obtained in this experiment were true gynogenetic progenies. A Robertsonian polymorphism characteristic for the rainbow trout from the studied strain was also observed among the gynogenetic specimens that exhibited diploid chromosome number ranging from 58 to 62 and stable chromosome arm number (FN= 104). No radiation-induced fragments of the paternal chromosomes were observed in the gynogenetic individuals. Fish produced in both experimental variants were genotypic (XX) and phenotypic (gonads) females. The results confirmed that the gynogenetic protocol used in the present research is an efficient means of producing all-female gynogenetic rainbow trout stocks.

Palabras clave

  • all female
  • gynogenesis
  • sex chromosomes
  • Salmonids
  • UV light

Animal Nutrition, and Feedstuffs

Acceso abierto

Evaluation of the Usefulness of Hybrid Rye in Feeding Polish Holstein-Friesian Dairy Cows in Early Lactation

Publicado en línea: 29 Oct 2015
Páginas: 929 - 943

Resumen

Abstract

The aim of the study was to compare the effect of feeding a hybrid rye grain in rations for dairy cows during the first 100 days of lactation on body condition, milk yield and milk composition. Feeding cows with concentrates containing in its composition 25% or 40% of the ground hybrid rye did not decrease the intake of concentrate or PMR rations as compared to the control group. The introduction of 25% or 40% of the rye hybrid variety Visello to the concentrates did not reduce the milk yield of the cows during the first 100 days of lactation. No significant differences in the chemical composition of the milk were observed. The cows fed rye maintained their weight and body condition during the first 100 days of lactation at the same level. The addition of hybrid rye grains in the amount of 25% to concentrate had no significant effect on the fatty acid profile of the milk whereas 40% of rye improved fatty acids composition by decreasing C18:0 and increasing C18:1 n-9 in the milk.

Palabras clave

  • rye hybrid
  • dairy cows
  • milk yield
  • milk composition
Acceso abierto

Effect of Level of Spirulina Supplementation on the Fatty Acid Compositions of Adipose, Muscle, Heart, Kidney and Liver Tissues in Australian Dual-Purpose Lambs

Publicado en línea: 29 Oct 2015
Páginas: 945 - 960

Resumen

Abstract

This study investigated the effect of level of Spirulina supplementation on the fatty acid (FA ) compositions of subcutaneous adipose, longissimus dorsi muscle, kidney, heart, and liver tissues in purebred and crossbred Australian Merino sheep. Forty-eight lambs sired by Black Suffolk, White Suffolk, Dorset and Merino rams were assigned into 4 treatment groups of daily Spirulina supplementation levels per lamb of 0 mL (control), 50 mL (low), 100 mL (medium) and 200 mL (high) referred to as 0, 5, 10 and 20% groups. The lambs were slaughtered after 9 weeks of supplementation and heart, kidney, adipose, liver and muscle tissue samples were collected. The results demonstrated significant variations in growth and body conformation traits and tissue and organ FA composition in response to the Spirulina supplementation. The medium-level Spirulina treatment group increased the ω-3 and ω-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA ) composition in all tissues and organs significantly. The results suggest the use of medium level (100 mL/head/day) of Spirulina supplementation in order to increase lamb production with more ω-3 and ω-6 PUFA and therefore higher nutritional meat quality.

Palabras clave

  • Spirulina
  • fatty acids
  • sheep
  • liver
  • kidney
Acceso abierto

The Effect of Garlic (Allium Sativum L.) on Growth Performance, Mortality Rate, Meat and Blood Parameters in Broilers

Publicado en línea: 29 Oct 2015
Páginas: 961 - 975

Resumen

Abstract

The effect of garlic extract on body weight, feed intake, feed conversion rate, mortality rate, dressing percentage, carcass traits, chemical composition of breast muscles and blood plasma parameters was investigated in a feeding trial with 640 Ross 308 broiler chickens of both sexes. The experiment was characterised by a two-factor design, with liquid garlic extract (GFA ) and sex as factors. In comparison with the unsupplemented control group, supplementing diets with 1.00 (GFA 1), 1.50 (GFA 2), and 2.25 (GFA 3) ml kg-1 for 42 days increased body weight, with a significant difference for the GFA3 group (P≤0.01). Bird mortality was 2.78% in the control group and 0.10%, 0.63%, and 0.60% in the GFA1, GFA2, and GFA3 supplemented groups, respectively (P≤0.01). Feed intake (kg/42 days) was 4.50 per broiler in the control group and 4.51, 4.68, and 4.85 kg-1 per broiler in the experimental groups (P≥0.05), respectively. Feed conversion rate was 1.80 in the control group and 1.77, 1.76, and 1.80 kg/kg in the GFA1, GFA2, and GFA3 groups, respectively (P≥0.05). GFA increased European Production Efficacy Factor (EPEF) from 331 in the control group to 347, 363, and 356 points in the experimental groups, respectively (P≤0.01). Dressing percentage in the GFA3 group was significantly higher than in the control group (74.8% vs 72.5%; P≤0.01). GFA at the concentration of 2.25 ml kg-1 significantly increased the weight of breast muscles. Supplementing the diet with GFA at the level of 1.50 ml kg-1 caused a significant increase in liver weight (P≤0.01). Feeding with GFA at a rate of 1.5 ml kg-1 caused a significant increase in the protein and crude ash content of breast meat compared to the control group (P≤0.05). The highest dose of GFA significantly increased total protein content of serum compared to the control group (P≤0.01). No significant interaction of GFA by sex on the analysed parameters was found. It is concluded that GFA at 2.25 ml kg-1 caused a significant improvement in the body weight of broilers and their carcass parameters, while a significant reduction in bird mortality for the GFAsupplemented groups was observed during the rearing period. It appears that the optimum level of GFA , when the crude protein concentration in the commercial starter and grower diets ranges between 210 and 220 g kg-1 is 1.5-2.25 ml kg-1 of the starter and grower diets.

Palabras clave

  • broiler chickens
  • garlic
  • body weight
  • mortality
  • feed utilisation
  • meat and serum parameters

Quality and Safety of Animal Origin Products

Acceso abierto

Content of Macro- and Microelements in the Meat of Young Bulls of Three Native Breeds (Polish Red, White-Backed and Polish Black-and-White) in Comparison with Simmental and Polish Holstein-Friesian

Publicado en línea: 29 Oct 2015
Páginas: 977 - 985

Resumen

Abstract

The material for the study consisted of 80 samples taken from the longissimus lumborum (LL) and semitendinosus (ST) muscles of young bulls of five breeds (8 samples of each muscle per breed), including three native breeds included in the genetic resources conservation programme, i.e. Polish Red, White-Backed and Polish Black-and-White, which together with the Simmental and Polish Holstein-Friesian breeds. The content of the elements (K, Na, Mg, Ca, Zn, Fe, Mn, and Cu) analysed in the meat of the young bulls (fattened in a semi-intensive system on fodder from permanent grassland) was found to depend (in varying degrees) on the breed of cattle. The greatest differences (P<0.01 and P<0.05) were noted between the Polish Holstein-Friesians (PHF) and the remaining breeds, mainly in the content of Mg, Ca, Zn and Mn. The results obtained in the four other breeds for most of the macro- and microelements were more uniform, with the highest content noted in the muscles of the young bulls of the native breeds.

Palabras clave

  • beef
  • minerals
  • young bulls
  • native breeds
Acceso abierto

Development of ZP Method for Seurop Pig Carcass Grading in Poland

Publicado en línea: 29 Oct 2015
Páginas: 987 - 996

Resumen

Abstract

In the present study, ZP method for lean meat content (LMC) evaluation in pig carcasses was tested. The experiment was carried out on 141 pigs selected from animals delivered for slaughter to the SKIBA S.A. meat plant located in Chojnice. The selected pigs originated from three country regions, and differed in respect of subcutaneous fat thickness (7-32 mm), carcass weight (60-120 kg) and sex (50% gilts and 50% castrated males). The main result of the study was a rectilinear regression equation for lean meat content assessment. Two linear measurements were used in the equation, i.e. backfat thickness measured on sacral vertebra and thickness of the muscle layer located between the beginning of the cross section of gluteus medius and back edge of the spinal cord. The evaluation error RMSEP was 2.33% and did not exceed the limit defined in EU regulations. Based on the Commission Decision 2011/506/EU the ZP method was approved to be used for pig carcass grading in Poland. A special measuring template was developed for the industrial use of the ZP method.

Palabras clave

  • pig carcasses
  • lean meat content evaluation
  • the ZP method
Acceso abierto

The Influence of WPC 80 Additive on the Stability of Water-In-Oil Emulsions

Publicado en línea: 29 Oct 2015
Páginas: 997 - 1008

Resumen

Abstract

The effect of 0, 1.5, 5, 10 and 15 (g 100 g-1 of emulsion) WPC 80 additive (80% whey protein concentrate) on the pH, physical, oxidative and microbiological stability of the water-in-oil emulsion was studied during 16-week storage at ~20°C at 4-week intervals. All determined features were significantly affected by the supplementation. The most beneficial as regards storage stability was the emulsion with 5% of WPC 80. This treatment was the most resistant to oxidative changes showing low increase of the concentration of conjugated diene hydroperoxides (from 0.92 to 1.04 mg g-1) and of the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (from 0.83 to 1.37 mg malondialdehyde g-1) as well as only slight increment (by 0.47 log CFU g-1) of the microorganisms number during storage. Thus, the results of the present study revealed that whey proteins can be applied in the proper amount to produce cosmetic emulsions composed of natural ingredients and with reasonable storage stability.

Palabras clave

  • whey protein concentrate
  • water-in-oil emulsion
  • stability
  • oxidation
Acceso abierto

Prediction of Pork Belly Composition Using the Computer Vision Method on Transverse Cross-Sections

Publicado en línea: 29 Oct 2015
Páginas: 1009 - 1018

Resumen

Abstract

The objective of this study was to identify the pig belly characteristics and to develop regression equations predicting its composition. Based on video image and chemical analysis of 216 bellies, the predictive variables were selected according to their relation to chemically determined belly lipid contents. To estimate the belly fat percentage (BF%), the two best equations constructed were: Equation 1: BF% = 49.960 - 0.7174 × SHME2 + 0.5047 × HE2A (R2 = 0.66, RMSE = 3.22); Equation 2: BF% = 43.888 - 0.6014 × SHME2 + 0.4769 × HE2A + 0.0014 × ARTO2 - 0.2697 × HE3A (R2 = 0.70, RMSE = 2.25), where: SHME2 = lean meat percentage area of the belly 2 from total cut area, HE2A = the Belly2 height at point 1, ARTO2 = the Belly2 total cut area, HE3A = the Belly3 height at point 1. Compared to lean meat, the percentage of belly fat (BF%) appears to be a more appropriate criterion for the objective evaluation of belly composition due to the simplicity and accuracy of the final regression equation (higher R2).

Palabras clave

  • pig
  • pork belly
  • belly composition
  • image analysis
Acceso abierto

Effect of Feed Restriction on Performance, Carcass Composition and Physicochemical Properties of the M. Pectoralis Superficialis of Broiler Chickens

Publicado en línea: 29 Oct 2015
Páginas: 1019 - 1029

Resumen

Abstract

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of feed restriction on carcass composition, breast meat quality and microstructure of the m. pectoralis superficialis of broiler chickens. A total of 315 day-old female broilers (Ross 308) were randomly assigned to 3 groups of 105 birds each in 3 pen replicates. They were fed ad libitum as the control (I), and restricted for 6 h/day (from 08:00 to 14:00 h) as group II (3 and 4 weeks of age) and group III from 4 to 5 weeks of age. On day 42 of growth, 6 broilers with average body weight were chosen from each group for slaughter to analyse dressing percentage, carcass quality, physicochemical properties of breast muscles, including pH, colour (CIE L*a*b*), expressible juice, drip loss, thawing loss, cooking loss, Warner-Bratzler shear force, texture (TPA) and chemical composition, as well as histochemical profile of the m. pectoralis superficialis. Temporary feed restriction did not significantly alter the final body weight, dressing percentage and the proportion of breast and leg muscles, but increased the proportion of abdominal fat. No differences were found in the microstructure of the m. pectoralis

superficialis of restricted and ad libitum fed chickens. Restricted feeding had an effect on water holding capacity and tenderness of breast muscles, and a non-significant effect on texture parameters and chemical composition. Restricted feeding of chickens changed their meat quality to a greater extent when applied from 3 to 4 weeks compared to analogous procedures introduced from 4 to 5 weeks of age.

Palabras clave

  • broiler chickens
  • female
  • feed restriction
  • meat quality
  • carcass composition
Acceso abierto

The Relation Between Intramuscular Fat Level in the Longissimus Muscle and the Quality of Pig Carcasses and Meat

Publicado en línea: 29 Oct 2015
Páginas: 1031 - 1041

Resumen

Abstract

This study evaluated the effect of intramuscular fat (IMF) content on the quality of pig carcass and meat. One hundred and twenty right half-carcasses of crossbred pigs (Pietrain × Duroc boars and Polish Large White × Polish Landrace sows) from a commercial farm were divided into two groups depending on the content of IMF in the longissimus muscle (LM): LIMF - lower content (mean 2.05% IMF; 28 gilts and 30 barrows) and HIMF - higher content (mean 3.08% IMF; 32 gilts and 30 barrows) were used. Pigs with a higher IMF content in LM (HIMF group) had a significantly lower (P≤0.01) percentage of lean meat in carcass, loin muscle area, level of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and PUFAs/SFAs ratio, whereas backfat thickness, content of cholesterol in LM, levels of saturated fatty acids (SFAs) and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) were significantly greater (P≤0.01) than those in pigs with lower IMF content (LIMF group).

Palabras clave

  • pigs
  • intramuscular fat
  • meat quality
  • carcass traits
Acceso abierto

The Effect of Varying Distances from the Wind Turbine on Meat Quality of Growing-Finishing Pigs

Publicado en línea: 29 Oct 2015
Páginas: 1043 - 1054

Resumen

Abstract

This study was conducted to assess the effect of rearing pigs at three different distances from a wind turbine (50, 500 and 1000 m) on the physicochemical properties and fatty acid composition of loin and neck muscles. The experiment was carried out on 30 growing-finishing pigs, derived from Polish Landrace × Polish Large White sows mated to a Duroc × Pietrain boar. The results obtained during the noise measurement showed that the highest level of noise in the audible and infrasound range was recorded 50 m from the wind turbine. Rearing pigs in close proximity to the wind turbine (50 m) resulted in decreased muscle pH, total heme pigments and heme iron as well as reduced content of C18:3n-3 fatty acid in the loin muscle. Loins of pigs reared 50 m from the wind turbine were characterized by significantly lower iron content (6.7 ppm g-1) compared to the loins of pigs reared 500 and 1000 m from the wind turbine (10.0-10.5 ppm g-1). The concentration of α-linolenic acid (C18:3n-3) in loin and neck muscles decreased as the distance from the wind turbine increased. Avoiding noise-induced stress is important not only for maintaining meat quality but also for improving animal welfare.

Palabras clave

  • pigs
  • noise-induced stress
  • muscles
  • physicochemical properties
  • fatty acid composition
Acceso abierto

The Effect of Sex on the Dressing Percentage, Carcass, and Organ Quality in the Fallow Deer (Dama Dama)

Publicado en línea: 29 Oct 2015
Páginas: 1055 - 1075

Resumen

Abstract

Basic carcass characteristics, the quality traits of meat and internal organs from 10 fallow deer bucks and 10 does aged from 31 to 32 months were investigated. No sex effects on the bled body weight, meat yield and carcass composition were found. A significantly higher weight of mesenteric and omental fat (by 0.44 kg) was found for does. The combined share of muscle and fat in the carcass parts ranged from 77.9 to 78.5%, and the share of bones from 21.5 to 22.1%. No sex effects were found for the pH and water holding capacity measurements. Venison from males was characterized by a significantly higher thermal drip value (P=0.043) and higher L* (P=0.026), a* (P=0.010) and b* (P=0.036) values compared to does. The extracted fat content was significantly higher for females compared to males (P=0.009). The chemical analysis of deer edible by-products indicated the highest level of protein for the liver (17%), and the highest level of dry matter and fat for the tongue (33-34% and 15-18%, respectively).

Palabras clave

  • fallow deer
  • sex
  • venison quality
  • carcass quality

Planifique su conferencia remota con Sciendo