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Volumen 13 (2013): Edición 4 (October 2013)
Edición Editors: Magdalena Bielska, Jerzy Pilawski, Katarzyna Skupniewicz

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Detalles de la revista
Formato
Revista
eISSN
2300-8733
ISSN
1642-3402
Publicado por primera vez
25 Nov 2011
Periodo de publicación
4 veces al año
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Volumen 13 (2013): Edición 4 (October 2013)
Edición Editors: Magdalena Bielska, Jerzy Pilawski, Katarzyna Skupniewicz

Detalles de la revista
Formato
Revista
eISSN
2300-8733
ISSN
1642-3402
Publicado por primera vez
25 Nov 2011
Periodo de publicación
4 veces al año
Idiomas
Inglés

Buscar

19 Artículos

Review

Acceso abierto

Genetic Basis of Mastitis Resistance in Dairy Cattle – A Review / Podstawy Genetyczne Odporności Krów Mlecznych Na Zapalenie Wymienia – Artykuł Przeglądowy

Publicado en línea: 20 Oct 2013
Páginas: 663 - 673

Resumen

Abstract

Mastitis is one of the most important mammary gland diseases impacting lactating animals. Resistance to this disease could be improved by breeding. There are several selection methods for mastitis resistance. To improve the natural genetic resistance of cows in succeeding generations, current breeding programmes use somatic cell count and clinical mastitis cases as resistance traits. However, these methods of selection have met with limited success. This is partly due to the complex nature of the disease. The limited progress in improving udder health by conventional selection procedures requires applying information on molecular markers of mastitis susceptibility in marker-assisted selection schemes. Mastitis is under polygenic control, so there are many genes that control this trait in many loci. This review briefly describes genome-wide association studies which have been carried out to identify quantitative trait loci associated with mastitis resistance in dairy cattle worldwide. It also characterizes the candidate gene approach focus on identifying genes that are strong candidates for the mastitis resistance trait. In the conclusion of the paper we focus our attention on future research which should be conducted in the field of the resistance to mastitis.

Palabras clave

  • dairy cattle
  • mastitis
  • genetic markers
Acceso abierto

Epigenetic Basis of Molecular Changes in Animal Cells with Particular Regard to Embryonic Development – A Review / Epigenetyczne Podstawy Przemian Molekularnych Zachodzących W Komórkach Zwierzęcych, Ze Szczególnym Uwzględnieniem Rozwoju Embrionalnego – Artykuł Przeglądowy

Publicado en línea: 20 Oct 2013
Páginas: 675 - 685

Resumen

Abstract

Regulation of gene expression is a complex process. Epigenetics is the study of heritable changes in gene expression independently of DNA sequence. Epigenetic control of gene transcription is based on two main processes. The first is reversible DNA methylation, primarily of cytosine at position C5, rarely in position N3, or of adenine at position C6 (Xu et al., 2010). The second process is the change in chromatin structure and function by chemical modification of histones, including mainly methylation, acetylation, and phosphorylation of histone amino acids (Zamudio et al., 2008). During development and differentiation of cells, changes occur in DNA methylation of genes. After fertilization there are dynamic histone modifications and changes in DNA methylation in zygotes. Use of methylation sensitive restriction enzymes causes a global demethylation in the early embryonic stage (Sulewska et al., 2007 b). De novo methylation of CpG sites is followed by embryo implantation. Next, during gastrulation most genes are methylated except the tissue-specific genes. The last wave of de novo methylation takes place during the gametogenesis and is dependent on sex (Sulewska et al., 2007 b). The aim of this work is to review the current knowledge about epigenetic mechanism of molecular changes in animal cells with particular regard to embryonic development.

Keywords

  • epigenetics
  • methylation
  • histone modification
  • embryonic development

Genetics and farm animal breeding

Acceso abierto

Study on Sztumski Mares Enrolled in the Genetic Resources Conservation Programme in 2008 / Badania Nad Klaczami Sztumskimi Przyjętymi Do Programu Ochrony Zasobów Genetycznych W Roku 2008

Publicado en línea: 20 Oct 2013
Páginas: 687 - 700

Resumen

Abstract

The aim of this study was to conduct genetic analysis of 219 cold-blooded Sztumski mares, which were enrolled in the genetic resources conservation programme in 2008. The inbreeding level in the mares, their average genetic relationship with the population, and the average coefficient of kinship were analysed, as well as the number and origin of common ancestors (founders of the population) were determined. The age structure and coat colour in the mares, as well as the size and geographical distribution of the herds were also determined. Over 97% of the mares enrolled in the conservation programme were inbred. The average inbreeding coefficient was 1.93% and ranged from 0% to 32.6%; the average relationship coefficient (2.38%) for the population was the highest in the group of mares aged 9 to 11 years (2.63%); the average kinship within the population was 2.89% and ranged from 5 to 5.99% in the case of five mares. The mares descended from 785 founders, including 561 mares (mainly cold-blooded Sztumski and Sokólski breeds) and 224 stallions (mainly Ardennes and Belgian breeds). Distribution of the herds does not fully reflect the historic region from which the breed originated, while the population itself is scattered and kept in many herds, most of which have 2 (occasionally up to 6) mares.

Keywords

  • Sztumski horses
  • pedigree analysis
  • inbreeding
  • relationship
  • conservation programme
Acceso abierto

The Polymorphism of Cytogenetic Markers in the Farm and Wild-Living Raccoon Dog (Nyctereutes Procyonoides) / Polimorfizm Markerów Cytogenetycznych U Jenota (Nyctereutes Procyonoides) W Populacjach Hodowlanych I Dziko Żyjących

Publicado en línea: 20 Oct 2013
Páginas: 701 - 713

Resumen

Abstract

The raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides) is a mammalian species that belongs to Canidae family, order Carnivora. This species represents both animals living in the wild and farm animals used in the fur industry. Raccoon dogs have the most ‘primitive’ karyotype among Canidae family. The Chinese raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides procyonoides) is characterised by a variable number of chromosomes (2n = 54 + 0-4 B). B chromosomes are supernumerary chromosomes occurring in addition to the basic set of A chromosomes in the cells of many organisms. The function and origin of these additional chromosomes is not clear. The aim of this work was to determine possible karyotypic differences between wild-living and farm populations, using methods of classical and molecular cytogenetics. The most useful cytogenetic markers to analyse karyotype polymorphism of canine are the number of B chromosomes and nucleolar organizer regions. A variation was identified in the number of B chromosomes and nucleolar organizer regions (NORs) in cells between wild-living and breeding populations.

Keywords

  • wild-living raccoon dog
  • farm raccoon dog
  • cytogenetic markers
  • polymorphism
Acceso abierto

Validation of 10 Microsatellite Loci for Their use in Parentage Verification and Individual Identification in the Yugoslavian Shepherd Dog Sharplanina / Walidacja 10 Loci Mikrosatelitarnych Do Kontroli Pochodzenia Oraz Identyfikacji Osobniczej Jugosłowiańskiego Psa Pasterskiego Z Szar Płaniny

Publicado en línea: 20 Oct 2013
Páginas: 715 - 722

Resumen

Abstract

The aim of the study was to assess a commercially available microsatellite panel for use in paternity and identification analyses in the Yugoslavian Shepherd Dog Sharplanina, an ancient livestock guarding breed. Allele frequencies for 10 microsatellite loci (PEZ01, FHC2054, FHC2010, PEZ05, PEZ20, PEZ12, PEZ03, PEZ06, PEZ08 and FHC2079) were determined in 103 unrelated Yugoslavian Shepherd Dog individuals. The loci revealed varied levels of polymorphism (five to 12 alleles), with an average of 7.83 per locus. Average values of observed heterozygosity and polymorphic information content (PIC) were 0.64 and 0.66, respectively. Nine out of 10 microsatellite markers were highly informative with PIC values higher than 0.5. The obtained value of combined power of exclusion (0.9989) confirms usefulness of this panel of microsatellites for parentage verification, while the value of combined power of discrimination of 0.9999 clearly shows that the panel can conclusively identify individual dogs. In conclusion, the results obtained suggest that the selected set of commercially available microsatellite markers may be used as a routine tool for parentage verification and individual identification in the Yugoslavian Shepherd Dog. Although analysis of genetic variability of the Yugoslavian Shepherd Dog was not the primary focus of the study, the established values of major diversity indices disclose a highly variable gene pool in the breed.

Keywords

  • dog
  • canine microsatellites
  • allele frequency
  • parentage testing
Acceso abierto

Evaluation of Foals Sired by Stallions Belonging to Various Classes of Descent / Ocena Źrebiąt Po Ogierach O Różnym Pochodzeniu

Publicado en línea: 20 Oct 2013
Páginas: 723 - 734

Resumen

Abstract

The evaluation concerned the progeny born to Polish pedigree stallions, to Polish-born stallions by imported sires, and to stallions imported to Poland. All traits (type, body conformation and development, health status and movement) were evaluated on a point scale. A highly significant effect of stallion on his progeny evaluation was observed. The highest mean for the total points in foal evaluation was noted for the offspring of imported sires. That class differed highly significantly from the foals by Polish-origin stallions and the foals by Polish-born stallions with imported sires. The gathered results clearly show the changes in purpose type over the years, and, consequently, in horse conformation. Horses have been becoming more noble in type, and their competitive potential has been increasing.

Keywords

  • stallions
  • foal evaluation
  • descent

The biology, physiology and reproduction of animals

Acceso abierto

In Vitro Development of Porcine Nuclear-Transferred Embryos Derived from Fibroblast Cells Analysed Cytometrically for Apoptosis Incidence and Accuracy of Cell Cycle Synchronization at the G0/G1 Stages / Rozwój In Vitro Klonalnych Zarodków Świni Zrekonstruowanych Z Jąder Komórkowych Fibroblastów Cytometrycznie Analizowanych Pod Kątem Częstotliwości Występowania Śmierci Apoptotycznej I Efektywności Synchronizacji Cyklu Mitotycznego W Fazach G0/G1

Publicado en línea: 20 Oct 2013
Páginas: 735 - 752

Resumen

Abstract

The study was undertaken to examine whether various strategies, including contact inhibition and serum starvation, that were used for artificial synchronization of mitotic cycle of porcine fibroblast cell lines affect differently the distribution of cell cycle stage frequencies and the occurrence of apoptotic cell death in the analysed cell samples. In vitro cultured (contact-inhibited or serumstarved) somatic cells were subjected to flow cytometric diagnostics of mitotic cycle together with the detection of late-apoptotic cell fractions with hypodiploid number of nuclear DNA molecules. Moreover, impact of the methods applied to synchronize the cell division cycle of different types of nuclear donor fibroblast cells (adult cutaneous and foetal fibroblasts) on the preimplantation developmental outcomes of cloned pig embryos was investigated. The developmental capabilities of nuclear-transferred (NT) embryos that were reconstituted with contact-inhibited or serum-depleted adult cutaneous fibroblast cells to reach the morula and blastocyst stages remained at the levels of 169/278 (60.8%) and 76/278 (27.3%) or 121/265 (45.7%) and 46/265 (17.4%), respectively. The proportions of NT embryos originating from contact-inhibited or serum-deprived foetal fibroblast cells that completed their development to the morula and blastocyst stages were 223/296 (75.3%) and 108/296 (36.5%) or 165/261 (63.2%) and 67/261 (25.7%), respectively. In conclusion, the flow cytometric analysis of cultured porcine adult cutaneous and foetal fibroblast cells revealed the high efficiency of the artificial synchronization of mitotic cycle at the G0/G1 stages as a consequence of applying the methods of either contact inhibition or serum deprivation. For both types of fibroblast cells used to reconstruct the enucleated oocytes, the strategies that were utilized to synchronize the cell division cycle of nuclear donor cells considerably influenced the in vitro developmental abilities of NT pig embryos. Developmental competencies to reach the morula/blastocyst stages for cloned embryos that had been reconstructed with contact-inhibited or serum-starved foetal fibroblast cell nuclei were significantly higher than those for embryos that had been reconstructed with contact-inhibited or serum-starved adult cutaneous fibroblast cell nuclei.

Keywords

  • porcine
  • nuclear donor fibroblast cell
  • flow cytometry
  • mitotic cycle
  • cell cycle synchronization
  • apoptosis
  • DNA hypodiploidy
  • cloned embryo
Acceso abierto

The Quality of Porcine Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Their Osteo- and Adipogenic Cell Derivatives – The Level of Proapoptotic Bad Protein Expression / Jakość Mezenchymalnych Komórek Macierzystych Świni Oraz Ich Pochodnych Zróżnicowanych W Kierunku Komórek Szeregu Osteo- I Adipogennego – Poziom Ekspresji Proapoptotycznego Białka Bad

Publicado en línea: 20 Oct 2013
Páginas: 753 - 763

Resumen

Abstract

The aim of the research was to evaluate the quality of porcine mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and MSC-derived osteoblasts/osteocytes (bone cells) and adipocytes (fat cells). This evaluation was performed on the basis of molecular analysis for proapoptotic BAD protein expression. MSCs isolated from the pig bone marrow were cultured in vitro for five weeks in three types of culture media: differentiating towards the osteoblasts/osteocytes (O) and adipocytes (A) and non-differentiating, control medium (C). In all groups of cells, the relative extent of BAD protein expression was estimated by western blotting. Significant differences in the posttranslational abundance of BAD proteins were noted between MSCs differentiated into the osteogenic and the adipogenic cell lineages (P<0.05). Summarizing the results, we conclude that posttranslational level of BAD protein expression can be used as a reliable marker for assessing the quality of both MSCs and their cell derivatives. Interestingly, the semi-quantitative profile of BAD protein expression in differentiated cells turned out to be lower than that observed in undifferentiated cells, demonstrating that the culture conditions used for pro-osteogenic or pro-adipogenic cellular transformation did not affect negatively the quality of MSCs.

Keywords

  • BAD
  • protein
  • expression
  • MSCs
  • adipocytes
  • osteoblasts/osteocytes
Acceso abierto

Developmental Competence of CMV-Fut Transgenic and Non-Transgenic Pig Embryos Cultured in Vitro / Potencjał Rozwojowy CMV-Fut Transgenicznych I Nietransgenicznych Zarodków Świni Hodowanych In Vitro

Publicado en línea: 20 Oct 2013
Páginas: 765 - 769

Resumen

Abstract

Possible influence of a transgene on life functions of embryos makes it reasonable to confirm or deny it for a particular gene construct. In vitro development of an embryo is a widely used criterion of its competence. The aim of the study was to compare in vitro developmental capacity of transgenic and non-transgenic pig embryos. The results showed a statistically significant difference in in

vitro developmental capacity of embryos obtained from transgenic and non-transgenic pigs. Developmental competence of embryos (morula and blastocyst stage) produced from zygotes obtained from transgenic sows decreased compared to that obtained from non-transgenic sows.

Keywords

  • pig
  • CMV-Fut gene construct
  • transgenic embryos
  • non-transgenic embryos
  • in vitro culture
Acceso abierto

Relationships Between Chemical Composition of Colostrum and Milk and Rearing Performance of Piglets During a 21-Day Lactation / Zależności Pomiędzy Składem Chemicznym Siary I Mleka A Wynikami Odchowu Prosiąt W Czasie 21-Dniowej Laktacji

Publicado en línea: 20 Oct 2013
Páginas: 771 - 781

Resumen

Abstract

Normal development of piglets is determined principally by the milking ability of the sows. This study attempted to determine the relationships between sow’s milk quality and rearing performance of the piglets. The experiment was carried out under uniform conditions, with standard feeding of the sows and a similar number of piglets per litter. The study accounted for 109 lactations of second- and third-parity Polish Large White (PLW ) sows and 123 lactations of second- and third-parity Polish Landrace (PL) sows. Colostrum and milk were collected from the sows at 1, 7, 14 and 21 days of lactation and analysed for solids, crude protein, fat, lactose and somatic cell count (SCC). Rearing performance of second- and third-litter piglets was determined based on the number and weight of piglets at birth and at 7, 14 and 21 days of age. The coefficients of correlation, estimated between basic composition of milk and rearing performance of the piglets over subsequent weeks of lactation were low and exceeded r = 0.200 only for some traits. The experiment showed that a higher content of basic milk components, in particular protein, may be one of the factors contributing to an increase in weight gain of piglets during a 21-day lactation. Milk fat content may be of significance for rearing performance of piglets only during their first week of life. Rearing performance of the piglets is unrelated to udder health expressed as milk SCC.

Palabras clave

  • sows
  • milk
  • rearing of piglets
  • coefficients of correlation
Acceso abierto

Relationship of Udder and Teat Morphology to Milking Characteristics and Udder Health Determined by Ultrasonographic Examinations in Dairy Cows / Związek Między Morfologią Wymienia I Strzyków A Cechami Doju I Zdrowotnością Wymienia W Badaniach Usg Krów Mlecznych

Publicado en línea: 20 Oct 2013
Páginas: 783 - 795

Resumen

Abstract

The aim of this study is to call attention to the possibility of using ultrasonography as a useful tool for the evaluation of morphological characteristics of the udder and teats in dairy cows in relation to milking characteristics and udder health. A total of 26 dairy cows of the Holstein breed in the first (n = 13) and second lactation (n = 13) were investigated with a linear array ultrasound probe. Recovery of the teat internal parameters after milking was determined by ultrasonographic scanning. Teat canal length, teat canal diameter and teat wall thickness of 103 teats were evaluated from 622 measurements before and directly after milking and every 15 minutes until 1 hour after milking (6 measurements). The most significant differences in internal proportions were determined within those values measured before and immediately after milking. The dynamics of changes in the length of the teat canal demonstrated the extension by 27%. A sudden restoration of the initial length by 11% was detected one hour after milking. Differences in teat canal diameter were significant at P<0.01 between the 1st and 4th measurement. The initial extension was 17% immediately after milking and the restoration about 9% one hour after milking. The wall thickness was strengthened during the 2nd measurement immediately after milking in comparison with the 1st measurement before milking (P<0.01). Significant differences in the wall thickness were detected between the 1st and 2nd measurement (+26%; P<0.01) and between the 2nd and 3rd measurement. The ultrasonographic scanning of the teat parameters was a useful tool to study teat changes caused by milking.

Palabras clave

  • ultrasonography
  • teat canal
  • milking traits
  • udder
Acceso abierto

Extra Light During Pregnancy Improves Reproductive Performance of Mink (Neovison Vison) / Dodatkowe Światło W Okresie Ciąży Poprawia Wskaźniki Użytkowości Rozrodczej U Norki (Neovison Vison)

Publicado en línea: 20 Oct 2013
Páginas: 797 - 805

Resumen

Abstract

The aim of this study was to determine the effect of artificially extended daylight applied during pregnancy on reproductive performance in farmed mink. The material consisted of 536 female Black (or “short NAP”) mink aged 2 years. To analyse the reproductive performance, we selected females mated twice during the period 13 to 17 March. Energy-saving bulbs of 11 watts each (equivalent to traditional 60-watt bulbs) were placed above the cages of the females. The experiment involved two groups of females: the control group (n = 258) were females kept under natural daylight throughout pregnancy; the females of the treatment group (n = 278) were additionally subjected to extended photoperiod - up to 16 hours of light per day, applied from 20 March to 15 April. Selected reproduction indicators were analysed among the groups. The extended daylight applied during pregnancy of mink positively influenced many of the analysed indices. The duration of diapause and related total length of gestation decreased, the litter size - both at birth and at weaning - significantly increased. Pre-weaning mortality of young and the proportion of nonbreeding females slightly decreased as a result of the treatment, which from the practical point of view might be seen as a beneficial effect; however, these parameters are shaped by other factors than photoperiod. The whelping season was both commenced and completed earlier among females subjected to extra light during pregnancy, which improved the organization of work on the farm. Artificial illumination of pregnant mink in Poland’s climate can be applied with great success and introducing this treatment to the mink breeding technology on a permanent basis should be seriously considered.

Keywords

  • American mink
  • artificial lighting
  • breeding
  • litter size
  • gestational length
Acceso abierto

Effect of Age and Temperament Type on Reproductive Parameters of Female Raccoon Dogs (Nyctereutes Procyonoides Gray) / Wpływ Wieku I Temperamentu Na Parametry Rozrodcze Samic Jenota (Nyctereutes Procyonoides Gray)

Publicado en línea: 20 Oct 2013
Páginas: 807 - 814

Resumen

Abstract

The aim of the study was to determine the relationship between age and temperament as well as reproductive results in female raccoon dogs. The study was carried out at two raccoon dog breeding farms located in south-eastern Poland. A total of 189 foundation stock females were evaluated for temperament using a modified behavioural empathy test. Animals were classified into five temperament groups: very fearful (VF), fearful (F), confident (C), aggressive (A) and very aggressive (VA). The animals with calm temperament (C) formed the largest group (49.9%) whereas the smallest number of animals was classified as VA (5.6%). The influence of age on the temperament of raccoon dog females and the number of young born and weaned (P≤0.01) was revealed. At the same time, temperament did not affect reproductive parameters (P>0.05). Summing up, the results of this study indicate lack of correlation between temperament and reproductive parameters. It can be assumed that the elimination of aggressive animals from the foundation stock will not compromise production results and can help to facilitate handling and improve animal welfare.

Keywords

  • raccoon dog
  • reproduction
  • temperament
  • behaviour

Animal nutrition and feedstuffs

Acceso abierto

Effect of Saponaria Officinalis L. Or Panax Ginseng C.A Meyer Triterpenoid Saponins on Ruminal Fermentation in Vitro / Wpływ Saponin Triterpenowych Saponaria Officinalis L. Lub Panax Ginseng C.A. Meyer Na Przemiany Zachodzące W Żwaczu W Warunkach In Vitro

Publicado en línea: 20 Oct 2013
Páginas: 815 - 827

Resumen

Abstract

This study examined the potential effects of Saponaria officinalis (SO) or Panax ginseng (PG) saponins supplemented to diets differing in the proportion of forage to concentrate on rumen microbial fermentation and methane production in vitro. Two experiments were carried out using the rumen simulation technique (RUSITEC). In the first experiment the substrate was comprised of a mixture of meadow hay and corn meal in a ratio of 60:40 dry matter (DM; high forage diet; HF). In the second experiment low forage diet (LF) consisting of meadow hay and corn meal in the ratio of 40:60 DM was used. Diets were supplemented with dried roots of SO or PG to provide 1% of triterpenoid saponins in dietary dry matter. All triterpenoid sources significantly (P≤0.05) decreased number of protozoa, by 50% and 72% respectively when HF diet was analysed (first experiment). There were no changes in methane production. In the second experiment (LF), the potential to mitigate methane production was reported for both SO and PG addition, however only in PG a decrease in the protozoal population was detected. Supplementation of plants rich in triterpenoid saponins has been identified as a diet dependent potential factor which has an important role in modulation of rumen fermentation processes. However, further studies are needed to evaluate their effect in animal production.

Keywords

  • triterpenoid saponins
  • ruminal fermentation
  • volatile fatty acids
  • in vitro
Acceso abierto

Nitrogen-Corrected Apparent Metabolizable Energy Value of Crude Glycerol for Laying Hens / Współczynnik Metaboliczności Energii Surowej Gliceryny Dla Kur Nieśnych

Publicado en línea: 20 Oct 2013
Páginas: 829 - 836

Resumen

Abstract

An experiment was conducted with 64 Tetra SL laying hens (placed into four groups) to determine the AMEn value of feed grade crude glycerol (DM 92%; glycerol 86.80%; methanol 0.04%; fat 0.49%; ash 4.67%; GE 15.59 MJ/kg). All groups were given a 100 g basal diet per day (AMEn value 11.46 MJ/kg; protein 16.97%; Ca 3.49%; P (non-phytate) 0.56%; lysine 0.82%; methionine 0.40%; cysteine 0.29%; threonine 0.60%; tryptophan 0.19%), which was supplemented with 5%, 7.5% and 10% glycerol for the three experimental groups. Hens were placed in metabolism cages (4 hens/treatment in four replicates). After a 10-day adaptation period, excreta was collected and weighed individually for 10 days. The AMEn value of crude glycerol (86%) was calculated as 15.30 MJ/kg for laying hens. During the experiment, egg production (90.0-90.8%), egg weight (56.8-58.0 g) and egg mass (51.2-52.7 g) were not affected by dietary treatments. Feed conversion was significantly reduced by a 10% glycerol supplementation. We concluded that crude glycerol’s energy is efficiently used by laying hens, and more efficiently than by broilers. The established 15.30 MJ/kg AMEn value of crude glycerol when fed in the daily ration to laying hens means that they utilized 97.6% of the glycerol’s GE content.

Keywords

  • biofuel by-product
  • glycerol
  • nutrition
  • metabolizable energy
  • hen

Environment, hygiene and animal production technology

Acceso abierto

Forecasting Heat Stress in Dairy Cattle in Selected Barn Zones with the Help of Thi and Thiadj Indexes / Prognozowanie Stresu Cieplnego U Bydła Mlecznego W Wybranych Strefach Obory Za Pomocą Wskaźników Thi I Thiadj

Publicado en línea: 20 Oct 2013
Páginas: 837 - 848

Resumen

Abstract

The paper presents the influence of temperature, relative air humidity, air movement velocity and solar radiation on forecasting the risk of heat stress in dairy cows in a free-stall barn during hot weather seasons. THI and adjusted THI indexes were calculated for the periods in which the air temperature exceeded 28°C in the barn, and when it reached 25°C. Based on the THI values obtained during the heat, which ranged from 63 to 83, the occurrence of heat stress in cattle was stated. Heat stress also caused a decrease in milk yield, from about 22 kg to about 18 kg in the technological group. The calculated THIadj values (83 to 90), taking into account the solar radiation and air movement velocity, indicated also the occurrence of health-threatening conditions for cattle. On the fourth day of heat the maximum daily value of THI in the first measurement point was 83 with THIadj of 90, while in the second point THI was 82 and THIadj was 87. This indicated the occurrence of significant differences in microclimatic conditions in the occupied zone of the same technological group. The influence of investigated microclimate factors on the formation of THIadj in the researched zone of the barn was stated. No proper method of its determination was also stated. The analysis of the impact of air movement velocity on THIadj value (P<0.05) and the solar radiation (P<0.05) demonstrated the importance of these parameters in forecasting heat stress in cows in the barn.

Keywords

  • dairy cattle
  • heat stress
  • THI
  • LWSI
  • resting boxes
Acceso abierto

Effect of Water Supplementation with Herbal Extracts on Broiler Chicken Welfare / Wpływ Dodatku Do Wody Ekstraktów Ziołowych Na Dobrostan Kurcząt Brojlerów

Publicado en línea: 20 Oct 2013
Páginas: 849 - 857

Resumen

Abstract

This study investigated the effect of adding extracts from selected herbs to water on alleviation of broiler stress associated with intensive production, and thus on improvement of welfare. In experimental groups (II, III and IV), alcoholic extracts from chamomile inflorescence (Matricaria

chamomilla L.), lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L.) or from St John’s wort (Hypericum perforatum L.), respectively, were added to water drinkers (2 ml ∙ l-1 water) from 21 to 35 days of rearing for 5 h/day. Throughout the experiment, body weight, feed and water intake and number of dead birds were recorded once a week. At 21, 28, 35 and 42 days of rearing, blood was collected from 7 birds in each group to determine the levels of corticosterone, cholesterol, glucose, and the immunoglobulin complex. The response of birds to the herbal additives was positive. The herb extracts contributed to a decrease in cholesterol level and an increase in the level of the immunoglobulin complex in the blood. Supplementation of water with chamomile and St John’s wort extracts contributed to an increase in body weight, while the extracts from lemon balm and St John’s wort also had a positive effect on broiler survival. The results obtained indicate that out of the three herbs chosen for the experiment, St John’s wort extract proved the most efficient in relieving the body’s physiological response to stress, and thus in improving welfare.

Palabras clave

  • broiler chickens
  • herb extracts
  • productivity
  • corticosterone
  • blood biochemical parameters

Quality and safety of animal origin products

Acceso abierto

Somatic Cell Level in Dairy Cows’ Milk During Extended Lactation / Poziom Komórek Somatycznych W Mleku Krów W Laktacji Przedłużonej

Publicado en línea: 20 Oct 2013
Páginas: 859 - 868

Resumen

Abstract

Milk analysis was performed in Black-and-White cows with a different percentage of Holstein- Friesian (HF) genes, which calved in 1995-2008 and were included in the milk recording programme. The aim of the present study was to determine the somatic cell level in milk obtained during the extended lactation phase (from day 306 to the end of lactation) compared to the standard lactation. The average somatic cell count in the milk of cows in extended lactation was 409,000 in the standard lactation of 305 days, 542,000 in the extended lactation phase and 427,000 per mL in full lactation of 381 days. Somatic cell count in the milk produced during the extended lactation phase (from day 306 to the end of lactation) was significantly higher compared with the milk harvested during the 305-day lactation. The lowest average somatic cell score (SCS) per mL raw milk in the extension phase was determined in the milk of primiparous cows (3.83). The factors which significantly affected the somatic cell count in the milk of cows extending their standard lactation included parity (lactation) and average daily milk yields from day 306 until the end of lactation. The correlation coefficients calculated for the somatic cell score (SCS) in standard lactation and in extended lactation phase, within selected factors, indicate that there was a positive correlation for both the lactation groups (standard lactation and extension period) as well as lactation (parity) (rp = 0.23 and rp = 0.33; P<0.01). It was also demonstrated that somatic cell count was on the decrease with increasing daily milk performance during extended lactation (rp = -0.23; P<0.01).

Keywords

  • dairy cows
  • lactation
  • extension
  • somatic cell count
Acceso abierto

The Effect of Dietary Camelina Sativa Oil on Quality of Broiler Chicken Meat / Wpływ Udziału Oleju Z Lnianki Siewnej (Camelina Sativa) W Dawkach Dla Kurcząt Rzeźnych Na Jakość Mięsa

Publicado en línea: 20 Oct 2013
Páginas: 869 - 882

Resumen

Abstract

An experiment was conducted on 600 broiler chickens to determine the effect of using Camelina sativa oil as a dietary component on meat quality indicators. Broiler chickens were raised on litter under standard conditions of feeding and maintenance. In the second period of rearing, the control group (I) received a diet containing 6% rapeseed oil. Experimental groups were fed on a diet containing 3% rapeseed oil and 3% Camelina sativa oil (group II) and 6% camelina oil (group III). At the end of rearing 8 chickens from each group were slaughtered. A simplified analysis of the carcasses was conducted. Blood samples were taken to determine the content of total fat, triglycerides, total cholesterol and its fractions. Muscle samples were analysed for the content of dry matter, total protein and crude fat, fatty acid composition and malonic aldehyde (TBA). The meat was subjected to sensory evaluation. It was found that the introduction of Camelina sativa oil to the grower diet for broiler chickens does not have a negative effect on rearing parameters and carcass quality. What was observed was a tendency to reduce the proportion of abdominal fat in the carcass with increasing level of oil used in compound feed and increases in the total protein content of breast meat in group II receiving 3% of camelina oil. The addition of 6% of Camelina sativa oil to compound feed significantly decreased the content of total cholesterol and its fractions in the blood plasma of chickens in comparison to the other groups. The introduction of 3% and 6% of Camelina sativa oil to chicken diets enriched the breast meat in n-3 PUFA, mainly α-linolenic acid (ALA) and did not impair the flavour qualities of the cooked meat. The meat from chickens fed on a diet containing 6% of camelina oil was characterized by a greater increase of ALA.

Keywords

  • broiler chickens
  • Camelina sativa oil
  • meat lipids
  • polyunsaturated fatty acids
  • cholesterol
19 Artículos

Review

Acceso abierto

Genetic Basis of Mastitis Resistance in Dairy Cattle – A Review / Podstawy Genetyczne Odporności Krów Mlecznych Na Zapalenie Wymienia – Artykuł Przeglądowy

Publicado en línea: 20 Oct 2013
Páginas: 663 - 673

Resumen

Abstract

Mastitis is one of the most important mammary gland diseases impacting lactating animals. Resistance to this disease could be improved by breeding. There are several selection methods for mastitis resistance. To improve the natural genetic resistance of cows in succeeding generations, current breeding programmes use somatic cell count and clinical mastitis cases as resistance traits. However, these methods of selection have met with limited success. This is partly due to the complex nature of the disease. The limited progress in improving udder health by conventional selection procedures requires applying information on molecular markers of mastitis susceptibility in marker-assisted selection schemes. Mastitis is under polygenic control, so there are many genes that control this trait in many loci. This review briefly describes genome-wide association studies which have been carried out to identify quantitative trait loci associated with mastitis resistance in dairy cattle worldwide. It also characterizes the candidate gene approach focus on identifying genes that are strong candidates for the mastitis resistance trait. In the conclusion of the paper we focus our attention on future research which should be conducted in the field of the resistance to mastitis.

Palabras clave

  • dairy cattle
  • mastitis
  • genetic markers
Acceso abierto

Epigenetic Basis of Molecular Changes in Animal Cells with Particular Regard to Embryonic Development – A Review / Epigenetyczne Podstawy Przemian Molekularnych Zachodzących W Komórkach Zwierzęcych, Ze Szczególnym Uwzględnieniem Rozwoju Embrionalnego – Artykuł Przeglądowy

Publicado en línea: 20 Oct 2013
Páginas: 675 - 685

Resumen

Abstract

Regulation of gene expression is a complex process. Epigenetics is the study of heritable changes in gene expression independently of DNA sequence. Epigenetic control of gene transcription is based on two main processes. The first is reversible DNA methylation, primarily of cytosine at position C5, rarely in position N3, or of adenine at position C6 (Xu et al., 2010). The second process is the change in chromatin structure and function by chemical modification of histones, including mainly methylation, acetylation, and phosphorylation of histone amino acids (Zamudio et al., 2008). During development and differentiation of cells, changes occur in DNA methylation of genes. After fertilization there are dynamic histone modifications and changes in DNA methylation in zygotes. Use of methylation sensitive restriction enzymes causes a global demethylation in the early embryonic stage (Sulewska et al., 2007 b). De novo methylation of CpG sites is followed by embryo implantation. Next, during gastrulation most genes are methylated except the tissue-specific genes. The last wave of de novo methylation takes place during the gametogenesis and is dependent on sex (Sulewska et al., 2007 b). The aim of this work is to review the current knowledge about epigenetic mechanism of molecular changes in animal cells with particular regard to embryonic development.

Keywords

  • epigenetics
  • methylation
  • histone modification
  • embryonic development

Genetics and farm animal breeding

Acceso abierto

Study on Sztumski Mares Enrolled in the Genetic Resources Conservation Programme in 2008 / Badania Nad Klaczami Sztumskimi Przyjętymi Do Programu Ochrony Zasobów Genetycznych W Roku 2008

Publicado en línea: 20 Oct 2013
Páginas: 687 - 700

Resumen

Abstract

The aim of this study was to conduct genetic analysis of 219 cold-blooded Sztumski mares, which were enrolled in the genetic resources conservation programme in 2008. The inbreeding level in the mares, their average genetic relationship with the population, and the average coefficient of kinship were analysed, as well as the number and origin of common ancestors (founders of the population) were determined. The age structure and coat colour in the mares, as well as the size and geographical distribution of the herds were also determined. Over 97% of the mares enrolled in the conservation programme were inbred. The average inbreeding coefficient was 1.93% and ranged from 0% to 32.6%; the average relationship coefficient (2.38%) for the population was the highest in the group of mares aged 9 to 11 years (2.63%); the average kinship within the population was 2.89% and ranged from 5 to 5.99% in the case of five mares. The mares descended from 785 founders, including 561 mares (mainly cold-blooded Sztumski and Sokólski breeds) and 224 stallions (mainly Ardennes and Belgian breeds). Distribution of the herds does not fully reflect the historic region from which the breed originated, while the population itself is scattered and kept in many herds, most of which have 2 (occasionally up to 6) mares.

Keywords

  • Sztumski horses
  • pedigree analysis
  • inbreeding
  • relationship
  • conservation programme
Acceso abierto

The Polymorphism of Cytogenetic Markers in the Farm and Wild-Living Raccoon Dog (Nyctereutes Procyonoides) / Polimorfizm Markerów Cytogenetycznych U Jenota (Nyctereutes Procyonoides) W Populacjach Hodowlanych I Dziko Żyjących

Publicado en línea: 20 Oct 2013
Páginas: 701 - 713

Resumen

Abstract

The raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides) is a mammalian species that belongs to Canidae family, order Carnivora. This species represents both animals living in the wild and farm animals used in the fur industry. Raccoon dogs have the most ‘primitive’ karyotype among Canidae family. The Chinese raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides procyonoides) is characterised by a variable number of chromosomes (2n = 54 + 0-4 B). B chromosomes are supernumerary chromosomes occurring in addition to the basic set of A chromosomes in the cells of many organisms. The function and origin of these additional chromosomes is not clear. The aim of this work was to determine possible karyotypic differences between wild-living and farm populations, using methods of classical and molecular cytogenetics. The most useful cytogenetic markers to analyse karyotype polymorphism of canine are the number of B chromosomes and nucleolar organizer regions. A variation was identified in the number of B chromosomes and nucleolar organizer regions (NORs) in cells between wild-living and breeding populations.

Keywords

  • wild-living raccoon dog
  • farm raccoon dog
  • cytogenetic markers
  • polymorphism
Acceso abierto

Validation of 10 Microsatellite Loci for Their use in Parentage Verification and Individual Identification in the Yugoslavian Shepherd Dog Sharplanina / Walidacja 10 Loci Mikrosatelitarnych Do Kontroli Pochodzenia Oraz Identyfikacji Osobniczej Jugosłowiańskiego Psa Pasterskiego Z Szar Płaniny

Publicado en línea: 20 Oct 2013
Páginas: 715 - 722

Resumen

Abstract

The aim of the study was to assess a commercially available microsatellite panel for use in paternity and identification analyses in the Yugoslavian Shepherd Dog Sharplanina, an ancient livestock guarding breed. Allele frequencies for 10 microsatellite loci (PEZ01, FHC2054, FHC2010, PEZ05, PEZ20, PEZ12, PEZ03, PEZ06, PEZ08 and FHC2079) were determined in 103 unrelated Yugoslavian Shepherd Dog individuals. The loci revealed varied levels of polymorphism (five to 12 alleles), with an average of 7.83 per locus. Average values of observed heterozygosity and polymorphic information content (PIC) were 0.64 and 0.66, respectively. Nine out of 10 microsatellite markers were highly informative with PIC values higher than 0.5. The obtained value of combined power of exclusion (0.9989) confirms usefulness of this panel of microsatellites for parentage verification, while the value of combined power of discrimination of 0.9999 clearly shows that the panel can conclusively identify individual dogs. In conclusion, the results obtained suggest that the selected set of commercially available microsatellite markers may be used as a routine tool for parentage verification and individual identification in the Yugoslavian Shepherd Dog. Although analysis of genetic variability of the Yugoslavian Shepherd Dog was not the primary focus of the study, the established values of major diversity indices disclose a highly variable gene pool in the breed.

Keywords

  • dog
  • canine microsatellites
  • allele frequency
  • parentage testing
Acceso abierto

Evaluation of Foals Sired by Stallions Belonging to Various Classes of Descent / Ocena Źrebiąt Po Ogierach O Różnym Pochodzeniu

Publicado en línea: 20 Oct 2013
Páginas: 723 - 734

Resumen

Abstract

The evaluation concerned the progeny born to Polish pedigree stallions, to Polish-born stallions by imported sires, and to stallions imported to Poland. All traits (type, body conformation and development, health status and movement) were evaluated on a point scale. A highly significant effect of stallion on his progeny evaluation was observed. The highest mean for the total points in foal evaluation was noted for the offspring of imported sires. That class differed highly significantly from the foals by Polish-origin stallions and the foals by Polish-born stallions with imported sires. The gathered results clearly show the changes in purpose type over the years, and, consequently, in horse conformation. Horses have been becoming more noble in type, and their competitive potential has been increasing.

Keywords

  • stallions
  • foal evaluation
  • descent

The biology, physiology and reproduction of animals

Acceso abierto

In Vitro Development of Porcine Nuclear-Transferred Embryos Derived from Fibroblast Cells Analysed Cytometrically for Apoptosis Incidence and Accuracy of Cell Cycle Synchronization at the G0/G1 Stages / Rozwój In Vitro Klonalnych Zarodków Świni Zrekonstruowanych Z Jąder Komórkowych Fibroblastów Cytometrycznie Analizowanych Pod Kątem Częstotliwości Występowania Śmierci Apoptotycznej I Efektywności Synchronizacji Cyklu Mitotycznego W Fazach G0/G1

Publicado en línea: 20 Oct 2013
Páginas: 735 - 752

Resumen

Abstract

The study was undertaken to examine whether various strategies, including contact inhibition and serum starvation, that were used for artificial synchronization of mitotic cycle of porcine fibroblast cell lines affect differently the distribution of cell cycle stage frequencies and the occurrence of apoptotic cell death in the analysed cell samples. In vitro cultured (contact-inhibited or serumstarved) somatic cells were subjected to flow cytometric diagnostics of mitotic cycle together with the detection of late-apoptotic cell fractions with hypodiploid number of nuclear DNA molecules. Moreover, impact of the methods applied to synchronize the cell division cycle of different types of nuclear donor fibroblast cells (adult cutaneous and foetal fibroblasts) on the preimplantation developmental outcomes of cloned pig embryos was investigated. The developmental capabilities of nuclear-transferred (NT) embryos that were reconstituted with contact-inhibited or serum-depleted adult cutaneous fibroblast cells to reach the morula and blastocyst stages remained at the levels of 169/278 (60.8%) and 76/278 (27.3%) or 121/265 (45.7%) and 46/265 (17.4%), respectively. The proportions of NT embryos originating from contact-inhibited or serum-deprived foetal fibroblast cells that completed their development to the morula and blastocyst stages were 223/296 (75.3%) and 108/296 (36.5%) or 165/261 (63.2%) and 67/261 (25.7%), respectively. In conclusion, the flow cytometric analysis of cultured porcine adult cutaneous and foetal fibroblast cells revealed the high efficiency of the artificial synchronization of mitotic cycle at the G0/G1 stages as a consequence of applying the methods of either contact inhibition or serum deprivation. For both types of fibroblast cells used to reconstruct the enucleated oocytes, the strategies that were utilized to synchronize the cell division cycle of nuclear donor cells considerably influenced the in vitro developmental abilities of NT pig embryos. Developmental competencies to reach the morula/blastocyst stages for cloned embryos that had been reconstructed with contact-inhibited or serum-starved foetal fibroblast cell nuclei were significantly higher than those for embryos that had been reconstructed with contact-inhibited or serum-starved adult cutaneous fibroblast cell nuclei.

Keywords

  • porcine
  • nuclear donor fibroblast cell
  • flow cytometry
  • mitotic cycle
  • cell cycle synchronization
  • apoptosis
  • DNA hypodiploidy
  • cloned embryo
Acceso abierto

The Quality of Porcine Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Their Osteo- and Adipogenic Cell Derivatives – The Level of Proapoptotic Bad Protein Expression / Jakość Mezenchymalnych Komórek Macierzystych Świni Oraz Ich Pochodnych Zróżnicowanych W Kierunku Komórek Szeregu Osteo- I Adipogennego – Poziom Ekspresji Proapoptotycznego Białka Bad

Publicado en línea: 20 Oct 2013
Páginas: 753 - 763

Resumen

Abstract

The aim of the research was to evaluate the quality of porcine mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and MSC-derived osteoblasts/osteocytes (bone cells) and adipocytes (fat cells). This evaluation was performed on the basis of molecular analysis for proapoptotic BAD protein expression. MSCs isolated from the pig bone marrow were cultured in vitro for five weeks in three types of culture media: differentiating towards the osteoblasts/osteocytes (O) and adipocytes (A) and non-differentiating, control medium (C). In all groups of cells, the relative extent of BAD protein expression was estimated by western blotting. Significant differences in the posttranslational abundance of BAD proteins were noted between MSCs differentiated into the osteogenic and the adipogenic cell lineages (P<0.05). Summarizing the results, we conclude that posttranslational level of BAD protein expression can be used as a reliable marker for assessing the quality of both MSCs and their cell derivatives. Interestingly, the semi-quantitative profile of BAD protein expression in differentiated cells turned out to be lower than that observed in undifferentiated cells, demonstrating that the culture conditions used for pro-osteogenic or pro-adipogenic cellular transformation did not affect negatively the quality of MSCs.

Keywords

  • BAD
  • protein
  • expression
  • MSCs
  • adipocytes
  • osteoblasts/osteocytes
Acceso abierto

Developmental Competence of CMV-Fut Transgenic and Non-Transgenic Pig Embryos Cultured in Vitro / Potencjał Rozwojowy CMV-Fut Transgenicznych I Nietransgenicznych Zarodków Świni Hodowanych In Vitro

Publicado en línea: 20 Oct 2013
Páginas: 765 - 769

Resumen

Abstract

Possible influence of a transgene on life functions of embryos makes it reasonable to confirm or deny it for a particular gene construct. In vitro development of an embryo is a widely used criterion of its competence. The aim of the study was to compare in vitro developmental capacity of transgenic and non-transgenic pig embryos. The results showed a statistically significant difference in in

vitro developmental capacity of embryos obtained from transgenic and non-transgenic pigs. Developmental competence of embryos (morula and blastocyst stage) produced from zygotes obtained from transgenic sows decreased compared to that obtained from non-transgenic sows.

Keywords

  • pig
  • CMV-Fut gene construct
  • transgenic embryos
  • non-transgenic embryos
  • in vitro culture
Acceso abierto

Relationships Between Chemical Composition of Colostrum and Milk and Rearing Performance of Piglets During a 21-Day Lactation / Zależności Pomiędzy Składem Chemicznym Siary I Mleka A Wynikami Odchowu Prosiąt W Czasie 21-Dniowej Laktacji

Publicado en línea: 20 Oct 2013
Páginas: 771 - 781

Resumen

Abstract

Normal development of piglets is determined principally by the milking ability of the sows. This study attempted to determine the relationships between sow’s milk quality and rearing performance of the piglets. The experiment was carried out under uniform conditions, with standard feeding of the sows and a similar number of piglets per litter. The study accounted for 109 lactations of second- and third-parity Polish Large White (PLW ) sows and 123 lactations of second- and third-parity Polish Landrace (PL) sows. Colostrum and milk were collected from the sows at 1, 7, 14 and 21 days of lactation and analysed for solids, crude protein, fat, lactose and somatic cell count (SCC). Rearing performance of second- and third-litter piglets was determined based on the number and weight of piglets at birth and at 7, 14 and 21 days of age. The coefficients of correlation, estimated between basic composition of milk and rearing performance of the piglets over subsequent weeks of lactation were low and exceeded r = 0.200 only for some traits. The experiment showed that a higher content of basic milk components, in particular protein, may be one of the factors contributing to an increase in weight gain of piglets during a 21-day lactation. Milk fat content may be of significance for rearing performance of piglets only during their first week of life. Rearing performance of the piglets is unrelated to udder health expressed as milk SCC.

Palabras clave

  • sows
  • milk
  • rearing of piglets
  • coefficients of correlation
Acceso abierto

Relationship of Udder and Teat Morphology to Milking Characteristics and Udder Health Determined by Ultrasonographic Examinations in Dairy Cows / Związek Między Morfologią Wymienia I Strzyków A Cechami Doju I Zdrowotnością Wymienia W Badaniach Usg Krów Mlecznych

Publicado en línea: 20 Oct 2013
Páginas: 783 - 795

Resumen

Abstract

The aim of this study is to call attention to the possibility of using ultrasonography as a useful tool for the evaluation of morphological characteristics of the udder and teats in dairy cows in relation to milking characteristics and udder health. A total of 26 dairy cows of the Holstein breed in the first (n = 13) and second lactation (n = 13) were investigated with a linear array ultrasound probe. Recovery of the teat internal parameters after milking was determined by ultrasonographic scanning. Teat canal length, teat canal diameter and teat wall thickness of 103 teats were evaluated from 622 measurements before and directly after milking and every 15 minutes until 1 hour after milking (6 measurements). The most significant differences in internal proportions were determined within those values measured before and immediately after milking. The dynamics of changes in the length of the teat canal demonstrated the extension by 27%. A sudden restoration of the initial length by 11% was detected one hour after milking. Differences in teat canal diameter were significant at P<0.01 between the 1st and 4th measurement. The initial extension was 17% immediately after milking and the restoration about 9% one hour after milking. The wall thickness was strengthened during the 2nd measurement immediately after milking in comparison with the 1st measurement before milking (P<0.01). Significant differences in the wall thickness were detected between the 1st and 2nd measurement (+26%; P<0.01) and between the 2nd and 3rd measurement. The ultrasonographic scanning of the teat parameters was a useful tool to study teat changes caused by milking.

Palabras clave

  • ultrasonography
  • teat canal
  • milking traits
  • udder
Acceso abierto

Extra Light During Pregnancy Improves Reproductive Performance of Mink (Neovison Vison) / Dodatkowe Światło W Okresie Ciąży Poprawia Wskaźniki Użytkowości Rozrodczej U Norki (Neovison Vison)

Publicado en línea: 20 Oct 2013
Páginas: 797 - 805

Resumen

Abstract

The aim of this study was to determine the effect of artificially extended daylight applied during pregnancy on reproductive performance in farmed mink. The material consisted of 536 female Black (or “short NAP”) mink aged 2 years. To analyse the reproductive performance, we selected females mated twice during the period 13 to 17 March. Energy-saving bulbs of 11 watts each (equivalent to traditional 60-watt bulbs) were placed above the cages of the females. The experiment involved two groups of females: the control group (n = 258) were females kept under natural daylight throughout pregnancy; the females of the treatment group (n = 278) were additionally subjected to extended photoperiod - up to 16 hours of light per day, applied from 20 March to 15 April. Selected reproduction indicators were analysed among the groups. The extended daylight applied during pregnancy of mink positively influenced many of the analysed indices. The duration of diapause and related total length of gestation decreased, the litter size - both at birth and at weaning - significantly increased. Pre-weaning mortality of young and the proportion of nonbreeding females slightly decreased as a result of the treatment, which from the practical point of view might be seen as a beneficial effect; however, these parameters are shaped by other factors than photoperiod. The whelping season was both commenced and completed earlier among females subjected to extra light during pregnancy, which improved the organization of work on the farm. Artificial illumination of pregnant mink in Poland’s climate can be applied with great success and introducing this treatment to the mink breeding technology on a permanent basis should be seriously considered.

Keywords

  • American mink
  • artificial lighting
  • breeding
  • litter size
  • gestational length
Acceso abierto

Effect of Age and Temperament Type on Reproductive Parameters of Female Raccoon Dogs (Nyctereutes Procyonoides Gray) / Wpływ Wieku I Temperamentu Na Parametry Rozrodcze Samic Jenota (Nyctereutes Procyonoides Gray)

Publicado en línea: 20 Oct 2013
Páginas: 807 - 814

Resumen

Abstract

The aim of the study was to determine the relationship between age and temperament as well as reproductive results in female raccoon dogs. The study was carried out at two raccoon dog breeding farms located in south-eastern Poland. A total of 189 foundation stock females were evaluated for temperament using a modified behavioural empathy test. Animals were classified into five temperament groups: very fearful (VF), fearful (F), confident (C), aggressive (A) and very aggressive (VA). The animals with calm temperament (C) formed the largest group (49.9%) whereas the smallest number of animals was classified as VA (5.6%). The influence of age on the temperament of raccoon dog females and the number of young born and weaned (P≤0.01) was revealed. At the same time, temperament did not affect reproductive parameters (P>0.05). Summing up, the results of this study indicate lack of correlation between temperament and reproductive parameters. It can be assumed that the elimination of aggressive animals from the foundation stock will not compromise production results and can help to facilitate handling and improve animal welfare.

Keywords

  • raccoon dog
  • reproduction
  • temperament
  • behaviour

Animal nutrition and feedstuffs

Acceso abierto

Effect of Saponaria Officinalis L. Or Panax Ginseng C.A Meyer Triterpenoid Saponins on Ruminal Fermentation in Vitro / Wpływ Saponin Triterpenowych Saponaria Officinalis L. Lub Panax Ginseng C.A. Meyer Na Przemiany Zachodzące W Żwaczu W Warunkach In Vitro

Publicado en línea: 20 Oct 2013
Páginas: 815 - 827

Resumen

Abstract

This study examined the potential effects of Saponaria officinalis (SO) or Panax ginseng (PG) saponins supplemented to diets differing in the proportion of forage to concentrate on rumen microbial fermentation and methane production in vitro. Two experiments were carried out using the rumen simulation technique (RUSITEC). In the first experiment the substrate was comprised of a mixture of meadow hay and corn meal in a ratio of 60:40 dry matter (DM; high forage diet; HF). In the second experiment low forage diet (LF) consisting of meadow hay and corn meal in the ratio of 40:60 DM was used. Diets were supplemented with dried roots of SO or PG to provide 1% of triterpenoid saponins in dietary dry matter. All triterpenoid sources significantly (P≤0.05) decreased number of protozoa, by 50% and 72% respectively when HF diet was analysed (first experiment). There were no changes in methane production. In the second experiment (LF), the potential to mitigate methane production was reported for both SO and PG addition, however only in PG a decrease in the protozoal population was detected. Supplementation of plants rich in triterpenoid saponins has been identified as a diet dependent potential factor which has an important role in modulation of rumen fermentation processes. However, further studies are needed to evaluate their effect in animal production.

Keywords

  • triterpenoid saponins
  • ruminal fermentation
  • volatile fatty acids
  • in vitro
Acceso abierto

Nitrogen-Corrected Apparent Metabolizable Energy Value of Crude Glycerol for Laying Hens / Współczynnik Metaboliczności Energii Surowej Gliceryny Dla Kur Nieśnych

Publicado en línea: 20 Oct 2013
Páginas: 829 - 836

Resumen

Abstract

An experiment was conducted with 64 Tetra SL laying hens (placed into four groups) to determine the AMEn value of feed grade crude glycerol (DM 92%; glycerol 86.80%; methanol 0.04%; fat 0.49%; ash 4.67%; GE 15.59 MJ/kg). All groups were given a 100 g basal diet per day (AMEn value 11.46 MJ/kg; protein 16.97%; Ca 3.49%; P (non-phytate) 0.56%; lysine 0.82%; methionine 0.40%; cysteine 0.29%; threonine 0.60%; tryptophan 0.19%), which was supplemented with 5%, 7.5% and 10% glycerol for the three experimental groups. Hens were placed in metabolism cages (4 hens/treatment in four replicates). After a 10-day adaptation period, excreta was collected and weighed individually for 10 days. The AMEn value of crude glycerol (86%) was calculated as 15.30 MJ/kg for laying hens. During the experiment, egg production (90.0-90.8%), egg weight (56.8-58.0 g) and egg mass (51.2-52.7 g) were not affected by dietary treatments. Feed conversion was significantly reduced by a 10% glycerol supplementation. We concluded that crude glycerol’s energy is efficiently used by laying hens, and more efficiently than by broilers. The established 15.30 MJ/kg AMEn value of crude glycerol when fed in the daily ration to laying hens means that they utilized 97.6% of the glycerol’s GE content.

Keywords

  • biofuel by-product
  • glycerol
  • nutrition
  • metabolizable energy
  • hen

Environment, hygiene and animal production technology

Acceso abierto

Forecasting Heat Stress in Dairy Cattle in Selected Barn Zones with the Help of Thi and Thiadj Indexes / Prognozowanie Stresu Cieplnego U Bydła Mlecznego W Wybranych Strefach Obory Za Pomocą Wskaźników Thi I Thiadj

Publicado en línea: 20 Oct 2013
Páginas: 837 - 848

Resumen

Abstract

The paper presents the influence of temperature, relative air humidity, air movement velocity and solar radiation on forecasting the risk of heat stress in dairy cows in a free-stall barn during hot weather seasons. THI and adjusted THI indexes were calculated for the periods in which the air temperature exceeded 28°C in the barn, and when it reached 25°C. Based on the THI values obtained during the heat, which ranged from 63 to 83, the occurrence of heat stress in cattle was stated. Heat stress also caused a decrease in milk yield, from about 22 kg to about 18 kg in the technological group. The calculated THIadj values (83 to 90), taking into account the solar radiation and air movement velocity, indicated also the occurrence of health-threatening conditions for cattle. On the fourth day of heat the maximum daily value of THI in the first measurement point was 83 with THIadj of 90, while in the second point THI was 82 and THIadj was 87. This indicated the occurrence of significant differences in microclimatic conditions in the occupied zone of the same technological group. The influence of investigated microclimate factors on the formation of THIadj in the researched zone of the barn was stated. No proper method of its determination was also stated. The analysis of the impact of air movement velocity on THIadj value (P<0.05) and the solar radiation (P<0.05) demonstrated the importance of these parameters in forecasting heat stress in cows in the barn.

Keywords

  • dairy cattle
  • heat stress
  • THI
  • LWSI
  • resting boxes
Acceso abierto

Effect of Water Supplementation with Herbal Extracts on Broiler Chicken Welfare / Wpływ Dodatku Do Wody Ekstraktów Ziołowych Na Dobrostan Kurcząt Brojlerów

Publicado en línea: 20 Oct 2013
Páginas: 849 - 857

Resumen

Abstract

This study investigated the effect of adding extracts from selected herbs to water on alleviation of broiler stress associated with intensive production, and thus on improvement of welfare. In experimental groups (II, III and IV), alcoholic extracts from chamomile inflorescence (Matricaria

chamomilla L.), lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L.) or from St John’s wort (Hypericum perforatum L.), respectively, were added to water drinkers (2 ml ∙ l-1 water) from 21 to 35 days of rearing for 5 h/day. Throughout the experiment, body weight, feed and water intake and number of dead birds were recorded once a week. At 21, 28, 35 and 42 days of rearing, blood was collected from 7 birds in each group to determine the levels of corticosterone, cholesterol, glucose, and the immunoglobulin complex. The response of birds to the herbal additives was positive. The herb extracts contributed to a decrease in cholesterol level and an increase in the level of the immunoglobulin complex in the blood. Supplementation of water with chamomile and St John’s wort extracts contributed to an increase in body weight, while the extracts from lemon balm and St John’s wort also had a positive effect on broiler survival. The results obtained indicate that out of the three herbs chosen for the experiment, St John’s wort extract proved the most efficient in relieving the body’s physiological response to stress, and thus in improving welfare.

Palabras clave

  • broiler chickens
  • herb extracts
  • productivity
  • corticosterone
  • blood biochemical parameters

Quality and safety of animal origin products

Acceso abierto

Somatic Cell Level in Dairy Cows’ Milk During Extended Lactation / Poziom Komórek Somatycznych W Mleku Krów W Laktacji Przedłużonej

Publicado en línea: 20 Oct 2013
Páginas: 859 - 868

Resumen

Abstract

Milk analysis was performed in Black-and-White cows with a different percentage of Holstein- Friesian (HF) genes, which calved in 1995-2008 and were included in the milk recording programme. The aim of the present study was to determine the somatic cell level in milk obtained during the extended lactation phase (from day 306 to the end of lactation) compared to the standard lactation. The average somatic cell count in the milk of cows in extended lactation was 409,000 in the standard lactation of 305 days, 542,000 in the extended lactation phase and 427,000 per mL in full lactation of 381 days. Somatic cell count in the milk produced during the extended lactation phase (from day 306 to the end of lactation) was significantly higher compared with the milk harvested during the 305-day lactation. The lowest average somatic cell score (SCS) per mL raw milk in the extension phase was determined in the milk of primiparous cows (3.83). The factors which significantly affected the somatic cell count in the milk of cows extending their standard lactation included parity (lactation) and average daily milk yields from day 306 until the end of lactation. The correlation coefficients calculated for the somatic cell score (SCS) in standard lactation and in extended lactation phase, within selected factors, indicate that there was a positive correlation for both the lactation groups (standard lactation and extension period) as well as lactation (parity) (rp = 0.23 and rp = 0.33; P<0.01). It was also demonstrated that somatic cell count was on the decrease with increasing daily milk performance during extended lactation (rp = -0.23; P<0.01).

Keywords

  • dairy cows
  • lactation
  • extension
  • somatic cell count
Acceso abierto

The Effect of Dietary Camelina Sativa Oil on Quality of Broiler Chicken Meat / Wpływ Udziału Oleju Z Lnianki Siewnej (Camelina Sativa) W Dawkach Dla Kurcząt Rzeźnych Na Jakość Mięsa

Publicado en línea: 20 Oct 2013
Páginas: 869 - 882

Resumen

Abstract

An experiment was conducted on 600 broiler chickens to determine the effect of using Camelina sativa oil as a dietary component on meat quality indicators. Broiler chickens were raised on litter under standard conditions of feeding and maintenance. In the second period of rearing, the control group (I) received a diet containing 6% rapeseed oil. Experimental groups were fed on a diet containing 3% rapeseed oil and 3% Camelina sativa oil (group II) and 6% camelina oil (group III). At the end of rearing 8 chickens from each group were slaughtered. A simplified analysis of the carcasses was conducted. Blood samples were taken to determine the content of total fat, triglycerides, total cholesterol and its fractions. Muscle samples were analysed for the content of dry matter, total protein and crude fat, fatty acid composition and malonic aldehyde (TBA). The meat was subjected to sensory evaluation. It was found that the introduction of Camelina sativa oil to the grower diet for broiler chickens does not have a negative effect on rearing parameters and carcass quality. What was observed was a tendency to reduce the proportion of abdominal fat in the carcass with increasing level of oil used in compound feed and increases in the total protein content of breast meat in group II receiving 3% of camelina oil. The addition of 6% of Camelina sativa oil to compound feed significantly decreased the content of total cholesterol and its fractions in the blood plasma of chickens in comparison to the other groups. The introduction of 3% and 6% of Camelina sativa oil to chicken diets enriched the breast meat in n-3 PUFA, mainly α-linolenic acid (ALA) and did not impair the flavour qualities of the cooked meat. The meat from chickens fed on a diet containing 6% of camelina oil was characterized by a greater increase of ALA.

Keywords

  • broiler chickens
  • Camelina sativa oil
  • meat lipids
  • polyunsaturated fatty acids
  • cholesterol

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